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JOHN C. VISNER

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE DEFLECTION

A Thesis

Presented to

The Graduate Faculty of The University of Akron

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science

John C. Visner

December, 2007
ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE DEFLECTION

FORCE, WITH A CONSTANT ANGLE, APPLIED AT THE FREE END

John C. Visner

Thesis

Approved: Accepted:

___________________________ ___________________________
Dr. Paul C. K. Lam Dr. George K. Haritos

___________________________ ___________________________
Dr. Daniel C. Deckler Dr. George R. Newkome

___________________________ ___________________________
Dr. Jiang Zhe

___________________________
Department Chair
Dr. Celal Batur

ii
ABSTRACT

Large deflection of a cantilever beam subjected to a constant force is

modeled. The motivation for this work is derived from an excellent example of

large cantilever beam deflection, the archery limb. With the development of a

program that models the deflection of an archery limb comes the possibility to

improve upon existing designs, which in turn could have large impacts on a

isotropic material properties. The beam modeled is subjected to a concentrated

force applied at the free end. This force has constant components in two

orthogonal directions. For this model, the weight of the beam is assumed to be

negligible. It is also assumed that the beam is non-extensible and therefore the

differential deflection curve equation is obtained by means of a static analysis.

Because an exact analytical solution does not exist, a FORTRAN Program using

Euler’s numerical method is created to solve this equation. The first of two

However, the boundary condition at the fixed end is unknown. A shooting

method is employed within the program to obtain the correct curvature at the

fixed end to yield the deflected beam shape. Experiments are then performed to

verify the numerical results. Comparisons with published numerical results show

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

iv

Page

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................ vii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 1

4.2 Experimental Procedure and Results ............................................. 27

V. CONCLUSION ..................................................................................... 35

5.1 Future Work ............................................................................... 36

REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 37

APPENDICES .............................................................................................. 39

v
LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

vi
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

4.9 FORTRAN Program Theoretical Curves vs. Experimental Curves .............. 34

vii
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

While beams receive very little recognition, they play a very important role

in our everyday life. From bridges to cranes, decks to any roofed structure,

beams are everywhere and we most likely use them every day and never realize

it. Many types of beams exist today, however this study examined only one

type, the cantilever beam.

By definition, a cantilever beam is a beam that is fixed at one end, while the
other end is suspended and unsupported, much like a diving board. The

inspiration for this study was derived from perhaps one of the best examples of a

cantilever beam, an archery limb. Made from highly elastic material and capable

capable of sustaining large deflections.

The traditional long bow, which is a curved stick with a string attached to

each end that is drawn and released while the bow is oriented vertically, has

popularity in archery hunting and competitive target archery has presented a

need for increased performance in archery equipment. This need prompted the

invention of the compound bow, which uses a cam pinned to the end of the limb

along with a series of cables to provide a mechanical advantage allowing the

bow to store more energy while requiring less force from the archer to draw the

bow. The result is higher potential energy with less work.

1
Today, the archery industry has blossomed into a multi-million dollar

industry with dozens of manufacturers all competing to design and manufacture

the fastest, lightest, quietest and most cost-competitive compound bow. Today’s

majority of the performance of a compound bow lies in the limb/cam

combination, a model that describes the relationship between the limb deflection

and the action of the cam could provide insight into the inner workings of this

system as well as reveal areas within the system that could be improved upon.

While the relationship between the limb and cam is one of extreme complexity

due to several unknown variables, the development of such a model could take

compound bow performance to the next level and revolutionize the archery

industry.

This study takes the first step to design the aforementioned model by

addressing large deflections of cantilever beams of linear elastic material

subjected to a constant force applied at a constant angle to the free end. The

goal of this study is two-fold: to develop a program that will solve a second

order, non-linear differential equation governing the behavior of a deflected

beam and then perform a series of experiments that will verify the results of the

program to build confidence in the program’s accuracy.

2
CHAPTER II

BACKGROUND SURVEY

to date. An excellent example of a cantilever beam subjected to a vertical

concentrated force at the free end can be found in Mechanics of Materials , as

well as many other textbooks on physics and mechanics. In this case, the small

angle assumption is valid and an equation that describes the deflection of the

free end, showing proportionality between the deflection and the externally

applied force that is applied, can be found . However, in the aforementioned

textbook, the discussion only addresses beams subjected to small deflections.

When deflections are large and the small angle assumption is no longer valid, the

problem becomes increasingly difficult and an analytical solution does not exist

due to the presence of a non-linear term in the deflection equation.

For the case of large deflection, several different solutions have been found

for cantilever beams subjected to external forces. Analyses of beams undergoing

large-amplitude free vibration have been studied in the past utilizing many

single-term approximation to the ordinary nonlinear differential equation to

obtain a solution in terms of elliptic integrals. Srinivasan  applied the Ritz-

free vibration responses of simply supported beams and plates. A similar

analysis, beams subject to non-linear vibrations, has also been studied. Ray and

Bert  presented analytical and experimental values of natural frequencies as a

3
function of the ratio of maximum amplitude to beam thickness and initial tension

of an oscillation beam. Because this investigation will focus on a force applied

slowly to the free end thus producing a static analysis, dynamic analysis of the

beam will not be considered.

Lee et al.  investigated large deflection of a linear elastic cantilever beam

Falsi method. Baker  obtained large deflection profiles of linear elastic

weighted residual solution of the Bernoulli-Euler bending moment equation.

Dado and AL-Sadder  presented a new technique for large deflection analysis

of non-prismatic cantilever beams based on the integrated least square error of

the nonlinear governing differential equation in which the angle of rotation is

analysis of non-prismatic slender cantilever beams subjected to various types of

continuous and discontinuous external variable distributed and concentrated

dimensional finite-strain Reissner beam theory, where beam element reference

4
axes are represented by arbitrary space-curved lines. These papers offer

similarities to this study, however are not directly applicable because they

Cantilever beams of non-linear materials have also been studied. Lewis

and Monasa  numerically studied large deflections of cantilever beams made

of non-linear materials subjected to one vertical concentrated load at the free

end using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. K. Lee  examined large

nonlinear bimodulus material subjected to an end moment, showing that

bimodulus behavior has a significant effect for the case of large deflection.

electromechanical mechanical systems (MEMS), in which the derived nonlinear

equation was numerically solved using the nonlinear finite difference method.

Antman  studied large lateral buckling of nonlinearly elastic beams subjected

position vector function and an orthonormal pair of vector functions of a real

variable which is interpreted as a scaled arc length parameter of the straight line

of centroids of a beam in its natural reference configuration. C. Cesnik et al.

 presented a refined theory of composite beams. The basis for the theory is
the variational-asymptotical method, a mathematical technique by which the

three-dimensional analysis of composite beam deformation can be split into a

5
linear, two-dimensional, cross-sectional analysis and a nonlinear, one-

dimensional beam analysis.

Large deflection of cantilever beams that are prismatic and made of linear

elastic material have been the subject of numerous studies in which the beam is

numerical method for calculating large deflections of cantilever beams under

uniform loading. This numerical method assumed that the elastic axis of the

another at their points of intersection, using the Bernoulli-Euler equation to

determine the radius of each circular arc. Rhode  obtained an approximate

solution for the large deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a uniformly

distributed load by expanding the slope in a power series of the arc length. Lee

et al.  analyzed stresses and displacements experimentally in largely

deflected cantilever beams subjected to uniformly distributed loads by means of

photoelasticity. This analysis demonstrated that for the case of a beam material

having a small modulus of elasticity value with gravity acting alone as a uniform

load that large deflections would occur. Belendez et al.  analyzed large

consisting of a uniformly distributed load and an external vertical concentrated

load applied at the free end. This analysis obtained a numerical solution using

experimentally and numerically investigated deflections of a cantilever beam

work of Belendez et al. ,  offer many similarities to that of this study,

6
earlier work performed by Belendez et al. provides a more relative model to

follow and is described in detail below.

Frisch-Fay  solved for the large deflection of a cantilever beam under

two concentrated loads in terms of elliptic integrals. Barten  and Bisshopp

and Drucker  solved for the large deflection of a cantilever beam subjected

to one concentrated load, acting vertically downward at the free end of the

beam, also in terms of elliptic integrals. The work of ,  and  are all

In this study, large deflection of a cantilever beam subjected to a

constant, concentrated load applied at the free end will be analyzed, and the
work of Belendez et al.  will be closely followed. Belendez et al. attempts to

find an exact analytical solution, however upon discovering that one does not

exist, proceeds to apply a mixed numerical and analytical approach along with

the program Mathematica to solve for the deflected beam shapes. This study

will also attempt to find an exact analytical solution, and then will utilize Euler’s

program FORTRAN to find the deflected beam shape.

What sets this work apart from work performed by the aforementioned

references is that this analysis will incorporate a constant, concentrated force

applied to the free end at a constant angle, thus not limiting the analysis to only

the problem will be attempted. However, due to the presence of a non-linear

term, an exact analytical solution does not exist. A FORTRAN Program using

Euler’s numerical method will be created to solve for the shape of the deflected

7
beam, and a series of experiments will be performed to reproduce the FORTRAN

Program results.

8
CHAPTER III

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

of linear elastic material is modeled. Figure 3.1 shows a cantilever beam of

length L with a concentrated force F applied at the free end. In this figure, δx
and δy are the horizontal and vertical displacements at the free end, respectively,

and φ0 represents the maximum slope of the beam. The constant angle at which

the force is applied is represented by α, and is measured positive downward

from the horizontal axis. The origin of the Cartesian coordinate system shall be

at the fixed end of the beam and (x,y) will represent the coordinates of point A.

The arc length of the beam, s, shall be measured between the fixed end and

point A.

For this study, it will be assumed that axial strains are negligible because any

change in length will be assumed to be a small fraction of the original length.

This will imply that the beam is inextensible. It will also be assumed that the

cross section of the beam remains constant across the length of the beam,

meaning that the effect of Poisson’s Ratio, or the ratio of axial elongation to

lateral contraction, can be neglected . Next, it is assumed that the Bernoulli-

Euler theorem is valid, which states that the curvature of the beam is
proportional to the bending moment. Lastly, it is assumed that the deflection

9
L

x L-x

L - δx - x δx

X
A(x,y)
s

δy

φ0

F
Y

3.1 Deflection Curve Equation Development

The analysis begins with a free body diagram, shown in Figure 3.2 that

describes the forces acting on the deflected beam. At the fixed end of the beam,

labeled as O, Mo is the reaction moment and Rx and Ry are the reaction forces

acting on the fixed end of the beam in the x and y directions, respectively. The

force F is resolved into a horizontal component, noted as Fx, and a vertical

component, noted as Fy. Summing forces in the x and y direction yields the

following equations

10
∑F x =0 (3.1)

Rx = F cosα (3.2)

∑F y =0 (3.3)

R y = F sin α . (3.4)

Taking a counterclockwise moment as positive and summing moments about

point O, the moment acting at the fixed end of the beam becomes

∑M O =0 (3.5)

section rectangular beam of linear elastic material is

EI = M ( x, y ) . (3.7)
ds

Where M(x,y) is the bending moment as a function of the distances x and y, φ

represents the curvature at any point along the length of the beam, E is the

modulus of elasticity and I is the moment of inertia of the beam cross section

about the neutral axis. It is necessary to find M as a function of x and y to

11
obtain the moment at any point along the length of the beam. This can be done

by cutting the beam at an arbitrary point and summing moments about the cut.

L - δx

Rx

Mo
δy
Ry

X
Fcosα

Y
Fsinα

Figure 3.2 – Beam Free Body Diagram

Figure 3.3 shows the cut beam with the reactions and moments acting on it.

The arc length of the beam, which is measured between the fixed end (O) and

point A, is represented by s. At point A, M(x,y) is the moment M as a function of

the distances x and y while v represents the shear force. At the fixed end of the
beam, Mo=F(sinα)(L-δx)+F(cosα)(δy) is the reaction moment, and Rx=F(cosα) and

Ry=F(sinα) are the reaction forces in the x and y directions, respectively.

Summing moments about A to obtain the moment M as a function of x and y

yields

∑M A =0 (3.8)

12
M ( x, y ) = F (sin α )( L − δ x ) + F (cos α )(δ y ) − F (sin α )( x) − F (cos α )( y ) = 0 (3.9)

Rx

Mo
s
Ry y

A v

Y
M(x,y)

and y which can be substituted into Equation (3.7), to yield

EI = F (sin α )( L − δ x − x) + F (cos α )(δ y − y ) . (3.11)
ds

Taking the derivative of Equation (3.11) with respect to s

d ⎡ dϕ ⎤ d
EI =
ds ⎢⎣ ds ⎥⎦ ds
[
F (sin α )( L − δ x − x) + F (cos α )(δ y − y ) ] (3.12)

d ⎡ dϕ ⎤ d
⎢ EI ⎥ = [F (sin α )( L − δ x − x)] +
ds ⎣ ds ⎦ ds
d
ds
[
F (cos α )(δ y − y ) . ] (3.13)

13
Noting that L, δx and δy are constants, yields the following

d 2ϕ dx dy
EI 2
= −( F sin α ) − ( F cos α ) . (3.14)
ds ds ds

The right side of Equation (3.14) is written in terms of x and y while the left side

dx
cos ϕ = (3.15)
ds

dy
sin ϕ = . (3.16)
ds

Substituting Equations (3.15) and (3.16) into Equation (3.14) yields

d 2ϕ
EI = − F (sin α )(cos ϕ ) − F (cos α )(sin ϕ ) . (3.17)
ds 2

curve of a cantilever beam made of linear elastic material subjected to a

concentrated end load as shown in Figure 3.1. An attempt will be made to find

14
ds
dy

dx

3.2 Analytical Solution

Now that the non-linear differential equation describing the deflection curve

of a cantilever beam made of linear elastic material subjected to a concentrated

end load has been found, it must be solved in order to obtain an expression for

both the x and y coordinates along the length of the deflected beam.

multiplied by dφ/ds to obtain

dϕ d 2ϕ dϕ dϕ
EI 2
+ F (sin α )(cos ϕ ) + F (cos α )(sin ϕ ) = 0. (3.18)
ds ds ds ds

Rewriting each term of Equation (3.18) as a derivative with respect to the arc

length yields the following

dϕ d 2 ϕ d ⎡ 1 ⎛ dϕ ⎞ ⎤
2

EI = ⎢ EI ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (3.19)
ds ds 2 ds ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝ ds ⎠ ⎥⎦

15
dϕ d
F (sin α )(cos ϕ ) = [F (sin α )(sin ϕ )] (3.20)
ds ds

dϕ d
F (cos α )(sin ϕ ) = [− F (cos α )(cos ϕ )] . (3.21)
ds ds

Substituting Equations (3.19), (3.20) and (3.21) into Equation (3.18) yields

d ⎡ 1 ⎛ dϕ ⎞ ⎤
2

⎢ EI ⎜ ⎟ + F (sin α )(sin ϕ ) − F (cos α )(cos ϕ )⎥ = 0 . (3.22)

ds ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝ ds ⎠ ⎥⎦

Equation (3.22) is immediately integrable taking into account that at the free

end, the following boundary condition is valid

ϕ ( L) = ϕ 0 (3.23)

where φ0 is the unknown, maximum slope at the free end of the beam.

1 ⎛ dϕ ⎞
2

2 ⎝ ds ⎠

1 ⎛ dϕ ⎞
2

C = − EI ⎜ ⎟ − F (sin α )(sin ϕ ) + F (cos α )(cos ϕ ) . (3.25)

2 ⎝ ds ⎠

16
Applying the following boundary conditions

⎛ dϕ ⎞
⎜ ⎟=0 @ s=L (3.26)
⎝ ds ⎠

ϕ = ϕ0 @ s = L (3.27)

Substituting Equation (3.28) into Equation (3.24) and rearranging yields:

⎛ dϕ ⎞
2

⎜ ⎟ =
2F
[(sin α )(sin ϕ 0 − sin ϕ ) − (cos α )(cos ϕ 0 − cos ϕ )] . (3.29)
⎝ ds ⎠ EI

Taking the square root of both sides of Equation (3.29)

dϕ 2F
= (sin α )(sin ϕ 0 − sin ϕ ) − (cos α )(cos ϕ 0 − cos ϕ ) (3.30)
ds EI

and separating variables yields

EI dϕ
ds = . (3.31)
2F (sin α )(sin ϕ 0 − sin ϕ ) − (cos α )(cos ϕ 0 − cos ϕ )

17
Solving for ds from Equation (3.15) and substituting the result into Equation

(3.31) yields

EI (cos ϕ )dϕ
dx = . (3.32)
2F (sin α )(sin ϕ 0 − sin ϕ ) − (cos α )(cosϕ 0 − cos ϕ )

Likewise solving for dy from Equation (3.16) and substituting the result into
Equation (3.31) yields

EI (sin ϕ )dϕ
dy = . (3.33)
2F (sin α )(sin ϕ 0 − sin ϕ ) − (cos α )(cosϕ 0 − cos ϕ )

Ideally, Equations (3.32) and (3.33) would be integrable, thus yielding

equations that would describe the horizontal and vertical deflections at any point

along the neutral axis of the cantilever beam. Unfortunately, there is not an

exact analytical solution to the integrals on the left side of equations (3.32) and

3.3 Numerical Solution

Using Euler’s method, the second order non-linear differential Equation

(3.17) can be reduced into two first order non-linear differential equations. The
curvature of the beam, denoted as κ, can be written as

=κ . (3.34)
ds
Taking the derivative of both sides with respect to s yields

18
d 2ϕ d κ
= . (3.35)
ds 2 ds

Substituting Equation (3.35) into Equation (3.17) yields

EI = − F (sin α )(cos ϕ ) − F (cos α )(sin ϕ ) (3.36)
ds

and rearranging

dκ F F
=− (sin α )(cos ϕ ) − (cos α )(sin ϕ ) . (3.37)
ds EI EI

Numerically integrating Equation (3.34) using Euler’s method

⎛ dφ ⎞
ϕ n +1 = ϕ n + Δs⎜ ⎟ (3.38)
⎝ ds ⎠ n

Numerically integrating Equation (3.37) using Euler’s method

⎛ dκ ⎞
κ n +1 = κ n + Δs⎜ ⎟ (3.40)
⎝ ds ⎠ n

⎛ F F ⎞
κ n+1 = κ n + Δs⎜ − (sin α )(cos ϕ n ) − (cos α )(sin ϕ n ) ⎟ . (3.41)
⎝ EI EI ⎠

19
Equations (3.39) and (3.41) represent two first order differential equations that

can be used to numerically solve Equation (3.17). This will be done by creating

3.4 Program Description

To solve Equations (3.39) and (3.41), the values of φ and κ must be known.

While the angle φ at the fixed end is known to be zero, the curvature κ at the

fixed end is not known. Since the curvature at the free end is known to be zero,

a shooting method will be employed to find the appropriate initial curvature at

the fixed end of the beam. The correct initial curvature is one that will produce

zero curvature at the free end of the beam and, as a result, an accurate

deflected beam shape.

Once the initial parameters are input, the program is executed and Euler’s

numerical method is used to calculate the slope and the curvature across the

length of the beam. The program is particularly interested with the curvature at
the two end points of the beam – the fixed end and the free end. The curvature

at the fixed end of the beam begins with some unknown value of kappa that

gradually decreases across the length of the deflected beam until it reaches zero

at the free end of the beam. Since the curvature at the fixed end is unknown, it

must be determined in order to produce a curvature of zero at the free end of

the beam, therefore providing an accurate deflected beam shape. The FORTRAN

Calculating the correct initial curvature is accomplished within the program

by using the bisection method. The unknown curvature at the fixed end is

assumed to fall between a specified initial curvature range that the user guesses;

20
the low value of this range being KLOW and the high value being KHIGH. The

program then uses KLOW and Euler’s numerical method to calculate the

curvature at the free end of the beam, KLOWEND. Next, the program

determines the average of KLOW and KHIGH to calculate the mid-range value of

the curvature, KMID. If the difference of KLOW and KHIGH falls within the

specified tolerance, then KMID is used to calculate the final deflected beam

shape and the program ends. However, if the difference of KLOW and KHIGH

does not meet the required accuracy, the program then uses KMID and Euler’s

numerical method to calculate the curvature at the free end of the beam,

KMIDEND. The program then compares the values of KLOWEND and KMIDEND

to determine if a curvature of zero exists between these two values. If so, KMID

becomes the new value of KHIGH and the value of KLOW remains the same. If

a curvature of zero does not exist between the range of KLOWEND and

KMIDEND, then a curvature of zero exists between KMID and KHIGH so KMID

becomes the new value of KLOW and the value of KHIGH remains the same.

At this point, the half of the range that contains a curvature of zero is kept

and the other half of the range is discarded, and the bisection method is again

employed to find a new value of KMID within the reduced range and the process

repeats itself. The initial curvature range is continually narrowed using this

process until the difference of KLOW and KHIGH reaches the desired accuracy at

which point KMID becomes the unknown initial curvature and is used to calculate

the final deflected beam shape. The FORTRAN Program Code can be found in

Appendix A.

It is important to note a few limitations of the FORTRAN Program. First,

the program is limited to constant angles applied to the free end for angles

21
greater than zero and less than or equal to ninety degrees, measured from the

horizontal. Also, the program can only compute deflections of beams with

constant cross sections. Lastly, if the force applied to the end becomes too large

for a given beam geometry and material to support, the result will be an unusual

Conditions

value of KLOW

Calculate KMID

YES tolerance?

NO

Calculate KMIDEND using

KMID from above
Use κ = KMID and φ,s = 0 as initial
conditions to find φ, Κ , X & Y over
the length of the beam

Stop

22
CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

The FORTRAN Program previously described will now be used to produce

several deflected beam curves. The first theoretical beam curve developed by

the FORTRAN Program will be compared to both the Belendez  theoretical

and Belendez experimental beam curves presented in said research paper in an

attempt to reproduce their results. In this example, a force of 3.92N is applied

vertically downward at the end of the beam. The beam exhibits a length of

30cm, a width of 3.04cm and a height of 0.078cm. The beam is made of low-

Figure 4.1 displays the Belendez experimental and Belendez theoretical

curves, along with the theoretical curve obtained from the FORTRAN Program.

The FORTRAN Program theoretical curve compares well with the Belendez

theoretical curve having a maximum Y direction error of 1.35%. To establish a

means of comparison, the Belendez experimental curve when compared to the

Figure 4.2 shows five deflection curves calculated by the FORTRAN

Program. These curves show how the deflection of the beam changes as the

angle is held constant and the force is increased. In this example, the force is

23
applied to the end of the beam vertically downward, or 90 degrees to the

horizontal, and the force is increased from 3.92N to 7.92N in 1.0N increments.

As expected, the beam deflection increases as the force is increased.

Figure 4.3 shows six deflection curves calculated by the FORTRAN Program.

These curves show how the deflection of the beam changes as the force is held

constant and the angle is varied. In this example, a force of 3.92N is applied to

the free end and the angle is gradually decreased from 90 degrees to 15 degrees

in 15 degree increments.

Figure 4.4 also shows six deflection curves calculated by the FORTRAN

Program and shows how the deflection curve changes as the force is held
constant and the angle is varied. In this example, a force of 3.92N is applied to

the free end and the angle is gradually decreased from 90 degrees to 15 degrees

in 15 degree increments.

Figures 4.3 and 4.4 both display similar phenomena in that as the angle of

the force decreases from 90 degrees, the beam deflection increases, but only to

a point at which the deflection reaches a maximum and then begins to decrease

as the angle of the applied force reaches 15 degrees. This can be explained by

the fact that at 90 degrees, the force is acting only in the y direction and not in

component of the force begins to decrease and the x component begins to

increase. This occurs until some combination of the x and y force components

To ensure accuracy and convergence of the FORTRAN Program, stepsizes

of the arc length s were varied from 1(10-2) to 1(10-6). From the results shown

in table 4.1, only a .0051% difference in tip deflection occurs when the arc

24
length stepsize is changed from 1(10-5) to 1(10-6). The percent error is

calculated using the tip deflection for a 1(10-6) stepsize as the “true” value. The

Δs Y % Error

1(10-2) 0.1424643 4.6481%

-3
1(10 ) 0.1367674 0.4634%
1(10-4) 0.1360728 0.0469%
-5
1(10 ) 0.1361296 0.0051%
1(10-6) 0.1361366 0.0000%

o
Belendez vs. FORTRAN, F = 3.92N & α = 90

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06
y (m)

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14
Belendez Experimental Curve
Belendez Theoretical Curve
FORTRAN Program Curve

Figure 4.1 – Comparison of Belendez and FORTRAN Program Theoretical Curves

25
FORTRAN Program Results at α = 90o and Varying F

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

0.05 F = 3.92N
F = 4.92N
F = 5.92N
y (m)

0.10 F = 6.92N
F = 7.92N

0.15

0.20

FORTRAN Program Results at F = 3.92N and Varying a

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

a = 90
a = 75
0.05
a = 60
a = 45
y (m)

a = 30
a = 15
0.10

0.15

Figure 4.3– FORTRAN Program Results with Constant Force of 3.92N (a=a)

26
FORTRAN Program Results at F = 5.92N and Varying α

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

a=90
0.05
a=75
a=60
a=45
y (m)

0.10 a=30
a=15

0.15

0.20

Figure 4.4– FORTRAN Program Results with Constant Force of 5.92N (a=a)

4.2 Experimental Procedure and Results

It has been shown in Section 4.1 that the FORTRAN Program is capable of

producing an accurate beam deflection curve when compared to the Belendez

theoretical and Belendez experimental curves as shown in Figure 4.1. To further

validate the FORTRAN Program, two experiments will be performed. The first
experiment will reproduce the Belendez experimental curve and then compare

the results to the theoretical curve produced by the FORTRAN Program. The

second experiment will mirror the first experiment; however instead of applying

In the first experiment, the beam is fastened to the top of a bench by

means of a clamp. The beam exhibits a length of 30cm, a width of 3.04cm and

27
a height of 0.078cm. The beam is made of low-carbon steel consisting of

modulus of elasticity of 2.0x1011 pa and 1.2022x10-12 m4. Lightweight dental

floss is used to hang the weight from the end of the beam. A force of 3.92N is

applied vertically downward at the end of the beam as shown in Figure 4.5.

Once the beam was deflected, measurements were taken along the length of the

beam using a digital caliper to capture the x and y coordinates as shown in

Figure 4.6.

The x and y coordinates were then plotted to obtain the experimental curve
of which a force of 3.92N is applied vertically downward at the end of the beam.

Figure 4.7 shows the experimental results as compared to the results obtained

from the FORTRAN Program. It can be seen that the experimental curve

compares well to the FORTRAN Program theoretical curve very well exhibiting a

maximum relative error of 2.18%. The FORTRAN Program output of the first

experiment can be found in Appendix B.

28
Figure 4.5– Experimental Beam with 3.92N Applied Vertically Downward

29
Figure 4.6– Experimental Beam Measurement

30
o
FORTRAN Program Curve vs. Experimental Curve, F = 3.92N & α = 90

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06
y (m)

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

FORTRAN Program Curve

Experimental Curve

beam at a downward angle of 53o measured from horizontal as shown in Figure

4.8. The beam exhibits a length of 30cm, a width of 3.04cm and a height of

0.078cm. The beam is made of low-carbon steel consisting of modulus of

elasticity of 2.0x1011 pa and 1.2022x10-12 m4. The beam is fastened to the top
of a bench by means of a clamp. Lightweight dental floss was used to hang the

weight from the end of the beam. In order to apply the force at the proper

angle, a steel hook was used to redirect the dental floss to prevent the weight

from hanging vertically downward, thus simulating a force applied at 53o. The

smoothly polished surface of the steel hook, coupled with the addition of

31
lubricating oil to the string, allowed for smooth sliding of the string against the

hook and thus a frictionless surface was assumed.

Once the beam was deflected, measurements were taken along the length

of the beam using a digital caliper to capture the x and y coordinates as shown in

Figure 4.6.

The x and y coordinates were then plotted to obtain the experimental curve

which exhibits a force of 3.92N applied to the end of the beam at a downward

angle of 53o measured from horizontal. Figure 4.9 shows the FORTRAN Program
curve with a force of 3.92N applied vertically downward compared to the

experimental curve with a force of 3.92N applied vertically downward, and the

FORTRAN Program curve with a force of 3.92N applied at a downward angle of

53o measured from horizontal compared to the experimental curve with a force

of 3.92N applied at a downward angle of 53o measured from horizontal. It can

be seen that both the FORTRAN Program curve and the experimental curve with

a force of 3.92N applied vertically downward compare very well exhibiting a

maximum Y direction error of 2.18%. The FORTRAN Program curve and the

experiment can be found in Appendix C.

32
Figure 4.8– Experimental Beam with 3.92N Applied at Angle of 53 degrees

33
FORTRAN Program Theoretical Curves vs. Experimental Results

x (m)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06
y (m)

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16
Experimental Curve with F=3.92N at 90 Deg.
Experimental Curve with F=3.92N at 53 Deg.
FORTRAN Program Curve with F=3.92N at 90 Deg.
FORTRAN Program Curve with F=3.92N at 53 Deg.

34
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

beam subjected to a constant, concentrated force, with a constant angle, applied

at the free end has been studied. An attempt to find an exact analytic

expression for both the x and y coordinates along the length of the deflected
beam was made, however the expressions for dx and dy could not be integrated.

A numerical analysis using Euler’s Numerical Method was successfully performed

and a FORTRAN Program was written that will perform Euler’s Numerical Method

to find the x and y coordinates along the length of the deflected beam for a given

error of 1.35%.

theoretical results in an attempt to give the reader confidence in the accuracy of

the FORTRAN Program. The first experiment applied a force of 3.92N vertically

downward from the end of the beam. The results of the first experiment

compared well with the FORTRAN Program results under the same conditions

exhibiting a maximum Y direction error of 2.18%. The second experiment

applied a force of 3.92N at an angle of 53o measured from the horizontal. The

results of the second experiment compared well with the FORTRAN Program

results under the same conditions exhibiting a maximum Y direction error of

2.34%. The second experiment not only yielded good results when compared to

35
the FORTRAN Program results under the same conditions, but also provided

5.1 Future Work

In the future, several areas of the study could be expanded upon to give

the program more versatility. First, the program could be expanded to handle

beams of non-constant cross section. This could be done by adding the variable
I(s) to the deflection curve equation in place of the constant I. Next, the program
could be adjusted to incorporate a beam made of non-linear material. This

would remove the variable E and replace it with the variable E(s) and an

expression describing the varying material properties across the length of the

beam would need to be found. A force of non-constant magnitude could also be

added to the program. This would remove the constant F and replace it with

either F(x,y) or F(s), depending on where the force was applied to the beam.

The angle at which the force is applied could also change throughout the

deflection of the beam. This would require the variable φ(x,y) to be added to the

deflection curve equation in place of the constant φ. The mass of the beam

could also be included in the deflection curve equation, removing the assumption

that the beam is mass-less. Lastly, the program could be expanded to model an

extensible beam, where the arc length s would not be equal to the length of the
beam L. Expanding the deflection curve equation to capture some or all of the

aforementioned scenarios would give the program more versatility and greatly

expand the program’s ability to study more complex beams, as well as increase

36
REFERENCES

Learning (2004).

 S. Woinowski-Krieger, ‘The effect of the axial force on the vibrations of

hinged bars’, J. Appl. Mech. 17, pp. 35-36 (1950).

 A. V. Srinivasan, ‘Large amplitude-free oscillations of beams and plates’,

AIAA J., 3(10), pp. 167-168 (1965).

 J. D. Ray and C. W. Bert, ‘Nonlinear vibrations of a beam with fixed ends’,
Trans. ASME, J. Engng. Ind., 91, pp. 997-1004 (1969).

 B. K. Lee, J. F. Wilson and S. J. Oh, ‘Elastica of cantilevered beams with

variable cross sections’, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 28, pp. 579-589 (1993).

 G. Baker, ‘On the large deflections of non-prismatic cantilevers with a finite
depth’, Comp. Struct., 46, pp. 365-370 (1993).

 M. Dado and S. AL-Sadder, ‘A new technique for large deflection analysis of
non-prismatic cantilever beams’, Mech. Res. Comm. 32, 692-703 (2005).

 A. Shatnawi and S. AL-Sadder, ‘Exact large deflection analysis of non-

prismatic cantilever beams of nonlinear bimodulus material subjected to a tip
moment’, J. Rein. Plas. And Comp., Vol. 26, No. 12 (2007).

 B. Shvartsman, ‘Large deflections of a cantilever beam subjected to a

follower force’, J. Sound and Vib. 304, pp. 969-973 (2007).
 S. AL-Sadder and R. AL-Rawi, ‘Finite difference scheme for large deflection
analysis of non-prismatic cantilever beams subjected to different types of
(2006).

 A. Ibrahimbegovic. ‘On finite element implementation of geometrically

nonlinear Reissner’s beam theory: three-dimensional curved beam
elements’, Comp. Meth. In Appl. Mech. and Eng. 122, pp. 11-26 (1995).

 G. Lewis and F. Monasa, ‘Large deflections of cantilever beams of non-linear

materials’, Comp. Struct., 14, pp. 357-360 (1981).

 K. Lee, ‘Large deflections of cantilever beams of non-linear elastic material

(2002).

37
C. Baykara, U. Guven and I. Bayer, ‘Large deflections of a cantilever beam of
nonlinear bimodulus material subjected to an end moment’, J. Rein. Plas.
And Comp., Vol. 24, No. 12 (2005).
 G. Rezazadeh, ‘A comprehensive model to study nonlinear behavior of
multilayered micro beam switches’ 14, Micro. Tech., pp. 135-141 (2007).

S. Antman, ‘Large lateral buckling of nonlinearly elastic beams’, Arch. Rat.
Mech. and Anal., Vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 293-305 (1984).

C. Cesnik, V. Sutyrin and D. Hodges, ‘Refined theory of composite beams:

the role of short-wavelength extrapolation’, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 33, pp.
1387-1408 (1996).

A. E. Seames and H. D. Conway, ‘A numerical procedure for calculating the

large deflections of straight and curved beams’, J. Appl. Mech., 24, pp. 289-
294 (1957).

 F. V. Rhode, ‘Large deflections of cantilever beams with uniformly distributed

load’, Q. Appl. Math., 11, pp. 337-338 (1953).

 H. Lee, A. J. Durelli and V. J. Parks, ‘Stress in largely deflected cantilever

beams subjected to gravity’, J. Appl. Mech., 26, pp. 323-325 (1969).
 T. Belendez, M. Perez-Polo, C. Neipp and A. Belendez, ‘Numerical and
Experimental Analysis of Large Deflections of Cantilever Beams Under a
Combined Load’, Phys. Scr., Vol. T118, pp. 61-65 (2005).

 T. Belendez, C. Neipp and A. Belendez, ‘Numerical and Experimental Analysis

of a Cantilever Beam: A Laboratory Project to Introduce Geometric
Nonlinearity in Mechanics of Materials’, Int. J. Engng. Ed., Vol. 19, p. 885
(2003).

 R. Frisch-Fay, ‘Large deflections of a cantilever beam under two

concentrated loads’, J. Appl. Mech., 29, pp. 200-201 (1962).
 H. J. Barten, ‘On the deflection of a cantilever beam’, Q. Appl. Math., 2, 168-
171 (1944); 3, pp. 275-276 (1945).

 K. E. Bisshopp and D. C. Drucker, ‘Large deflections of cantilever beams’, Q.

Appl. Math., 3, pp. 272-275 (1945).

 T. Belendez, C. Neipp and A. Belendez, ‘Large and small deflections of a

cantilever beam’, Eur. J. Phys., 23, pp. 371-379 (2002).

 R. Feynman, R. B. Leighton and M. Sands, ‘The Feynman Lectures on

Physics: Mainly Electromagnetism and matter’, Vol. 2, Addison Wesley, Ch.
38 (1989).

38
APPENDICES

39
APPENDIX A

FORTRAN PROGRAM CODE

C **************************************************
C * *
C * THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE LARGE *
C * DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVER BEAM *
C * *
C * INPUT VARIABLES AND INITIAL CONDITIONS: *
C * *
C * FORCE ACTING ON FREE END OF BEAM = FORCE *
C * ANGLE AT WHICH FORCE IS APPLIED = ALPHA *
C * BEAM MOMENT OF INERTIA = I *
C * BEAM MODULUS OF ELASTICITY = E *
C * BEAM LENGTH = L *
C * ARC LENGTH TO BE USED AS STEPSIZE = S *
C * LOW INITIAL CURVATURE VALUE = KLOW *
C * LOW FINAL CURVATURE VALUE = KLOWEND *
C * HIGH INITIAL CURVATURE VALUE = KHIGH *
C * MIDDLE INITIAL CURVATURE VALUE = KMID *
C * MIDDLE FINAL CURVATURE VALUE = KMIDEND *
C * TOLERANCE = EPS *
C * SLOPE OF BEAM AT FIXED END = PHI *
C * *
C **************************************************

IMPLICIT NONE
DOUBLE PRECISION PHI, F, S, L, ALPHA, FORCE, E,
+I, X, Y, KLOW, KMID, KHIGH, KLOWEND, KMIDEND, EPS
INTEGER(4) N, NVALS

OPEN(UNIT = 10, FILE='EULER.IN', STATUS='OLD')

OPEN(UNIT = 20, FILE='EULER.OUT', STATUS='UNKNOWN')

+K HIGH, EPS

WRITE(20,100) FORCE, E, I, S, L, ALPHA, KLOW, KHIGH,

+EPS

40
100 FORMAT(1X, T30, 'EULER.FOR', //'INPUTS:', //1X,
+'FORCE = ',F8.4, ' N' /1X, 'E = ', E16.4,
+' PA' /1X, 'I = ',E16.4, ' M^4' /1X, 'S = ',
+F13.5, ' M' /1X, 'L = ',F12.4, ' M' /1X,
+'ALPHA = ',F8.4, ' DEGREES', /1X, 'KLOW = ',
+F9.4, ' 1/M', /1X, 'KHIGH = ',F8.4, ' 1/M'
+/1X, 'EPS = ',E14.4, ' 1/M' // 'INITIAL
+CONDITIONS:')

200 FORMAT(/1X, 'PHI = ',F10.4, ' RAD' /1X, 'KMID = ',

+ F9.4, ' 1/M' /1X, 'X = ', F12.4, ' M' /1X, 'Y = ',
+F12.4, ' M' //T9,'PHI (RAD)', T22,'KAPPA (1/M)',
+T41,'X (M)',T56'Y (M)'/)

ALPHA = ALPHA*DACOS(-1.0D0)/180

C **************************************************
C * THE FIRST DO LOOP CALCULATES KLOWEND USING *
C * THE INPUT VALUE OF KLOW *
C **************************************************

NVALS = L/S
KLOWEND = KLOW
DO 10 N = 1, NVALS
C PHI = PHI + S * KLOWEND
KLOWEND = KLOWEND + S * F(PHI,ALPHA,FORCE,E,I)

10 CONTINUE

C **************************************************
C * THE SECOND DO LOOP CALCULATES KMID USING THE *
C * BISECTION METHOD AS LONG AS THE DIFFERENCE *
C * OF LOW AND KHIGH IS GREATER THAN THE *
C * SPECIFIED TOLERANCE *
C **************************************************

KMID = (KHIGH + KLOW)/2

KMIDEND = KMID

PHI = 0

41
C **************************************************
C * THE THIRD DO LOOP CALCULATES KMIDEND USING *
C * THE CALCULATED VALUE OF KMID FROM ABOVE *
C **************************************************

DO 30 N = 1, NVALS

PHI = PHI + S * KMIDEND

KMIDEND = KMIDEND + S * F(PHI,ALPHA,FORCE,E,I)

30 CONTINUE

C **************************************************
C * THE IF THEN STATEMENT DETERMINES WHETHER *
C * KHIGH OR KLOW BECOME THE NEW KMID AND THE *
C * ITERATION STARTS OVER *
C **************************************************

IF (KLOWEND * KMIDEND .LT. 0) THEN

KHIGH = KMID
ELSE
KLOW = KMID
KLOWEND = KMIDEND
END IF

20 CONTINUE

PHI = 0
X=0
Y=0

WRITE(20,300)PHI, KMID, X, Y

C **************************************************
C * THE FOURTH DO LOOP USES THE FINAL KMID *
C * VALUE FROM ABOVE TO CALCULATE PHI, KAPPA, *
C * X & Y USING EULERS METHOD *
C **************************************************

DO 40 N = 1, NVALS
PHI = PHI + S * KMID
KMID = KMID + S * F(PHI,ALPHA,FORCE,E,I)

X = X + COS(PHI)*S

42
Y = Y + SIN(PHI)*
WRITE(20,300) PHI, KMID, X, Y
300 FORMAT(1X, 4(F15.7))

40 CONTINUE

END

DOUBLE PRECISION PHI, FORCE, E, I, ALPHA

F = (-FORCE/(E*I))*(SIN(ALPHA)*COS(PHI)+
+COS(ALPHA)*SIN(PHI))
END

43
APPENDIX B

FORTRAN PROGRAM OUTPUT OF EXPERIMENT 1

EULER.FOR

INPUTS:

FORCE = 3.9200 N
E = .2000E+12 PA
I = .1202E-11 M^4
S = .00100 M
L = .3000 M
ALPHA = 90.0000 DEGREES
KLOW = .0000 1/M
KHIGH = 10.0000 1/M
EPS = .1000E-09 1/M

INITIAL CONDITIONS:

KMID = .0000 1/M
X = .0000 M
Y = .0000 M

.0000000 4.3767068 .0000000 .0000000

.0043767 4.3604035 .0010000 .0000044
.0087371 4.3441007 .0020000 .0000131
.0130812 4.3277986 .0029999 .0000262
.0174090 4.3114976 .0039997 .0000436
.0217205 4.2951980 .0049995 .0000653
.0260157 4.2789000 .0059991 .0000913
.0302946 4.2626040 .0069987 .0001216
.0345572 4.2463103 .0079981 .0001562
.0388035 4.2300191 .0089973 .0001950
.0430335 4.2137307 .0099964 .0002380
.0472473 4.1974455 .0109953 .0002852
.0514447 4.1811636 .0119940 .0003366
.0556259 4.1648853 .0129924 .0003922
.0597908 4.1486110 .0139906 .0004520
.0639394 4.1323408 .0149886 .0005159
.0680717 4.1160751 .0159863 .0005839
.0721878 4.0998141 .0169837 .0006560

44
.0762876 4.0835581 .0179808 .0007322
.0803712 4.0673073 .0189775 .0008125
.0844385 4.0510619 .0199740 .0008969
.0884895 4.0348222 .0209701 .0009852
.0925244 4.0185885 .0219658 .0010776
.0965429 4.0023609 .0229611 .0011740
.1005453 3.9861398 .0239561 .0012744
.1045314 3.9699253 .0249506 .0013787
.1085014 3.9537177 .0259447 .0014870
.1124551 3.9375172 .0269384 .0015993
.1163926 3.9213241 .0279317 .0017154
.1203139 3.9051385 .0289244 .0018354
.1242191 3.8889606 .0299167 .0019593
.1281080 3.8727908 .0309085 .0020871
.1319808 3.8566291 .0318998 .0022187
.1358374 3.8404758 .0328906 .0023541
.1396779 3.8243311 .0338809 .0024933
.1435023 3.8081952 .0348706 .0026363
.1473104 3.7920684 .0358598 .0027831
.1511025 3.7759507 .0368484 .0029336
.1548785 3.7598423 .0378364 .0030879
.1586383 3.7437436 .0388238 .0032459
.1623821 3.7276546 .0398107 .0034075
.1661097 3.7115755 .0407969 .0035729
.1698213 3.6955066 .0417825 .0037419
.1735168 3.6794480 .0427675 .0039145
.1771962 3.6633998 .0437519 .0040908
.1808596 3.6473622 .0447356 .0042707
.1845070 3.6313355 .0457186 .0044541
.1881383 3.6153197 .0467009 .0046412
.1917537 3.5993151 .0476826 .0048317
.1953530 3.5833217 .0486636 .0050259
.1989363 3.5673398 .0496439 .0052235
.2025036 3.5513695 .0506234 .0054246
.2060550 3.5354109 .0516023 .0056292
.2095904 3.5194642 .0525804 .0058373
.2131099 3.5035295 .0535578 .0060488
.2166134 3.4876071 .0545344 .0062637
.2201010 3.4716969 .0555103 .0064820
.2235727 3.4557992 .0564854 .0067037
.2270285 3.4399141 .0574597 .0069288
.2304684 3.4240417 .0584333 .0071573
.2338925 3.4081822 .0594061 .0073890
.2373006 3.3923356 .0603780 .0076241
.2406930 3.3765021 .0613492 .0078625
.2440695 3.3606818 .0623196 .0081041
.2474302 3.3448749 .0632891 .0083490
.2507750 3.3290814 .0642578 .0085972
.2541041 3.3133015 .0652257 .0088486
.2574174 3.2975352 .0661928 .0091032
.2607150 3.2817827 .0671590 .0093609

45
.2639967 3.2660440 .0681243 .0096219
.2672628 3.2503194 .0690888 .0098860
.2705131 3.2346088 .0700525 .0101532
.2737477 3.2189124 .0710152 .0104235
.2769666 3.2032303 .0719771 .0106970
.2801699 3.1875625 .0729381 .0109735
.2833574 3.1719092 .0738983 .0112531
.2865293 3.1562704 .0748575 .0115357
.2896856 3.1406463 .0758158 .0118213
.2928262 3.1250368 .0767732 .0121100
.2959513 3.1094421 .0777298 .0124017
.2990607 3.0938623 .0786854 .0126963
.3021546 3.0782974 .0796401 .0129939
.3052329 3.0627476 .0805939 .0132944
.3082956 3.0472128 .0815467 .0135978
.3113428 3.0316931 .0824986 .0139041
.3143745 3.0161887 .0834496 .0142134
.3173907 3.0006995 .0843997 .0145255
.3203914 2.9852257 .0853488 .0148404
.3233767 2.9697673 .0862970 .0151582
.3263464 2.9543243 .0872442 .0154787
.3293007 2.9388969 .0881904 .0158021
.3322396 2.9234850 .0891358 .0161283
.3351631 2.9080887 .0900801 .0164572
.3380712 2.8927081 .0910235 .0167889
.3409639 2.8773431 .0919659 .0171233
.438413 2.8619940 .0929074 .0174604
.3467033 2.8466606 .0938479 .0178002
.3495499 2.8313431 .0947874 .0181427
.3523813 2.8160414 .0957260 .0184878
.3551973 2.8007556 .0966636 .0188356
.3579981 2.7854858 .0976002 .0191860
.3607835 2.7702319 .0985358 .0195390
.3635538 2.7549941 .0994704 .0198946
.3663088 2.7397722 .1004041 .0202527
.3690485 2.7245665 .1013368 .0206135
.3717731 2.7093768 .1022684 .0209767
.3744825 2.6942032 .1031991 .0213425
.3771767 2.6790457 .1041288 .0217108
.3798557 2.6639044 .1050576 .0220816
.3825196 2.6487792 .1059853 .0224549
.3851684 2.6336703 .1069120 .0228306
.3878021 2.6185774 .1078378 .0232087
.3904207 2.6035008 .1087625 .0235893
.3930242 2.5884404 .1096863 .0239723
.3956126 2.5733962 .1106090 .0243577
.3981860 2.5583682 .1115308 .0247454
.4007444 2.5433565 .1124516 .0251355
.4032877 2.5283610 .1133713 .0255280
.4058161 2.5133817 .1142901 .0259227
.4083295 2.4984186 .1152079 .0263198

46
.4108279 2.4834717 .1161247 .0267192
.4133114 2.4685411 .1170405 .0271208
.4157799 2.4536266 .1179553 .0275247
.4182335 2.4387284 .1188691 .0279309
.4206723 2.4238463 .1197819 .0283393
.4230961 2.4089805 .1206937 .0287498
.4255051 2.3941308 .1216046 .0291626
.4278992 2.3792973 .1225144 .0295776
.4302785 2.3644799 .1234233 .0299947
.4326430 2.3496786 .1243311 .0304140
.4349927 2.3348934 .1252380 .0308354
.4373276 2.3201243 .1261439 .0312589
.4396477 2.3053713 .1270488 .0316845
.4419531 2.2906343 .1279527 .0321122
.4442437 2.2759133 .1288556 .0325420
.4465196 2.2612083 .1297576 .0329738
.4487808 2.2465193 .1306586 .0334077
.4510273 2.2318461 .1315586 .0338436
.4532592 2.2171889 .1324576 .0342815
.4554764 2.2025476 .1333557 .0347214
.4576789 2.1879221 .1342527 .0351632
.4598668 2.1733123 .1351488 .0356071
.4620402 2.1587184 .1360440 .0360528
.4641989 2.1441401 .1369382 .0365006
.4663430 2.1295776 .1378314 .0369502
.4684726 2.1150307 .1387236 .0374017
.4705876 2.1004993 .1396149 .0378551
.4726881 2.0859836 .1405053 .0383104
.4747741 2.0714834 .1413947 .0387675
.4768456 2.0569986 .1422831 .0392265
.4789026 2.0425292 .1431706 .0396873
.4809451 2.0280753 .1440572 .0401499
.4829732 2.0136366 .1449428 .0406143
.4849868 1.9992133 .1458275 .0410805
.4869860 1.9848051 .1467112 .0415485
.4889708 1.9704121 .1475941 .0420182
.4909413 1.9560343 .1484760 .0424897
.4928973 1.9416715 .1493569 .0429629
.4948390 1.9273237 .1502370 .0434377
.4967663 1.9129909 .1511161 .0439143
.4986793 1.8986729 .1519943 .0443926
.5005780 1.8843698 .1528716 .0448725
.5024623 1.8700815 .1537480 .0453541
.5043324 1.8558078 .1546235 .0458373
.5061882 1.8415488 .1554981 .0463222
.5080298 1.8273044 .1563718 .0468086
.5098571 1.8130745 .1572446 .0472967
.5116701 1.7988591 .1581166 .0477863
.5134690 1.7846580 .1589876 .0482775
.5152537 1.7704713 .1598578 .0487703
.5170241 1.7562988 .1607271 .0492646

47
.5187804 1.7421404 .1615955 .0497604
.5205226 1.7279962 .1624630 .0502577
.5222506 1.7138660 .1633297 .0507566
.5239644 1.6997498 .1641956 .0512569
.5256642 1.6856474 .1650606 .0517587
.5273498 1.6715589 .1659247 .0522619
.5290214 1.6574841 .1667880 .0527666
.5306789 1.6434229 .1676505 .0532727
.5323223 1.6293754 .1685121 .0537803
.5339517 1.6153413 .1693729 .0542892
.5355670 1.6013207 .1702329 .0547995
.5371683 1.5873134 .1710921 .0553112
.5387556 1.5733193 .1719504 .0558243
.5403290 1.5593384 .1728079 .0563387
.5418883 1.5453707 .1736647 .0568545
.5434337 1.5314159 .1745206 .0573716
.5449651 1.5174741 .1753758 .0578899
.5464826 1.5035451 .1762301 .0584096
.5479861 1.4896288 .1770837 .0589306
.5494757 1.4757253 .1779365 .0594528
.5509515 1.4618343 .1787885 .0599763
.5524133 1.4479558 .1796398 .0605011
.5538612 1.4340897 .1804903 .0610271
.5552953 1.4202359 .1813400 .0615542
.5567156 1.4063943 .1821890 .0620826
.5581220 1.3925649 .1830373 .0626122
.5595145 1.3787475 .1838848 .0631430
.5608933 1.3649421 .1847316 .0636750
.5622582 1.3511485 .1855776 .0642081
.5636094 1.3373666 .1864230 .0647423
.5649467 1.3235964 .1872676 .0652777
.5662703 1.3098378 .1881115 .0658142
.5675802 1.2960907 .1889547 .0663518
.5688763 1.2823549 .1897972 .0668904
.5701586 1.2686304 .1906390 .0674302
.5714272 1.2549170 .1914801 .0679710
.5726822 1.2412148 .1923206 .0685129
.5739234 1.2275235 .1931604 .0690559
.5751509 1.2138431 .1939995 .0695998
.5763647 1.2001735 .1948379 .0701448
.5775649 1.1865145 .1956757 .0706908
.5787514 1.1728661 .1965129 .0712378
.5799243 1.1592282 .1973494 .0717857
.5810835 1.1456007 .1981852 .0723347
.5822291 1.1319834 .1990205 .0728845
.5833611 1.1183762 .1998551 .0734354
.5844795 1.1047792 .2006891 .0739871
.5855843 1.0911920 .2015225 .0745398
.5866755 1.0776147 .2023553 .0750934
.5877531 1.0640472 .2031875 .0756479
.5888171 1.0504892 .2040191 .0762033

48
.5898676 1.0369408 .2048501 .0767595
.5909046 1.0234018 .2056805 .0773167
.5919280 1.0098721 .2065104 .0778746
.5929378 .9963516 .2073397 .0784334
.5939342 .9828402 .2081684 .0789930
.5949170 .9693377 .2089966 .0795535
.5958864 .9558442 .2098243 .0801147
.5968422 .9423593 .2106514 .0806768
.5977846 .9288831 .2114780 .0812396
.5987134 .9154155 .2123040 .0818031
.5996289 .9019562 .2131296 .0823675
.6005308 .8885053 .2139546 .0829326
.6014193 .8750625 .2147791 .0834984
.6022944 .8616279 .2156032 .0840649
.6031560 .8482011 .2164267 .0846322
.6040042 .8347823 .2172498 .0852001
.6048390 .8213712 .2180724 .0857687
.6056604 .8079676 .2188945 .0863380
.6064683 .7945716 .2197162 .0869080
.6072629 .7811830 .2205374 .0874786
.6080441 .7678017 .2213582 .0880499
.6088119 .7544275 .2221785 .0886218
.6095663 .7410603 .2229984 .0891943
.6103074 .7277001 .2238179 .0897674
.6110351 .7143467 .2246369 .0903411
.6117494 .7009999 .2254556 .0909154
.6124504 .6876598 .2262738 .0914903
.6131381 .6743260 .2270916 .0920657
.6138124 .6609986 .2279091 .0926417
.6144734 .6476774 .2287262 .0932183
.6151211 .6343623 .2295429 .0937953
.6157554 .6210532 .2303592 .0943729
.6163765 .6077499 .2311752 .0949510
.6169842 .5944524 .2319908 .0955295
.6175787 .5811605 .2328061 .0961086
.6181599 .5678740 .2336211 .0966881
.6187277 .5545929 .2344357 .0972681
.6192823 .5413171 .2352500 .0978486
.6198236 .5280464 .2360639 .0984295
.6203517 .5147807 .2368776 .0990108
.6208665 .5015198 .2376910 .0995926
.6213680 .4882638 .2385041 .1001747
.6218563 .4750123 .2393169 .1007572
.6223313 .4617654 .2401294 .1013402
.6227930 .4485229 .2409417 .1019235
.6232416 .4352846 .2417536 .1025072
.6236768 .4220505 .2425654 .1030912
.6240989 .4088204 .2433769 .1036755
.6245077 .3955942 .2441881 .1042602
.6249033 .3823718 .2449991 .1048453
.6252857 .3691530 .2458099 .1054306

49
.6256548 .3559377 .2466205 .1060162
.6260108 .3427259 .2474309 .1066021
.6263535 .3295173 .2482411 .1071883
.6266830 .3163119 .2490510 .1077748
.6269993 .3031094 .2498608 .1083615
.6273024 .2899099 .2506704 .1089485
.6275923 .2767132 .2514799 .1095357
.6278691 .2635191 .2522892 .1101231
.6281326 .2503275 .2530983 .1107107
.6283829 .2371384 .2539073 .1112986
.6286200 .2239515 .2547161 .1118866
.6288440 .2107667 .2555248 .1124748
.6290548 .1975840 .2563334 .1130632
.6292523 .1844032 .2571419 .1136517
.6294367 .1712241 .2579502 .1142404
.6296080 .1580467 .2587585 .1148292
.6297660 .1448708 .2595667 .1154182
.6299109 .1316963 .2603747 .1160073
.6300426 .1185231 .2611827 .1165964
.6301611 .1053510 .2619907 .1171857
.6302665 .0921799 .2627985 .1177751
.6303586 .0790097 .2636064 .1183645
.6304377 .0658403 .2644141 .1189540
.6305035 .0526714 .2652219 .1195436
.6305562 .0395031 .2660296 .1201332
.6305957 .0263352 .2668372 .1207228
.6306220 .0131675 .2676449 .1213124
.6306352 .0000000 .2684525 .1219021

50
APPENDIX C

FORTRAN PROGRAM OUTPUT OF EXPERIMENT 2

EULER.FOR

INPUTS:

FORCE = 3.9200 N
E = .2000E+12 PA
I = .1202E-11 M^4
S = .00100 M
L = .3000 M
ALPHA = 53.0000 DEGREES
KLOW = .0000 1/M
KHIGH = 10.0000 1/M
EPS = .1000E-09 1/M

INITIAL CONDITIONS:

KMID = .0000 1/M
X = .0000 M
Y = .0000 M

.0000000 4.7156453 .0000000 .0000000

.0047156 4.7025787 .0010000 .0000047
.0094182 4.6894663 .0019999 .0000141
.0141077 4.6763087 .0029998 .0000282
.0187840 4.6631061 .0039997 .0000470
.0234471 4.6498592 .0049994 .0000705
.0280970 4.6365681 .0059990 .0000986
.0327335 4.6232335 .0069985 .0001313
.0373568 4.6098556 .0079978 .0001686
.0419666 4.5964349 .0089969 .0002106
.0465631 4.5829718 .0099958 .0002571
.0511460 4.5694666 .0109945 .0003083
.0557155 4.5559199 .0119929 .0003639
.0602714 4.5423321 .0129911 .0004242
.0648137 4.5287034 .0139890 .0004890
.0693425 4.5150343 .0149866 .0005582
.0738575 4.5013253 .0159839 .0006320
.0783588 4.4875767 .0169808 .0007103

51
.0828464 4.4737889 .0179774 .0007931
.0873202 4.4599623 .0189736 .0008803
.0917801 4.4460973 .0199694 .0009719
.0962262 4.4321943 .0209648 .0010680
.1006584 4.4182538 .0219597 .0011685
.1050767 4.4042760 .0229542 .0012734
.1094810 4.3902613 .0239482 .0013826
.1138712 4.3762103 .0249417 .0014963
.1182474 4.3621232 .0259347 .0016142
.1226096 4.3480004 .0269272 .0017365
.1269576 4.3338424 .0279192 .0018631
.1312914 4.3196494 .0289106 .0019941
.1356110 4.3054219 .0299014 .0021293
.1399165 4.2911603 .0308916 .0022687
.1442076 4.2768649 .0318812 .0024124
.1484845 4.2625361 .0328702 .0025604
.1527470 4.2481743 .0338586 .0027125
.1569952 4.2337798 .0348463 .0028689
.1612290 4.2193531 .0358333 .0030294
.1654483 4.2048944 .0368197 .0031941
.1696532 4.1904042 .0378053 .0033629
.1738436 4.1758829 .0387902 .0035359
.1780195 4.1613306 .0397744 .0037130
.1821808 4.1467480 .0407579 .0038942
.1863276 4.1321352 .0417406 .0040794
.1904597 4.1174927 .0427225 .0042687
.1945772 4.1028207 .0437036 .0044621
.1986800 4.0881198 .0446839 .0046595
.2027682 4.0733901 .0456635 .0048608
.2068416 4.0586321 .0466421 .0050662
.2109002 4.0438461 .0476200 .0052755
.2149440 4.0290324 .0485970 .0054888
.2189731 4.0141915 .0495731 .0057061
.2229873 3.9993235 .0505483 .0059272
.2269866 3.9844289 .0515227 .0061523
.2309710 3.9695081 .0524961 .0063812
.2349405 3.9545612 .0534687 .0066140
.2388951 3.9395887 .0544403 .0068506
.2428347 3.9245910 .0554109 .0070910
.2467593 3.9095682 .0563806 .0073353
.2506688 3.8945208 .0573494 .0075834
.2545633 3.8794491 .0583172 .0078352
.2584428 3.8643534 .0592839 .0080908
.2623071 3.8492340 .0602497 .0083501
.2661564 3.8340912 .0612145 .0086131
.2699905 3.8189254 .0621783 .0088798
.2738094 3.8037368 .0631410 .0091502
.2776131 3.7885258 .0641028 .0094243
.2814017 3.7732927 .0650634 .0097020
.2851750 3.7580378 .0660230 .0099833
.2889330 3.7427613 .0669816 .0102682

52
.2926758 3.7274637 .0679391 .0105567
.2964032 3.7121451 .0688955 .0108488
.3001154 3.6968059 .0698508 .0111445
.3038122 3.6814465 .0708050 .0114436
.3074936 3.6660669 .0717581 .0117463
.3111597 3.6506677 .0727100 .0120525
.3148104 3.6352490 .0736609 .0123621
.3184456 3.6198112 .0746106 .0126752
.3220654 3.6043545 .0755592 .0129917
.3256698 3.5888792 .0765066 .0133116
.3292586 3.5733856 .0774529 .0136350
.3328320 3.5578739 .0783980 .0139617
.3363899 3.5423445 .0793420 .0142918
.3399322 3.5267976 .0802848 .0146252
.3434590 3.5112335 .0812264 .0149620
.3469703 3.4956524 .0821668 .0153020
.3504659 3.4800547 .0831060 .0156453
.3539460 3.4644405 .0840440 .0159920
.3574104 3.4488102 .0849808 .0163418
.3608592 3.4331640 .0859164 .0166949
.3642924 3.4175022 .0868508 .0170512
.3677099 3.4018249 .0877839 .0174106
.3711117 3.3861326 .0887158 .0177733
.3744979 3.3704253 .0896465 .0181391
.3778683 3.3547034 .0905760 .0185080
.3812230 3.3389671 .0915042 .0188801
.3845620 3.3232167 .0924312 .0192553
.3878852 3.3074524 .0933569 .0196335
.3911926 3.2916744 .0942813 .0200148
.3944843 3.2758830 .0952045 .0203991
.3977602 3.2600783 .0961265 .0207865
.4010203 3.2442608 .0970471 .0211768
.4042645 3.2284304 .0979665 .0215702
.4074930 3.2125876 .0988846 .0219665
.4107055 3.1967325 .0998015 .0223657
.4139023 3.1808654 .1007170 .0227679
.4170831 3.1649864 .1016313 .0231730
.4202481 3.1490958 .1025443 .0235810
.4233972 3.1331937 .1034560 .0239919
.4265304 3.1172805 .1043664 .0244056
.4296477 3.1013564 .1052755 .0248221
.4327491 3.0854214 .1061833 .0252415
.4358345 3.0694759 .1070898 .0256637
.4389039 3.0535200 .1079951 .0260886
.4419575 3.0375540 .1088990 .0265163
.4449950 3.0215781 .1098016 .0269468
.4480166 3.0055924 .1107029 .0273799
.4510222 2.9895971 .1116029 .0278158
.4540118 2.9735925 .1125016 .0282544
.4569854 2.9575787 .1133990 .0286956
.4599430 2.9415559 .1142951 .0291395

53
.4628845 2.9255243 .1151898 .0295861
.4658100 2.9094841 .1160833 .0300352
.4687195 2.8934356 .1169754 .0304870
.4716130 2.8773787 .1178663 .0309413
.4744903 2.8613138 .1187558 .0313982
.4773517 2.8452410 .1196440 .0318576
.4801969 2.8291605 .1205309 .0323196
.4830261 2.8130725 .1214165 .0327840
.4858391 2.7969771 .1223008 .0332510
.4886361 2.7808745 .1231838 .0337204
.4914170 2.7647649 .1240654 .0341923
.4941817 2.7486484 .1249458 .0346666
.4969304 2.7325252 .1258248 .0351433
.4996629 2.7163954 .1267026 .0356224
.5023793 2.7002593 .1275790 .0361040
.5050796 2.6841169 .1284542 .0365878
.5077637 2.6679684 .1293280 .0370741
.5104317 2.6518141 .1302005 .0375626
.5130835 2.6356539 .1310718 .0380535
.5157191 2.6194881 .1319417 .0385466
.5183386 2.6033169 .1328103 .0390421
.5209419 2.5871403 .1336777 .0395398
.5235291 2.5709585 .1345437 .0400397
.5261000 2.5547716 .1354085 .0405419
.5286548 2.5385798 .1362720 .0410462
.5311934 2.5223832 .1371342 .0415528
.5337158 2.5061820 .1379951 .0420615
.5362219 2.4899763 .1388548 .0425724
.5387119 2.4737662 .1397131 .0430855
.5411857 2.4575518 .1405702 .0436006
.5436432 2.4413333 .1414261 .0441179
.5460846 2.4251108 .1422806 .0446372
.5485097 2.4088843 .1431339 .0451586
.5509186 2.3926542 .1439860 .0456821
.5533112 2.3764203 .1448368 .0462076
.5556876 2.3601830 .1456863 .0467351
.5580478 2.3439422 .1465346 .0472647
.5603918 2.3276981 .1473817 .0477962
.5627195 2.3114509 .1482275 .0483297
.5650309 2.2952005 .1490720 .0488651
.5673261 2.2789472 .1499154 .0494025
.5696051 2.2626910 .1507575 .0499418
.5718678 2.2464320 .1515984 .0504830
.5741142 2.2301704 .1524381 .0510261
.5763444 2.2139062 .1532765 .0515711
.5785583 2.1976396 .1541138 .0521179
.5807559 2.1813705 .1549498 .0526665
.5829373 2.1650992 .1557847 .0532170
.5851024 2.1488258 .1566183 .0537693
.5872512 2.1325502 .1574508 .0543234
.5893837 2.1162727 .1582821 .0548792

54
.5915000 2.0999932 .1591122 .0554368
.5936000 2.0837119 .1599411 .0559962
.5956837 2.0674289 .1607689 .0565572
.5977512 2.0511442 .1615955 .0571200
.5998023 2.0348580 .1624209 .0576845
.6018372 2.0185703 .1632452 .0582507
.6038557 2.0022811 .1640684 .0588185
.6058580 1.9859906 .1648904 .0593880
.6078440 1.9696989 .1657113 .0599591
.6098137 1.9534060 .1665310 .0605318
.6117671 1.9371119 .1673497 .0611061
.6137042 1.9208168 .1681672 .0616820
.6156250 1.9045208 .1689836 .0622595
.6175296 1.8882238 .1697989 .0628385
.6194178 1.8719260 .1706131 .0634190
.6212897 1.8556274 .1714262 .0640011
.6231453 1.8393281 .1722383 .0645847
.6249847 1.8230282 .1730493 .0651698
.6268077 1.8067277 .1738592 .0657564
.6286144 1.7904266 .1746680 .0663444
.6304048 1.7741251 .1754758 .0669339
.6321790 1.7578231 .1762825 .0675248
.6339368 1.7415208 .1770882 .0681171
.6356783 1.7252181 .1778929 .0687108
.6374035 1.7089152 .1786966 .0693059
.6391124 1.6926121 .1794992 .0699024
.6408051 1.6763089 .1803008 .0705002
.6424814 1.6600055 .1811014 .0710994
.6441414 1.6437021 .1819010 .0716999
.6457851 1.6273986 .1826997 .0723018
.6474125 1.6110952 .1834973 .0729049
.6490236 1.5947918 .1842940 .0735093
.6506184 1.5784885 .1850897 .0741150
.6521968 1.5621854 .1858844 .0747219
.6537590 1.5458824 .1866782 .0753301
.6553049 1.5295797 .1874711 .0759395
.6568345 1.5132772 .1882630 .0765501
.6583478 1.4969751 .1890540 .0771619
.6598447 1.4806732 .1898441 .0777749
.6613254 1.4643717 .1906333 .0783891
.6627898 1.4480706 .1914216 .0790044
.6642379 1.4317699 .1922090 .0796208
.6656696 1.4154697 .1929955 .0802384
.6670851 1.3991699 .1937811 .0808571
.6684843 1.3828707 .1945659 .0814769
.6698671 1.3665719 .1953498 .0820978
.6712337 1.3502737 .1961328 .0827198
.6725840 1.3339761 .1969150 .0833428
.6739180 1.3176791 .1976964 .0839668
.6752356 1.3013827 .1984770 .0845919
.6765370 1.2850870 .1992567 .0852180

55
.6778221 1.2687919 .2000357 .0858451
.6790909 1.2524975 .2008138 .0864732
.6803434 1.2362038 .2015912 .0871022
.6815796 1.2199107 .2023677 .0877323
.6827995 1.2036185 .2031435 .0883632
.6840031 1.1873269 .2039186 .0889951
.6851905 1.1710361 .2046929 .0896280
.6863615 1.1547461 .2054665 .0902617
.6875162 1.1384568 .2062393 .0908963
.6886547 1.1221683 .2070114 .0915318
.6897769 1.1058806 .2077828 .0921682
.6908828 1.0895938 .2085535 .0928054
.6919723 1.0733077 .2093234 .0934434
.6930457 1.0570224 .2100927 .0940823
.6941027 1.0407380 .2108614 .0947220
.6951434 1.0244544 .2116293 .0953625
.6961679 1.0081717 .2123966 .0960038
.6971760 .9918897 .2131633 .0966459
.6981679 .9756086 .2139293 .0972887
.6991435 .9593284 .2146947 .0979322
.7001029 .9430490 .2154595 .0985765
.7010459 .9267704 .2162237 .0992215
.7019727 .9104927 .2169872 .0998673
.7028832 .8942158 .2177502 .1005137
.7037774 .8779398 .2185126 .1011608
.7046553 .8616645 .2192744 .1018086
.7055170 .8453902 .2200357 .1024570
.7063624 .8291166 .2207965 .1031061
.7071915 .8128439 .2215566 .1037558
.7080043 .7965720 .2223163 .1044061
.7088009 .7803009 .2230754 .1050570
.7095812 .7640306 .2238341 .1057085
.7103453 .7477611 .2245922 .1063606
.7110930 .7314924 .2253499 .1070133
.7118245 .7152245 .2261070 .1076665
.7125397 .6989574 .2268637 .1083203
.7132387 .6826910 .2276200 .1089745
.7139214 .6664254 .2283758 .1096293
.7145878 .6501605 .2291312 .1102846
.7152380 .6338964 .2298861 .1109404
.7158719 .6176329 .2306406 .1115967
.7164895 .6013702 .2313947 .1122535
.7170909 .5851082 .2321484 .1129107
.7176760 .5688469 .2329018 .1135683
.7182448 .5525862 .2336547 .1142264
.7187974 .5363262 .2344073 .1148848
.7193337 .5200668 .2351596 .1155437
.7198538 .5038081 .2359115 .1162030
.7203576 .4875499 .2366631 .1168626
.7208452 .4712924 .2374143 .1175227
.7213164 .4550354 .2381652 .1181830

56
.7217715 .4387790 .2389159 .1188438
.7222103 .4225231 .2396662 .1195048
.7226328 .4062678 .2404163 .1201662
.7230391 .3900130 .2411661 .1208278
.7234291 .3737587 .2419156 .1214898
.7238028 .3575048 .2426649 .1221520
.7241603 .3412514 .2434140 .1228145
.7245016 .3249984 .2441628 .1234773
.7248266 .3087459 .2449114 .1241403
.7251353 .2924938 .2456598 .1248035
.7254278 .2762420 .2464081 .1254670
.7257041 .2599906 .2471561 .1261307
.7259641 .2437395 .2479039 .1267945
.7262078 .2274887 .2486516 .1274586
.7264353 .2112383 .2493992 .1281228
.7266465 .1949881 .2501466 .1287871
.7268415 .1787382 .2508939 .1294516
.7270202 .1624885 .2516410 .1301163
.7271827 .1462390 .2523881 .1307811
.7273290 .1299898 .2531350 .1314459
.7274590 .1137407 .2538819 .1321109
.7275727 .0974917 .2546287 .1327760
.7276702 .0812429 .2553754 .1334411
.7277514 .0649942 .2561221 .1341063
.7278164 .0487456 .2568687 .1347715
.7278652 .0324970 .2576153 .1354368
.7278977 .0162485 .2583619 .1361021
.7279139 .0000000 .2591085 .1367674

57