Anda di halaman 1dari 81

Education in India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

"Indian education" redirects here. For other uses, see Indian school.

Education in the Republic of India

Department of Education

Minister of Human Resource Prakash Javadekar


National education budget (2005–2012)

Budget ₹99,100

crore(US$15 billion)

General details

Primary languages Indian languages, English

System type Federal, State or Private

Established 1 April 2010

Compulsory Education

Literacy (2011[2])

Total 74%[1]

Male 82.2%

Female 65.5%
Enrollment (2011[3][4])

Total (N/A)

Primary 95%

Secondary 69%

Post secondary 25%

Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and
funding coming from three levels: central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian
Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between
the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and
expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7–10 age group, by
2011.[5] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to
its economic development.[6] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific
research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher educationhas
increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013,[7] there
still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed
nations,[8] a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic
dividend from India's comparatively young population.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the
government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age
group.[9] Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in
India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.[10]
As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the
ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above
96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22.9 crore students enrolled in different
accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh
students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment.[11] While quantitatively
India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned
particularly in its government run school system.While more than 95 percent of children attend
primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school (Grades 9-12). Since
2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of the reasons for
the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day.[12]States of India have
introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.[13]
It is important to clarify that while there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in
terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any
accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of
government schools and private schools can be misleading.[14]
In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative
action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other
Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal
government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at
the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest
percentage of reservations in India.


 1School education
o 1.1Administration
 1.1.1Policy
 1.1.2Curriculum and School Education Boards
 1.1.3Midday Meal Nutrition Scheme
 1.1.4Teachers education
o 1.2Levels of schooling
 1.2.1Pre-Primary education
 1.2.2Primary education
 1.2.3Secondary education
 (Matriculation or Secondary) Exam
 (Senior Secondary or Higher Secondary) Exam
o 1.3Types of schools
 1.3.1Government schools
 1.3.2Government aided private schools
 1.3.3Private schools (unaided)
 1.3.4International schools
 1.3.5Home-schooling
 2Higher education
o 2.1Vocational education
o 2.2University education
o 2.3Technical education
 3Open and distance learning
 4Extracurricular activities
 5Quality
o 5.1Literacy
o 5.2Attainment
o 5.3Public school workforce
o 5.4Higher education
o 5.5Vocational education
 6Issues
o 6.1Facilities
o 6.2Curriculum issues
o 6.3Rural education
o 6.4Women's education
o 6.5Accreditation
o 6.6Employer training
o 6.7Teacher Careers
o 6.8Corruption in education
o 6.9Grade inflation
 7Initiatives
o 7.1Central government involvement
o 7.2Legislative framework
o 7.3Central Government expenditure on education
 8History
 9See also
 10References
o 10.1Citations
o 10.2Bibliography
 11External links

School education[edit]
See also: List of schools

University of Calcutta, established on 1857, was the first multidisciplinary and secular Western-style institution
in Asia.

The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education.[15]:3 In this
pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges,[15]:44 and then 3 years of
graduation for a bachelor's degree.[16] The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary
education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges.[15]:5This pattern originated
from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.[17]
Education Policy is prepared by the Centre Government and State Governments at national and
state levels respectively. The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for
environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements
such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system.[18] A significant feature of India's secondary
school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society.
Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another
feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to
help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.[19] A significant new feature has
been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha
Curriculum and School Education Boards[edit]
School boards set the curriculum, conduct board level exams mostly at 10th and 12th level to award
the school diplomas. Exams at the remaining levels (also called standard, grade or class, denoting
the years of schooling) are conducted by the schools.

 National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT): The NCERT is the apex body
located at New Delhi, Capital City of India. It makes the curriculum related matters for school
education across India.[21] The NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to a
number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education
policies.[22] There are other curriculum bodies governing school education system specially at
state level.
 State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments have at least one "State
board of secondary school education". However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more
than one. Also the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli,
Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a
larger state. The boards set curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and the curriculum varies from state
to state and has more local appeal with examinations conducted in regional languages in
addition to English - often considered less rigorous than central curriculums such as CBSE or
ICSE/ISC. Most of these conduct exams at 10th and 12th level, and some even at conduct
board level exams at 5th, 6th and 8th level.
 Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12
and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards that are called board exams.
Students studying the CBSE Curriculum take the All India Secondary School Examination
(AISSE) at the end of grade 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) at
the end of grade 12. Examinations are offered in Hindi and English.
 Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE sets curriculum from
Grades 1 to 12 and conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary
Education (ICSE - Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class/Grade 12) and
the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE - Class/Grade 12). CISCE English level has been
compared to UK's A-Levels; this board offers more choices of subjects. CBSE exams at grade
10 and 12 have often been compared with CICSE and ISC examinations. CICSE is generally
considered to be more rigorous than the CBSE AISSE (grade 10) but the CBSE AISSCE and
ISC examinations are almost on par with each other in most subjects with ISC including a
slightly more rigorous English examination than the CBSE 12th grade examination. The CBSE
and ISC are recognized internationally and most universities abroad accept the final results of
CBSE and ISC exams for admissions purposes and as proof of completion of secondary school.
 National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS): The NIOS conducts two examinations, namely,
Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary Examination (All India) and also some courses in
Vocational Education. National Board of education is run by Government of India's HRD Ministry
to provide education in rural areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode.
A pilot project started by CBSE to provide high class affordable education, provides education
up to 12th standard. Choice of subjects is highly customisable and equivalent to CBSE. Home-
schooled students usually take NIOS or international curriculum examinations as they are
ineligible to write CBSE or ISC exams.
 Islamic Madrasah: Their boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or
affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama.
 Autonomous schools: Such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of
Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula.
 International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge International Examinations (CIB): These are
generally private schools that have dual affiliation with one of the school education board of
India as well as affiliated to the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme and/or
the Cambridge International Examinations (CIB).
 International schools, which offer 10th and 12th standard examinations under the International
Baccalaureate, Cambridge Senior Secondary Examination systems or under their home nations
school boards (such as run by foreign embassies or the expat communities).
 Special education: A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was
started in 1974 with a focus on primary education.[21] but which was converted into Inclusive
Education at Secondary Stage[23]
Midday Meal Nutrition Scheme[edit]
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to
improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide,[24] by suppling free lunches on
working days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government aided,
local body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternate innovative education
centres, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour
Project schools run by the ministry of labour.[25] Serving 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000
schools and Education Guarantee Scheme centres, it is the largest such programme in the world.[26]
Teachers education[edit]
See also: National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and Centre for Teacher

In addition, NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration)[27] and NCTE
(National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the management of the education
system and teacher accreditation.[28]
Levels of schooling[edit]
Pre-Primary education[edit]

Indian Pre-Primary School children (Divine Orchids International Preschool, Jawhar)

The pre-primary stage is the foundation of children's knowledge, skills and behaviour. On completion
of pre-primary education, the children are sent to the primary stage but pre-primary education in
India is not a fundamental right. In rural India, pre-primary schools are rarely available in small
villages and urban areas on the contrary. But in cities and big towns, there are many established
players in the pre-primary education sector. The demand for the preschools is growing considerably
in the smaller towns and cities but still only 1% of the population under age 6 is enrolled in preschool

 Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning
activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating
food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-
nursery is 2 to 3 years. Anganwadi is government funded free rural childcare & mothercare
nutrition and learning program also incorporating the free Midday Meal Scheme.
 Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen
their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years.
 LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG
is 4 to 5 years.
 UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG
is 5 to 6 years.
LKG and UKG stages prepare and help children emotionally, mentally, socially and physically to
grasp knowledge easily in the later stages of school and college life. [29] A systematic process of
preschool education is followed in India to impart knowledge in the best possible way for better
understanding of the young children. By following an easy and interesting curriculum, teachers strive
hard to make the entire learning process enjoyable for the children.
Primary education[edit]

Indian School children

The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary
education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.[30] Because education laws are given by the states,
duration of primary school visit alters between the Indian states. The Indian government has also
banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working
conditions.[30] However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to
economic disparity and social conditions.[30] 80% of all recognised schools at the elementary stage
are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.[31]
However, due to a shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive
gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher
training. Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673
elementary school teachers in India.[32] As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school
teachers in India.[33] Education has also been made free[30] for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up
to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.[34]
There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education
Revitalisation Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalise primary
education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary education system.[35] 85% of the
DERP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15% was funded by the
states.[35] The DERP, which had opened 1.6 lakh new schools including 84,000 alternative education
schools delivering alternative education to approximately 35 lakh children, was also supported by
UNICEF and other international programmes.[35] In January 2016, Keralabecame the 1st Indian state
to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam.[36]
This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the
last three years in some states.[35] Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also
been made as a part of this scheme.[35] The current scheme for universalisation of Education for All is
the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyanwhich is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment
has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low.
Secondary education[edit]

Secondary school girls in Delhi.

See also: Gender inequality in India

Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.85 crore children
according to the 2001 Census of India. The final two years of secondary is often called Higher
Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the "+2" stage. The two halves of secondary
education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated
by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education,
including college or professional courses.
UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take
board exams. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to
appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher
Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful completion of Higher
Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and
Business Administration.
Secondary education in India is examination-oriented and not course-based: students register for
and take classes primarily to prepare for one of the centrally-administered examinations. Senior
school or high school is split into 2 parts (grades 9-10 and grades 11-12) with a standardized
nationwide examination at the end of grade 10 and grade 12 (usually informally referred to as "board
exams"). Grade 10 examination results can be used for admission into grades 11-12 at a secondary
school, pre-university program, or a vocational or technical school. Passing a grade 12 board
examination leads to the granting of a secondary school completion diploma, which may be used for
admission into vocational schools or universities in the country or the world. Most reputable
universities in India require students to pass college-administered admissions tests in addition to
passing a final secondary school examination for entry into a college or university. School grades
are usually not sufficient for college admissions in India.
Most schools in India do not offer subject and scheduling flexibility due to budgeting constraints (for
e.g.: most students in India are not allowed to take Chemistry and History in grades 11-12 because
they are part of different "streams"). Private candidates (i.e. not studying in a school) are generally
not allowed to register for and take board examinations but there are some exceptions such as
10th (Matriculation or Secondary) Exam[edit]
Students taking the grade 10 examination usually take six subjects: English, Mathematics, Social
Studies, Science, one language, and one optional subject depending on the availability of teachers
at different schools. "Elective" or optional subjects often include Computer Applications, Economics,
Physical Education, Commerce, and Environmental Science.
12th (Senior Secondary or Higher Secondary) Exam[edit]
Students taking the grade 12 examination usually take four or five subjects with English or the local
language being compulsory. Students re-enrolling in most secondary schools after grade 10 have to
make the choice of choosing a "core stream" in addition to English or the local language: Science
(Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics), Commerce (Accounts, Commerce, and Economics), or
Humanities (any three of History, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Geography depending on
school). Students study Mathematics up to single-variable Calculus in grade 12.
Types of schools[edit]
Government schools[edit]
Majority of the students study in the government schools where poor and vulnerable students study
for free until the age of 14. According to Education Ministry data, 65% (113 million,) of all school
students in 20 states go to government schools (c. 2017).[37] These include schools runs by the state
and local government as well as the centre government. Example of large centre government run
school systems are Kendriya Vidyalaya in urban areas, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jawahar
Navodaya Vidyalaya for the gifted students, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya for girls belonging to
vulnerable SC/ST/OBC classes, Indian Army Public Schools run by the Indian Army for the children
of soldiers.
Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who
are deployed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in
1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace
regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred.[21]
Government aided private schools[edit]

CAV High School at Hisar.

These are usually charitable trust run schools that receive partial funding from the government.
Largest system of aided schools is run by D.A.V. College Managing Committee.
Private schools (unaided)[edit]

Delhi Public School, Azaad Nagar

The Doon School

According to current estimates, 29% of Indian children are privately educated.[9] With more than 50%
children enrolling in private schools in urban areas, the balance has already tilted towards private
schooling in cities; and, even in rural areas, nearly 20% of the children in 2004-5 were enrolled in
private schools.[38]

La Martiniere Calcutta, regarded as one of the best schools in the country

Most middle-class families send their children to private schools,[38] which might be in their own city
or at distant boarding schools such as Rajkumar College, Rajkot, the oldest private school in India.
At such schools, the medium of education is often English, but Hindi and/or the state's official
language is also taught as a compulsory subject.[citation needed] Pre-school education is mostly limited to
organised neighbourhood nursery schools with some organised chains.[citation needed] Montessori
educationis also popular, due to Maria Montessori's stay in India during World War II. In 2014, four of
the top ten pre-schools in Chennaiwere Montessori.[39]
Many privately owned and managed schools carry the appellation "Public", such as the Delhi Public
Schools, or Frank Anthony Public Schools. These are modelled after British public schools, which
are a group of older, expensive and exclusive fee-paying private independent schools in England.
According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a multiple of the unit
cost of government schools. The reason being high aims and better vision.[40][41][42] However, others
have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective
being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation.[citation

In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer
extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama.[43] The
pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools) and
more teachers in private schools are female.[citation needed] There is some disagreement over which
system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE survey, the percentage of
untrained teachers (para-teachers) is 54.91% in private, compared to 44.88% in government schools
and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive in-service training compared to 43.44% for
government schools. The competition in the school market is intense, yet most schools make
profit.[43] However, the number of private schools in India is still low - the share of private institutions
is 7% (with upper primary being 21% secondary 32% - source: fortress team research). Even the
poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. A study found
that 65% school-children in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools.[42]
International schools[edit]
As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC)[44] listed India as having 410
international schools.[45] ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an
international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or
secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in
a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other
than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation."[45] This definition is used
by publications including The Economist.[46]
Home-schooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The Indian Government's
stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, if they wish to and have
the means.The then HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTE Act of 2009, if
someone decides not to send his/her children to school, the government would not interfere.[47]

Higher education[edit]
Main article: Higher education in India
Student may opt for vocation education or the university education.
Vocational education[edit]
India's All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) reported, in 2013, that there are more than
4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in architecture,
engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town services and others.
There were 17.4 lakh students enrolled in these schools.[48] Total annual intake capacity for technical
diplomas and degrees exceeded 34 lakh in 2012.[citation needed]
According to the University Grants Commission (UGC) total enrollment in Science, Medicine,
Agriculture and Engineering crossed 65 lakh in 2010. The number of women choosing engineering
has more than doubled since 2001.[citation needed]
University education[edit]
Main article: List of Indian institutions of higher education

Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkata.

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

Forest Research Institute

After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the Standard 12 examination), students may enrol
in general degree programmes such as bachelor's degree (graduation) in arts, commerce or
science, or professional degree programme such as engineering, law or medicine and become B.
Sc., B. Com., and B. A. graduates.[49] India's higher education system is the third largest in the world,
after China and the United States.[50] The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University
Grants Commission (India) (UGC), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps
coordinate between the centre and the state up to Post graduation
and Doctorate (Ph.D).[51] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions
established by the University Grants Commission.[52]
All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi

As of 2012, India has 152[53] central universities, 316 state universities, and 191 private universities.
Other institutions include 33,623[54] colleges, including 1,800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning
under these universities and institutions,[51] and 12,748 Institutions offering Diploma Courses. The
emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology.[55]Indian educational
institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes.[56] Distance learning is also
a feature of the Indian higher education system.[56] The Government has launched Rashtriya
Uchchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to provide strategic funding to State higher and technical institutions. A
total of 316 state public universities and 13,024 colleges will be covered under it.[57]
Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of
Science and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) have been globally acclaimed for their
standard of under-graduate education in engineering. Several other institutes of fundamental
research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of
Science (IISc), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harish-Chandra Research
Institute (HRI), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) are also acclaimed for
their standard of research in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce
world class universities both in the private sector or the public sector.[58]
Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to their pupils,
India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making
easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the
menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Indian
Government has failed to check on these education shops, which are run by big businessmen &
politicians. Many private colleges and universities do not fulfil the required criterion by the
Government and central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and take students for a ride. For
example, many institutions in India continue to run unaccredited courses as there is no legislation
strong enough to ensure legal action against them. Quality assurance mechanisms have failed to
stop misrepresentations and malpractices in higher education. At the same time regulatory bodies
have been accused of corruption, specifically in the case of deemed-universities.[59] In this context of
lack of solid quality assurance mechanism, institutions need to step-up and set higher standards of
Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the
country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and
90 % of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in
many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and
have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism
and corruption.

— Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007[61]

The Government of India is aware of the plight of higher education sector and has been trying to
bring reforms, however, 15 bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament.[62] One of
the most talked about bill is Foreign Universities Bill, which is supposed to facilitate entry of foreign
universities to establish campuses in India. The bill is still under discussion and even if it gets
passed, its feasibility and effectiveness is questionable as it misses the context, diversity and
segment of international foreign institutions interested in India.[63] One of the approaches to make
internationalisation of Indian higher education effective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive
policy which aims at infusing excellence, bringing institutional diversity and aids in capacity

The American college in Madurai, started in 1881 CE – One of the first five colleges in India to get autonomous

Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world's top 200
universities — Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal
Nehru University in 2005 and 2006.[65] Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of
Technology and Science—Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in
Asia by Asiaweek.[66] The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in
global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010[67] while the All India Institute of
Medical Sciences has been recognised as a global leader in medical research and
treatment.[68] The University of Mumbai was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the
world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in
the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.[69] It
was ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013[70] and was India's 3rd best Multi-
Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking of Indian Universities after University of
Calcutta and Delhi University.[71] Loyola College, Chennai is one of the best ranked arts and science
college in India with the UGC award of College of Excellence tag.
Technical education[edit]

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli

From the first Five-year Plan onwards, India's emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically
inclined manpower.[72] India's National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for
regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India
Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament.[73] At the
federal level, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institute of Space Science and
Technology, the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information
Technology are deemed of national importance.[73]
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are among
the nation's premier education facilities.[73]

Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote

common research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New
Delhi.[74] Besides there are some British established colleges such as Harcourt Butler Technological
Institute situated in Kanpur and King George Medical University situated in Lucknow which are
important centre of higher education.
Central Universities such as Banaras Hindu University, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Delhi
University, Mumbai University, University of Calcutta, Jadavpur University etc. too are pioneers of
technical education in the country.
In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education are
supplemented by a number of recognised Professional Engineering Societies such as:

1. Institution of Engineers (India)

2. Institution of Civil Engineers (India)
3. Institution of Mechanical Engineers (India)
4. Institution of Chemical Engineering (India)
5. Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineers (India)
6. Indian Institute of Metals
7. Institution of Industrial Engineers (India)
8. Institute of Town Planners (India)
9. Indian Institute of Architects
that conduct Engineering/Technical Examinations at different levels (Degree and diploma) for
working professionals desirous of improving their technical qualifications.
The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges increased to over 7 lakh in 2011 from 5.5
lakh in FY 2010.[75][76]However, according to one study, 75% of technical graduates and more than
85% of general graduates lack the skills needed in India's most demanding and high-growth global
industries such as Information Technology.[77] These high-tech global information technologies
companies directly or indirectly employ about 23 lakh people, less than 1% of India's labour
pool.[78]India offers one of the largest pool of technically skilled graduates in the world. Given the
sheer numbers of students seeking education in engineering, science and mathematics, India faces
daunting challenges in scaling up capacity while maintaining quality.[79][80]

Open and distance learning[edit]

At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides opportunities for continuing
education to those who missed completing school education. 14 lakh students are enrolled at the
secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning.[citation needed] In 2012 Various
state governments also introduced "STATE OPEN SCHOOL" to provide distance education.[81]
At higher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance
learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of about 15 lakh, serviced through 53 regional centres and
1,400 study centres with 25,000 counselors. The Distance Education Council (DEC), an authority of
IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions of correspondence
courses in conventional universities. While distance education institutions have expanded at a very
rapid rate, but most of these institutions need an up gradation in their standards and performance.
There is a large proliferation of courses covered by distance mode without adequate infrastructure,
both human and physical. There is a strong need to correct these imbalances.[82]
Massive open online course are made available for free by the HRD ministry and various
educational institutes.

Extracurricular activities[edit]
Extracurricular activities include sports, arts, National Service Scheme, National Cadet Corps, The
Bharat Scouts and Guides, etc.
Main article: Literacy in India
According to the Census of 2011, "every person above the age of 7 years who can read and write
with understanding in any language is said to be literate". According to this criterion, the 2011 survey
holds the National Literacy Rate to be 74.07%.[83] The youth literacy rate, measured within the age
group of 15 to 24, is 81.1% (84.4% among males and 74.4% among females),[84] while 86% of boys
and 72% of girls are literate in the 10-19 age group.[85]
Within the Indian states, Kerala has the highest literacy rate of 94.65% whereas Bihar averaged
63.8% literacy.[83] The 2001 statistics indicated that the total number of 'absolute non-literates' in the
country was 304 million.[83] Gender gap in literacy rate is high, for example in Rajasthan, the state
with the lowest female literacy rate in India,[86] average female literacy rate is 52.66% and average
male literacy rate is 80.51%, making a gender gap of 27.85%.[87]
As of 2011, enrollment rates are 58% for pre-primary, 93% for primary, 69% for secondary, and 25%
for tertiary education.[3]
Despite the high overall enrollment rate for primary education among rural children of age 10, half
could not read at a basic level, over 60% were unable to do division, and half dropped out by the age
of 14.[88]
In 2009, two states in India, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, participated in the
international PISA exams which is administered once every three years to 15-year-old's. Both states
ranked at the bottom of the table, beating out only Kyrgyzstan in score, and falling 200 points (two
standard deviations) below the average for OECDcountries.[89] While in the immediate aftermath
there was a short-lived controversy over the quality of primary education in India, ultimately India
decided to not participate in PISA for 2012,[90] and again not to for 2015.[91]
While the quality of free, public education is in crisis, a majority of the urban poor have turned
to private schools. In some urban cities, it is estimated as high as two-thirds of all students attend
private institutions,[92] many of which charge a modest US$2 per month. There has not been any
standardised assessment of how private schools perform, but it is generally accepted that they
outperform public schools.
Public school workforce[edit]
Officially, the pupil to teacher ratio within the public school system for primary education is
35:1.[93] However, teacher absenteeism in India is exorbitant, with 25% never showing up for
work.[94] The World Bank estimates the cost in salaries alone paid to such teachers who have never
attended work is US $2 billion per year.[95]
Indian School-Children

A study on teachers by Kremer etc. found out that 25% of private sector teachers and 40% of public
sector medical workers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach,
absence rates ranged from 14.6% in Maharashtra to 41.9% in Jharkhand. Only 1 in nearly 3,000
public school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence.[96] The same study
found "only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to a nationally representative
sample of government primary schools in India."[96]
Higher education[edit]
As per Report of the Higher education in India, Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality
and Finance,[97] the access to higher education measured in term of gross enrollment ratio increased
from 0.7% in 1950/51 to 1.4% in 1960–61. By 2006/7 the GER increased to about 11%. Notably, by
2012, it had crossed 20% (as mentioned in an earlier section).
Vocational education[edit]
An optimistic estimate from 2008 was that only one in five job-seekers in India ever had any sort
of vocational training.[98]

As per 2016 Annual Survey of Education Report (ASER), 3.5% schools in India had no toilet facility
while only 68.7% schools had usable toilet facility. 75.5% of the schools surveyed had library in
2016, a decrease from 78.1% in 2014. Percentage of schools with separate girls toilet have
increased from 32.9% in 2010 to 61.9%in 2016.[99] 74.1% schools had drinking water facility and
64.5% of the schools had playground.[100]
Curriculum issues[edit]
Modern education in India is often criticised for being based on rote learning rather than problem
solving. New Indian Express says that Indian Education system seems to be producing zombies
since in most of the schools students seemed to be spending majority of their time in preparing for
competitive exams rather than learning or playing.[101] BusinessWeek criticises the Indian curriculum,
saying it revolves around rote learning[102] and ExpressIndia suggests that students are focused on
cramming.[103] Preschool for Child Rights states that almost 99% of pre-schools do not have any
curriculum at all.[104] Also creativity is not encouraged or is considered as a form of entertainment in
most institutions.[105]
Rural education[edit]

A primary school in a village in Madhya Pradesh

Indian school children in Mizoram

Following independence, India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing social change
through community development.[106] The administrative control was effectively initiated in the 1950s,
when, in 1952, the government grouped villages under a Community Development Block—an
authority under national programme which could control education in up to 100 villages.[106] A Block
Development Officer oversaw a geographical area of 150 square miles (390 km2) which could
contain a population of as many as 70,000 people.[106]
Setty and Ross elaborate on the role of such programmes, themselves divided further into individual-
based, community based, or the Individual-cum-community-based, in which microscopic levels of
development are overseen at village level by an appointed worker:
The community development programmes comprise agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperation,
rural industries, rural engineering (consisting of minor irrigation, roads, buildings), health and
sanitation including family welfare, family planning, women welfare, child care and nutrition,
education including adult education, social education and literacy, youth welfare and community
organisation. In each of these areas of development there are several programmes, schemes and
activities which are additive, expanding and tapering off covering the total community, some
segments, or specific target populations such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, women and in
general people below the poverty line.[106]
Despite some setbacks the rural education programmes continued throughout the 1950s, with
support from private institutions.[107] A sizeable network of rural education had been established by
the time the Gandhigram Rural Institute was established and 5,200 Community Development Blocks
were established in India.[108] Nursery schools, elementary schools, secondary school, and schools
for adult education for women were set up.[108]
The government continued to view rural education as an agenda that could be relatively free from
bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation.[108] However, in some cases lack of financing balanced
the gains made by rural education institutes of India.[109] Some ideas failed to find acceptability
among India's poor and investments made by the government sometimes yielded little
results.[109] Today, government rural schools remain poorly funded and understaffed. Several
foundations, such as the Rural Development Foundation (Hyderabad), actively build high-quality
rural schools, but the number of students served is small.
Education in rural India is valued differently from in an urban setting, with lower rates of completion.
An imbalanced sex ratio exists within schools with 18% of males earning a high school diploma
compared with only 10% of females. The estimated number of children who have never attended
school in India is near 10 crore which reflects the low completion levels.[citation needed] This is the largest
concentration in the world of youth who haven't enrolled in school.[110][111][112][113]
Women's education[edit]

London Mission Bengali Girls' School, Calcutta (LMS, 1869, p.12)[114]

Girls in Kalleda Rural School, Andhra Pradesh.

Maharanis College for Women, Mysore, India.

See also: Women in India

Women have a much lower literacy rate than men. Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and
many of them drop out.[115]In the patriarchal setting of the Indian family, girls have lower status and
fewer privileges than boys.[116] Conservative cultural attitudes prevent some girls from attending
The number of literate women among the female population of India was between 2–6% from the
British Raj onwards to the formation of the Republic of India in 1947.[118] Concerted efforts led to
improvement from 15.3% in 1961 to 28.5% in 1981.[118]By 2001 literacy for women had exceeded
50% of the overall female population, though these statistics were still very low compared to world
standards and even male literacy within India.[119] Recently the Indian government has
launched Saakshar Bharat Mission for Female Literacy. This mission aims to bring down female
illiteracy by half of its present level.
Sita Anantha Raman outlines the progress of women's education in India:
Since 1947 the Indian government has tried to provide incentives for girls' school attendance through
programmes for midday meals, free books, and uniforms. This welfare thrust raised primary
enrollment between 1951 and 1981. In 1986 the National Policy on Education decided to restructure
education in tune with the social framework of each state, and with larger national goals. It
emphasised that education was necessary for democracy, and central to the improvement of
women's condition. The new policy aimed at social change through revised texts, curricula,
increased funding for schools, expansion in the numbers of schools, and policy improvements.
Emphasis was placed on expanding girls' occupational centres and primary education; secondary
and higher education; and rural and urban institutions. The report tried to connect problems like low
school attendance with poverty, and the dependence on girls for housework and sibling day care.
The National Literacy Mission also worked through female tutors in villages. Although the minimum
marriage age is now eighteen for girls, many continue to be married much earlier. Therefore, at the
secondary level, female drop-out rates are high.[120]
Sita Anantha Raman also mentions that while the educated Indian women workforce maintains
professionalism, the men outnumber them in most fields and, in some cases, receive higher income
for the same positions.[120]
The education of women in India plays a significant role in improving livings standards in the country.
A higher female literacy rate improves the quality of life both at home and outside the home, by
encouraging and promoting education of children, especially female children, and in reducing the
infant mortality rate. Several studies have shown that a lower level of women literacy rates results in
higher levels of fertility and infant mortality, poorer nutrition, lower earning potential and the lack of
an ability to make decisions within a household.[121] Women's lower educational levels is also shown
to adversely affect the health and living conditions of children. A survey that was conducted in India
showed results which support the fact that infant mortality rate was inversely related to female
literacy rate and educational level.[122] The survey also suggests a correlation between education and
economic growth.
In India, it was found that there is a large disparity between female literacy rates in different
states.[123] State of Kerala has the highest female literacy rate of 91.98% while Rajasthan has the
lowest female literacy rate of 52.66.[124][125] This correlates to the health levels of states, Kerala has
average life expectancy at birth of 74.9 while Rajasthan's average life expectancy at birth is 67.7
In India, higher education is defined as the education of an age group between 18 and 24, and is
largely funded by the government. Despite women making up 24–50% of higher education
enrollment, there is still a gender imbalance within higher education. Only one third of science
students and 7% of engineering students, are women. In comparison, however, over half the
students studying Education are women.[127]
In January 2010, the Government of India decided to withdraw Deemed university status from as
many as 44 institutions. The Government claimed in its affidavit that academic considerations were
not being kept in mind by the management of these institutions and that "they were being run as
family fiefdoms".[128]
In February 2009,the University Grant Commission found 39 fake institutions operating in India.[129]
Employer training[edit]
Only 10% of manufacturers in India offer in-service training to their employees, compared with over
90% in China.[130]
Teacher Careers[edit]
In the Indian education system, a teacher’s success is loosely defined. It is either based on a
student’s success or based on the years of teaching experience, both of which do not necessarily
correlate to a teacher’s skill set or competencies. The management of an institution could thereby be
forced to promote teachers based on the grade level they teach or their seniority, both of which are
often not an indicator of a good teacher.[131] This means that either a primary school teacher is
promoted to a higher grade, or a teacher is promoted to take up other roles within the institution such
as Head of Department, coordinator, Vice Principal or Principal. However, the skills and
competencies that are required for each of them vary and a great teacher may not be a great
manager. Since teachers do not see their own growth and success in their own hands, they often do
not take up any professional development. Thus, there is a need to identify a framework to help a
teacher chart a career path based on his/her own competency and help him/her understand his/her
own development.[132]
Corruption in education[edit]
Further information: capitation fee
Corruption in Indian education system has been eroding the quality of education and has been
creating long-term negative consequences for the society. Educational corruption in India is
considered as one of the major contributors to domestic black money.[133]
Grade inflation[edit]
Grade inflation has become an issue in Indian secondary education. In CBSE, a 95 per cent
aggregate is 21 times as prevalent today as it was in 2004, and a 90 per cent close to nine times as
prevalent. In the ISC Board, a 95 per cent is almost twice as prevalent today as it was in 2012.
CBSE called a meeting of all 40 school boards early in 2017 to urge them to discontinue “artificial
spiking of marks”. CBSE decided to lead by example and promised not to inflate its results. But
although the 2017 results have seen a small correction, the board has clearly not discarded the
practice completely. Almost 6.5 per cent of mathematics examinees in 2017 scored 95 or more — 10
times higher than in 2004 — and almost 6 per cent of physics examinees scored 95 or more, 35
times more than in 2004.[134][135]

Central government involvement[edit]
See also: List of Central Institutes in India and Central University, India
The madrasah of Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna.

Elementary School in Chittoor. This school is part of the 'Paathshaala' project. The school currently educates
70 students.

Following India's independence a number of rules were formulated for the backward Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes of India, and in 1960 a list identifying 405 Scheduled Castes and
225 Scheduled Tribes was published by the central government.[136] An amendment was made to the
list in 1975, which identified 841 Scheduled Castes and 510 Scheduled Tribes.[136] The total
percentage of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes combined was found to be 22.5% with the
Scheduled Castes accounting for 17% and the Scheduled Tribes accounting for the remaining
7.5%.[136] Following the report many Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes increasingly referred to
themselves as Dalit, a Marathi language terminology used by B R Ambedkar which literally means
The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are provided for in many of India's educational
programmes.[137] Special reservations are also provided for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes in India, e.g. a reservation of 15% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for Scheduled Castes and another
reservation of 7.5% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for Scheduled Tribes.[137] Similar reservations are held by
the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in many schemes and educational facilities in
India.[137]The remote and far-flung regions of North-East India are provided for under the Non-
Lapsible Central pool of Resources (NLCPR) since 1998–1999.[138] The NLCPR aims to provide
funds for infrastructure development in these remote areas.[138]
Women from remote, underdeveloped areas or from weaker social groups in Andhra
Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, fall
under the Mahila Samakhya Scheme, initiated in 1989.[139]Apart from provisions for education this
programme also aims to raise awareness by holding meetings and seminars at rural levels.[139] The
government allowed ₹34 crore (US$5.1 million) during 2007–08 to carry out this scheme over 83
districts including more than 21,000 villages.[139]
Currently there are 68 Bal Bhavans and 10 Bal Kendra affiliated to the National Bal Bhavan.[140] The
scheme involves educational and social activities and recognising children with a marked talent for a
particular educational stream.[140] A number of programmes and activities are held under this
scheme, which also involves cultural exchanges and participation in several international forums.[140]
India's minorities, especially the ones considered 'educationally backward' by the government, are
provided for in the 1992 amendment of the Indian National Policy on Education (NPE).[141] The
government initiated the Scheme of Area Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward
Minorities and Scheme of Financial Assistance or Modernisation of Madarsa Education as part of its
revised Programme of Action (1992).[141] Both these schemes were started nationwide by 1994.[141] In
2004 the Indian parliament passed an act which enabled minority education establishments to seek
university affiliations if they passed the required norms.[141]
Legislative framework[edit]
Article 45, of the Constitution of India originally stated:
The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this
Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of
fourteen years.[142]
This article was a directive principle of state policy within India, effectively meaning that it was within
a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government could not be held to court if
the actual letter was not followed.[143] However, the enforcement of this directive principle became a
matter of debate since this principle held obvious emotive and practical value, and was legally the
only directive principle within the Indian constitution to have a time limit.[143]
Following initiatives by the Supreme Court of India during the 1990s the 93rd amendment bill
suggested three separate amendments to the Indian constitution:[144]
The constitution of India was amended to include a new article, 21A, which read:
The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen
years in a such manner as the State may, by law, determine.[145]
Article 45 was proposed to be substituted by the article which read:
Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years: The State
shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the
age of sixteen years.[145]
Another article, 51A, was to additionally have the clause:
...a parent or guardian [shall] provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be,
[a] ward between the age of six to fourteen years.[145]
The bill was passed unanimously in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament, on 28
November 2001.[146] It was later passed by the upper house—the Rajya Sabha—on 14 May
2002.[146] After being signed by the President of India the Indian constitution was amended formally
for the eighty sixth time and the bill came into effect.[146] Since then those between the age of 6–14
have a fundamental right to education.[147]
Article 46 of the Constitution of India holds that:
The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker
sections of the people, and in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall
protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation'.[83]
Other provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes can be found in Articles 330, 332,
335, 338–342.[83] Both the 5th and the 6th Schedules of the Constitution also make special provisions
for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.[83]
Central Government expenditure on education[edit]
See also: Education in India Five-Year Plan Expenditure
As a part of the tenth Five-year Plan (2002–2007), the central government of India outlined an
expenditure of 65.6% of its total education budget of ₹43,800 crore(US$6.5 billion) i.e. ₹28,800
crore (US$4.3 billion) on elementary education; 9.9% i.e. ₹4,325 crore (US$640 million) on
secondary education; 2.9% i.e. ₹1,250 crore(US$190 million) on adult education; 9.5% i.e. ₹4,176.5
crore (US$620 million) on higher education; 10.7% i.e. ₹4,700 crore (US$700 million) on technical
education; and the remaining 1.4% i.e. ₹623.5 crore (US$93 million) on miscellaneous education
During the Financial Year 2011-12, the Central Government of India has allocated ₹ 38,957 crore for
the Department of School Education and Literacy which is the main department dealing with primary
education in India. Within this allocation, major share of ₹ 21,000 crore, is for the flagship
programme 'Sarva Siksha Abhiyan'. However, budgetary allocation of ₹ 21,000 crore is considered
very low in view of the officially appointed Anil Bordia Committee recommendation of ₹ 35,659 crore
for the year 2011-12. This higher allocation was required to implement the recent legislation 'Right of
Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. In recent times, several major
announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the
most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United
Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase
expenditure on education to around 6% of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on
education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education
cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to
economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all
children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalise education through its flagship programmes
such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Midday Meal scheme
However, even after five years of implementation of NCMP, not much progress has been seen on
this front. Although the country targeted towards devoting 6% share of the GDP towards the
educational sector, the performance has definitely fallen short of expectations. Expenditure on
education has steadily risen from 0.64% of GDP in 1951–52 to 2.31% in 1970–71 and thereafter
reached the peak of 4.26% in 2000–01. However, it declined to 3.49% in 2004–05. There is a
definite need to step-up again. As a proportion of total government expenditure, it has declined from
around 11.1% in 2000–2001 to around 9.98% during UPA rule, even though ideally it should be
around 20% of the total budget. A policy brief issued by [Network for Social Accountability
(NSA)][149] titled "[NSA Response to Education Sector Interventions in Union Budget: UPA Rule and
the Education Sector][150] " provides significant revelation to this fact. Due to a declining priority of
education in the public policy paradigm in India, there has been an exponential growth in the private
expenditure on education also. [As per the available information, the private out of pocket
expenditure by the working class population for the education of their children in India has increased
by around 1150 percent or around 12.5 times over the last decade].[151]

Main article: History of education in South Asia
The remnants of the library of Nalanda, built in the 5th century BCE by Gupta kings. It was rebuilt twice after
invasion, first after an invasion from the Huns in the 5th century BCE and then after an invasion from
the Gaudas in the 7th century CE but abandoned after the third invasion by Turkic invaders in the 12th century.

Takshasila (in modern-day Pakistan) was the earliest recorded centre of higher learning in India from
possibly 8th Century BCE, and it is debatable whether it could be regarded a university or not in
modern sense, since teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular
colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters
in Taxila, in contrast to the later Nalanda university in eastern India. Nalanda was the oldest
university-system of education in the world in the modern sense of university. There all subjects
were taught in Ariano -páli Language.[152]
Secular institutions cropped up along Buddhist monasteries. These institutions imparted practical
education, e.g. medicine. A number of urban learning centres became increasingly visible from the
period between 500 BCE to 400 CE. The important urban centres of learning were Nalanda (in
modern-day Bihar) and Manassa in Nagpur, among others. These institutions systematically
imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as Buddhist
Páli literature, logic, páli grammar, etc. Chanakya, a Brahmin teacher, was among the most famous
teachers, associated with founding of Mauryan Empire.
Sammanas and Brahmin gurus historically offered education by means of donations, rather than
charging fees or the procurement of funds from students or their guardians. Later, stupas, temples
also became centres of education; religious education was compulsory, but secular subjects were
also taught. Students were required to be brahmacaris or celibates. The knowledge in these orders
was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform. The priest class,
the Sammanas, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while
the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class,
the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the working class of the Shudras was generally deprived of
educational advantages.
National Policy on Education
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
"Hindi medium" redirects here. For the film, see Hindi Medium.
The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to
promote education amongst India's people. The policy covers elementary education to colleges in
both rural and urban India. The first NPE was promulgated in 1968 by the government of Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. The government of
India has appointed a new committee under K. Kasturirangan to prepare a Draft for the new National
Education Policy in 2017.[1].


 1History
 21968
 31986
 41992
 5Recent Developments
 6See also
 7References
 8Further reading

Main article: Education in India
Since the country independence in 1947, the Indian government sponsored a variety of programmes
to address the problems of illiteracy in both rural and urban India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India's
first Minister of Education, envisaged strong central government control over education throughout
the country, with a uniform educational system. The Union government established the University
Education Commission (1948–1949), the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953) and the
Kothari Commission (1964–66) to develop proposals to modernise India's education system. The
Resolution on Scientific Policy was adopted by the government of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first
Prime Minister. The Nehru government sponsored the development of high-quality scientific
education institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology. In 1961, the Union government
formed the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as an autonomous
organisation that would advise both the Union and state governments on formulating and
implementing education policies.[2]

Based on the report and recommendations of the Education Commission (1964–1966), the
government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announced the first National Policy on Education in
1968, which called for a "radical restructuring" and equalise educational opportunities in order to
achieve national integration and greater cultural and economic development.[3] The policy called for
fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as stipulated by the Constitution of
India, and the better training and qualification of teachers.[3] The policy called for focus on learning of
regional languages, outlining the "three language formula" to be implemented in secondary
education - the instruction of the English language, the official language of the state where the
school was based, and Hindi,[3] Language education was seen as essential to reduce the gulf
between the intelligentsia and the masses. Although the decision to adopt Hindi as the national
language had proven controversial, the policy called for use and learning of Hindi to be encouraged
uniformly to promote a common language for all Indians.[3] The policy also encouraged the teaching
of the ancient Sanskrit language, which was considered an essential part of India's culture and
heritage. The NPE of 1968 called for education spending to increase to six percent of the national
income.[4] As of 2013, the NPE 1968 has moved location on the national website.[5]

Having announced that a new policy was in development in January, 1985, the government of Prime
Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy on Education in May, 1986.[6] The new policy
called for "special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity,"
especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC)
communities.[6] To achieve such a social integration, the policy called for expanding scholarships,
adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives for poor families to send their
children to school regularly, development of new institutions and providing housing and
services.[6] The NPE called for a "child-centred approach" in primary education, and launched
"Operation Blackboard" to improve primary schools nationwide.[7] The policy expanded the open
university system with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which had been created in
1985.[7] The policy also called for the creation of the "rural university" model, based on the philosophy
of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grassroots
level in rural India.[7] 1986 education policy expected to spent 6%of GDP on education

The 1986 National Policy on Education was modified in 1992 by the P.V. Narasimha
Rao government.[8] In 2005, Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh adopted a new policy based on
the "Common Minimum Programme" of his United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
government.[9] Programme of Action (PoA), 1992 under the National Policy on Education (NPE),
1986 envisaged conduct of a common entrance examination on all India basis for admission to
professional and technical programmes in the country. For admission to Engineering and
Architecture/Planning programmes, Government of India vide Resolution dated 18 October 2001 has
laid down a Three – Exam Scheme (JEE and AIEEE at the National Level and the State Level
Engineering Entrance Examinations (SLEEE) for State Level Institutions – with an option to join
AIEEE). This takes care of varying admission standards in these programmes and helps in
maintenance of professional standards. This also solves problems of overlaps and reduces physical,
mental and financial burden on students and their parents due to multiplicity of entrance

Recent Developments[edit]
 District Primary Education Program (DPEP)
 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)/Right to Education (RTE)
 National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)
 Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) for development of secondary education,
launched in 2009.[10][11]
 Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS IEDSS)
 Saakshar Bharat (Saakshar Bharat)/Adult Education [12]
 Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) for development of higher education, launched in
 National Policy on Education 2016: Report of the Committee for Evolution of the New Education
Policy - (ReportNEP-2016.pdf)
 Vol.II-Annex-to-the-Report-of-the-Committee-for-Evolution-of-the-NEP-2016 (Vol.II-Annex-
National Council of Educational Research and
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with
its subject. It may require cleanup to comply with Wikipedia's content
policies, particularly neutral point of view. Please discuss further on the talk
page. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please

help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external
links, and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of
view. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

National Council of Educational Research and


Type Autonomous body

Established 1961

President Prakash Javadekar

Director Dr. Hrushikesh Senapaty

Location Sri Aurobindo Marg, Delhi, India

Campus Urban

Acronym NCERT


The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous

organisation of the Government of India that was established on 1 September 1961 as a literary,
scientific and charitable Society under the Societies' Registration Act (Act XXI of 1860). Its
headquarters are located at Sri Aurbindo Marg in New Delhi.[1] Dr. Hrushikesh Senapaty is director of
the council since September 2015.


 1Textbooks
 2History
 3Logo
 4Objectives
 5Actions
 6Controversies
 7References
 8External links

Textbooks published by NCERT are prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary
Education (CBSE) from classes I to XII, with exceptions for a few subjects. Around 19 school boards
from 14 states have adopted or adapted the books. Online textbooks can be downloaded from the
epathshala website[2]. Those who wish to adopt the textbooks are required to send a request to
NCERT, upon which soft copies of the books are received. The material is press-ready and may be
printed by paying a 5% royalty, and by acknowledging NCERT.
The textbooks are printed in colour and are amongst the least expensive books in Indian bookstores,
with each for up to class VIII having a maximum price of Rs 50 (formerly Rs 30). Textbooks
produced by private publishers are priced higher than those of NCERT. [3] According to a government
policy decision in 2017, the NCERT will have the exclusive task of publishing central text books from
2018, and the role of CBSE will be limited to conducting examinations.[4]

The Government of India's Ministry of Education resolved on 27 July 1961 to establish the National
Council of Educational Research and Training, which formally began operation on 1 September
1961. The Council was formed by merging seven existing national government institutions, namely
the Central Institute of Education, the Central Bureau of Textbook Research, the Central Bureau of
Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Directorate of Extension Programmes for Secondary
Education, the National Institute of Basic Education, the National Fundamental Education Centre,
and the National Institute of Audio-Visual Education.[5] It is separate from the National Council for
Teacher Education.
The NCERT was established with the agenda to design and support a common system of education
which is national in character and also enables and encourages the diverse culture across the
country. Based on the recommendations of the Education Commission(1964-66), the first national
policy statement on education was issued in 1968. The policy endorsed the adoption of a uniform
pattern of school education across country consisting of 10 years of general education program
followed by 2 years of diversified schooling.
The Curriculum for the Ten-year school: This framework came in 1975. It emphasised that a
curriculum based on the principles laid out in the framework has to be developed on the basis of
research. Thus for NCERT, the 1970s was a decade flushed with curriculum research and
development activities to relate the content and process of education to Indian realities.
National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Education: This revised curriculum
framework came in 1988 after the National Policy on Education(1986).It encompassed 12 years of
school education and suggested a reorientation of curricular and instructional materials to make
them more child-centred. It advocated bringing out examination reforms and the implementation
of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation at all stages of education.
National Curriculum Framework for School Education: This framework came in 2000. It stressed
the need for a healthy, enjoyable and stress-free childhood and reduction of the curricular load. Thus
an integrated and thematic approach was suggested, environmental education was emphasized
upon and language and mathematics got integrated in the first two years of schooling.
Main article: National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005)
National Curriculum Framework: The council came up with a new National Curriculum Framework
in 2005, drafted by a National Steering Committee. This exercise was based on 5 guiding principles:

1. connecting knowledge to life outside school

2. shift from the rote method of learning
3. enriching the curriculum for overall development of children so that it goes beyond textbooks
4. making examinations flexible and integrating them with classroom life and
5. nurturing an identity informed by caring concerns.[6]

The design of the NCERT logo is taken from an Ashokan period relic of the 3rd century BCE which
was found in excavations near Maske in Raichur district, Karnataka. The motto has been taken from
the Isha Upanishad and means 'life eternal through learning'. The intertwined hansas symbolise the
integration of the three aspects of the work of NCERT: 1. Research and development 2. Training,
and 3. Extension[7]

The council's objectives are:
i) To promote and conduct educational research, experimentation of innovative ideas and practice.
ii) To develop National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005), syllabi, and textbooks; teaching-learning
materials and kits; training models and strategies; audio, video, and ICT materials.
iii) Training of Pre-service and in-service teacher education and national and state level
iv) To collaborate with State, national and international organizations.[8]

NCERT has a comprehensive extension programme in which departments of the National Institute of
Education, Regional Institute of Education, Central Institute of Vocational Education and field
advisers' offices in the states are engaged in activities. Several programmes are organised in rural
and backward areas to reach out to functionaries in these areas.
The council acts as the Secretariat of the National Development Group for Educational Innovations.
The council has been offering training facilities, usually through attachment programmes and
participation in workshops, to education workers of other countries. The council
publishes textbooks for school subjects from Classes I to XII. NCERT publishes books & provides
sample question papers that are used in government and private schools across India that follow
the CBSE curriculum.[9]
An online system named e-pathshala has been developed for disseminating educational e-resources
including textbooks, audio, video, periodicals and a variety of other print and non-print materials,
ensuring their free access through mobile phones and tablets (as e-pub) and from the web through
laptops and desktops (as flipbooks).

Main article: NCERT textbook controversies
Ever since its establishment, the organisation has faced a great deal of controversy and continues to
do so today. The controversy centres around allegations of attempted saffronised rewriting of Indian
history. Allegations of historical revisionism with a Hindu nationalist agenda arose in two periods:
under the Janata Partygovernment 1977 to 1980 and again under the Bharatiya Janata
Party government from 1998 to 2004. In 2012, the organisation has been blamed for publishing
'offensive' cartoons against B.R. Ambedkar, the architect of the Indian Constitution and thus lodging
an insult to the Constitution, in its textbooks.[citation needed] The controversy led to the resignation of
NCERT chief advisors Yogendra Yadav and Suhas Palshikar and an apology from the
government.[citation needed]
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), the apex organisation that
provides advice and support for the improvement of school education has been avoiding mentioning
that most of the Indian subcontinent was ruled by the Marathas before the British East India
Company conquered it in History books in India according to historian Sadanand More.[10]


 India portal

 Education portal

1. Jump up^ Kumar, Prabhat. "Memorandum Of Association". Retrieved 12 September 2016.

2. Jump up^ "Flipbook | NCERT | Learning on the go, Govt. of India". Retrieved 2017-
3. Jump up^ "Why NCERT textbooks matter". The Hindu. May 7, 2017.
4. Jump up^ From 2018, only NCERT to publish school textbooks, The Times of India, 7 June 2017.
5. Jump up^ Leading the Change: 50 years of NCERT, NCERT, 19 August 2011
6. Jump up^ "leading_the_change" (PDF). NCERT.
7. Jump up^ "leading_the_change" (PDF).
8. Jump up^ "RFD_ncert.pdf" (PDF).
9. Jump up^ "Only NCERT books at all CBSE schools".
10. Jump up^ "NCERT cuts short Shivaji's journey in std VII textbook". DNA India. Pune: DNA India. May
3, 2013. Retrieved August 26, 2017.

About us: NCERT:


The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous organisation set up in
1961 by the Government of India to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on policies and
programmes for qualitative improvement in school education. The major objectives of NCERT and its
constituent units are to: undertake, promote and coordinate research in areas related to school education;
prepare and publish model textbooks, supplementary material, newsletters, journals and develops educational
kits, multimedia digital materials, etc. organise pre-service and in-service training of teachers; develop and
disseminate innovative educational techniques and practices;collaborate and network with state educational
departments, universities, NGOs and other educational institutions; act as a clearing house for ideas and
information in matters related to school education; and act as a nodal agency for achieving the goals of
Universalisation of Elementary Education. In addition to research, development, training, extension,
publication and dissemination activities, NCERT is an implementation agency for bilateral cultural exchange
programmes with other countries in the field of school education. The NCERT also interacts and works in
collaboration with the international organisations, visiting foreign delegations and offers various training
facilities to educational personnel from developing countries. The major constituent units of NCERT which are
located in different regions of the country are:

National Institute of Education (NIE), New Delhi

Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET), New Delhi
Pandit Sundarlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), Bhopal
Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Ajmer
Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Bhopal
Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Bhubaneswar
Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Mysore
North-East Regional Institute of Education (NERIE), Shillong
Indian Institutes of Technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search























Location of the 23 Indian Institutes of Technology

Indian Institutes of Technology

Type Public universities

Location 23 places in India

Nickname IIT or IITs

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education,
located in India.[1] They are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared
them as institutions of national importance and lays down their powers, duties, and framework for
governance etc.[2][3] The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists twenty-three institutes (after the last
amendment in 2016).[4] Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common
IIT Council, which oversees their administration. The Minister of Human Resource Development is
the ex-officio Chairperson of IIT Council.[5] As of 2018, the total number of seats for undergraduate
programmes in all 23 IITs is 11,279.[6]
The first IIT was set up in Kharagpur in 1951, and soon later
in Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1959) and Delhi (1963). An IIT was then established in
Guwahati in 1994. The University of Roorkee was converted to IIT Roorkee in 2001. Eight new IITs
were set up in Gandhinagar, Jodhpur, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna, Bhubaneswar, Ropar, and Mandi
in 2008-09. Around the same time the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University was given
IIT status. Another six new IITs in Tirupati, Palakkad, Dharwad, Bhilai, Goa and Jammu, approved
through a 2016 bill amendment were established in 2015-16, along with the conversion of ISM
Dhanbad to IIT.
The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions, the Joint Entrance
Examination - Advanced, formerly called the IIT-JEE till 2012. JEE Advanced admits students
according to their ranks in the exam. The post-graduate level program that awards M.Tech., MS
degrees, and the doctoral programme that offers Ph.D. in engineering is administered by the older
IITs. M.Tech. and MS admissions are done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in
Engineering (GATE). Additionally, IITs also award other graduate degrees such as M.Sc in Maths,
Physics and Chemistry, MBA, etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common
Admission Test(CAT), Joint Admission Test for M.Sc. (JAM) and Common Entrance Examination for
Design (CEED). IIT Guwahati and IIT Bombay offer undergraduate design programmes as
well.[7] Joint Seat Allocation Authority conducts the joint admission process for a total of 23
IITs,[8][9][10] that offer admission for 10,962 seats in 2017.[11]


 1Institutes
 2History
 3Organisational structure
 4The Institutes of Technology Act
 5Education
o 5.1Undergraduate education
o 5.2Postgraduate and doctoral education
 6Culture and student life
o 6.1Technical and cultural festivals
 7Academic rankings
 8Criticism
o 8.1Brain drain
o 8.2Entrance competition
 9Alumni
 10See also
 11References
 12Further reading
 13External links

The IITs are located in:
IITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[3][4][12][13]

Serial Short Name[citation Established (as

Name Founded State/UT
no needed]

1 IIT Kharagpur IITKGP 1951 1951 West Bengal

2 IIT Bombay IITB 1958 1958 Maharashtra

3 IIT Kanpur IITK 1959 1959 Uttar Pradesh

4 IIT Madras IITM 1959 1959 Tamil Nadu

5 IIT Delhi IITD 1961 1963 Delhi

6 IIT Guwahati IITG 1994 1994 Assam

7 IIT Roorkee IITR 1847 2001 Uttarakhand

8 IIT Ropar IITRPR 2008 2008 Punjab

9 IIT Bhubaneswar IITBBS 2008 2008 Odisha

10 IIT Gandhinagar IITGN 2008 2008 Gujarat

11 IIT Hyderabad IITH 2008 2008 Telangana

12 IIT Jodhpur IITJ 2008 2008 Rajasthan

IITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[3][4][12][13]

Serial Short Name[citation Established (as

Name Founded State/UT
no needed]

13 IIT Patna IITP 2008 2008 Bihar

14 IIT Indore IITI 2009 2009 Madhya Pradesh

15 IIT Mandi IITMandi 2009 2009

16 IIT(BHU) 1919 2012 Uttar Pradesh

17 IIT Palakkad IITPKD 2015[14] 2015[14] Kerala

18 IIT Tirupati IITTP 2015 2015 Andhra Pradesh

19 IIT Dhanbad IIT(ISM) 1926 2016 Jharkhand

20 IIT Bhilai[15] IITBH 2016 2016 Chhattisgarh

21 IIT Goa[16] IITGOA 2016 2016 Goa

Jammu and
22 IIT Jammu[17] IITJM 2016 2016

23 IIT Dharwad[18] IITDH 2016 2016 Karnataka

Main article: History of Indian Institutes of Technology

The office of the Hijli Detention Camp served as the first academic building of IIT Kharagpur.

The history of the IIT system dates back to 1946 when Sir Jogendra Singh of the Viceroy's Executive
Council set up a committee whose task was to consider the creation of Higher Technical
Institutions for post-war industrial development in India. The 22-member committee, headed
by Nalini Ranjan Sarkar, recommended the establishment of these institutions in various parts of
India, with affiliated secondary institutions.
The first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the site of the Hijli Detention
Camp in Kharagpur.[19] The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951. On 15
September 1956, the Parliament of India passed the Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur) Act,
declaring it as an Institute of National Importance. Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, in
the first convocation address of IIT Kharagpur in 1956 said:[20]

Here in the place of that Hijli Detention Camp stands the fine monument of India,
“ representing India's urges, India's future in the making. This picture seems to me symbolical
of the changes that are coming to India. ”
On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established
at Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1959), and Delhi (1961). The location of these
campuses was chosen to be scattered throughout India to prevent regional imbalance.[21] The Indian
Institutes of Technology Act was amended to reflect the addition of new IITs.[2] Student agitations in
the state of Assam made Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi promise the creation of a new IIT in Assam.
This led to a sixth campus at Guwahati under the Assam Accord in 1960. The University of Roorkee,
India's oldest engineering college, was conferred IIT status in 2001.

IITG estd. 1994

Over the past few years, there have been a number of developments toward establishing new IITs.
On 1 October 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced plans to create more IITs "by
upgrading existing academic institutions that have the necessary promise and
potential".[22] Subsequent developments led to the formation of the S K Joshi Committee in
November 2003 to guide the selection of the five institutions which would become the five new IITs.
Based on the initial recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, it was decided that further IITs
should be spread throughout the country. When the government expressed its willingness to correct
this regional imbalance, 16 states demanded IITs. Since the S K Joshi Committee prescribed strict
guidelines for institutions aspiring to be IITs,[23] only seven colleges were selected for final
consideration.[24]Plans are also reported to open IITs outside India, though not enough progress has
been made in this regard.[25] Eventually in the 11th Five year plan, eight states were identified for
establishment of new IITs and IT-BHU was converted into an IIT.[26]
Indian School of Mines at Dhanbad was converted to IIT Dhanbad in 2016.[27]

Organisational structure[edit]

Organisational Structure of IITs

The President of India is the most powerful person in the organisational structure of IITs, being
the ex officio Visitor,[28] and having residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council,
which comprises the minister-in-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the
Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the
Director General of CSIR, the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament,
the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, and three appointees
each of the Union Government, AICTE, and the Visitor.[29]
Under the IIT Council is the Board of Governors of each IIT. Under the Board of Governors is
the Director, who is the chief academic and executive officer of the IIT.[30] Under the Director, in the
organisational structure, comes the Deputy Director. Under the Director and the Deputy Director,
come the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the Students' Council, and
Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer of the
IIT and overviews the day-to-day operations.[30] Below the Heads of Department (HOD) are the
faculty members (Professors, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors). The Wardenscome
under the Chairman of the Hall Management Committee.[31]
The Institutes of Technology Act[edit]
Main article: Institutes of Technology Act
The Institutes of Technology act was later taken as the base for the following years up till date. The
Act primarily accepted few IITs as Institutes of National Importance and converted them from
'Societies' to University status.

See also: Education in India

PK Kelkar Library, IIT Kanpur

The IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering colleges in India.[32] While the
total government funding to most other engineering colleges is around Rs. 10–20 crores (USD 2–4
million) per year, the amount varies between Rs. 90 crores –130 crores (USD 18–26 million) per
year for each IIT.[24] Other sources of funds include student fees and research funding from industry
and contributions from the alumni. The faculty-to-student ratio in the IITs is between 1:6 and
1:8.[33] The Standing Committee of IIT Council (SCIC) prescribes the lower limit for faculty-to-student
ratio as 1:9, applied department wise. The IITs subsidise undergraduate student fees by
approximately 80% and provide scholarships to all Master of Technologystudents and Research
Scholars in order to encourage students for higher studies, per the recommendations of the Thacker
Committee (1959–1961).[34] The cost borne by undergraduate students is around Rs. 180,000 per
annum.[35] After students from SC and ST categories, physically challenged students will now[when?] be
the beneficiaries of fee waiver at the IITs in India.[citation needed]
The various IITs function autonomously, and their special status as Institutes of National
Importance facilitates the smooth running of IITs, virtually free from both regional as well as
student politics. Such autonomy means that IITs can create their own curricula and adapt rapidly to
the changes in educational requirements, free from bureaucratic hurdles. The government has no
direct control over internal policy decisions of IITs (like faculty recruitment and curricula) but has
representation on the IIT Council. The medium of instruction in all IITs is English.[36] The classes are
usually held between 7:30 am and 5:30 pm, though there are some variations within each IIT. All the
IITs have public libraries for the use of their students. In addition to a collection of prescribed books,
the libraries have sections for fiction and other literary genres[citation needed]. The electronic libraries allow
students to access on-line journals and periodicals. The IITs and IISc have taken an initiative along
with Ministry of Human Resource Development to provide free online videos of actual lectures of
different disciplines under National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning. This initiative is
undertaken to make quality education accessible to all students.[37]
The academic policies of each IIT are decided by its Senate. This comprises all professors of the IIT
and student representatives. Unlike many western universities that have an elected senate, the IITs
have an academic senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations and
results, and appoints committees to look into specific academic matters. The teaching, training and
research activities of the institute are periodically reviewed by the senate to maintain educational
standards.[38] The Director of an IIT is the ex-officio Chairman of the Senate.

Central Library, IIT Roorkee

All the IITs follow the credits system of performance evaluation, with proportional weighting of
courses based on their importance. The total marks (usually out of 100) form the basis of grades,
with a grade value (out of 10) assigned to a range of marks. Sometimes, relative grading is done
considering the overall performance of the whole class. For each semester, the students are graded
on a scale of 0 to 10 based on their performance, by taking a weighted average of the grade points
from all the courses, with their respective credit points. Each semester evaluation is done
independently and then the weighted average over all semesters is used to calculate the
cumulative grade point average (known as CGPA or CPI—Cumulative Performance Index).
Undergraduate education[edit]

IIT Madras Library

The Bachelor of Technology (BTech) degree is the most common undergraduate degree in the IITs
in terms of student enrollment,[citation needed] although dual degrees integrating Master of
Science or Master of Arts are also offered. The BTech course is based on a 4-year program with
eight semesters,[39] while the Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs with ten
semesters. In all IITs, the first year of BTech and Dual Degree courses are marked by a common
course structure for all the students, though in some IITs, a single department introduction related
course is also included.[40] The common courses include the basics from most of the departments like
Electronics, Mechanics, Chemistry, Electrical and Physics. At the end of first year (the end of first
semester at IIT Madras, IIT Hyderabad and IIT Roorkee), an option to change departments is given
to meritorious students on the basis of their performance in the first two semesters.[41] Few such
changes ultimately take place as the criteria for them are usually strict,[41] limited to the most
meritorious students.
From the second year onwards, the students study subjects exclusively from their respective
departments.[42] In addition to these, the students have to take compulsory advanced courses from
other departments in order to broaden their education. Separate compulsory courses
from humanities and social sciences department, and sometimes management courses are also
enforced.[43] In the last year of their studies, most of the students are placed into industries and
organisations via the placement process of the respective IIT, though some students opt out of this
either when going for higher studies or when they take up jobs by applying to the companies
Postgraduate and doctoral education[edit]
Master's degrees and postgraduate diplomas
The IITs offer a number of postgraduate programs including Master of Technology
(MTech), Master of Business Administration (MBA) (only for engineers and post graduates in
science), and Master of Science (MSc). Some IITs offer specialised graduate programmes such
as Master of Design (M.Des.), the Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology (PGDIT),
Master in Medical Science and Technology (MMST), Master of City Planning (MCP), Master of
Arts (MA), Postgraduate Diploma in Intellectual Property Law (PGDIPL), and the Postgraduate
Diploma in Maritime Operation & Management (PGDMOM).
Some of the IITs offer an M.S. (by research) program; the MTech and M.S. are similar to the US
universities' non-thesis (course based) and thesis (research based) masters programs
respectively. Admissions to masters programs in engineering are made using scores of
the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), while those to masters programs in science
are made using scores of the Joint Admission Test to MSc (JAM).
Several IITs have schools of management offering master's degrees in management or
business administration.
Bachelors-Masters dual degrees
The IITs also offer an unconventional BTech and MTech integrated educational program
called "Dual Degree". It integrates undergraduate and postgraduate studies in selected
areas of specialisation. It is completed in five years[45] as against six years in conventional
BTech (four years) followed by an MTech (two years).[46] Integrated Master of Science
programs are also offered at few IITs which integrates the Undergraduate and Postgraduate
studies in Science streams in a single degree program against the conventional University
system. These programs were started to allow IITians to complete postgraduate studies
from IIT rather than having to go to another institute.
Doctoral degrees
The IITs also offer the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) as part of their doctoral
education programme. In it, the candidates are given a topic of academic interest by the
professor or have to work on a consultancy project given by the industries. The duration
of the program is usually unspecified and depends on the specific discipline. PhD
candidates have to submit a dissertation as well as provide an oral defence for their
thesis. Teaching Assistantships (TA) and Research Assistantships(RA) are often
The IITs, along with NITs and IISc, account for nearly 80% of all engineering PhDs in
India.[47] IITs now allow admission in PhD programs without the
mandatory GATEscore.[48][49]

Culture and student life[edit]

All the IITs provide on-campus residential facilities to the students, research scholars
and faculty. The students live in hostels (sometimes referred to as halls) throughout their
stay in the IIT. Students in all IITs must choose among National Cadet
Corps (NCC), National Service Scheme (NSS) and National Sports Organisation(NSO)
in their first years.[50] All the IITs have sports grounds for basketball, cricket, football
(soccer), hockey, volleyball, lawn tennis, badminton, and athletics; and swimming pools
for aquatic events. Usually the hostels also have their own sports grounds. Moreover,
an Inter IIT Sports Meet is organized annually where participants from all 23 IITs contest
for the General Championship Trophy in 13 different sports.[51]
Technical and cultural festivals[edit]
Further information: List of cultural and technical festivals in IITs and NITs
All IITs organise annual technical festivals, typically lasting three or four days. The
technical festivals are Shaastra (IIT Madras), Kshitij (IIT Kharagpur), Techfest (IIT
Bombay), Cognizance (culfest) (IIT Roorkee), Concetto (IIT-ISM Dhanbad), Nvision (IIT
Hyderabad), Amalthea (technical summit)(IIT Gandhinagar), Technex (IIT
BHU), Techkriti (IIT Kanpur), Tryst (IIT Delhi), Techniche (IIT Guwahati), Wissenaire (IIT
Bhubaneswar), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Fluxus (IIT Indore), Celesta (IIT Patna)
and IGNUS (IIT Jodhpur) has now become the biggest techno-cultural college festival in
Central India,. Most of them are organised in the months of January or March. Techfest
(IIT Bombay) is also one of the most popular and largest technical festival in Asia in
terms of participants and prize money involved. It has been granted patronage from
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) for
providing a platform to students to showcase their talent in science and technology.
Shaastra holds the distinction of being the first student-managed event in the world to
implement a formal Quality Management System, earning ISO
9001:2000 certification.[52] Kshitij is the largest in terms of Sponsorship amounts and also
branded as a techno-management festival due to its emphasis on both technology and
Annual cultural festivals are also organised by the IITs and last three to four days.
These include Alcheringa (IIT Guwahati), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Saarang (IIT Madras,
previously Mardi Gras), Spring Fest (IIT Kharagpur, also known as
SF), Rendezvous (IIT Delhi), Srijan (IIT-ISM Dhanbad), Tarang (culfest) (previously
Rave), Anwesha(IIT Patna), Kashiyatra (IIT BHU, also known as KY), SPANDAN (IIT
Jodhpur), Blithchron (IIT Gandhinagar), ELAN (IIT Hyderabad), Alma Fiesta (IIT
Bhubaneswar), Mood Indigo (IIT Bombay, also known as Mood-I), Antaragni (IIT
Kanpur), Zeitgeist (IIT Ropar) and Thomso (IIT Roorkee).

Academic rankings[edit]
Nationwide, most IITs are ranked above any other engineering college in India in
engineering rankings. Outlook India's Top Engineering Colleges of 2017 ranked four
IITs in its top 10, including the top four positions.[53] Worldwide however, the highest
ranked IIT (IIT Delhi) is ranked at 172 in the QS World University Rankings of 2019,
followed by IIT Bombay ranked at 162, while other premier institutes as IISc
Bangalore (ranked at 170) and 3 other IITs (IIT Madras at 264, IIT Kanpur at 293 and IIT
Kharagpur at 308) make the top 310.[54] In the 2017 QS World Rankings by Subject - IIT
(ISM) Dhanbad featured at 24th followed by IIT Kharagpur at 35th position in the
Engineering- Mining and Mineral science.[55] IIT Delhi secures 49th place for Electrical
Engineering in the same ranking.[56] The only Institute that was listed in the top 400 by
Times Higher Education rankings 2018 was IIT Bombay in the 351-400 category. The
Times Asia Rankings 2018 featured IIT Bombay, IIT Kharagpur, IIT Roorkee, IIT Kanpur
and IIT Delhi at 44th, 60th, 65th, 81st and 86th respectively. In 2016, a new IIT, IIT
Indore was ranked 8th in the world followed by IIT Kanpur (which was ranked 9th) under
a ranking released by Hackerrank for the world's best coders.[57]The following IITs have
topped the 2018 QS BRICS rankings : IIT Bombay (9th), Delhi (17), Madras (18),
Kanpur (21), Kharagpur (24), Roorkee (51), Guwahati (52), Hyderabad (100), Patna

The IITs have faced criticism from within and outside academia. Major concerns include
allegations that they encourage brain drain and that their stringent entrance
examinations encourage coaching colleges and skew the socio-economic profile of the
student body. Recently some prominent IITians have also questioned the quality of
teaching and research in IITs.[59][60][61]
Brain drain[edit]
Among the criticisms of the IIT system by the media and academia, a common notion is
that it encourages brain drain. This trend has been reversed somewhat (dubbed
the reverse brain drain) as hundreds of IIT graduates, who have pursued further studies
in the USA, started returning to India in the 1990s.[62] Additionally, IIT alumni are giving
back generously to their parent institutions (examples are Kanwal Rekhi to IIT Bombay,
Dr. Prabhakant Sinha to IIT Kharagpur, and many others). Until liberalisation started in
the early 1990s, India experienced large scale emigration of IITians to developed
countries, especially to the United States. Since 1953, nearly twenty-five thousand
IITians have settled in the USA.[63] Since the USA benefited from subsidised education in
IITs at the cost of Indian taxpayers' money, critics say that subsidising education in IITs
is useless. Others support the emigration of graduates, arguing that the capital sent
home by the IITians has been a major source of the expansion of foreign
exchange reserves for India, which, until the 1990s, had a substantial trade deficit.
The extent of intellectual loss receded substantially over the 1990s and 2000s, with the
percentage of students going abroad dropping from as high as 70% at one time to
around 30% in 2005.[62] This is largely attributed to the liberalization of the Indian
economy and the opening of previously closed markets. Government initiatives are
encouraging IIT students into entrepreneurship programs and are increasing foreign
investment. Emerging scientific and manufacturing industries, and outsourcing of
technical jobs from North America and Western Europe have created opportunities for
aspiring graduates in India. Many undergraduates go abroad to pursue further studies,
such as MS, MBA and PhD.
Entrance competition[edit]
The highly competitive examination in the form of IIT-JEE has led to establishment of a
large number of coaching institutes throughout the country that provide intensive, and
specific preparation for the IIT-JEE for substantial fees. It is argued that this favours
students from specific regions and richer backgrounds. Some coaching institutes say
that they have individually coached nearly 800 successful candidates year after
year.[64] According to some estimates, nearly 95% of all students who clear the IIT-JEE
had joined coaching classes.[65] Indeed, this was the case regarding preparation for IIT
entrance exams even decades ago. In a January 2010 lecture at the Indian Institute of
Science, the 2009 Nobel laureate in Chemistry, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan revealed
that he failed to get a seat at any of the Indian engineering and medical colleges.[66] He
also said that his parents, being old-fashioned, did not believe in coaching classes to
prepare for the IIT entrance exam and considered them to be "nonsense".[66]
In a documentary aired by CBS, Vinod Khosla, co-founder of Sun Microsystems states,
"The IITs probably are the hardest school in the world to get into, to the best of my
knowledge".[67] The documentary further concludes,
"Put Harvard, MIT and Princeton together, and you begin to get an idea of the status of
IIT in India" to depict the competition as well as demand for the elite institutes.
Not all children are of a similar aptitude level and may be skilled in different paradigms
and fields. This has led to criticism of the way the examinations are conducted and the
way a student is forced in the Indian community. The IIT-JEE format was restructured in
2006 following these complaints.[68] After the change to the objective pattern of
questioning, even the students who initially considered themselves not fit for subjective
pattern of IIT-JEE decided to take the examination. Though the restructuring was meant
to reduce the dependence of students on coaching classes, it led to an increase in
students registering for coaching classes.[69] Some people (mostly IITians) have
criticised the changed pattern of the IIT-JEE. Their reasoning is that while IIT-JEE
traditionally used to test students understanding of fundamentals and ability to apply
them to solve tough unseen problems, the current pattern does not stress much on the
application part and might lead to a reduced quality of students.[70]
IIT-JEE is conducted only in English and Hindi, making it harder for students with
regional languages as their main language. In September 2011, the Gujarat High
Court has acted on a Public Interest Litigation by the Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, for
conducting the exams in Gujarati.[71] A second petition was made in October by Navsari's
Sayaji Vaibhav Sarvajanik Pustakalaya Trust.[72] Another petition was made at the
Madras High Court for conducting the exam in Tamil. In the petition it was claimed that
not conducting the exam in the regional languages is in violation of article 14 of
the Constitution of India.[73] IIT council has recommended major changes in entrance
examination structure which will be effected from 2017 onwards.[74]

As of 2008, the alumni of IIT number more than 170,000.[75]

See also[edit]
 Indian Institutes of Management
 National Institutes of Technology
Indian Institutes of Management
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

hideThis article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these
issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)

This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout

guidelines. (May 2018)

This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or
spelling. (May 2018)

The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. The reason given
is: The lead should summarize the article, not introduce new information. (May

1. Ahmedabad
3. Bangalore
5. Indore
7. Calcutta
9. Kozhikode
11. Lucknow
13. Shillong
15. Ranchi
17. Rohtak
19. Raipur
21. Tiruchirappalli
23. Kashipur
25. Udaipur
27. Nagpur
29. Sirmaur
31. Amritsar
33. Gaya
35. Sambalpur
37. Visakhapatnam
39. Jammu

Location of the 20 functioning (green) IIMs.

The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes
of management education and research in India. They primarily
offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive educationprogrammes. The establishment of IIMs was
initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, based on the recommendation of
the Planning Commission.[1][2]
IIMs are registered as societies under the Indian Societies Registration Act.[3] Each IIM is
autonomous and exercises independent control over its day-to-day operations. However, the
administration of all IIMs and the overall strategy of IIMs is overseen by the IIM council. The IIM
Council is headed by India's Minister of Human Resource Development and consists of the
chairpersons and directors of all IIMs and senior officials from the Ministry of Human Resource
Development of the Government of India.[4][5]
The two-year Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP), offering the Post Graduate Diploma
in Management (PGDM), is the flagship programme across all IIMs.[6][7][8] These post graduate
diploma programmes are considered equivalent to regular MBA programmes. Some IIMs also offer a
one-year Post Graduate diploma Programme for graduates with more work experience.[9][10] Some
IIMs offer the Fellow Programme in Management (FPM), a doctoral programme. The Fellowship is
considered to be equivalent to PhD globally.[11] Most IIMs also offer short-term executive
education/EMBA courses and part-time programmes. Some IIMs also offer unique programs, like IIM
Indore's Five Year Integrated Programme in Management[12] and IIM Lucknow's Working Managers’
Programme of three years.[13]


 1Institutes
 2History
 3Academics
o 3.1Postgraduate education
o 3.2Doctoral education
o 3.3Executive education
o 3.4Other programmes
 4Admission process
o 4.1Entrance exam
o 4.2Reservation policy
 5Course Fees
 6See also
 7Notes
 8References
 9External links
Indian Institutes of Management (in order of establishment)

Short Establis State/
al Name Photo Location Website
Name hed UT

Institute of West
1 IIM-C 1961 Kolkata
Manageme Bengal
nt Calcutta

Institute of
2 Manageme IIM-A 1961 Ahmedabad Gujarat

Institute of
3 Manageme IIM-B 1973 Bangalore Karnataka

Institute of Uttar
4 IIM-L 1984 Lucknow
Manageme Pradesh
nt Lucknow

Institute of
5 Manageme IIM-K 1996 Kozhikode Kerala
Indian Institutes of Management (in order of establishment)

Short Establis State/
al Name Photo Location Website
Name hed UT

Institute of Madhya
6 IIM-I 1996 Indore
Manageme Pradesh
nt Indore

Institute of Meghalay
7 IIM-S 2007 Shillong
Manageme a n
nt Shillong

Institute of
8 IIM-R 2010 Rohtak Haryana
nt Rohtak

Institute of IIM-
9 2010 Ranchi Jharkhand
Manageme Ranchi
nt Ranchi

Institute of IIM- Chhattisg
10 2010 Raipur
Manageme Raipur arh
nt Raipur

Tiruchirapp Tamil
11 Institute of IIM-T 2011
alli Nadu
Indian Institutes of Management (in order of establishment)

Short Establis State/
al Name Photo Location Website
Name hed UT


Institute of IIM- Uttarakha
12 2011 Kashipur
Manageme Kashipur nd in
nt Kashipur

Institute of
13 IIM-U 2011 Udaipur Rajasthan
nt Udaipur

Institute of Maharash
14 IIM-N 2015 Nagpur
Manageme tra n
nt Nagpur

Institute of
Manageme Visakhapatn Andhra
15 IIM-V 2015
nt am Pradesh

Institute of
16 Manageme IIM-BG 2015 Bodh Gaya Bihar
nt Bodh
Indian Institutes of Management (in order of establishment)

Short Establis State/
al Name Photo Location Website
Name hed UT

Institute of IIM
17 2015 Amritsar Punjab
Manageme Amritsar in
nt Amritsar

Institute of IIM
18 Manageme Sambalp 2015 Sambalpur Odisha
nt ur

Institute of IIM Sirmaur Himachal
19 2015
Manageme Sirmaur district Pradesh n
nt Sirmaur

Institute of IIM
20 2016 Jammu and
Manageme Jammu
nt Jammu

Indian Institute of Management Calcutta was the first IIM to be set up, on 13 November 1961. Its
main campus is located in Joka, in the outskirts of the city of Calcutta.[14] IIM-C is the only IIM (and
the only business school in India) which is triple accredited: its programmes are accredited
by AACSB, AMBA and EQUIS.[15]
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad was the second IIM to be set up, on 16 December 1961.
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, the third IIM to be established, was set up in 1973. Its
main campus is located in Bilekahalli, Bangalore.
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow is the fourth IIM to be established, in 1984.[11] In addition to
its primary campus in Lucknow, it has an additional campus in Noida.
Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, the fifth IIM, was established in 1996[16] and started its
first batch of students in 1997. IIM Kozhikode was the first institute in Asia to offer a distance
learning programme in management for working executives.[citation needed]
Indian Institute of Management Indore, the sixth IIM, was established in 1996.[17] Its 193 acres
(78 ha) campus is located on at Rau, near Indore.[18] IIM Indore offers a unique course for armed
forces officers, designed particularly for mid-level defence officers.[19]
Indian Institute of Management Shillong, formerly Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, was
the seventh IIM established, following a 2005 decision by the Government of India.[20] The foundation
stone of the institute was laid on 1 December 2007[21] and started its academic session from 2008–
Indian Institute of Management Rohtak, the eighth IIM to be inaugurated,[notes 1] was the first of the six
IIMs established in 2010–2011 as part of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan[23][24] It was inaugurated and
started operation on 30 June 2010 with IIM Lucknow as mentor, from a temporary campus
at Maharishi Dayanand University.[25]
Indian Institute of Management Ranchi, the ninth IIM to be established in 2010 with IIM Calcutta as
its mentor,[notes 1] started operations on 6 July 2010.[26]
Indian Institute of Management Raipur, the tenth IIM, was inaugurated on 11 October 2010. It was
mentored by IIM Indore.[27] It currently operates at the Government Engineering College Raipur.
Construction of the permanent campus has started on August 2011.[28]
Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, the eleventh IIM, was inaugurated on 4 January
2011. It was mentored by IIM Bangalore and operates temporarily from the campus of National
Institute of Technology, Trichy. It would be shifting to its permanent campus spread across 175
acres in January 2017.[29] It also has its campus in Chennai which offers program in Business
Management for executives.
Indian Institute of Management Kashipur, the twelfth IIM, started operation in July 2011, under the
mentorship of IIM Lucknow.[30][31] The foundation stone for the permanent campus in the Escorts Farm
Area of Kashipur, Uttarakhand, was laid in April 2011.[32]
Indian Institute of Management Udaipur, the thirteenth IIM, started operation in July 2011 from a
temporary campus at the Mohanlal Sukhadia University.[33] Initially proposed to be slated under the
mentorship of IIM Indore, the institute is the first new IIM working autonomously since its inception in
2011.[34] Construction of the permanent campus has begun, and the first phase would be complete by
April 2016.[35]
Indian Institute of Management Nagpur',' the fourteenth IIM, commenced operations in 2015 under
the mentorship of IIM Ahmedabad. The institute is operating out of a temporary campus VNIT, with
its own permanent campus under development and expected to be ready in 3–4 years.
Indian Institute of Management Visakhapatnam',' the fifteenth IIM, commenced operations in 2015
under the mentorship of IIM Bangalore. The institute is operating out of a temporary campus from
Andhra Bank School of Business Building in Andhra University campus, with its own 300 acre
permanent campus under development at Gambheeram and is expected to be ready in 3 years. The
students in IIM Visakhapatnam follow the PGP curriculum of IIM Bangalore and will be taught by the
faculty members of IIM-B.[36]
Indian Institute of Management Bodh Gaya the sixteenth IIM, is located in the sprawling campus of
Magadh University (Bodh Gaya). Till its 118-acre permanent campus comes up, IIM Bodh Gaya will
operate from the state-of-the art Institute of Distance Education building of the Magadh University.
The newly constructed boys and girls hostel are already in place. IIM Bodh Gaya is being mentored
by the IIM Calcutta (the oldest IIM in the country). In effect, students in IIM Bodh Gaya follow the
PGP curriculum of IIM Calcutta and will be taught by the faculty members of IIMC. They partake of
the academic rigor for which IIMC is known for. In all other respects, IIM Calcutta assists IIM Bodh
Indian Institute of Management Amritsar is temporarily located in the campus of Government
Polytechnic College, till its own 60 acre permanent campus comes up at Manawala on Amritsar-
Jalandhar GT Road. IIM Amritsar is being mentored by the IIM Kozhikode, is the seventeenth IIM.
Indian Institute of Management Sambalpur the eighteenth IIM is temporarily located in the campus of
Silicon Institute of Technology, Sason. Its own 200 acre permanent campus coming up at Basantpur.
IIM Sambalpur is being mentored by the IIM Indore.
Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur started operation in 2015. It was being mentored by IIM
Lucknow till 2018.[37] It is temporarily located in the campus of Himachal Institute of Technology,
in Paonta Sahib till its own 200 Acre permanent comes up at Dhaulakuan.
Indian Institute of Management Jammu started operation in 2016. It is being mentored by IIM
Lucknow. It is temporarily located in the campus of Government College of Engineering and
Technology, Jammu at the old university campus.

After India became independent in 1947, the Planning Commission was entrusted to oversee and
direct the development of the nation. India grew rapidly in the 1950s, and in the late 1950s the
Commission started facing difficulties in finding suitable managers for the large number of public
sector enterprises that were being established in India as a part of its industrial policy. To solve this
problem, the Planning Commission in 1959 invited Professor George Robbins of UCLA to help in
setting up an All India Institute of Management Studies. Based on his recommendations, the Indian
government decided to set up two elite management institutes, named Indian Institutes of
Management. Calcutta and Ahmedabad were chosen as the locations for the two new institutes.[38]
The institute at Calcutta was established first, on 13 November 1961,[39] and was named Indian
Institute of Management Calcutta or IIM Calcutta. It was set up in collaboration with the MIT Sloan
School of Management, the government of West Bengal, the Ford Foundation and the Indian
industry.[40] The institute at Ahmedabad was established in the following month and was
named Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Like MIT Sloan in the case of IIM
Calcutta, Harvard Business School played an important role in the initial stages of IIM Ahmedabad.[41]
In 1972, a committee headed by Ravi J. Matthai took note of the success of two established IIMs
and recommended the setting up of two more IIMs. Based on the committee's recommendation, a
new IIM was established in Bangalore (IIM Bangalore) the next year,[42] originally intended to cater
exclusively to the needs of public sector enterprises.[38] In 1981, the first IIM Review Committee was
convened to examine the progress of the three existing IIMs and to make recommendations. The
committee noted that the three IIMs were producing around 400 PGP graduates every year and that
they had reached their optimum capacity. It proposed the opening of two more IIMs to meet the
rising demand of management professionals. It also recommended expanding the Fellowship
programmes, similar to PhD programmes, to meet the growing demand of faculty in management
schools in India. The fourth IIM (IIM Lucknow) was established in 1984 based on the committee's
Two more IIMs were established at Kozhikode and Indore in 1996.[43][44] IIM Shillong was the seventh
IIM to be established, following a 2005 decision by the Government of India.[45] The foundation stone
of the institute was laid on 1 December 2007[46] and started its academic session from 2008–
'09.[11][47] Since 2007, fourteen new IIMs have been set up, taking the total number of IIMs to 20, IIM-
Jammu being the latest one started in 2016.[citation needed]
The Union Cabinet, on 24 January 2017, approved the Indian Institute of Management Bill,
2017 which declares IIMs as Institute of national importance and enables them to grant degrees and
further bring many other important changes to the institute.[48] The IIM bill was passed by the Lok
Sabha on 28 July 2017[49] and by the Rajya Sabha on 19 December 2017.[50] After receiving the
presidential assent, the IIM bill has become an Act on 31 December 2017.[51] [52]
The IIMs mainly offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes. Some
programmes offered by all IIMs are similar; however, some IIMs offer unique programmes for
specialised purposes.
Postgraduate education[edit]
All IIMs offer a two-year full-time Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP), equivalent
to Master of Business Administration (MBA).[53][54][55] . The programme is considered the flagship
programme of IIMs, and awards the Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) to successful
candidates. This programme usually starts in June and runs till April of the second year. The PGP is
a general, fully integrated management programme with no specialisation, and typically includes
courses in Accounting, Behavioural sciences, Finance, Economics, Human Resource Management
(HRM), Management Sciences and Information Technology, Marketing, Business operations,
Business Mathematics, Public Policy, Statistics and Decision Analysis, Strategy and General
Management. It is usually structured into six trimesters spread across two years. The first year
coursework generally consists of core courses in various management disciplines, while in the
second year students are allowed to select courses from an exhaustive list of electives.
Since 2006, some IIMs have started offering one-year full-time post graduate diploma programmes
for professionals having approx. 5 years of experience or more. This program was necessitated
because the normal 2-year program is primarily aimed at fresh graduates or graduates with less than
4–5 years of work experience. These 1 years programmes are general, fully integrated management
programmes with no specialization, and typically includes courses in Accounting, Behavioural
sciences, Finance, Economics, Human Resource Management (HRM), Management Sciences and
Information Technology, Marketing, Business operations, Business Mathematics, Public Policy,
Statistics and Decision Analysis, Strategy and General Management like a typical 2 year MBA
program. These intensive programmes typically require 75 credits or around 750 hours of class room
teaching along with projects and other course work as in a normal global 2 year MBA program.[56]
Designed as a regular MBA programme which focuses on using the prior experience of the class,
the one year MBA is named differently by different IIMs. It is called the Post Graduate Program for
Executives by IIM Calcutta and IIM Shillong (PGPEX in short), (PGPX in short) by IIM Ahmedabad
and IIM Udaipur, Executive Post Graduate Programme (EPGP) by IIM Bangalore and IIM
Indore, International Programme in Management for Executives (IPMX) by IIM Lucknow. The exact
structure, admission criteria and other details vary for these programmes. However, all these
programmes admit only candidates with approx. 5 or more years of professional experience and
usually use a combination of GMAT score, essays and personal interviews as the entry criteria
similar to other globally reputed MBA programmes. The median GMAT score of the batches at IIM
Bangalore is usually around 710.[57]
IIM Calcutta offers a Post Graduate Diploma in Computer aided Management (PGDCM) programme.
This course, which was started in 1994, is similar to the regular PGDM programme, but with a
special emphasis on Information technology and its business applications. It is aimed at creating
business professionals who know how to apply Information and communication technology (ICTs) in
business management. Most of the PGDCM coursework is integrated with the regular PGDM
framework, and both PGDM & PGDCM are considered as part of the PGP programme. IIM
Ahmedabad and IIM Lucknow offer a two-year Post Graduate Programme in Agribusiness
Management (PGP-ABM) programme. This is essentially an MBA programme with a specialisation
in Agribusiness. IIM Ranchi offers a post graduate programme specialized in Human Resources,
called the Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM).[58]
Since July 2005, IIM Lucknow is also offering the Three Year Post-Graduate Programme in
Management for Working Executives (also known as Working Managers Programme) from its Noida
Campus. It aims at developing strong conceptual fundamentals and skills required to manage
businesses of the future. The WMP aims to help to inculcate leadership and teamwork amongst
participants, and foster the development of change agents to take leadership roles in the global
IIM Calcutta offers a specialised executive MBA programme called the Post Graduate Programme
for Executives for Visionary Leadership in Manufacturing (PGPEX-VLM) jointly with IIT
Kanpur and IIT Madras. It is a one-year, rigorous programme with a heavy focus on the
manufacturing sector.
Doctoral education[edit]
The Fellow Programme in Management (FPM) of IIMs is a full-time Doctoral level programme in
management. This programme is aimed at preparing students for careers in teaching or research in
different disciplines of management, as well as for careers outside academics that demand a high
degree of research and analytical abilities. A student who completes this programme at any IIM,
where (s)he is registered as a doctoral scholar, is awarded the title of Fellow of that institute
(e.g. Fellow of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta). This Fellow Program is equivalent to
the Doctor of Philosophy degree. However, students receiving such a fellowship every year, across
all IIMs, work in close association with one another in a specific research area of their choice.
Executive education[edit]
Many IIMs offer executive education certificate programmes targeted at working professionals.
These are often short-term and/or part-time programmes and are known by various names such
as Management Development Programme (MDP), Advanced Masters Program in Management of
Global Enterprises (AMPM), and Executive General Management Programme (EGMP). The
certificate programmes at IIMs are not considered as equivalent to the MBA or EMBA. Only the
diploma level programmes are considered as equivalent to an MBA or EMBA depending on whether
it is full-time or part-time. Many IIMs like IIMC, IIMB, IIMK, IIM kashipur & IIM Rohtak have partnered
with 3rd party companies to enable these courses to be provided in distributed model.
Other programmes[edit]
Some IIMs offer specialised programmes targeted at various segments. IIM Ahmedabad offers a six-
month, full-time programme called the Armed Forces Programme(AFP) aimed at military personnel.
IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Bangalore offer full-time programmes in public management and are called
the Post Graduate Programme in Public Management and Policy (PGP-PMP) and Post Graduate
Programme in Public Policy Management (PGPPM) respectively. IIM Bangalore offers a two-year,
part-time[60] programme called the Post-Graduate Programme in Software Enterprise
Management (PGPSEM), an executive general management education programme designed for the
specific needs of professionals working in the software and information technology industry. IIM
Indore offers a 5-year Integrated program in Management (IPM) that is a combined undergraduate-
cum-graduate diploma.[61] IIM Ranchi is the first and only IIM to offer a full-time Post Graduate
Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM) programme.[58]

Admission process[edit]
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve
this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this
template message)

Different programmes of IIMs follow different admission processes. Admission for residents of India
to the flagship two-year PGP programmes at all IIMs is based on the Common Admission
Test (CAT). CAT scores are often used as the primary short-listing criteria for admissions.
International/overseas applicants have the option to apply using GMAT scores in lieu of CAT
scores.[62] GMAT scores are a prerequisite short-listing criteria used for admission to the one year
full-time programme for experienced executives.[63][64] Test requirements for doctoral programmes
vary, some IIMs require candidates to make a presentation of a broad research idea or take a
'Research Aptitude Test (RAT)' followed by round(s) of interview while all compulsorily accept scores
from standardised tests such as the CAT, GATE, GMAT and GRE. The overall profiles of candidates
including past academic and professional accomplishments are considered for all programmes along
with valid standard test scores. Some programmes require essays and academic and/or professional
recommendations. The final round of admission evaluations involve an interview, before which some
IIMs conduct other evaluation processes like written assessment tests and group discussions.
Entrance exam[edit]
The Common Admission Test (CAT) is a management aptitude test conducted by the IIMs primarily
as an evaluation tool for admission to their two-year PGP programmes. It is widely considered as
one of the most competitive exams in the world,[65] with a success rate of around one in two
hundred.[66] Even with the addition of new colleges, in 2013 the acceptance rate at IIM was 1.714%,
one of the lowest kind in the world.[67]
Originally conducted as a paper-and-pencil test on a particular date all over India, CAT is now
conducted as a computer-based assessment operated by Prometricsince 2009.[68] However, in the
year 2014 TCS bagged a 5-year contract to conduct the test. The online test is now spread over a
period of few weeks.
In August 2011, the six newer IIMs (Raipur, Rohtak, Ranchi, Udaipur, Trichy and Kashipur)
announced that in the coming year they will replace the GD round with a common written analysis
test to evaluate communication and comprehensive skill. The seven older IIMs did not announce
plans to change the admission process.[69]
The admissions for the two years full-time programme is done by shortlisting based on GMAT scores
in conjunction with candidate profile suitability. This is followed by evaluation of essays and a panel
interview round. The quality of prior work experience and future leadership potential is a critical
factor in the selections.[70][71][72]
Reservation policy[edit]
IIMs also follow the affirmative action policy as per the provisions of the Indian constitution. As per
the provisions, 15% of the seats are reserved for students of Scheduled Castes, and 7.5% seats
for Scheduled Tribes. The Other Backward Classes have also been given 27% reservation since
2008 after the Supreme Court of India upheld the validity of government regulation. It is being
implemented in a phased manner due to resource constraints. All aspirants have to appear
for Common Admission Test which consists of an Objective type Exam, Group Discussion and
Personal Interviews, though the requirements for reserved category candidates can be lower than
the general cut-off standard. Once admitted to the course, a reserved category student also has to
meet all the criteria for completing the course as a General category student. Regular counselling
sessions, extra classes and tutorials from senior students for needy students are a regular feature of
the IIMs.[73][74] IIMs also provide financial support to the needy and deserving students in the form of

Course Fees[edit]
In 2004, IIMs used to charge a fee of approximately 1.5 lakh per year (three lakhs for two
years)[76][77][78][79] for its flagship programme. By 2016, the fee has reached almost 19
lakhs.[80][81][82][83] Inflationary trends in India[84][85] has been cited as one of the reasons for the fee hike at
See also[edit]
 Indian Institutes of Technology
 Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology
 National Institutes of Technology
 Capitation fee
 Indian Ethos in Management
National Institutes of Technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

"National Institute of Technology" redirects here. For other uses, see National Institute of Technology

1. Allahabad
3. Bhopal
5. Calicut
7. Hamirpur
9. Goa
11. Jalandhar
13. Jamshedpur
15. Ranchi
17. Kurukshetra
19. Nagpur
21. Jaipur
23. Rourkela
25. Silchar
27. Surathkal
29. Warangal
31. Durgapur
33. Srinagar
35. Surat
37. Tiruchirappalli
39. Patna
41. Raipur
43. Agartala
45. Yupia
47. Delhi
49. Imphal
51. Shillong
53. Aizawl
55. Dimapur
57. Puducherry
59. Sikkim
61. Uttarakhand
63. Tadepalligudem
64. Location of NITs. 31 functioning NITs (green).

National Institutes of Technology

Type Public universities

Location 31 places in India

Nickname NIT or NITs


The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher
education, located in India. They are governed by the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007,
which declared them as institutions of national importance alongside Indian Institutes of Technology.
These institutes of national importance receive special recognition from the Government of India.
The NIT Council is the supreme governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology (NIT)
system and all 31 NITs are funded by the Government of India. These institutes are among the top
ranked engineering colleges in India and have one of the lowest acceptance rates for engineering
institutes, of around 2 to 3 percent, second only to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) in India.
All NITs are autonomous which enables them to set up their own curriculum. The language of
instruction is English at all these institutes.[1][2]
NITs offer degree courses at bachelors, masters, and doctorate levels in various branches of
engineering, architecture, management and science. Admission to the under-graduate courses such
as Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) and Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) programs in NITs are
through the highly competitive Joint Entrance Examination (Main). Admission to postgraduate
courses are through the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for Master of Technology (M.Tech.)
and Master of Science (M.Sc.) programs, Common Admission Test for Master of Business
Administration (MBA) program and NIMCET for Master of Computer Applications (MCA)
Since 2015, the Joint Seat Allocation Authority and Centralized Counselling for M.Tech/M.Arch and
M.Plan conduct the admission process for undergraduate and postgraduate programs respectively in
all NITs. As of 2017, the total number of seats for undergraduate programs is 19,000 and for post
graduate programs is 8,050 in all 31 NITs.[6][7][8]


 1Institutes
 2History
 3Organisational structure
 4National Institutes of Technology Act
 5NIT Council
 6Education
o 6.1Undergraduate education
o 6.2Postgraduate and doctoral education
 6.2.1Master degrees
 6.2.2Bachelors-Masters dual degrees
 6.2.3Doctoral degrees
 7Educational rankings
 8Student life
o 8.1Campus life
o 8.2Student government
o 8.3Disciplinary committee
o 8.4Extra-curricular activities
o 8.5Technical and cultural festivals
 9Alumni
 10See also
 11References

NITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[9]

Serial Short
Name Founded Established City/Town State/UT
No Name

1 NIT Allahabad MNNIT 1961 2001 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh

2 NIT Bhopal MANIT 1960 2002 Bhopal

3 NIT Calicut NITC 1961 2002 Calicut Kerala

4 NIT Hamirpur NITH 1986 2002 Hamirpur

5 NIT Jaipur MNIT 1963 2002 Jaipur Rajasthan

NITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[9]

Serial Short
Name Founded Established City/Town State/UT
No Name

6 NIT Jalandhar NITJ 1987 2002 Jalandhar Punjab

7 NIT Jamshedpur NITJSR 1960 2002 Jamshedpur Jharkhand

8 NIT Kurukshetra NITKKR 1963 2002 Kurukshetra Haryana

9 NIT Nagpur VNIT 1960 2002 Nagpur Maharashtra

10 NIT Rourkela NITRKL 1961 2002 Rourkela Odisha

11 NIT Silchar NITS 1967 2002 Silchar Assam

12 NIT Surathkal NITK 1960 2002 Mangalore Karnataka

13 NIT Warangal NITW 1959 2002 Warangal Telangana

14 NIT Durgapur NITDGP 1960 2003 Durgapur West Bengal

Jammu and
15 NIT Srinagar NITSRI 1960 2003 Srinagar

16 NIT Surat SVNIT 1961 2003 Surat Gujarat

17 NIT Trichy NITT 1964 2003 Trichy Tamil Nadu

NITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[9]

Serial Short
Name Founded Established City/Town State/UT
No Name

18 NIT Patna NITP 1886 2004 Patna Bihar

19 NIT Raipur NITRR 1956 2005 Raipur Chhattisgarh

20 NIT Agartala NITA 1965 2006 Agartala Tripura

NIT Arunachal Arunachal

21 NITAP 2010 2010 Yupia
Pradesh Pradesh

22 NIT Delhi NITD 2010 2010 New Delhi Delhi

23 NIT Goa NITG 2010 2010 Farmagudi Goa

24 NIT Manipur NITMN 2010 2010 Imphal Manipur

25 NIT Meghalaya NITM 2010 2010 Shillong Meghalaya

26 NIT Mizoram NITMZ 2010 2010 Aizawl Mizoram

27 NIT Nagaland NITN 2010 2010 Dimapur Nagaland

28 NIT Puducherry NITPY 2010 2010 Karaikal Puducherry

29 NIT Sikkim NITSKM 2010 2010 Ravangla Sikkim

NITs and locations, sorted by date of establishment[9]

Serial Short
Name Founded Established City/Town State/UT
No Name

30 NITUK 2010 2010 Srinagar Uttarakhand

NIT Andhra Andhra

31 NITANP 2015 2015 Tadepalligudem
Pradesh Pradesh

See also: History of RECs

REC Allahabad was converted into NIT Allahabad in 2001.

Administrative building, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur

During the second five-year plan (1956–60) in India, a number of industrial projects were
contemplated. To ensure enough supply of trained personnel to meet the demand for these projects,
a decision was taken to start the Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs), at the rate of one per each
major state, which can churn out graduates with good engineering merit. Thus, seventeen RECs
were established from 1959 onwards in each of the major states. Each college was a joint and
cooperative enterprise of the central government and the concerned state government. The
Government opened 8 RECs in 1960 two in each region, as follows:
Region Regional Engineering Colleges (REC)

Eastern Region Durgapur and Jamshedpur

Western Region Nagpur, Surat and Bhopal

Southern Region Warangal and Surathkal

Northern Region Srinagar and Allahabad

Later on 5 more were added by 1965. The early 14 Institutes

were Srinagar, Warangal, Calicut, Durgapur, Kurukshetra, Jamshedpur, Jaipur, Nagpur, Rourkela, S
urathkal, Surat, Trichy, Bhopal, and Allahabad. It established one in Silchar in 1967 and added two
others located at Hamirpur in 1986, and Jalandhar in 1987.
These were large-sized institutions judged by the standards then prevailing in the country. The
considerations that weighed in this decision were :
A large-sized college would be more efficient than the equivalent small colleges, the proposed
colleges have to meet the additional requirements of the country as a whole and for that purpose
should have to function on an all-India basis. Therefore, the smaller they are in number and the
larger in size, the better, and for the same reason their location is important from an all-India point of
The RECs were jointly operated by the central government and the concerned state government.
Non-recurring expenditures and expenditures for post-graduate courses during the REC period were
borne by the central government while recurring expenditure on undergraduate courses was shared
equally by central and state governments.
The success of technology-based industry led to high demand for technical and scientific education.
Due to the enormous costs and infrastructure involved in creating globally respected Indian Institutes
of Technology (IITs), in 2002 Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Minister Murli
Manohar Joshi decided to upgrade RECs to "National Institutes of Technology" (NITs) instead of
creating IITs. The central government controls NITs and provides all funding. In 2002, all RECs
became NITs.
Bihar Engineering College, Patna (estd. 1886), third oldest engineering college in India, was converted to NIT
Patna in 2007.

Picture of National Institute of Technology Raipur, taken from central garden.

The upgrade was designed along the lines of the prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
after it was concluded that RECs had potential as proven by the success of their alumni and their
contributions in the field of technical education. Subsequently, funding and autonomy for NITs
increased, and they award degrees which have raised their graduates' perceived value. These
changes implemented recommendations of the "High Powered Review Committee" (HPRC).The
HPRC, chaired by R.A. Mashelkar, submitted its report entitled "Strategic Road Map for Academic
Excellence of Future RECs" in 1998.

NIT Agartala main gate

In 2004, MHRD issued NIT status to three more colleges, located at Patna (Bihar Engineering
College, a 110-year-old college), Raipur (Government Engineering College), and Agartala (Tripura
Engineering College).Based on the request of state governments and feasibility, future NITs are
either converted from existing institutes or can be freshly created. The 21st (and the first brand-new)
NIT is planned for Imphal in the north-eastern state of Manipur at an initial cost of Rs. 500 crores. In
2010, the government announced setting up ten new NITs in the remaining states/territories. This
would lead to every state in India having its own NIT.
With the technology based industry's continuing growth, the government decided to upgrade twenty
National Institutes of Technology to full-fledged technical universities. Parliament passed enabling
legislation, the National Institutes of Technology Act in 2007 and took effect on 15 August of that
year. The target is to fulfill the need for quality manpower in the field of engineering, science, and
technology and to provide consistent governance, fee structure, and rules across the NITs. The law
designates each NIT an Institute of National Importance (INI).[10]
The Parliament of India on 1 August 2016 passed a bill to establish the prestigious NIT Andhra
Pradesh, on a day members of parliament of the ruling Telugu Desam Party from the state staged a
protest to demand special category status. The National Institutes of Technology, Science Education
and Research (Amendment) Bill, 2016 was passed by Rajya Sabha by voice vote. The bill was
passed in Lok Sabha on 21 July 2016.[11]

Organisational structure[edit]

Organisational structure of the NITs

The Prime Minister of India is the ex officio visitor of all the NITs. The NIT Council works directly
under him and it includes the minister-in-charge of technical education in Central Government, the
Chairmen and the Directors of all the NITs, the Chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC),
the Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Directors of other
selected central institutions of repute, members of Parliament, Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of
Human Resource Development (MHRD), nominees of the Central Government, All India Council for
Technical Education (AICTE), and the Visitor.
Below the NIT Council is each NIT's Board of Governors. The Board of Governors of each NIT
consists of the following members:

 Chairman - an eminent technologist / engineer / educationist to be nominated by the

Government of India.
 Member Secretary - Director of the NIT.
 Nominee of the MHRD, Government of India.
 Nominee of the Department of the Higher / Technical Education of the respective state
 Head of another technical institution in the region or an eminent technologist to be nominated by
Central Govt.
 Director, IIT (in the region) or his nominee.
 Nominee of the UGC not below the rank of a Deputy Secretary.
 Nominee of the AICTE not below the rank of an Advisor.
 An alumnus of the institute from amongst alumni in education / industry to be nominated by
Board of Governors.
 Two representatives representing large, medium and small scale industries to be nominated by
Central Government.
 One Professor and one Assistant Professor of the institute by rotation.
The Director serves under the Board of Governors, and is the school's chief academic and executive
officer. Academic policies are decided by its Senate, which is composed of some professors and
other representatives. The Senate controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations, and
results. Senate committees examine specific academic matters. The teaching, training, and research
activities of various departments of the institute are periodically reviewed to maintain educational
standards. The Director is the ex officio Chairman of the Senate. The Deputy Director is subordinate
to the Director. Together they manage the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the
Students' Council, and Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. Deans and Heads of
Departments in NITs are administrative postings rather than career paths. Faculty members serve
as Deans and Heads of Departments for limited periods, typically 2 to 3 years, then returning to
regular faculty duties. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer and overviews day-to-day
operations. Below the Head of Department (HOD), are the various faculty members (professors,
assistant professors, and lecturers). The Warden serves under the Chairman of the Hall
Management Committee.[12]

National Institutes of Technology Act[edit]

Main article: National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007
The National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research Act, 2007 was enacted by
the Parliament of India to declare India's National Institutes of Technology as Institutes of National
Importance. The Act received the assent of the President of India on 5 June 2007 and became
effective on Independence Day, 2007. The National Institutes of Technology Act is the second law
for technical education institutions after the Indian Institutes of Technology Act of 1961.[13][14]

NIT Council[edit]
Main article: NIT Council
The NIT Council is the supreme governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology (NIT)
system. The NIT Council consists of chairmen, directors of all NITs along with the government
nominees from various sectors with the Minister of Human Resource Development as the Chairman
of the Council. The NIT Council is the highest decision making body in the NIT fraternity and is
answerable only to the Government of India. The NIT Council is expected to meet regularly and take
steps conducive for maximum growth of the NITs as whole in the near future.[15]


Biju Patnaik Central Library, NIT Rourkela

The NITs along with the IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering colleges in
India. Average NIT funding increased to ₹100 crores ($15.4 million) by year 2011. On average, each
NIT also receives ₹ 20-25 crore ($3-3.8 million) under World Bank funded Technical Education
Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP I and TEQIP II). Other sources of funds include student fees
and research funding from industry and contributions from the alumni. The faculty-to-student ratio in
the NITs is between 1:7 and 1:9. The cost borne by undergraduate students is around ₹ 125,000
($1934) per annum.[16] After students from SC and ST categories, physically challenged students will
now be the beneficiaries of fee waiver at the NITs in India.
The various NITs function autonomously, and their special status as Institutes of National
Importance facilitates the smooth running of NITs, virtually free from both regional as well as
student politics. Such autonomy means that NITs can create their own curricula and adapt rapidly to
the changes in educational requirements, free from bureaucratic hurdles. The medium of instruction
in all NITs is English. The classes are usually held between 8:30 am and 5:30 pm, though there are
some variations within each NIT. All the NITs have public libraries for the use of their students. In
addition to a collection of prescribed books, the libraries have sections for fiction and other literary
genres. Electronic libraries allow students access to online journals and other periodicals through
the AICTE-INDEST consortium, an initiative by the Ministry of Human Resource
Development.[17] Students also have access to IEEE documents and journals.

Central Library, NIT Trichy

The academic policies of each NIT are decided by its Senate. This comprises all professors of the
NIT and student representatives. Unlike many western universities that have an elected senate, the
NITs have an academic senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations and
results, and appoints committees to look into specific academic matters. The teaching, training and
research activities of the institute are periodically reviewed by the senate to maintain educational
standards. The Director of NIT is the ex-officio Chairman of the Senate.
Stringent faculty recruitment and industry collaboration also contribute to NIT success. Faculty other
than lecturers must have a Ph.D. and relevant teaching and industry experience. Existing faculty
who do not meet these criteria enroll under a Quality Improvement Programme (QIP)
at IITs and IISc.
All the NITs follow the credits system of performance evaluation, with proportional weighting of
courses based on their importance. The total marks (usually out of 100) form the basis of grades,
with a grade value (out of 10) assigned to a range of marks. Sometimes, relative grading is done
considering the overall performance of the whole class. For each semester, the students are graded
on a scale of 0 to 10 based on their performance, by taking a weighted average of the grade points
from all the courses, with their respective credit points. Each semester evaluation is done
independently and then the weighted average over all semesters is used to calculate the
cumulative grade point average (CGPA).
Undergraduate education[edit]
The Bachelor of Technology (BTech) degree is the most common undergraduate degree in the NITs
in terms of student enrollment. The BTech course is based on a 4-year program with eight
semesters, while the Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs with ten semesters.
In all NITs, the first year of BTech and Dual Degree courses are marked by a common course
structure for all the students, though in some NITs, a single department introduction related course is
also included. The common courses include the basics from most of the departments like
Electronics, Mechanics, Chemistry, Electrical and Physics. At the end of first year, some NITs offer
an option to the meritorious students to change departments on the basis of their performance in the
first two semesters.[18] Few such changes ultimately take place as the criteria for them are usually
strict, limited to the most meritorious students. Few NITs also offer 5-year Bachelor of
Architecture (BArch) and 4-year Bachelor of Science (BSc) degrees.
From the second year onwards, the students study subjects exclusively from their respective
departments. In addition to these, the students have to take compulsory advanced courses from
other departments in order to broaden their education. Separate compulsory courses
from humanities and social sciences department, and sometimes management courses are also
enforced. In the last year of their studies, most of the students are placed into industries and
organisations via the placement process of the respective NIT, though some students opt out of this
either when going for higher studies or when they take up jobs by applying to the companies directly.
Postgraduate and doctoral education[edit]
Master degrees[edit]
The NITs offer a number of postgraduate programs including Master of Technology (MTech), Master
of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Science (MSc) and Master of Computer
Applications (MCA). Some of the NITs offer an M.S. (by research) program; the MTech and M.S. are
similar to the US universities' non-thesis (course based) and thesis (research based) masters
programs respectively. Admissions to masters programs in engineering are made using scores of
the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), while those to masters programs in science are
made using scores of the Joint Admission Test to MSc (JAM).
Three NITs, NIT Allahabad, NIT Trichy and NIT Rourkela have schools of management offering
master's degrees in management or business administration.[19][20]
Bachelors-Masters dual degrees[edit]
The NITs also offer an unconventional BTech and MTech integrated educational program called
"Dual Degree". It integrates undergraduate and postgraduate studies in selected areas of
specialisation. It is completed in five years as against six years in conventional BTech (four years)
followed by an MTech (two years). Integrated Master of Science programs are also offered at few
NITs which integrates the Undergraduate and Postgraduate studies in Science streams in a single
degree program against the conventional University system. These programs were started to allow
NITians to complete postgraduate studies from NIT rather than having to go to another institute. NIT
Rourkela has such system.
Doctoral degrees[edit]
The NITs also offer the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) as part of their doctoral education
programme. In it, the candidates are given a topic of academic interest by the professor or have to
work on a consultancy project given by the industries. The duration of the program is usually
unspecified and depends on the specific discipline. PhD candidates have to submit a dissertation as
well as provide an oral defence for their thesis. Teaching Assistantships (TA) and Research
Assistantships(RA) are often provided. The NITs, along with IITs and IISc, account for nearly 80% of
all engineering PhDs in India.[21]

Educational rankings[edit]
In 2018, National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked eighteen NITs in the top 100 in
engineering category and they are the following:[22]

Serial No NIT NIRF Ranking

1 NIT Trichy 11

2 NIT Rourkela 15

3 NIT Surathkal 21

4 NIT Warangal 25

5 NIT Nagpur 31

6 NIT Kurukshetra 43

7 NIT Durgapur 47

8 NIT Allahabad 48

9 NIT Calicut 50

10 NIT Jaipur 52

11 NIT Bhopal 55

12 NIT Silchar 57

13 NIT Surat 61
14 NIT Hamirpur 64

15 NIT Jalandhar 74

16 NIT Raipur 81

17 NIT Agratala 92

18 NIT Meghalaya 98

Student life[edit]
Campus life[edit]

Guest house at NIT Silchar, Assam

NITs provide on-campus housing to students, research scholars, and faculty members. Students live
in hostels, also known as halls, throughout their college life. Most have single accommodation but
many live in double or triple rooms during their initial years. Every hostel has a recreation room
equipped with cable television, magazines, newspapers, and indoor games and in-room Internet
connectivity. Every hall has its own cafeteria managed by the college or by a local private
organization. NITs also have a common cafeteria for students and a separate cafeteria for
professors. During vacations, hostel dining is generally closed and the common cafeterias serve
students who stay on campus. All the NITs have an athletic ground and facilities for field, indoor and
aquatic events. Many of the NITs have guest houses too.
NIT campuses across India arrange official welcome parties and interaction sessions to acquaint
newcomers with senior students and professors. Faculties and researchers from IITs, ISM and IISc
organize occasional technical seminars and research labs.
Student government[edit]
Some NITs individually conduct elections to elect student body a general secretary and vice
president. These representatives are generally responsible for communicating with the college
management and media, organising festivals, and also for various development programmes in their
college. Some NITs (such as NIT Rourkela, NIT Surat and NIT Nagpur) have recently adopted
online voting process. The committee which monitors the flow of funds has a student body
representative. This committee also includes the chairman of board, an MHRD representative, and
NIT professors. Due to some disturbance in voting process, student elections were stopped in 2008
in SVNIT, Surat. They were, however, resumed in 2015 and are continuing hence.
Disciplinary committee[edit]
The Disciplinary Committee (DISCO) consists of the Director, the student affairs officer, and
professors. and reports to MHRD. DISCO regulates student activities and combats student
harassment and illegitimate student politics. After a series of harassment incidents, all NITs took
strict measures especially to protect first year students.
Extra-curricular activities[edit]

Incubation centre at NIT Warangal

Popular extra curricular activities include National Cadet Corps (NCC), National Service
Scheme (NSS), Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE), and annual college festivities.
Students at NITs run hobby clubs such as Linux User Groups(LUGs), music clubs, debate clubs,
literary clubs, and web design teams. Students also publish campus magazines which showcase
student creativity and journalism. The first Linux User group in India, Bharat Linux User Group, was
formed in early 1997 at NIT Surat (SVNIT). Students conduct regular quizzes and cultural programs.
They also present research papers and participate in national level technical festivals
at IITs, ISM, IISc and NITs. Most NITs promote entrepreneurship by creating on-campus incubation
centers under the STEP program.
Technical and cultural festivals[edit]
Further information: List of cultural and technical festivals in IITs and NITs

All NITs organise annual technical festivals, typically lasting three or four days. The technical
festivals are Avishkar (NIT Allahabad), Technosearch (NIT Bhopal), Tathva(NIT Calicut),
Terratechnica (NIT Delhi), Gyanith (NIT Puducherry), Aarohan (NIT Durgapur), Nimbus (NIT
Hamirpur), Neuron (NIT Jaipur), TechNITi (NIT Jalandhar), Ojass (NIT
Jamshedpur), Techspardha (NIT Kurukshetra), AXIS (NIT Nagpur), Corona (NIT Patna), Aavartan
(NIT Raipur), Innovision (NIT Rourkela), Tecnoesis (NIT Silchar), Techvaganza (NIT
Srinagar), MindBend (NIT Surat), Engineer (NIT Surathkal), Pragyan (NIT Trichy), Technozion (NIT
Warangal), Technival (NIT Goa), Morphosis (NIT Mizoram), Cognitia (NIT Meghalaya), Technovya
(NIT Nagaland), Addovedi (NIT Arunachal Pradesh), Advaitam (NIT Agartala), Cliffesto (NIT
Uttarakhand) and Abhiyantran (NIT Sikkim). Most of them are organised in the months of January or
March. Pragyan (NIT Trichy) the first student-run organization in the world and the third overall next
only to 2012 London Olympics and Manchester United to get an ISO 20121:2012 Certification for
Sustainable Event Management.[23] It is also the largest in terms of Sponsorship amounts and also
branded as a techno-management festival due to its emphasis on both technology and

See also: List of notable NIT alumni
Many NIT alumni have achieved leading positions in corporations, such as:

 Natarajan Chandrasekaran (Chairman, Tata Sons)

 Rajesh Gopinathan (CEO, Tata Consultancy Services)
 T.V. Narendran (CEO, Tata Steel (Global))
 C.P. Gurnani (CEO, Mahindra Satyam)
 K. V. Kamath (Chief, BRICS New Development Bank, Shanghai; Former CEO of ICICI
Bank; Padma Bhushan Awardee)
 Srini Raju (Chairman, Peepul Capital, iLabs VCF, Former CEO of Cognizant Technology
Solutions & Satyam)
 K. R. Sridhar (founder and CEO, Bloom Energy)
 Shyam Srinivasan (CEO and MD, Federal Bank)
 Nelabhotla Venkateswarlu (CEO, Emami)
 Dinesh Keskar (Senior VP, Boeing Aircraft Trading and Head Boeing India)
 Rao Remala (First Indian employee of Microsoft)
 Rajeev Madhavan (Founder, Magma Design Automation, venture capitalist in USA. on the
Dean's Advisory Board at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering)
 Pawan Munjal (Chairman, MD & CEO, Hero Motocorp)
 Shailesh Rao (Director, New Products & Solutions, Google Enterprise, Google)
 K L Rahul (Batsman, Indian cricket team)
NIT alumni have also pursued careers in public service; for example:

 Dr.Thomas Abraham (Chairman of the Global Organization of People of Indian Origin, coined
the term PIO)
 Dawood Danesh Jafari (Minister of Finance & Economic Affairs, Iran)
 Ajit Jogi (First chief minister of Chhattisgarh also a former lecturer at NIT Raipur)
 Deep Joshi (Recipient of Magsaysay award & Padma Shri, Social activist, founder
 Hemant Karkare (Chief, Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad (ATS), killed during the November 2008
Mumbai Terrorist Attacks)
 Nitish Kumar (Chief minister of Bihar)
 Lakshmi Narayana (Former Joint Director for India's Central Bureau of Investigation)
 Suresh Pachouri (Member of Parliament)
 Ram Vinay Shahi (Longest-serving power secretary of India)
 Abhishek Singh (Member of Parliament from Rajnandgaon Region)
 Prafulla Kumar Das (Engineer-in-chief, Odisha (Retd.))
 Balram Singh Yadav (Superintending Engineer, Irrigation Department, Uttar Pradesh)
 Malli Mastan Babu (Mountaineer and Motivational speaker, Andhra Pradesh)
Notable alumni in academics and research include:

 Anindya Ghose (Professor, New York University Stern School of Business)

 Avinash Kumar Agarwal (mechanical engineer, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate)
 Akhilesh K. Gaharwar (Professor, Texas A&M University)
 Siva S. Banda (Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and Chief Scientist for the
Aerospace Systems Directorate at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-
Patterson Air Force Base)
 Samir Barua (Director, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad)
 Lalit Goel (Professor and Head of Electrical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University)
 Baldev Raj (Padma Shri awardee, former director of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic
Research, currently the Chairman of Board of Governors at NIT Puducherry)

See also[edit]
 Indian Institutes of Technology
 Indian Institutes of Information Technology
Capitation fee
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

This article is about capitation fee in the context of education. For capitation in the context of
healthcare, see Capitation (healthcare).
Capitation fee refers to an illegal transaction whereby an organisation that provides (or supposedly
provides) educational services collects a fee that is more than what is approved by regulatory norms.


 1Definition
 2Prevalence
 3Implications
 4Arguments for and against capitation fees
 5Controversies
 6Legal implications
 7Suggestions to curb practice
 8Student Advisory
o 8.1Technical Education / Higher Education
o 8.2School education
 9References
 10External links

In the context of Indian law, a capitation fee refers to the collection of payment by educational bodies
not included in the prospectus of the institution, usually in exchange for admission to the institution.
The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Institutions and
Universities Bill 2010 defines it as any amount that

 Demanded or charged or collected, directly or indirectly, for, or, on behalf of any institution, or
paid by any person in consideration for admitting any person as student in such institution; and
which is in excess of the fee payable towards tuition fee and other fees and other charges
declared by any institution in its prospectus for admitting any person as student in such
institution; or
 Paid or demanded or charged or collected, by way of donation, for, or, on behalf of any
institution, or paid by any person in consideration for admitting any person as a student in such
A submission by counsel, F.S. Nariman, in the P.A. Inamdar case (August 2005) defines capitation
fee as "something taken over and above what the institution needs by way of revenue and capital
expenditure plus a reasonable surplus.")[2] Other definitions for capitation fee also include "any
amount, by whatever name called, paid or collected directly or indirectly in excess of the fee
prescribed...",[3] "any amount by whatever name called whether in cash or in kind paid or collected or
received directly or indirectly in addition to the fees determined"[4] and "any amount, by whatever
name called, whether in cash or kind, in excess of the prescribed or, as the case may be, approved,
rates of fees..."[5]

Tagore and Gandhi; 'Knowledge without Character' and 'Commerce without Morality' were social sins for
Mahatma Gandhi.

This practice is widely prevalent in private colleges and universities in India, especially those that
grant baccalaureate degrees in engineering, IT and the sciences for which the demand for
admissions exceeds the supply, though a number of technical educations has been closing down in
recent years and many seats go vacant.[6][7] Ample evidence to the collection of capitation fee

Capitation fee has been one of the major contributors to corruption in education and society. Those
who complete their course by paying capitation fee are looking for a "return on investment". This
attempt to recover the investment fuel unethical practices.[10][11] Capitation fee has been considered to
be one of the reason for the exorbitant hike in healthcare costs and deteriorating medical
Capitation fee comes as a surprise to the student when the student may have forsaken admission
deadlines at other institutions. Choosing not to pay additional fee may even lead to a form of
extortion, by withholding the degree from students. Parents often pay so that there is no ill bearing
that affects their wards scores or standing.[14]
The fee might not be uniformly applied. The donation money is often not accounted, and its usage
and allocation are mismanaged and not reported to income tax. In such cases of malpractice,
students overpay for substandard education.
Students are also misguided. Some institutions add the capitation fee along with the fee approved by
regulatory norms. This combined fee is projected as the actual fee to the students.

Arguments for and against capitation fees[edit]

Nalanda, an ancient centre for higher learning; 'Speak the Truth', 'Live Righteousness' says the Upanishads
('Sathyam Vada, Dharmam Chara')

Capitation fees are generally seen as a main revenue generator that private institutions may charge,
which contend that admissions that cater to affordable sections of society somehow affects the
overall number of students educated.[15][16] The government also controls the seat allocation, number
and ratio of management, payment and free seats. That limits the institutions' ability to raise money
through tuition, leaving institutions in need for money.[17] [18] Collecting donations becomes a side
effect of the government laws that disallow institutions from setting their fees, but some parents
genuinely donate to improve the infrastructure of their wards' college.
The practice of charging capitation fees by various institutions and universities has been subjected
to criticism on various grounds. It has been often referred as 'killing of merit'. In its emphatic
judgement in the Mohini Jain V/s State of Karnataka case, Supreme Court declared that charging of
capitation fee was arbitrary, unfair, and in violation of the fundamental right to equality in Article 14 of
the Constitution. The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical
Institutions and Universities Bill 2010 recognized capitation fee as a cognizable offence.
On the other hand, various private colleges have defended capitation fee on the ground that it avails
institutions with funds to reinvest in the institution to impart quality education. V Raghunathan, former
professor, IIM-Ahmedabad said "For engineering colleges in most states, the permitted fee for
unaided private colleges is in the vicinity of Rs 30,000 per student per annum. Given that even most
kindergarten schools charge a higher fee in the cities, one wonders exactly how the private
institutions are expected to provide high quality technical education for this fee".[19] Faking News has
written an article 'School Principal elected for the coveted 'Business Person of the Year' award'
acknowledging the practices of some of the private schools in India, while also noting that "a school
principal winning a business award created unrest among the top business leaders in
India".[20] However, institutions (business schools, engineering colleges, medical colleges) that take
capitation fee also receive significant amount of funding from governmental funding agencies like
AICTE, DST, UGC and various ministries under central government and state government. The
funds support infrastructure ranging from faculty laptops, printers, lab facilities and trading rooms in
business schools.
Educational regulatory agencies, at the national level[21] and also at the regional level,[22] has
mandated that an institution should include the fee in the prospectus. Institutions has been charging
fee from students under various categories, that the fee regulatory committee of Karnataka
Government has listed 99 different categories[23] through which the institutions may be collecting fee
from the students. While fee regulatory agencies fix a fee that cover expenses incurred by an
institution along with a basic surplus,[24][25][26] many institutions has been charging a fee[27] that makes
the venture profiteering. The National Policy on Education "encourages non-governmental and
voluntary efforts in Education, while preventing the establishment of institutions which intend to
commercialize Education".[28] While education is not meant to be a commercial practice, corruption in
educational institutions has made a noble endeavor such as education into a "notorious business"
that has been repeatedly raided by governmental authorities, resulting in identification and seizure of
unaccounted wealth.[29]

Various renowned and prestigious private schools and colleges across India have been found
demanding capitation fee. It was found that sum of Rs 500,000 was allegedly paid by a student
through a demand draft to Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering (SVCE), a private college in
Pennalur, Sriperumbudur, near Chennai. The incident came into light through a surprise check drive
initiated by the government in Tamil Nadu at 142 self-financing engineering colleges in the state.[30]
Another scam exposed by a popular news channel, Times Now, suggested that Information and
Broadcasting Minister for State Jagathrakshakan was allegedly associated with the Shree Balaji
Medical College in malpractices in admissions. The minister later denied having associated with the
college.[31] Jagathrakshakan said, "I have never been the Chairman. Once I was a trustee. Before
election I quit. I have absolutely no connection with the college or the trust".[32] In February 2002,
students filed a case against Mercedes Benz International School, a prestigious school in Pune for
allegedly collecting 'capitation fees' under the guise of a building donation fund.[33]
Income Tax Department has been conducting raids on some of the organisations that take capitation
fee.[34][35][36][37] Arrests have been made related to cheating associated with admissions.[38]

Legal implications[edit]
The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Institutions and
Universities Bill 2010 was introduced as a strict measure to bring about the transparency in the
educational system regarding the fee structures and other crucial issues. Charging or accepting
capitation fee is considered as violation of Provision 6, which prohibits any institution from
demanding or accepting capitation fee, directly or indirectly. If found guilty, the institution will be
liable to a penalty of up to Rs.5,000,000 and maximum imprisonment for three years. The bill has
been criticized by various private institutions essentially for restricting the autonomy of the institution
in such matters. J Philip, President, Xavier Institute of Management Education, Bangalore and
former director, IIM – Bangalore, said, "The Bill promises to be beneficial. But it also runs the risk of
curbing the autonomy and the freedom of institutions and challenge dynamic functioning. Again, it
could be misused by students or anyone trying to settle scores".[19] However, this bill lapsed, before it
became a law.[39]
Media reports indicate that black money in education in India is generating more than 40,000 crores,
while black money generation in medical education would be more than 10,000 crores.[40] The
Special Investigation Team (SIT) probing into black money practices in India has started its probe
into the area, which was outside the ambit of SIT.[41]

Suggestions to curb practice[edit]

Concerns have been raised on how capitation fee has been charged in the name of donations.[42] In
August 2014, the Supreme Court appointed Mr Salman Khurshid, former Union Law Minister, as an
amicus curiae and asked him to come out with suggestions and methodologies to end this
In addition to stringent legal actions, other practices that government can adopt to curb the practice
include the following:[44]
(1) Audited financial statements of educational institutions, and the 'charitable trusts' that owns these
institutions, need to be released in the website of these institutions and also in the public domain, on
an annual basis.[45]
(2) Funding organisations like DST, UGC, AICTE, Ministry of Education and other ministries under
the central and state governments should stop funding research projects and programmes in such
(3) Revoking exemptions/ canceling registrations of these organisations that take capitation fee[45]
(4) Legal measures against "minority institutions" - linguistic, religious etc. - that operates in an illegal
(5) Articles in a leading international medical journal discussing about the capitation fee practices in
medical colleges in India suggested that those who complete their courses from capitation fee taking
colleges should not be allowed for postings abroad.[12][48]
(6) Instituting a maximum fee limit has been on discussions. For example, Sri Krishna committee has
recommended a fee band for professional colleges, with an upper limit for the fee that can be
(7) A centralised fee collection process, with a time-bound mechanism to channelise the collected
fee to the institutes.[46]
(8) A single common entrance exam for each of the courses (medicine, engineering, pharmacy,
hotel management, business management, law and other courses).[50][51]

Student Advisory[edit]

Indian Ethos considers education to be a sacred endeavor

Technical Education / Higher Education[edit]

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), the regulatory body for technical education in
India, has called "upon the students, parents and the general public not to pay any capitation fee or
any other fee other than that mentioned in the Prospectus of the Institutions for consideration of
admission.".[52] AICTE also mentions that the fee charged from students, including for programs such
as PGDM, has to be approved by the fee regulatory committee of the state, and the institute should
mention the fee in its website.[53] As per AICTE norms, the business schools are not meant to charge
a fee higher than what is mentioned in the prospectus. Educational regulatory agencies, at the
national level[21] and also at the regional level,[22]has mandated that an institution should include the
fee in the prospectus.
School education[edit]
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) states that a school should be run as a service and
not as a business and that commercialization does not take place in the school. The Board has
mentioned that "No capitation fee or voluntary donations for gaining admission in the school or for
any other purpose should be charged/collected in the name of the school. In case of such
malpractices, the Board may take drastic action leading to disaffiliation of the school". The school is
also punishable with fine which may extend to ten times the capitation fee charged.[54] CBSE has
issued notification/s asking schools affiliated to CBSE to mention fee details in the school website,
and also in the CBSE website.[55][56] Similar notifications have been released by regional educational