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Prof. Dr. Malak A. Al-yawer
Prof. Dr. Malak A. Al-yawer

Department of Anatomy/ histology Section

At the end of this lecture, the medical student will be

able to

review the maturation stages of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes & thrombocytes

Compare between azurophilic & specific granules

Define the structural differentiation that occur within each maturation

List some relative disorders

Granulopiosis

regulated by GM-CSF

Granulopiosis regulated by GM-CSF 1. pluripotential stem cells 2. myeloid multipotential stem cells 3. granulocyte colony
  • 1. pluripotential stem cells

  • 2. myeloid multipotential stem cells

  • 3. granulocyte colony forming

cell

  • 4. Myeloblast

  • 5. Promyelocyte

basophilic cytoplasm containing azurophilic granules

Granulopiosis

Granulopiosis 6. Myelocyte : appearance of specific granules  Neutrophilic myelocyte  Acidophilic myelocyte  Basophilic
Granulopiosis 6. Myelocyte : appearance of specific granules  Neutrophilic myelocyte  Acidophilic myelocyte  Basophilic
Granulopiosis 6. Myelocyte : appearance of specific granules  Neutrophilic myelocyte  Acidophilic myelocyte  Basophilic

6. Myelocyte : appearance of specific granules

  • Neutrophilic myelocyte

  • Acidophilic myelocyte

  • Basophilic myelocyte

Granulopiosis

7. Metamyelocyte :

band form nuclei Neutrophilic metamyelocyte Acidophilic metamyelocyte Basophilic metamyelocyte

Granulopiosis 7. Metamyelocyte : band form nuclei  Neutrophilic metamyelocyte  Acidophilic metamyelocyte  Basophilic metamyelocyte
Granulopiosis 7. Metamyelocyte : band form nuclei  Neutrophilic metamyelocyte  Acidophilic metamyelocyte  Basophilic metamyelocyte

Granulopiosis

8. Mature granulocyte :

Granulopiosis 8. Mature granulocyte :

Azurophilic granules

  • 1 st appear in promyelocyte

  • Derived from the inner cisternae of Golgi complex

  • Decrease in number with frequent division and maturation

  • They are lysosomes , it’s histochemical structure myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase

Specific granules

  • Initial appearance in myelocyte

  • Derived from an outer cisternae of Golgi complex

  • Increase in number with maturation

  • neutrophil contain alkaline phosphatase and antibacterial lysozyme

  • Acidophil contain sulphatase , peroxidase and histaminase

  • Basophil contain heparin and histamine

Drawing illustrating the sequence of gene expression in the maturation of granulocytes. Azurophilic granules are blue; specific granules are pink.

Drawing illustrating the sequence of gene expression in the maturation of granulocytes. Azurophilic granules are blue;

MEDICAL APPLICATION

  • The appearance of large numbers of immature neutrophils (band cells) in the blood is called a shift to the left and is clinically significant, usually indicating bacterial infection.

Is regulated by GM-CSF

  • 1. Pluripotential cell

  • 2. Myeloid multipotential cell

  • 3. Monocyte colony forming cell

  • 4. Monoblasts

  • 5. Promonocyte :

Is regulated by GM-CSF 1. Pluripotential cell 2. Myeloid multipotential cell 3. Monocyte colony – forming
6. Monocyte
6. Monocyte
6. Monocyte

Lymphopoiesis

Lymphopoiesis 1. Pluripotential cell 2. Lymphoid multipotential cells : migrate to lymphoid organs 3. Lymphocyte colony
  • 1. Pluripotential cell

  • 2. Lymphoid

multipotential cells :

migrate to lymphoid

organs

  • 3. Lymphocyte colony forming cell

Maturation of lymphocyte

Maturation of lymphocyte 4. Lymphoblast : capable of incorporating [3H]thymidine 5. Prolymphocyte :  few azurophilic
  • 4. Lymphoblast :

capable of incorporating

[3H]thymidine

  • 5. Prolymphocyte :

    • few azurophilic granules appear in the cytoplasm

    • no cell surface receptor that mark them as T or B lymphocyte

  • 6. B and T lymphocytes :

  • in the thymus or bone marrow , these cells synthesize cell surface receptors

    Leukemias

    are malignant clones of leukocyte precursors.

    • They occur in

    • 1. lymphoid tissue (lymphocytic leukemias)

    • 2. bone marrow (myelogenous and monocytic leukemias).

    In these diseases, there is usually a release of large numbers of immature cells into the blood.

    The patient is usually anemic and prone to infection.

    Maturation of platelets Regulated by thrombopoietin Mainly produced by the liver (TPO)

    Maturation of platelets

    Regulated by thrombopoietin Mainly produced by the liver

    (TPO)

    Thrombopoiesis

    Regulated by thrombopoietin mainly produced by the liver

    • 1. Pluripotential cell

    • 2. Myeloid multipotential cell Megakaryocyte forming

    • 3. cell

    • 4. Megakaryoblast :

    large cell

    large ovoid or kidney shaped nucleus , numerous nucleoli ( DNA

    30X as much as a normal

    cell ) ,

    • cytoplasm is homogenous and basophilic

    Thrombopoiesis Regulated by thrombopoietin mainly produced by the liver 1. Pluripotential cell 2. Myeloid multipotential cell

    Thrombopoiesis

    5. Megakaryocyte :

    giant cell

    irregular lobulated nucleus , coarse chromatin , no visible

    nucleoli ,

    Cytoplasm contain numerous mitochondria, RER, extensive

    Golgi complex , conspicuous

    granules

    The demarkation membranes arise from numerous invaginations of the plasma

    membrane through out the

    cytoplasm

    Thrombopoiesis 5. Megakaryocyte :  giant cell  irregular lobulated nucleus , coarse chromatin , no

    Electron micrograph of a megakaryocyte showing a lobulated nucleus (N) and numerous cytoplasmic granules. The demarcation membranes are visible as tubular profiles.

    Electron micrograph of a megakaryocyte showing a lobulated nucleus (N) and numerous cytoplasmic granules. The demarcation

    Section of bone marrow showing various stages of megakaryocyte development (14), several adipocytes (*), and blood sinusoids (arrowheads).

    Section of bone marrow showing various stages of megakaryocyte development (1 — 4), several adipocytes (*),

    Thrombocytopenic purpura

    the number of blood platelets is reduced,

    the platelets appear to be bound to the cytoplasm of the megakaryocytes, indicating a defect in the

    liberation mechanism of these corpuscles.

    Summary

    • Pluripotential cell , Myeloid multipotential cell , granulocyte colony forming cell , Myeloblast ,Promyelocyte , myelocyte, metamyelocytes are stages of maturation of granulocytes

    • Two kinds of granules appear during maturation of granulocytes

    • Pluripotential cell , Myeloid multipotential cell ,

    Monocyte

    colony forming cell, Monoblasts , Promonocyte & monocytes

    are stages of maturation of monocytes

    • Pluripotential cell , Lymphoid multipotential cells , Lymphocyte colony forming cell , Lymphoblast ,Prolymphocyte lymphocytes are maturation stages of lymphocytes

    and

    B and T

    • Pluripotential cell , Myeloid multipotential cell ,Megakaryocyte forming cell , Megakaryoblast & Megakaryocytes are maturation stages of platelets

    Thank you

    Thank you