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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL ......................................................................................... i


LEMBAR PENGESAHAN .............................................................................. ii
KATA PENGANTAR ....................................................................................... iii
DAFTAR ISI ...................................................................................................... v
DAFTAR TABEL ............................................................................................. viii
DAFTAR GAMBAR ......................................................................................... ix
DAFTAR GRAFIK ........................................................................................... xiii
BAB I PENDAHULUAN ........................................................................... 1
1.1. Latar Belakang ........................................................................ 1
1.2. Maksud dan Tujuan Kerja Praktek ......................................... 2
1.3. Waktu dan Tempat Pelaksanaan ............................................. 4
1.4. Ruang Lingkup Kerja Praktek ................................................ 4
1.5. Metodologi Pengambilan Data ............................................... 4
1.6. Sistematika Laporan .............................................................. 5

BAB II TINJAUAN UMUM PERUSAHAAN .......................................... 6


2.1. Profil Perusahaan .................................................................... 6
2.2. Visi dan Misi PT. Pertamina EP Asset 5 Bunyu Field ........... 9
2.3. Sejarah Singkat PT. Pertamina EP Asset 5 Bunyu Field ........ 9
2.4. Letak Geografis .................................................................... 12
2.5. Keadaan Geologi Regional ................................................... 13
2.6. Kondisi Geologi ...................................................................... 17
2.7. Petroleum System.................................................................... 19
2.8. Struktur Organisasi ................................................................ 22

BAB III TEORI DASAR .............................................................................. 28


3.1. Operasi Produksi ..................................................................... 28
3.1.1.Gathering Station (Stasiun Pengumpul) ........................ 28
3.1.2. Test Unit ...................................................................... 31

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3.1.3. Compressor Gas Station (CGS).................................... 31
3.1.4. Main Gathering Station (MGS) .................................... 31
3.1.5. Loading Terminal ......................................................... 33
3.1.6. Pengapalan .................................................................... 34
3.2. IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship) ................................. 35
3.2.1. Variabel dalam IPR ...................................................... 36
3.2.2 Pendekatan Formulasi IPR .......................................... 37
3.2.3. Korelasi IPR 1 Fasa ...................................................... 39
3.2.4. Korelasi IPR 2 Fasa ...................................................... 40
3.3. Penentuan Persentase Water Cut dengan menggunakan metode
centrifuge ............................................................................... 43
3.4. Pigging .................................................................................... 44
3.4.1. Tujuan Pigging ............................................................. 44
3.4.2 Sarana dan Peralatan Pigging ........................................ 45
3.4.3 Jenis-jenis Pig ................................................................ 46
3.4.4. Kecepatan Pig .............................................................. 49
3.4.5. Hambatan-hambatan dalam Pigging ............................ 49
3.4.6 Operasi Perawatan Pipa dengan Pigging ....................... 50
3.4.7 Pemilihan Pig................................................................. 51
3.5. Artificial Lift ........................................................................... 52
3.5.1 Gas Lift .......................................................................... 52
3.5.2 ESP (Electric Submersible Pump) ................................. 57
3.6. Kerja Ulang dan Perawatan Sumur ........................................ 58
3.6.1 Perforasi ......................................................................... 58
3.7. Penyemanan (Cementing) ...................................................... 65
3.7.1 Evaluasi Penyemenan ................................................... 70
3.8. Sistem Sirkulasi ..................................................................... 70
3.9 BOP System ............................................................................ 76

BAB IV KEGIATAN-KEGIATAN ............................................................. 78


4.1. Proses Alur Produksi .............................................................. 78

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4.1.1. Gathering Station (GS) dan Test Unit .......................... 78
4.1.2. Compressor Gas Station (CGS).................................... 88
4.1.3. Main Gathering Station (MGS) .................................... 91
4.1.4. Loading Terminal ......................................................... 95
4.1.5. Pengapalan .................................................................... 108
4.2. IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship) ................................. 109
4.3. Menghitung persentase nilai water cut ................................... 111
4.4. Gas Lift ................................................................................... 117
4.5. Pigging .................................................................................... 122
4.5.1. Data Lapangan ............................................................. 123
4.5.2. Persiapan awal ............................................................. 123
4.5.3. Pemilihan Jenis ............................................................ 123
4.5.4. Peralatan Kerja ............................................................. 123
4.5.5. Perhitungan Kecepatan Pig ........................................... 124
4.5.6. Pekerjaan setelah Pigging ............................................ 124
4.5.7. Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pigging .................................... 125
4.5.8. Prosedur Peluncuran Pig .............................................. 125
4.5.9 Prosedur Penerimaan Pig .............................................. 127
4.6. Perforasi ................................................................................. 128
4.7. Plug Cementing ..................................................................... 131
4.8. Pemboran ............................................................................... 136
4.8.1. BOP .............................................................................. 136
4.8.2. Kegiatan Sistem Sirkulasi ............................................ 137
4.8.3 Peralatan Peralatan Cementing .................................... 138

BAB V KESIMPULAN ............................................................................... 140


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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DAFTAR TABEL

4.1. Tabel 53........................................................................................................ 102


4.2 Tabel 54 ........................................................................................................102
4.3 Data IPR ....................................................................................................... 110
4.4. IPR Z-10 Lower .......................................................................................... 111
4.5. IPR Z-20 Upper ............................................................................................ 111
4.6. IPR Z-20 Upper ............................................................................................ 112
4.7. IPR Z-20 Lower .......................................................................................... 112
4.8. IPR Z-50 Upper ............................................................................................ 113
4.9. IPR Z-50 Lower .......................................................................................... 113
4.10 Data IPR Composite ................................................................................... 114

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

2.1. Logo Pertamina .......................................................................................... 8


2.2. Peta Lokasi Pulau Bunyu ........................................................................... 12
2.3. Kerangka Tektonik Pulau Kalimantan (Nuay, 1985 op.cit.Oh, 1987) ....... 13
2.4. Lokasi Cekungan Tarakan Lapangan ......................................................... 14
2.5. Peta Geologi Cekungan Tarakan (Pertamina-BEICIP, 1992 dalam Lentini &
Darman, 1996)............................................................................................ 14
2.6. Peta Struktur Di Sub-Cekungan Tarakan ................................................... 14
2.7. A) Peta Struktur Regional Cekungan Tarakan, B) Hasil Analisis Struktur,
Sub-Cekungan Tarakan Dapat Dipilah Lagi Menjadi Lima Wilayah Geologi
(Biantoro, dkk., 1996) ................................................................................ 15
2.8. Peta Struktur Sub-Cekungan Tarakan ........................................................ 15
2.9. Petroleum System Cekungan Tarakan ........................................................ 17
2.10. Model Hydrocarbon Play Cekungan Tarakan ........................................... 18
3.1. Foam Pigging ............................................................................................. 46
3.2. Bidirectional Pig ....................................................................................... 47
3.3. Brush Pig .................................................................................................... 48
3.4. Ball Pig ....................................................................................................... 48
3.5. Intellegent Pig ............................................................................................ 49
3.6. Rangkaian Gas Lift .................................................................................... 53
3.7. Continuous Gas Lift ................................................................................... 54
3.8. Intermittent Gas Lift ................................................................................... 56
3.9. Rangkaian ESP ........................................................................................... 57
3.10. Shape Charge dan Prima Cord ................................................................... 60
3.11. Prima Cord dan Detonator ......................................................................... 60
3.12. Loading Tube ............................................................................................. 61
3.13. Casing Gun ................................................................................................. 61
3.14. CCL .......................................................................................................... 65
3.15. Plug Cementing .......................................................................................... 68
3.16. Squeeze Cementing..................................................................................... 69

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3.17. Sistem Sirkulasi ......................................................................................... 71
3.18. Mud Pump .................................................................................................. 72
3.19. Mud Pit ...................................................................................................... 73
3.20. Mud Mixing Equipment .............................................................................. 73
3.21. Shale Shaker .............................................................................................. 74
3.22. Degasser .................................................................................................... 74
3.23. Desander .................................................................................................... 75
3.24. Desilter ....................................................................................................... 75
3.25. BOP .......................................................................................................... 76
4.1.Alur Proses Produksi Bunyu Field ................................................................ 78
4.2. Skema Alur GS ............................................................................................ 79
4.3 GS 1 .......................................................................................................... 80
4.4.GS 2 .......................................................................................................... 80
4.5.GS 3 .......................................................................................................... 81
4.6 Test Unit ........................................................................................................ 82
4.7 Header dan Manifold Test Unit..................................................................... 82
4.8 Separator di Test Unit ................................................................................... 83
4.9 Senior Daniel Orifice dan Plate Orifice ........................................................ 84
4.10 Barton Chart ................................................................................................ 85
4.11. Gas Scrubber di Test Unit ......................................................................... 86
4.12 Tangki Test GS .......................................................................................... 87
4.13. Tangki Tampung GS ................................................................................. 87
4.14. Oil Catcher GS ........................................................................................... 88
4.15. Alur Proses Kompresi Gas ........................................................................ 88
4.16. Compressor ............................................................................................... 89
4.17. SKG Nibung ............................................................................................... 90
4.18. SKB Bunyu ............................................................................................... 90
4.19. Jalur Discharge .......................................................................................... 91
4.20. MGS .......................................................................................................... 91
4.21. Tangki FWKO ........................................................................................... 92
4.22. Nut Shell Filter .......................................................................................... 93

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4.23. Pompa Injeksi MGS .................................................................................. 93
4.24. Alur Proses MGS ...................................................................................... 94
4.25. Sounding Meter ......................................................................................... 95
4.26. Flow Diagram Terminal ............................................................................ 95
4.27. Tangki 7 dan 8 ........................................................................................... 96
4.28. Sludge Pond ............................................................................................... 96
4.29. Tangki 1 dan 6 ........................................................................................... 97
4.30. Tangki BTE ............................................................................................... 97
4.31. Pompa Shipping ......................................................................................... 98
4.32. Alat dan Bahan Laboratorium ................................................................... 99
4.33. Pembacaan Density dan Suhu ................................................................... 100
4.34. Pencampuran SampeL ............................................................................... 100
4.35. Posisi Tube ................................................................................................ 101
4.36. Volume BSW ............................................................................................. 101
4.37. Pasta Minyak dan Pasta Air ...................................................................... 103
4.38. Contoh Tangki Test ................................................................................... 105
4.39. Contoh Tabel Log Terminal ...................................................................... 108
4.40. Kapal Tanker ............................................................................................. 109
4.41. Alat Centrifuge .......................................................................................... 115
4.42. Sampel Minyak B-178 dan BN-54 ............................................................ 116
4.43. Stamp Tip .................................................................................................. 118
4.44. Floating Sit ................................................................................................ 119
4.45. Mandrel ..................................................................................................... 121
4.46. Rangkaian Mandrel dan Gas Lift Valve .................................................... 122
4.47. Pig Launcher ............................................................................................. 125
4.48. Pig Receiver .............................................................................................. 127
4.49. Foam Pig sebelum dan sesudah Pigging ................................................... 128
4.50. Road Tank ................................................................................................. 128
4.51. Perakitan Gun ............................................................................................ 130
4.52. CCL .......................................................................................................... 130
4.53. Desain dan Prosedur Plug Cementing ....................................................... 131

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4.54. Plug Cementing .......................................................................................... 135
4.55. Unit Cementing ......................................................................................... 135
4.56. Rangkaian BOP ......................................................................................... 137
4.57. Pit Tank ...................................................................................................... 138
4.58. Slurge Tank ............................................................................................... 138
4.59. Mixing Tank .............................................................................................. 139
4.60. Cementing Unit ......................................................................................... 139
4.61. Compressor ............................................................................................... 139

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DAFTAR GRAFIK

3.1. Kurva IPR 2 Fasa ...................................................................................... 41


3.2. IPR Aliran 2 Fasa ...................................................................................... 43
4.1 IPR Z-10 Lower ........................................................................................ 111
4.2. IPR Z-20 Upper .......................................................................................... 111
4.3. IPR Z-20 Upper .......................................................................................... 112
4.4. IPR Z-20 Lower ........................................................................................ 112
4.5. IPR Z-50 Upper .......................................................................................... 113
4.6. IPR Z-50 Lower ........................................................................................ 113
4.7. IPR Composite .......................................................................................... 114

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