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sample test - ch.

1 7th

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Holes drilled several kilometers into Earth’s crust provide direct evidence about Earth’s interior in the form of
a. seismic waves.
b. rock samples.
c. liquid iron.
d. volcanic eruption.
____ 2. Geologists obtain indirect evidence about Earth’s interior by
a. measuring pressure differences at Earth’s surface.
b. estimating temperature inside earth.
c. directly looking under the many layers.
d. recording and studying seismic waves.
____ 3. What is the correct order (starting from the surface) of Earth’s layers?
a. crust, outer core, inner core, mantle
b. mantle, outer core, inner core, crust
c. crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
d. outer core, inner core, crust, mantle
____ 4. Earth’s inner core is
a. a dense ball of solid metal.
b. a layer of molten metal.
c. a layer of hot rock.
d. a layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin.
____ 5. When you touch a hot pot or pan, energy moves from the pot to your hand. This is called
a. magnetic energy.
b. indirect evidence.
c. subduction.
d. heat transfer.
____ 6. The transfer of energy through empty space is called
a. conduction.
b. convection.
c. radiation.
d. subduction.
____ 7. Heat transfer within a fluid takes place by
a. convection currents.
b. radiation.
c. conduction.
d. density.
____ 8. When the heat source is removed from a fluid, convection currents in the fluid will
a. speed up.
b. change direction.
c. eventually stop.
d. continue at the same rate forever.
____ 9. According to Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift,
a. Earth’s surface is made up of seven major landmasses.
b. the continents do not move.
c. Earth is slowly cooling and shrinking.
d. the continents were once joined together in a single landmass.
____ 10. What is Pangaea?
a. the name of a German scientist
b. the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago
c. another name for continental drift
d. the name of an ancient fossil
____ 11. Which type of evidence was NOT used by Alfred Wegener to support his continental drift hypothesis?
a. evidence from landforms
b. evidence from fossils
c. evidence from human remains
d. evidence from climate
____ 12. Most geologists rejected Alfred Wegener’s idea of continental drift because
a. they were afraid of a new idea.
b. Wegener was interested in what Earth was like millions of years ago.
c. Wegener used several different types of evidence to support his hypothesis.
d. Wegener could not identify a force that could move the continents.
____ 13. What technology did scientists use in the mid-1900s to map the mid-ocean ridge?
a. satellites
b. deep-sea diving
c. submarines
d. sonar
____ 14. In sea-floor spreading, molten material rises from the mantle and erupts
a. along the edges of all the continents.
b. along mid-ocean ridges.
c. in deep-ocean trenches.
d. at the north and south poles.
____ 15. How did scientists discover that rocks farther away from the mid-ocean ridge were older than those near it?
a. by observing eruptions of molten material on the sea floor
b. by mapping rocks on the sea floor using sonar
c. by determining the age of rock samples obtained by drilling on the sea floor
d. by measuring how fast sea-floor spreading occurs
____ 16. What did scientists in a submersible see when they observed the mid-ocean ridge?
a. a convergent boundary
b. rocks formed by the rapid hardening of molten material
c. the movement of Earth’s plates
d. convection currents in the ocean
____ 17. The process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle is known as
a. convection.
b. continental drift.
c. subduction.
d. conduction.
____ 18. Old oceanic crust is more dense than new oceanic crust because it is
a. hot.
b. moving toward a deep-ocean trench.
c. cool.
d. closer to the mid-ocean ridge.
____ 19. Most geologists think that the movement of Earth’s plates is caused by
a. conduction.
b. earthquakes.
c. convection currents in the mantle.
d. Earth’s magnetic field.
____ 20. The geological theory that states that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in constant, slow motion is the theory
of
a. subduction.
b. plate tectonics.
c. deep-ocean trenches.
d. sea-floor spreading.
____ 21. A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, is known as a
a. transform boundary.
b. divergent boundary.
c. convergent boundary.
d. rift valley.
____ 22. A rift valley forms at a
a. convergent plate boundary
b. divergent plate boundary.
c. transform boundary.
d. deep-ocean trench.
____ 23. Using data from seismic waves, geologists have learned that Earth’s interior is made up of several
a. continents.
b. layers.
c. ridges.
d. trenches.
____ 24. Earth’s mantle is
a. a layer of molten metal.
b. a layer of hot rock.
c. a dense ball of solid metal.
d. a layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin.
____ 25. Earth’s magnetic field results from movements in the
a. mantle.
b. outer core.
c. inner core.
d. crust.
____ 26. Scientists think that convection currents flow in Earth’s
a. continents.
b. mantle.
c. lithosphere.
d. inner core.
____ 27. A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a converging boundary produces a
a. mid-ocean ridge.
b. deep-ocean trench.
c. rift valley.
d. mountain range.
____ 28. Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock is called a
a. landform.
b. continent.
c. fossil.
d. landmass.
____ 29. Mid-ocean ridges are
a. found in all of Earth’s oceans.
b. found only in the Pacific Ocean.
c. located mostly along coastlines.
d. long deep-ocean trenches.
____ 30. The place where two plates come together is known as a
a. transform boundary.
b. divergent boundary.
c. convergent boundary.
d. rift valley.

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
sentence or statement true.

____ 31. To study Earth’s interior, geologists often rely on indirect methods, such as evidence from fossils.
_________________________
____ 32. The transfer of heat by the movement of heated fluid is called conduction. _________________________
____ 33. Alfred Wegener provided evidence from landforms, fossils, and climate in support of his theory of the
shrinking Earth. _________________________
____ 34. Pressure increases from Earth’s surface toward the center of Earth. _________________________
____ 35. Oceanic crust near the mid-ocean ridge is younger than oceanic crust farther away from the ridge.
_________________________
____ 36. If subduction occurs faster than oceanic crust can be created, an ocean will expand.
_________________________
____ 37. Along a divergent boundary, two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.
_________________________
____ 38. Mantle material rises in convection currents because heated materials become more dense.
_________________________
____ 39. Along the Mid-Atlantic ridge, the North American plate and the Eurasian plate are moving apart at a very
slow rate. _________________________
____ 40. The outermost layer of Earth is called the mantle. _________________________

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.

41. When continental plates pull apart at a divergent boundary on land, a(n) ____________________ forms.
42. The part of the mantle called the ____________________ is made of soft rock that bends like plastic.
43. In the mantle, heat is transferred as soft rock flows slowly in cycles known as _________________________.
44. Earthquakes produce ____________________ that travel through Earth.
45. When you touch a hot plate, the transfer of heat from the plate to your hand is called
____________________.
46. The hypothesis of _________________________ was that all the continents once were joined as a single
supercontinent and have since drifted apart.
47. To support his hypothesis, Alfred Wegener provided evidence from ____________________, traces of
ancient organisms preserved in rock.
48. The energy from the sun that warms your face is transferred by a process called ____________________.
49. The process of _________________________ continually adds new crust to the ocean floor along both sides
of the mid-ocean ridge.
50. Two of Earth’s plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, along a(n) ____________________
boundary.
51. ____________________ is a rock with a fine, dark texture that makes up the oceanic crust.
52. Samples collected by the Glomar Challenger showed that the youngest rocks on the ocean floor are found in
the center of ____________________.
53. Subduction occurs where the oceanic crust bends down toward the mantle at a(n)
_________________________.
54. The lithosphere is broken into sections called ____________________, which float on top of the
asthenosphere.
55. The formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges can be explained by the theory of
_________________________.
56. A continental plate collides with an oceanic plate at a(n) ____________________ boundary.
57. The ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle in a process known as
____________________.
58. Wegener believed that the continents had once been joined in one landmass called ____________________.
59. Scientists think that the ____________________, made of liquid iron and nickel, moves to produce Earth’s
magnetic field.
60. Geologists learn about Earth’s interior by studying _________________________, which move through
Earth.
Short Answer

Use the diagram to answer each question.

61. Earth’s solid inner core is surrounded by the hot, molten metal of which layer?
62. The asthenosphere is part of which layer of Earth?
63. Pressure increases with depth toward the center of Earth. In which layer would you expect pressure to be the
greatest?
64. According to the theory of plate tectonics, which layer of the earth is broken into separate sections called
plates?
65. Which layer of Earth is made up partly of crust and partly of mantle material?
66. Based on the diagram, describe one of the major differences between oceanic crust and continental crust.

Use the diagram to answer each question.

67. Which type of plate boundary occurs at X?


68. What feature occurs at Y, and how does it form?
69. What is happening at Z?
70. Identify the three plates in the diagram and name the materials that make up each plate.
71. Which type of plate boundary occurs at Y?
72. What feature occurs at X and how does it form?
Essay

73. Describe the convection currents that occur inside Earth.


74. How are magnetic stripes near mid-ocean ridges evidence for sea-floor spreading?
75. According to the theory of plate tectonics, explain what causes changes in Earth’s surface.
76. Were Africa and South America ever joined? Cite evidence from a landform and fossil to support your
answer.
77. The Eurasian and North American plates share a common border in the Atlantic Ocean. Name this border and
explain what plate activity occurs there.
78. Describe how the shapes of present-day continents support the theory of continental drift.
79. Compare and contrast the outer core and the inner core.
80. Compare and contrast what occurs when two oceanic plates collide, when two continental plates collide, and
when an oceanic and a continental plate collide.
sample test - ch.1 7th
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-8 OBJ: F.1.1.1


STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.8.D.2
2. ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. F-8 OBJ: F.1.1.1
STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.8.D.2
3. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. F-10 OBJ: F.1.1.2
STO: 5.8.A.1
4. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. F-12 OBJ: F.1.1.2
STO: 5.3.B.1, 5.8.A.1
5. ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. F-14 OBJ: F.1.2.1
STO: 5.7.B.3, 5.1.B.3
6. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. F-15 OBJ: F.1.2.1
STO: 5.7.B.3
7. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. F-16 OBJ: F.1.2.2
STO: 5.7.B.3
8. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. F-16 OBJ: F.1.2.2
STO: 5.7.B.3
9. ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.1
STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3
10. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.1
STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3
11. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.2
STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3
12. ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. F-22 OBJ: F.1.3.3
STO: 5.1.A.4, 5.1.A.1, 5.8.C.1
13. ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. F-24 OBJ: F.1.4.1
STO: 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2
14. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-25 OBJ: F.1.4.1
STO: 5.8.C.1
15. ANS: C DIF: L3 REF: p. F-27 OBJ: F.1.4.2
STO: 5.2.A.3, 5.1.A.3, 5.8.C.1
16. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. F-26 OBJ: F.1.4.2
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.2.A.3
17. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3
STO: 5.8.C.1
18. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3
STO: 5.8.C.1
19. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. F-33 OBJ: F.1.5.1
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.1.B.1
20. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-33 OBJ: F.1.5.1
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.1.B.1
21. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1
22. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-34 OBJ: F.1.5.2
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2
23. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-8 OBJ: F.1.1.1
STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.8.D.2
24. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-11 OBJ: F.1.1.2
STO: 5.8.A.1
25. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. F-13 OBJ: F.1.1.2
26. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. F-17 OBJ: F.1.2.3
STO: 5.7.B.3
27. ANS: D DIF: L3 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1
28. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. F-20 OBJ: F.1.3.2
STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3
29. ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. F-24 OBJ: F.1.4.1
STO: 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2
30. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2
STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

31. ANS: F, seismic waves

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-7 OBJ: F.1.1.1 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.2, 5.1.A.4


32. ANS: F, convection

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-16 OBJ: F.1.2.2 STO: 5.7.B.3


33. ANS: F, continental drift

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.2 STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3


34. ANS: T DIF: L2 REF: p. F-9
OBJ: F.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.A.2, 5.8.A.1
35. ANS: T DIF: L3 REF: p. F-25
OBJ: F.1.4.1 STO: 5.8.C.1
36. ANS: F, shrink

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-29 OBJ: F.1.4.3 STO: 5.8.C.1


37. ANS: F, transform

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-34 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2


38. ANS: F, less

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-16 OBJ: F.1.2.2 STO: 5.7.B.3


39. ANS: T DIF: L2 REF: p. F-34
OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2
40. ANS: F, crust

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-10 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1

COMPLETION

41. ANS: rift valley

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-34 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2


42. ANS: asthenosphere

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-11 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1


43. ANS: convection currents

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-17 OBJ: F.1.2.3 STO: 5.7.B.3


44. ANS: seismic waves

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-8 OBJ: F.1.1.1 STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.8.D.2


45. ANS: conduction

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-15 OBJ: F.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.3


46. ANS: continental drift

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.1 STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3


47. ANS: fossils

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-20 OBJ: F.1.3.2 STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3


48. ANS: radiation

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-15 OBJ: F.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.3


49. ANS:
sea-floor spreading
sea floor spreading

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-25 OBJ: F.1.4.1 STO: 5.8.C.1


50. ANS: transform

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1


51. ANS:
basalt
Basalt

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-10 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1


52. ANS:
mid-ocean ridges
mid ocean ridges

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-27 OBJ: F.1.4.2 STO: 5.2.A.3, 5.1.A.3, 5.8.C.1


53. ANS:
deep-ocean trench
deep ocean trench

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3 STO: 5.8.C.1


54. ANS: plates

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-32 OBJ: F.1.5.1 STO: 5.2.A.1.a, 5.1.B.3, 5.2.A.3


55. ANS: plate tectonics

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-33 OBJ: F.1.5.1 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.1.B.1


56. ANS: convergent

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1


57. ANS: subduction

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3 STO: 5.8.C.1


58. ANS: Pangaea

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.1 STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3


59. ANS: outer core

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-13 OBJ: F.1.1.2


60. ANS: seismic waves

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-8 OBJ: F.1.1.1 STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.8.D.2

SHORT ANSWER

61. ANS:
the outer core

DIF: L1 REF: p. F-12 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.3.B.1, 5.8.A.1


62. ANS:
the mantle

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-11 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1


63. ANS:
the inner core

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-12 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.3.B.1, 5.8.A.1


64. ANS:
the lithosphere

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-32 OBJ: F.1.5.1 STO: 5.2.A.1.a, 5.1.B.3, 5.2.A.3


65. ANS:
the lithosphere

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-11 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1


66. ANS:
Continental crust is thicker.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-10 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.8.A.1


67. ANS:
divergent
DIF: L2 REF: p. F-34 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2
68. ANS:
At Y, a deep-ocean trench is forming. Two plates of different densities are colliding. The oceanic crust is
denser and plunges beneath the continental crust, forming a trench.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3 STO: 5.8.C.1


69. ANS:
The edge of plate B is plunging beneath plate C and melting in the mantle.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-28 OBJ: F.1.4.3 STO: 5.8.C.1


70. ANS:
Plates A and B are made of oceanic crust and lithosphere. Plate C is made of continental crust and lithosphere.

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-34 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.8.D.1, 5.8.D.2


71. ANS:
convergent

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1


72. ANS:
At X, the mid-ocean ridge occurs along a boundary between two oceanic plates. The plates are moving apart,
causing molten material to repeatedly rise from the mantle, erupt, and harden as solid rock along the center of
the ridge.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-25 OBJ: F.1.4.1 STO: 5.8.C.1

ESSAY

73. ANS:
Earth’s hot core and mantle provide a source of heat that drives convection currents in the asthenosphere. The
asthenosphere is a layer of the upper mantle that can flow very slowly. The soft, plastic material of the
asthenosphere slowly rises, spreads out, and pushes cooler material out of the way. Then the cooler material
sinks back through the asthenosphere. These convection currents have flowed inside Earth for billions of
years.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-17 OBJ: F.1.2.3 STO: 5.7.B.3


74. ANS:
Magnetic stripes in the oceanic crust show the direction of Earth’s magnetic field when the oceanic crust
formed. Oceanic crust contains iron. As new crust cools and hardens, the iron atoms line up according to the
direction of Earth’s magnetic field at that time. But Earth’s magnetic field occasionally reverses itself.
Scientists found that the pattern of magnetic reversals on the sea-floor was the same on both sides of the mid-
ocean ridge. This supported the idea of sea-floor spreading.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-26 OBJ: F.1.4.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.2.A.3


75. ANS:
According to the theory of plate tectonics, the lithosphere is made up of a number of plates that contain
oceanic and continental crust. These plates are in constant slow motion, driven by convection currents in the
mantle. As they move, the plates collide, pull apart, or grind past each other, creating landforms on Earth’s
surface.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-33 OBJ: F.1.5.1 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.1.B.1


76. ANS:
Rock from a mountain range in Africa matches up with similar rock in South America, suggesting that the
two were once joined. A type of fossil plant has been found on both continents. The seedlike structures of this
plant could not have traveled the great distances now separating the continents. Therefore, it seems likely that
the two landmasses once were joined together.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-20 OBJ: F.1.3.2 STO: 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3


77. ANS:
The common boundary is a divergent plate boundary. At this boundary, a crack in the crust occurs along
which new molten rock surfaces and hardens. Because this boundary occurs in the ocean, a mid-ocean ridge
forms.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-33 OBJ: F.1.4.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.1.B.1


78. ANS:
According to the theory of continental drift, the continents once were joined together in a single landmass.
The continents have since moved slowly over Earth’s surface to their present positions. On a map, the outlines
of some present-day continents look as if the continents could fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
DIF: L2 REF: p. F-19 OBJ: F.1.3.2 STO: 5.8.C, 5.8.C.2, 5.2.A.3
79. ANS:
The outer core is hot, molten iron and nickel under extreme pressure. Convection currents cause movements
in the liquid outer core. Scientists hypothesize that these movements cause Earth’s magnetic field. The outer
core surrounds the inner core, which occupies the center of Earth. The inner core is also iron and nickel and is
also extremely hot. But pressure within the inner core is so great that it remains a solid.

DIF: L2 REF: p. F-12 OBJ: F.1.1.2 STO: 5.3.B.1, 5.8.A.1


80. ANS:
When two oceanic plates collide, one bends and slides under the other, forming a trench. When two
continental plates collide, they squeeze the crust upward into mountain ranges. When an oceanic and a
continental plate collide, the oceanic plate slides beneath the continental plate. The oceanic plate begins to
melt as it sinks back into the mantle. This melting forms magma, which then may erupt through the
continental plate as volcanoes.

DIF: L3 REF: p. F-35 OBJ: F.1.5.2 STO: 5.8.C.1, 5.3.B.1