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Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Analysis and prediction of in-line and cross-flow vortex-


induced vibration response of deep sea real-scale top-
tension riser in sheared flow

Journal: Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Manuscript ID AME-18-2312

Manuscript Type: <font color=red>Research Article

Date Submitted by the


26-Oct-2018
Fo
Author:

Complete List of Authors: Guanghai, Gao


Yunjing, Cui
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Xingqi, Qiu
Qi, Shu

South China Sea, Top-tension riser, Vortex-induced vibration, Wake


Keywords:
ee

oscillator model, Sea current velocity, Top-tension force

The purpose of this paper is to predict the coupled in-line and cross-flow
VIV response of deep sea real-scale top-tension riser subjected to linear
rR

sheared flow in the non-locking region. Considering the effect of the riser
in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force, a
modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model based on van
der Pol wake oscillator has been proposed in the present study. The
ev

obtained nonlinear partial differential equations of the coupled dynamic


model are constructed and simplified to a reduced-order model through
the Galerkin-type discretization based on the Hermite cubic interpolation
Abstract: functions. The Newmark-β method is adopted to solve the equations.
iew

The numerical simulation results based on the prediction model are


compared with the experimental results. The comparisons show that the
prediction model is reasonable in modeling some main features of the
riser VIV response, such as vibration frequency, mode number and
displacement amplitude. Finally, the in-line and cross-flow VIV response
of a real-scale top-tension riser using in the South China Sea is
analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of the sea current velocity and top-
tension force on the riser VIV response has also been discussed in the
present study.

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Page 1 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

1 Analysis and prediction of in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibration response of


2
3
4 deep sea real-scale top-tension riser in sheared flow
5
6 Guanghai Gao a, Yunjing Cuib,*, Xingqi Qiua,*, Qi Shub
7
8 a
College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China
9 b
10 College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 266580,
11 China
12
13
14 ABSTRACT
15
16
17 The purpose of this paper is to predict the coupled in-line and cross-flow VIV response of deep sea real-scale top-tension
18 riser subjected to linear sheared flow in the non-locking region. Considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex
19 shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force, a modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model based on van der Pol
20
wake oscillator has been proposed in the present study. The obtained nonlinear partial differential equations of the coupled dy-
21
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22 namic model are constructed and simplified to a reduced-order model through the Galerkin-type discretization based on the
23 Hermite cubic interpolation functions. The Newmark-β method is adopted to solve the equations. The numerical simulation
24 results based on the prediction model are compared with the experimental results. The comparisons show that the prediction
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25
26 model is reasonable in modeling some main features of the riser VIV response, such as vibration frequency, mode number and
27 displacement amplitude. Finally, the in-line and cross-flow VIV response of a real-scale top-tension riser using in the South
28
ee

China Sea is analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of the sea current velocity and top-tension force on the riser VIV response has
29
30 also been discussed in the present study.
31
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32
Keywords: South China Sea, Top-tension riser, Vortex-induced vibration, Wake oscillator model, Sea current velocity,
33 Top-tension force
34
35
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36
1. Introduction
37 As an important equipment of offshore oil/gas production system, the application of top-tension riser is becoming more and
38
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39 more extensive with the production of oil/gas extending to deeper water. When the sea current flows through the riser, due to
40 the presence of the riser there will be flow separation at certain velocities resulting in shed vortices and periodic wakes. Owing
41 to the periodic shedding of vortices, the riser will be subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). VIV is a major concern in
42
43 the design of deep sea top-tension riser, since it can result in large amplitude responses in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF)
44 directions, and further lead to accumulation of fatigue damage within a relatively short time period. The practical significance
45 of VIV has led to a large number of fundamental studies, some systematic and comprehensive reviews attempted to introduce
46
and summarize the physical phenomena, existing experimental study, semi-empirical models and computational fluid dynamic
47
48 codes [1-5].
49 The semi-empirical models for VIV response analysis have been used prevalently in the engineering. In particular, the wake
50 oscillator model is widely used in engineering practice in recent years. A non-linear oscillator is used to simulate the near wake
51
52 dynamics of the riser. The riser VIV response is predicted by the coupling equations which are combined by the wake oscillator
53 and the structure oscillator. The concept of wake oscillator model was first proposed by Birkhoff and Zarantanello [6]. Bishop
54 et al. [7] first proposed that the wake characteristics near the cylinder were simulated by an oscillator and assumed that the os-
55
56 cillator satisfied the van der Pol equation or the Rayleigh equation. Based on the van der Pol equation, the specific expression
57 of the wake oscillator was created by Hartlen and Currie [8]. Then the wake oscillator model has been continuously improved
58 by Balasubramanian and Skop [9], Krenk and Nielsen [10]. Facchinetti et al. [11] conducted detailed research on the specific
59
expression of the wake oscillator model. Three different coupling terms, including displacement, velocity and acceleration cou-
60
pling, were evaluated in their research. The study found that the best manifestation of the general mechanisms of VIV was the
acceleration coupling term.
So far, there are a number of wake oscillator models discussed in the literatures, and many of these studies were based on
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*Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: ggh8912@sina.com (Y.J. Cui), apvshi@upc.edu.cn (X.Q. Qiu).
Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 2 of 16

cross-flow VIV. Facchinetti et al. [12] investigated the cross-flow VIV of a very slender cable subjected to a stationary uniform
1 cross-flow using a travelling wave approach, and established a selection criterion for vortex-induced waves. Violette et al. [13]
2 computed the VIV of long structures for both uniform and non-uniform flow using a wake oscillator model, and compared the
3
4 results with DNS and experimental results. The comparisons showed that the proposed method can be used in the prediction of
5 some aspects of vortex induced vibrations of long flexible structures. Xu et al. [14] studied a two-dimensional vortex-induced
6 vibration prediction model for high aspect ratio (L/D) riser subjected to uniform and sheared flow, and adopted a new approach
7
8
to calibrate the empirical parameters in the wake oscillator model. Violette et al. [15] used a linear stability approach to predict
9 the VIV response of slender flexible structures. In the case of uniform flows over a straight tensioned cable, VIV were found to
10 arise as instability related to the merging of two waves. In the case of a cable of finite length, the selection of modes that expe-
11
rience lock-in with the wake was found using the same stability argument. In non-uniform flows, several unstable wave systems
12
13 were identified, and competition between them was discussed. A low-dimensional and a higher-order modified wake oscillator
14 model were created by Farshidianfar et al. [16-17] to estimate the VIV of an elastically mounted cylinder. The low-dimensional
15 modified wake oscillator model was introduced to describe the response of the system over a wide range of mass-damping rati-
16
17 os. The results showed that the new model can describe most of the features of vortex-induced vibration phenomenology. The
18 higher-order modified model was introduced to estimate the structural oscillation amplitude of a circular cylinder during lock-in
19 in the vortex-induced vibration phenomenon. Ogink and Metrikine [18] established a wake oscillator model with frequency
20
21
dependent coupling to predict the VIV response of an elastically mounted cylinder. An attempt was made to introduce the wake
Fo

22 oscillator model that conformed to both the free and forced vibration experiments. Srinil [19] studied the VIV of varia-
23 ble-tension vertical risers in linearly sheared currents, and the variation of empirical wake coefficients with system parameters
24
and the water depth-dependent Reynolds number was introduced in the study. Meng et al. [20] researched the internal flow ef-
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25
26 fect on the cross-flow VIV of a flexible riser transporting an axial single-phase internal flow by using the Galerkin-based mul-
27 ti-mode approach combined with the Houbolt's finite difference scheme. The results showed that internal flow influences the
28
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vibration amplitude and the dominant vibration frequency. He et al. [21] studied the VIV response of an elastic and slender flu-
29
30 id-conveying pipe with a top-end excitation subjected to uniform cross flows, and the results showed that the top-end excitation
31 has a great influence on the vibration response of the pipe whether the cross-flow speed is within the lock-in region or not.
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32 Recently, many scholars have focused their attention on the research of in-line and cross-flow coupled VIV. Furnes and
33
34
Sørensen [22] studied the VIV response of a free span pipeline subjected to fluid flow. Arbitrary current profiles were account-
35 ed for by introducing intervals of piecewise linear functions. Ge et al. [23] modeled the VIV of long circular cylinders by using
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36 coupled nonlinear oscillators. The results showed that the in-line curvature is not smaller than the cross-flow curvature, which
37
indicates that both in-line and cross-flow vibrations are important for the structural fatigue damage. Wu et al. [24] analyzed the
38
iew

39 effect of travelling wave on VIV of submerged floating tunnel tethers. The result showed that for flexible tether with large as-
40 pect ratio, traveling wave other than standing wave dominates the response. Compared to standing wave regions, the regions
41 dominated by traveling wave response are more favorable for higher harmonic, which more likely cause fatigue damage. Srinil
42
43 and Zanganeh [25] researched the in-line and cross-flow VIV of a flexibly mounted circular cylinder in a uniform flow basing
44 on double Duffing-van der Pol oscillators. New analytical functions accounting for the dependence of VIV on a physical mass
45 and/or damping parameter had been established in their research. The results showed that the structural geometrical nonlineari-
46
47
ties has important effect on the VIV of the circular cylinder. Gu et al. [26] adopted the generalized integral transform technique
48 and the Adams-Moulton and Gear method to predict the VIV response of a long flexible cylinder. The influence of variation of
49 mean axial tension induced by elongation of flexible cylinder was evaluated, which was shown to be not negligible in numeri-
50
cal simulation of VIV of a long flexible cylinder. The results showed that the increase of mean axial tension can decrease the
51
52 mode number of response. Bai and Qin [27] established a new vortex strength wake oscillator model to predict the VIV re-
53 sponse of a rigid 2-D circular cylinder. The two-dimensional potential flow approach was adopted in their research. The re-
54 duced-order model also used in predicting VIV response of a 3-D top tensioned riser undergoing a stepped current was pre-
55
56 sented in their research. The simulation results highlighted the combination of standing wave and traveling wave occurring in
57 structure vibration.
58 However, there are few studies on the coupled in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibration of deep sea real-scale
59
60
top-tension riser considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force.
Therefore, it is necessary to study the vortex-induced vibration response of the deep sea real-scale top-tension riser. In this pa-
per, the coupled in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibration response of a real-scale top-tension riser used in a practical
oil/gas production system in the South China Sea in the non-locking region is studied. First, a modified nonlinear
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Page 3 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

three-dimensional time domain prediction model considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency
1 and hydrodynamic force has been proposed to predict the vortex-induced response of the riser. Then, two comparisons between
2 the numerical and experimental results show the validity of the prediction model. Finally, the vibration response of a riser sub-
3
4 jected to linear sheared flow and the effect of sea surface current velocity and top-tension force on the riser vibration response
5 have been discussed.
6
7 2. Model description
8
9 2.1. Structural model
10
11 In the actual production of deep sea oil/gas, the top end of the top-tension riser is connected with the floating system
12 through the top tension system and the bottom end of the riser is connected with the subsea wellhead device through flex ball
13
joint. So, the top-tension riser model can be idealized as an Euler–Bernoulli beam located in the vertical plane and subjected to
14
15 both non-uniform axial tension force and non-uniform lateral force generated by sea current.
16 A Cartesian coordinate system with its origin at the bottom of the riser has been used, in which the x axis is parallel to the
17 sea current, z coincides with the vertical axis of the riser in its un-deflected configuration and y is perpendicular to both (see
18
19 Fig.1). The following assumptions are applied: (i)The material of the riser is linearly elastic; (ii)The strain of the riser is small;
20 (iii)The riser outer diameter and cross-section remains unchanged; (iv)The influence of other structures on the riser is ignored.
21
Fo

22
23
24
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25
26
27
28
ee

29
30
31
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32
33
34
35
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36 Fig.1. Schematic model of deep sea top-tension riser.


37
38
iew

2.2. Structural equations of motion


39
40 The equations of the motion of deep sea top-tension riser can be written as [28-30]:
41
42   4 x ( z, t )  2 x ( z, t ) x ( z, t )  2 x ( z, t ) x( z , t )
43  EI 4
 T (z) 2
w m 2
 cx  f x ( z, t )
z z  z t t
44  4 2 2
(1)
45  EI  y ( z , t )  T ( z )  y ( z, t )  w y ( z, t )  m  y ( z , t )  c y ( z, t )  f ( z , t )
46  z 4 z 2 z t 2
y
t
y

47
48 where EI is the riser bending stiffness; T ( z ) is the riser effective axial tension force; w is the wet weight of per unit length ris-
49 er; m is the equivalent mass of per unit length riser; cx is the damping coefficient of the in-line direction; c y is the damping
50
51
coefficient of the cross-flow direction; x( z , t ) and y ( z , t ) denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration displacement respec-
52 tively; x( z , t ) t and y ( z, t ) t denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration velocity respectively;  2 x ( z, t ) t 2 and
53  2 y ( z , t ) t 2 denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration acceleration respectively; f x ( z, t ) and f y ( z , t ) denote the in-line and
54
cross-flow fluctuating hydrodynamic force acting on the riser.
55
56 Considering the effect of the top-tension force, riser self-weight, buoyancy force, as well as the internal and external hydro-
57 static pressure acting on the riser [31], the effective axial tension force of top-tension riser can be written as:
58 H
59 T ( z )  Ttop   wdz
z
(2)
60
where Ttop is the top-tension force acting on riser, Ttop  f top wH , f top is the top tension force coefficient, H is the water depth.
The formulas of the wet weight and the corresponding mass of per unit length riser are as follows:
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Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 4 of 16

 w  (mr  mf  ma ) g
1 
2 m  mr  mf  ma
 2 2
3 mr  π r (D  d ) / 4 (3)
4  2

5 mf  πf d / 4
m  C π D 2 / 4
6  a a w

7
where mr , mf , ma denote the mass of per unit length riser, internal fluid and external seawater respectively; g is the gravity ac-
8
9 celeration; r , f , w denote the density of the riser, internal fluid and external seawater respectively; D and d denote the riser
10 outer and inner diameters; Ca is the added external seawater mass coefficient.
11
The formulas of the corresponding damping coefficients are as follows [25]:
12
13 cx  c  c x ; cx  2 f  w D 2
14  (4)
15 c y  c  c y ; c y   f  w D 2
16
where c is the structure damping coefficient; cx , c y denote the fluid damping coefficient of the in-line and cross-flow direction
17
18 respectively;  is the related coefficient (  = CD 4πSt );  f is the vortex shedding angular frequency; CD is the mean drag force
19 coefficient; St is the Strouhal number.
20
21 In the non-locking region, it is assumed that the vortex shedding frequency of the riser satisfies the Strouhal formula
Fo

22 
(  f  2πSt u ( z ) D ) [11, 25]. Meanwhile, taking into account the effect of the motion of the riser in the in-line direction, the
23 modified vortex shedding angular frequency can be expressed as follows:
24
u ( z )  x( z , t ) / t
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25  f  2πSt (5)
26 D
27 where u ( z ) is the sea current velocity at different water depths.
28
ee

Assuming that the sea current is linear sheared flow, the current velocity at different water depths can be written as follows:
29
30 z
u ( z )  ub  (us  ub ) (6)
31 H
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32 where us and ub denote the sea surface and bottom current velocity respectively.
33
34 Considering the effect of the motion of the riser in the in-line direction, the modified fluctuating hydrodynamic forces due
35
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to the vortex shedding according to the Morison equation can be expressed as follows:
36
37  2 x( z , t ) 2
 f x ( z , t )  0.5CD  w Du ( z )  0.5CD  w D(u( z )  t )
38
iew

 (7)
39  f ( z, t )  0.5C  D(u ( z )  x( z , t ) ) 2
40  y L w
t
41
where CD and CL denote the in-line vortex-induced drag force coefficient and the cross-flow vortex-induced lift force coefficient
42
43 of vibrational riser respectively.
44
45 2.3. Wake oscillator model and equations of motion
46
47 In the wake region of the riser, the riser and fluid are regarded as a whole system, and the wake fluid is regarded as a non-
48 linear oscillator. The interaction between the riser and the fluid can be represented by a wake oscillator model which based on
49
the van der Pol oscillator [11, 25]. The present research results show that the vibration frequency of the wake fluid in the in-line
50
51 direction is about twice the vibration frequency of the wake fluid in the cross-flow direction. So, the modified equations of the
52 motion of the near wake fluid can be written as follows:
53
54 p  2 x  f ( p 2  1)  4 f2 p  Fx( z, t )
 
55  2 2
(8)
q   y  f (q  1)   f q  Fy( z, t )
56
57 where p, q denote the in-line and cross-flow wake fluid variable parameter respectively; p  2 CD CD0 , q  2 CL CL0 , CD0 and
58
CL0 denote the in-line vortex-induced drag force coefficient and cross-flow vortex-induced lift force coefficient of fixed riser
59
60 respectively;  x ,  y are non-dimensional coefficients; Fx( z , t ), Fy( z , t ) denote the in-line and cross-flow force acting on the wake
fluid by the riser.
According to the research results[11, 25], the force acting on the wake fluid by the riser can expressed as follows:
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Page 5 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

 Ax  2 x( z , t )
1  Fx( z, t ) 
D t 2
 (9)
2  F ( z , t )  Ay  2 y ( z, t )
3 
y
D t 2
4
5 where Ax , Ay are non-dimensional coefficients.
6
7 2.4. Boundary and initial conditions
8
9 The riser model was pin-ended, so the displacements and curvatures were zero at each end of the riser. Hence, the boundary
10 conditions can be expressed as follows:
11
12 
13  x (0, t )  0, y (0, t )  0, x( H , t )  0, y ( H , t )  0
 2
14   x (0, t )  2 y (0, t )
15  2
 0, 0 (10)
 z z 2
16
  2 x( H , t )  2 y( H , t )
17  2
 0, 0
18  z z 2
19 Under initial conditions, zero dynamic displacements and velocities for both in-line and cross-flow are applied to the riser.
20
Values of fluid variables p and q are set as 2.0, and their first derivatives with respect to time are set to zero.
21
Fo

22
23 2.5. Model parameters
24
Although the Strouhal number is dependent on Reynolds number and will vary along the direction of water depth, it is here
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25
26 taken as constant ( St  0.17 ), which is assumed to be an approximation for the subcritical range. This has been found to apply
27 for moving risers [24, 26]. The added fluid mass coefficient Ca is taken a value of 1.0 [22].
28
ee

29 Values of the mean drag coefficient ( CD ), the vortex-induced drag force coefficient ( CD0 ) and the vortex-induced lift force
30 coefficient ( CL0 ) are set as 1.2, 0.1 and 0.3, respectively [22, 26]. Values for coefficients in the wake oscillator equations are set
31
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32
as  x  0.3 ,  y  0.3 , Ax  12 and Ay  12 [11, 22, 25].
33
34 2.6. Numerical solution method
35
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36 The flow chart of the numerical simulation is shown in Fig.2. The Galerkin-type finite element method was applied to solve
37 the equations of the vortex-induced vibration of the riser. First, the Hermite cubic interpolation functions were used to obtain
38
iew

the system flexural stiffness matrix, geometric stiffness matrix and mass matrix. Next, it is assumed that the vibrational shape
39
40 functions of the wake oscillators are trigonometric functions. Then the wake oscillators, initial conditions and boundary condi-
41 tions were used to obtain the system damping and dynamic load matrices at the initial condition. Last, the Newmark-β method
42 was used to solve the equations.
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
 K{x}  C x{x}  M { x}  Fx
52 
 K{ y}  C y { y}  M { 
y}  Fy
53
54
55
56
57
58 Fig.2. Flow chart of numerical method.
59
60 3. Validation of the simulation
In order to test the validity of the prediction model which proposed in the present study, comparisons with two sets of ex-
perimental results are carried out in this paper. The first comparative experiment was carried out at Delft Hydraulics in the Del-
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Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 6 of 16

ta Flume [32-33]. The main parameters of the riser model used in the experiment are given in Table 1.
1
Table 1
2 Main parameters of the riser model [26].
3
4 Parameters Values
5 Total length(m) 13.12
6 Outer diameter(mm) 28
7
8 Submerged length(m) 5.9
9 Bending stiffness(N·m ) 2
29.9
10 Mass ratio 3
11
Unit length mass in water(kg/m) 1.85
12
13 Length/diameter ratio 469
14 Structural damping coefficient (%) 0.3
15
16 Nine cases were calculated using the prediction model proposed in this paper. Comparisons of experimental and numerical
17
cross-flow vibration dominant frequencies and dominant mode numbers are shown in Table 2. The results show that the numer-
18
19 ical results in this paper are well in agreement with the experimental results except for a few cases (Case7 and Case9). The
20 Strouhal number is assumed to be constant ( St  0.17 ) in this paper. However, it can be seen from the experimental results that
21
Fo

the Strouhal number in different cases is different. This leads to a relatively large difference between the numerical and experi-
22
23 mental results in these two cases. In general, the relative errors between the numerical and experimental results are acceptable
24 in engineering applications.
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25
26 Table 2
Measured and calculated dominant frequencies and dominant mode numbers (CF direction).
27
28 Measured Measured Calculated Calculated Calculated and
ee

29 Top tension Speed


Case dominant dominant dominant dominant Measured frequency
30 (N) (m/s)
31 frequency(Hz) mode number frequency(Hz) mode number error (%)
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32 1 405 0.16 0.939 2 0.961 2 2.343


33 2 407 0.21 1.298 3 1.273 3 -1.926
34
3 457 0.31 1.971 4 1.914 4 -2.892
35
ev

36 4 506 0.40 2.512 5 2.457 5 -2.189


37 5 598 0.54 3.343 6 3.276 6 -2.004
38
iew

6 670 0.60 3.854 6 3.722 6 -3.425


39
40 7 743 0.70 4.528 7 4.294 7 -5.168
41 8 923 0.85 4.981 7 5.083 7 2.048
42 9 1002 0.95 6.082 7 5.875 8 -3.387
43
44 Experiments
1.2
45 Calculations
Experiments
12 Calculations
46
47
48 0.8
49 8
xmax/D

ymax/D

50
51
52 0.4
53 4
54
55
56 0 0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
57 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
58 Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s)
59 Fig.3. Maximum VIV displacements of the riser model.
60
Fig.3 shows the experimental and numerical results of the model in-line and cross-flow maximum vibration displacements.
It can be seen that the numerical results in this paper are a little larger than the experimental results. The maximum relative er-
rors of the in-line and cross-flow maximumhttps://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aime
vibration displacements are 5.66% and 7.64% respectively. Overall, the relative
Page 7 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

errors between the numerical and experimental results are acceptable.


1 The second comparative experiment was carried out at Hanøytangen outside Bergen in Norway [34]. The main parameters
2 of the riser model used in the experiment are given in Table 3.
3
4 Table 3
5 Main parameters of the riser model [34].
6 Parameters Values
7
8 Total length(m) 90
9 Outer diameter(m) 0.03
10 Inner diameter (m) 0.026
11 2
Bending stiffness(N·m ) 3.64×103
12
13 Riser density(kg/m3) 3211
14 Unit length mass(kg/m) 2.27
15
Mass ratio 3.13
16
17 Length/diameter ratio 3000
18 Top tension force(N) 3700
19
20 Fig.4 illustrates the experimental and numerical results of the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration root-mean square (RMS)
21
Fo

displacements. The numerical results reproduce the traveling wave vibration of the riser in-line and cross-flow directions which
22
23 observed in the experiment. The calculated numbers of the excited mode in the in-line and cross-flow directions of the riser is
24 the same as that obtained in the experiment. The riser in-line and cross-flow vibration root-mean square displacements obtained
rP

25 in the prediction model proposed in this paper are larger than the experimental results. The maximum relative errors of the
26
27 in-line and cross-flow are 18.3% and 10.7% respectively. This may be due to the value of the parameters used in this paper are
28 larger than the actual situation. In general, the relative errors of the numerical and experimental results are acceptable.
ee

29
30 0
Experiments
0
31 Calculations
Experiments
rR

-10 -10 Calculations


32
33 -20 -20
34 -30
-30
35
ev
Depth(m)

36
Depth(m)

-40 -40
37
-50 -50
38
iew

39 -60 -60
40
-70
41 -70
42 -80 -80
43
-90
44 -90
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0 1 2 3 4
45 Rms of CF VIV Displacement(m) ×10-3
Rms of IL VIV Displacement(m) ×10-3
46
47 Fig.4. RMS displacements of the model (towing speed 0.54m/s).
48
49 From the above comparisons, it can be seen that the calculated vibration displacements obtained in the prediction model
50 proposed in this paper are larger than the experimental results. The numerical prediction results are conservative in the engi-
51 neering design of deep sea top-tension riser. The relative errors of the numerical and experimental results are acceptable in the
52
53 engineering design. Overall, the prediction model proposed in this paper is valid in predicting the main features of the VIV re-
54 sponse of large length/diameter ratio top-tension riser.
55
56 4. Case study
57
58 In the present study, a real scale top-tension riser used in a practical oil/gas production system in the South China Sea was
59 taken as an example to analyze the riser VIV response. The main parameters of the riser are given in Table 4.
60
Table 4
Main parameters of the top-tension riser.
Parameters Values
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Water depth WD (m) 2000


1 Outer diameter D (m) 0.5334
2 Inner diameter d (m) 0.4826
3 2
4 Elastic modulus E (N/m ) 2.1×1011
5 Riser density ρr (kg/m3) 7850
6 Internal fluid density ρf (kg/m ) 3
865
7 3
Seawater density ρw (kg/m ) 1030
8
9 Length/diameter ratio 3750
10 Top-tension force coefficient ftop 1.1~1.6
11
Sea surface current velocity ut (m/s) 0.5~1.5
12
13 Sea bottom current velocity ub (m/s) 0.2
14 Structural damping coefficient c (%) 0.3
15
16 Some key features of riser VIV response can be illustrated by inspecting the eigenfrequencies of the riser. Hence, the sub-
17 space iteration method was first applied to calculate the riser eigenfrequencies. The sea surface current velocity was chosen to
18
19 be 1.5m/s. Fig.5 shows the eigenfrequencies of the riser with different top-tension force coefficients. It can be seen that with the
20 increase of the top-tension force coefficients, the eigenfrequencies of the riser increase gradually. It is clear that the eigenfre-
21 quencies of the riser are sensitive to the variation of top-tension force.
Fo

22
23 1.5
ftop=1.2
24 ftop=1.4
rP

25
Eigen frequency(Hz)

ftop=1.6
26 1.0

27
28
ee

0.5
29
30
31 0.0
rR

0 10 20 30 40 50
32
Mode number
33
Fig.5. The eigenfrequencies of the riser with different top-tension force coefficients. ( Ca  1.0 )
34
35
ev

36 According to Eq. (5), the maximum vortex shedding period is about 15.7s in theory. It is possible to work with longer time
37 series of steady state oscillations that the dominant frequency components of the response could be clearly identified. Mean-
38
iew

while, it can be known from the Newmark-β method that the smaller the calculation time interval, the easier the calculation
39
result will be recognized. Therefore, the total time of calculating vortex-induced vibration response of the top-tension riser
40
41 was run over a period of 500s at interval of 0.01s in this paper. It was assumed that the vortex-induced vibration of the riser
42 was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied the Eq. (5). The top-tension force coefficient was
43 chosen to be 1.6 and the sea surface current velocity was chosen to be 1.5m/s in the present study.
44
45 Fig.6 shows the displacements of the riser. The in-line root-mean square (RMS) displacement of the riser was obtained after
46 removing the in-line time-averaged displacement. As is shown in Fig.6 (a), the maximum in-line time-averaged displacement of
47 the riser is 24.27m, which is located in the water depth of 910m. The maximum rotation angle is 3.27°, which is located in the
48
49 top end of the riser. This shows that the in-line bending deformation of the riser is within the linear elastic range, and the as-
50 sumptions in section 2.1 are reasonable. Fig.6 (b) shows the RMS values of the in-line displacement along the riser. It can be
51 seen from the figure that there is 37th mode in the vibration response. The small size of the ripples indicates that the response
52
mainly consists of travelling waves. Fig.6 (c) shows the RMS values of the cross-flow displacement along the riser. It can be
53
54 seen from the figure that there is 25th mode in the vibration response. The small size of the ripples also indicates that the re-
55 sponse mainly consists of travelling waves. Comparing with Fig.6 (b) and Fig.6 (c), it can be seen that the cross-flow RMS dis-
56 placement of the riser is much larger than that of the in-line RMS displacement, and the magnitude of the cross-flow RMS dis-
57
58 placement is about 10 times of the in-line RMS displacement.
59
60

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0
1 (a) (b) (c)

2
3 400
4
5

Water depth(m)
800
6
7
8 1200
9
10
11 1600
12
13
2000
14 0 15 30 0 10
-3
20 ×10 0 10 20 ×10-2
15 Displacement(m)
16
17 Fig.6. The displacements of the riser. (a)Time-averaged of IL displacement, (b)RMS of IL displacement, (c)RMS of CF displacement.
18
19 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser motion in different water depths (WD=10, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1990m) are given in
20 Fig.7. As can be seen from the figure, the maximum in-line vibration displacement of the riser is 0.0891m (0.167D), and the
21 maximum cross-flow vibration displacement of the riser is 0.6027m (1.13D). It is known that the cross-flow maximum vibra-
Fo

22
tion displacement of the riser is about 7.5 times of the in-line maximum vibration displacement. It can be seen from Fig.7 that at
23
24 the same position, the riser in-line vibration period is less than that of the cross-flow vibration. It is clear that the cross-flow
rP

25 vibration has larger amplitude but lower frequency than the in-line vibration, which agrees with the experimental observation.
26
Meanwhile, the in-line and cross-flow vibration periods and displacement amplitudes of the riser at different water depths are
27
28 also different. In a word, it can be seen from the figure that the in-line and cross-flow vibrations of the riser are very compli-
ee

29 cated, which are shown as quasi-periodic motion rather than completely symmetrical periodic motion.
30 ×10-2 ×10-1
31
rR

2 WD=10m 2 WD=10m
32 0 0
33 -2 -2
34 3 WD=500m 4 WD=500m

35
ev

0 0
CF vibration displacement(m)
IL vibration displacement(m)

36 -3 -4
37 3 WD=1000m 4 WD=1000m
38
iew

0 0
39
-3
40
-4
3 WD=1500m 4 WD=1500m
41 0 0
42
43
-3 -4
3 WD=1990m 2 WD=1990m
44
0 0
45
-2
46 -3
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
47 Times(s) Times(s)

48
(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
49
50 Fig.7. Time histories of the riser IL and CF vibration displacements in different water depths.
51
52 Fig.8 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement in different water depths. It can be seen that the bulk
53 of the in-line response is seen to exist between 0.021 and 1.178Hz, and the bulk of the cross-flow response is seen to exist be-
54 tween 0.021 and 0.594Hz. According to Fig.5, the first mode eigenfrequency is 0.024Hz, the 26th mode eigenfrequency is
55
56 0.597Hz, and the 44th mode eigenfrequency is 1.177Hz. It can be seen that the number of the in-line vibration participating
57 modes reaches 44, and the number of the cross-flow vibration participating modes reaches 26. It is clear that at the same sea
58 surface current velocity, the in-line maximum vibration frequency of the riser is approximately 2 times that of the cross-flow. At
59
60
the same time, the in-line and cross-flow vibration response of the riser are all shown to be high order multi-modal response at
each position. This is because even at the same position, the frequency of the vortex shedding is constantly changing due to the
motion of the riser in the in-line direction, which makes the riser vibration frequency constantly changing. As can be seen from
Fig. 8, the highest peak frequencies at different positions of the riser are different, and the number of participating modes in the
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vibration is also different. This is because the sea current velocity and the axial tension force at different positions are all dif-
1 ferent, which makes the vortex shedding frequency different in different position, thereby causing the above phenomenon. As
2 shown in Fig.8, the richness in frequency content indicates an irregular character of the response, which is corroborated by the
3
4 time history in Fig.7. Meanwhile, the in-line response is much more irregular than the cross-flow response, as can be seen from
5 the width of the spectrum and the high number of participating modes.
6 20 WD=10m
90
WD=10m
7 45
8
10

9 0
40 WD=500m
0
WD=500m
300
10
20
11 150

12 0
40 WD=1000m
0
WD=1000m
Amplitude

13

Amplitude
300

14
20 150

15 0
40 WD=1500m
0
400 WD=1500m
16
17
20 200

18 0
40 WD=1990m
0
WD=1990m
19
150

20 20 75

21 0 0
Fo

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
22 Frequency(Hz) Frequency(Hz)

23 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction


24
Fig.8. Amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement in different water depths.
rP

25
26
4.1. Influence of sea surface current velocity
27
28
ee

According to the environmental condition in the South China Sea, three different sea surface current velocities were select-
29
30 ed in the present study and they were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s respectively. The top-tension force coefficient was chosen to be 1.6 in
31 this section. It was assumed that the VIV of the riser was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied
rR

32 the Eq. (5).


33
34
Fig.9 shows the riser in-line time-averaged displacement. It can be seen from Fig.9 that the riser in-line time-averaged dis-
35 placement increases gradually with the increase of the sea surface current velocity. The maximum time-averaged displacements
ev

36 of the riser at the three velocities are 3.94, 11.89 and 24.27m, and the corresponding water depths are 1020, 940 and 910m.
37
According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (7), the hydrodynamic load acting on the riser increases when the sea current velocity increases.
38
iew

39 Therefore, the increase of the sea current velocity causes the riser in-line time-averaged displacement to increase. It is clear that
40 the variation of the sea surface current velocity has greatly changed the riser spatial configuration.
41
42 0
ut=0.5m/s
43 ut=1.0m/s
44 ut=1.5m/s
45 400

46
47
Water depth(m)

48 800

49
50
51 1200

52
53
1600
54
55
56
2000
57 0 10 20 30
58 IL time-averaged displacement(m)

59 Fig.9. IL time-averaged displacements of the riser with different sea surface current velocities.
60
The riser in-line and cross-flow RMS displacements at top-tension force coefficient 1.6 are shown in Fig.10. As are shown
in Fig.10, under the three sea surface current velocities, the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration mode numbers are 17, 24, 37
and 8, 17, 25, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity, the riser in-line
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and cross-flow vibration RMS displacements are all increase gradually.


1
2 0 0

3 ut=0.5m/s ut=1.0m/s ut=1.5m/s ut=0.5m/s ut=1.0m/s ut=1.5m/s

4 400 400
5
6
Water depth(m)

Water depth(m)
7 800 800

8
9 1200 1200
10
11
12 1600 1600

13
14 2000 2000
15 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2
-2
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
×10 ×10-1
16 Rms of IL VIV displacement(m) Rms of CF VIV displacement(m)

17 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction


18
Fig.10. RMS of the IL and CF displacements of the riser with different sea surface current velocities.
19
20
21 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different sea surface
Fo

22 current velocities are shown in Fig.11. The vibration displacement amplitudes of the riser with different sea surface current ve-
23 locities are given in Table 5. It can be seen from Fig.11 and Table 5 that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity,
24
the riser vibration period decreases gradually and the riser vibration displacement increases continuously. It is clear that the
rP

25
26 variation of the sea surface current velocity has a great influence on the vibration displacement of the riser.
27
×10-2 ×10-1
28
ee

ut=0.5m/s 3 ut=0.5m/s
29 2

30 0 0
31
rR

32 -2
CF VIV displacement(m)
IL VIV displacement(m)

-3
33 ut=1.0m/s 4 ut=1.0m/s
34 2

35
ev

0 0
36
-2
37 -4
38 5
iew

3 ut=1.5m/s ut=1.5m/s
39
40 0 0
41
42 -3 -5
43 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time(s) Time(s)
44
45 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
46
Fig.11. Time histories of the riser vibration displacements with different sea surface current velocities.(WD=1000m)
47
48 Table 5
49 Riser displacement amplitudes with different sea current velocities.
50
Current Vibration displacement amplitude(m)
51
52 velocity(m/s) In-line Cross-flow
53 0.5 0.0317 0.2570
54
1.0 0.0693 0.4764
55
56 1.5 0.0891 0.6027
57
58 Fig.12 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different sea
59 surface current velocities. It can be seen from Fig.12 that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity, the maximum
60
vibration frequency of the riser and the number of the highest peak frequencies and participating modes increase gradually, and
the dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration changing constantly.

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500
ut=0.5m/s ut=0.5m/s
1 30

2 250
15
3
4 0 0
5 40 ut=1.0m/s
400
ut=1.0m/s
Amplitude

Amplitude
6
7 20 200
8
9 0 0
10 40 ut=1.5m/s
300
ut=1.5m/s

11
12 20 150
13
14 0 0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
15 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
IL VIV frequency(Hz)
0.8 1.0 1.2
CF VIV frequency(Hz)
16
17 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
18 Fig.12. Amplitude spectrums of the riser vibration displacements with different sea surface current velocities. (WD=1000m)
19
20 According to Eq. (5), the frequency of vortex shedding increases with the increase of the sea current velocity in the
21 non-locking region. The increase of the vortex shedding frequency leads to (i) the maximum vibration frequency of the riser
Fo

22
increases gradually; (ii) the number of the participating modes increases continuously; (iii) the dominant frequencies and mode
23
24 numbers of the riser vibration changing constantly. It can be seen from Eq. (1) and Eq. (7) that the hydrodynamic load acting on
rP

25 the riser increases with the increase of the sea current velocity, which results in the increase of the riser vibration displacement.
26
All of these are consistent with the disciplines shown in Figures 10, 11, 12 and Table 5. It can be seen that in the non-locking
27
28 region, the variation of the sea current velocity has a great influence on the vortex-induced vibration of the riser, and the vibra-
ee

29 tion of the riser becomes more and more complicated with the increase of the sea current velocity.
30
31 4.2. Influence of top-tension force
rR

32
33 According to the process condition, three different top-tension force coefficients were selected in the present study and
34 they were 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 respectively. The sea surface current velocity was chosen to be 1.5m/s in this section. It was assumed
35
ev

that the VIV of the riser was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied the Eq. (5).
36
37 Fig.13 shows the riser in-line time-averaged displacement. It can be seen from Fig.13 that the riser in-line time-averaged
38
iew

displacement decreases gradually with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient. The maximum time-averaged displace-
39
ments of the riser at the three top-tension force coefficients are 38.66, 29.64 and 24.27m, and the corresponding water depths
40
41 are 1010, 960 and 910m. According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), the overall bending stiffness of the riser increases when the
42 top-tension force coefficient increases. Therefore, the increase of the top-tension force coefficient causes the riser in-line
43 time-averaged displacement to decrease. It is clear that the variation of the top-tension force coefficient has greatly changed the
44
45 riser spatial configuration.
46
0
47 ftop=1.2
48 ftop=1.4
49 ftop=1.6
400
50
51
52
Water depth(m)

800
53
54
55 1200
56
57
58 1600
59
60
2000
0 10 20 30 40
IL time-averaged displacement(m)

Fig.13. IL time-averaged displacements of the riser with different top-tension forces.


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The riser in-line and cross-flow RMS displacements at sea surface current velocity 1.5m/s are shown in Fig.14. As are
1 shown in Fig.14, under the three top-tension force coefficients, the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration mode numbers are 52,
2 44, 37 and 28, 26, 25, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the ris-
3
4 er in-line and cross-flow vibration RMS displacements are all decrease gradually.
5
6 0 0
ftop=1.2 ftop=1.4 ftop=1.6
7 ftop=1.2 ftop=1.4 ftop=1.6

8
400
9 400

10

Water depth(m)
Water depth(m)

11 800 800
12
13
14 1200 1200
15
16
17 1600 1600

18
19 2000
2000
20 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 ×10-2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 -1
×10
21 Rms of IL VIV displacement(m) Rms of CF VIV displacement(m)
Fo

22
(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
23
24 Fig.14. RMS of the IL and CF displacements of the riser with different top-tension forces.
rP

25
26 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different top-tension
27 force coefficients are shown in Fig.15. The vibration displacement amplitudes of the riser with different top-tension force coef-
28
ee

ficients are given in Table 6. It can be seen from Fig.15 and Table 6 that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient,
29
30 the riser vibration period and displacement decrease gradually. It is clear that the variation of the top-tension force coefficient
31 has a great influence on the vibration displacement of the riser.
rR

32
×10-2 ×10-1
33
5 ftop=1.2 4 ftop=1.2
34
35
ev

0 0
36
37
CF VIV displacement(m)

-5 -4
IL VIV displacement(m)

38
iew

3 ftop=1.4 4 ftop=1.4
39
40 0 0
41
42 -3 -4
43 3 ftop=1.6 4 ftop=1.6
44
45 0 0
46
47 -3 -4
48 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
49 Time(s) Time(s)
50
(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
51
52 Fig.15. Time histories of the riser vibration displacements with different top-tension forces.(WD=1000m)
53
Table 6
54 Riser displacement amplitudes with different top-tension forces.
55
56 Top-tension force Vibration displacement amplitude(m)
57 coefficient In-line Cross-flow
58
1.2 0.0961 0.7621
59
60 1.4 0.0927 0.7204
1.6 0.0891 0.6027

Fig.16 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different
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top-tension force coefficients. It can be seen from Fig.16 that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the maxi-
1 mum vibration frequency of the riser is almost unchanged. With the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the number of
2 the highest peak frequencies, the dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration change constantly.
3
4 40 ftop=1.2 400 ftop=1.2
5
6 20 200
7
8 0 0
9 50 ftop=1.4 400 ftop=1.4

Amplitude
Amplitude

10
11 25 200
12
13 0 0
400 ftop=1.6
14 40 ftop=1.6

15
16 20 200

17
18 0 0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
19 IL VIV frequency(Hz) CF VIV frequency(Hz)
20
(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction
21
Fo

22 Fig.16. Spectrum analysis of the riser vibration displacements with different top-tension forces. (WD=1000m)
23
24 According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), the riser bending stiffness increases with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient.
rP

25 The increase of the riser bending stiffness leads to (i)The eigenfrequency of the riser changing constantly, (ii)The vibration dis-
26
placement of the riser decreases gradually, (iii)The dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration changing
27
28 constantly. All of these are consistent with the disciplines shown in Figures 5, 14, 15, 16 and Table 6. It can be seen that in the
ee

29 non-locking region, the variation of the top-tension force coefficient has a great influence on the vortex-induced vibration of the
30 riser.
31
rR

32 5. Concluding remarks
33
34 A modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model of long flexible slender structure has been proposed in the
35
ev

present study to predict the vortex-induced vibration response of a real-scale top-tension riser used in a practical oil/gas produc-
36
37 tion system in South China Sea. The comparisons between the numerical and experimental results have shown that the predic-
38
iew

tion model is reasonable to predict the riser VIV response. The main conclusions can be drawn:
39
(1) The solution from the proposed model is capable of evaluating the vibration displacements, the dominant frequencies and
40
41 mode numbers, which are in good agreement with the results from the experiments.
42 (2) The VIV response of the deep sea real-scale top-tension riser performs as a form of high order multi-modal vibration in
43 the non-locking region, and the riser in-line and cross-flow VIV response mainly consists of travelling waves. The num-
44
45 ber of the participating modes of the riser in-line vibration is more than that of the cross-flow vibration. The maximum
46 vibration frequency of the riser in-line vibration is about 2 times that of the cross-flow vibration. The maximum vibration
47 displacement of the riser cross-flow vibration is about 10 times that of the in-line vibration. The in-line vibration response
48
of the riser is much more irregular than the cross-flow vibration response.
49
50 (3) In the non-locking region, whether the in-line or the cross-flow vibration response of the riser, the highest peak frequen-
51 cies at different positions of the riser are different, and the number of participating modes at different positions is also
52
different. In the in-line and cross-flow directions, the vibrations of the whole riser are all very complicated.
53
54 (4) The vortex-induced vibration of the riser is sensitive to the variation of the sea current velocity in the non-locking region.
55 The variation of the sea current velocity has great influence on the riser vibration displacement, the maximum vibration
56 frequency, the number of peak frequencies and participating modes, and the dominant mode numbers. In the non-locking
57
58 region, with the increase of the sea current velocity, the vibration displacement, the maximum vibration frequency, the
59 number of participating modes and dominant modes are all increase gradually.
60 (5) In the non-locking region, the vortex-induced vibration of the riser is sensitive to the variation of the top-tension force.
The variation of the top-tension force has great influence on the riser vibration displacement, the number of peak fre-
quencies and participating modes, and the dominant mode numbers. With the increase of the top-tension force, the max-
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imum vibration displacement of the riser decreases gradually in the non-locking region. The variation of the vibration of
1 the riser caused by the change of the top-tension force is more complicated. In actual production, the top-tension force
2 coefficient should be selected reasonably according to the environmental conditions.
3
4 Acknowledgments
5
6 The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National High Technology Research and Development
7
8
Program of China (863 Program, Grant No. 2013AA092602), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
9 (Grant No. 16CX06015A).
10
11 References
12
13 [1] Gabbai RD, Benaroya H. An overview of modeling and experiments of vortex-induced vibration of circular cylinders. Journal of Sound and
14 Vi-bration 2005; 282(3): 575-616.
15 [2] Williamson CHK, Govardhan R. A brief review of recent results in vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial
16
17 Aero-dynamics 2008; 96(6): 713-735.
18 [3] Sumner D. Two circular cylinders in cross-flow: a review. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2010; 26(6): 849-899.
19 [4] Bearman PW. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2011; 27(5): 648-658.
20
[5] Wu XD, Ge F and Hong YS. A review of recent studies on vortex-induced vibrations of long slender cylinders. Journal of Fluids and Structures
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