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Analysis and Prediction of in-line and Cross-flow Vortexinduced Vibration Response

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induced vibration response of deep sea real-scale top-

tension riser in sheared flow

Manuscript ID AME-18-2312

26-Oct-2018

Fo

Author:

Yunjing, Cui

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Xingqi, Qiu

Qi, Shu

Keywords:

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The purpose of this paper is to predict the coupled in-line and cross-flow

VIV response of deep sea real-scale top-tension riser subjected to linear

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sheared flow in the non-locking region. Considering the effect of the riser

in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force, a

modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model based on van

der Pol wake oscillator has been proposed in the present study. The

ev

model are constructed and simplified to a reduced-order model through

the Galerkin-type discretization based on the Hermite cubic interpolation

Abstract: functions. The Newmark-β method is adopted to solve the equations.

iew

compared with the experimental results. The comparisons show that the

prediction model is reasonable in modeling some main features of the

riser VIV response, such as vibration frequency, mode number and

displacement amplitude. Finally, the in-line and cross-flow VIV response

of a real-scale top-tension riser using in the South China Sea is

analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of the sea current velocity and top-

tension force on the riser VIV response has also been discussed in the

present study.

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Page 1 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

2

3

4 deep sea real-scale top-tension riser in sheared flow

5

6 Guanghai Gao a, Yunjing Cuib,*, Xingqi Qiua,*, Qi Shub

7

8 a

College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China

9 b

10 College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 266580,

11 China

12

13

14 ABSTRACT

15

16

17 The purpose of this paper is to predict the coupled in-line and cross-flow VIV response of deep sea real-scale top-tension

18 riser subjected to linear sheared flow in the non-locking region. Considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex

19 shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force, a modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model based on van der Pol

20

wake oscillator has been proposed in the present study. The obtained nonlinear partial differential equations of the coupled dy-

21

Fo

22 namic model are constructed and simplified to a reduced-order model through the Galerkin-type discretization based on the

23 Hermite cubic interpolation functions. The Newmark-β method is adopted to solve the equations. The numerical simulation

24 results based on the prediction model are compared with the experimental results. The comparisons show that the prediction

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25

26 model is reasonable in modeling some main features of the riser VIV response, such as vibration frequency, mode number and

27 displacement amplitude. Finally, the in-line and cross-flow VIV response of a real-scale top-tension riser using in the South

28

ee

China Sea is analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of the sea current velocity and top-tension force on the riser VIV response has

29

30 also been discussed in the present study.

31

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32

Keywords: South China Sea, Top-tension riser, Vortex-induced vibration, Wake oscillator model, Sea current velocity,

33 Top-tension force

34

35

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36

1. Introduction

37 As an important equipment of offshore oil/gas production system, the application of top-tension riser is becoming more and

38

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39 more extensive with the production of oil/gas extending to deeper water. When the sea current flows through the riser, due to

40 the presence of the riser there will be flow separation at certain velocities resulting in shed vortices and periodic wakes. Owing

41 to the periodic shedding of vortices, the riser will be subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). VIV is a major concern in

42

43 the design of deep sea top-tension riser, since it can result in large amplitude responses in both in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF)

44 directions, and further lead to accumulation of fatigue damage within a relatively short time period. The practical significance

45 of VIV has led to a large number of fundamental studies, some systematic and comprehensive reviews attempted to introduce

46

and summarize the physical phenomena, existing experimental study, semi-empirical models and computational fluid dynamic

47

48 codes [1-5].

49 The semi-empirical models for VIV response analysis have been used prevalently in the engineering. In particular, the wake

50 oscillator model is widely used in engineering practice in recent years. A non-linear oscillator is used to simulate the near wake

51

52 dynamics of the riser. The riser VIV response is predicted by the coupling equations which are combined by the wake oscillator

53 and the structure oscillator. The concept of wake oscillator model was first proposed by Birkhoff and Zarantanello [6]. Bishop

54 et al. [7] first proposed that the wake characteristics near the cylinder were simulated by an oscillator and assumed that the os-

55

56 cillator satisfied the van der Pol equation or the Rayleigh equation. Based on the van der Pol equation, the specific expression

57 of the wake oscillator was created by Hartlen and Currie [8]. Then the wake oscillator model has been continuously improved

58 by Balasubramanian and Skop [9], Krenk and Nielsen [10]. Facchinetti et al. [11] conducted detailed research on the specific

59

expression of the wake oscillator model. Three different coupling terms, including displacement, velocity and acceleration cou-

60

pling, were evaluated in their research. The study found that the best manifestation of the general mechanisms of VIV was the

acceleration coupling term.

So far, there are a number of wake oscillator models discussed in the literatures, and many of these studies were based on

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*Corresponding authors.

E-mail addresses: ggh8912@sina.com (Y.J. Cui), apvshi@upc.edu.cn (X.Q. Qiu).

Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 2 of 16

cross-flow VIV. Facchinetti et al. [12] investigated the cross-flow VIV of a very slender cable subjected to a stationary uniform

1 cross-flow using a travelling wave approach, and established a selection criterion for vortex-induced waves. Violette et al. [13]

2 computed the VIV of long structures for both uniform and non-uniform flow using a wake oscillator model, and compared the

3

4 results with DNS and experimental results. The comparisons showed that the proposed method can be used in the prediction of

5 some aspects of vortex induced vibrations of long flexible structures. Xu et al. [14] studied a two-dimensional vortex-induced

6 vibration prediction model for high aspect ratio (L/D) riser subjected to uniform and sheared flow, and adopted a new approach

7

8

to calibrate the empirical parameters in the wake oscillator model. Violette et al. [15] used a linear stability approach to predict

9 the VIV response of slender flexible structures. In the case of uniform flows over a straight tensioned cable, VIV were found to

10 arise as instability related to the merging of two waves. In the case of a cable of finite length, the selection of modes that expe-

11

rience lock-in with the wake was found using the same stability argument. In non-uniform flows, several unstable wave systems

12

13 were identified, and competition between them was discussed. A low-dimensional and a higher-order modified wake oscillator

14 model were created by Farshidianfar et al. [16-17] to estimate the VIV of an elastically mounted cylinder. The low-dimensional

15 modified wake oscillator model was introduced to describe the response of the system over a wide range of mass-damping rati-

16

17 os. The results showed that the new model can describe most of the features of vortex-induced vibration phenomenology. The

18 higher-order modified model was introduced to estimate the structural oscillation amplitude of a circular cylinder during lock-in

19 in the vortex-induced vibration phenomenon. Ogink and Metrikine [18] established a wake oscillator model with frequency

20

21

dependent coupling to predict the VIV response of an elastically mounted cylinder. An attempt was made to introduce the wake

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22 oscillator model that conformed to both the free and forced vibration experiments. Srinil [19] studied the VIV of varia-

23 ble-tension vertical risers in linearly sheared currents, and the variation of empirical wake coefficients with system parameters

24

and the water depth-dependent Reynolds number was introduced in the study. Meng et al. [20] researched the internal flow ef-

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25

26 fect on the cross-flow VIV of a flexible riser transporting an axial single-phase internal flow by using the Galerkin-based mul-

27 ti-mode approach combined with the Houbolt's finite difference scheme. The results showed that internal flow influences the

28

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vibration amplitude and the dominant vibration frequency. He et al. [21] studied the VIV response of an elastic and slender flu-

29

30 id-conveying pipe with a top-end excitation subjected to uniform cross flows, and the results showed that the top-end excitation

31 has a great influence on the vibration response of the pipe whether the cross-flow speed is within the lock-in region or not.

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32 Recently, many scholars have focused their attention on the research of in-line and cross-flow coupled VIV. Furnes and

33

34

Sørensen [22] studied the VIV response of a free span pipeline subjected to fluid flow. Arbitrary current profiles were account-

35 ed for by introducing intervals of piecewise linear functions. Ge et al. [23] modeled the VIV of long circular cylinders by using

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36 coupled nonlinear oscillators. The results showed that the in-line curvature is not smaller than the cross-flow curvature, which

37

indicates that both in-line and cross-flow vibrations are important for the structural fatigue damage. Wu et al. [24] analyzed the

38

iew

39 effect of travelling wave on VIV of submerged floating tunnel tethers. The result showed that for flexible tether with large as-

40 pect ratio, traveling wave other than standing wave dominates the response. Compared to standing wave regions, the regions

41 dominated by traveling wave response are more favorable for higher harmonic, which more likely cause fatigue damage. Srinil

42

43 and Zanganeh [25] researched the in-line and cross-flow VIV of a flexibly mounted circular cylinder in a uniform flow basing

44 on double Duffing-van der Pol oscillators. New analytical functions accounting for the dependence of VIV on a physical mass

45 and/or damping parameter had been established in their research. The results showed that the structural geometrical nonlineari-

46

47

ties has important effect on the VIV of the circular cylinder. Gu et al. [26] adopted the generalized integral transform technique

48 and the Adams-Moulton and Gear method to predict the VIV response of a long flexible cylinder. The influence of variation of

49 mean axial tension induced by elongation of flexible cylinder was evaluated, which was shown to be not negligible in numeri-

50

cal simulation of VIV of a long flexible cylinder. The results showed that the increase of mean axial tension can decrease the

51

52 mode number of response. Bai and Qin [27] established a new vortex strength wake oscillator model to predict the VIV re-

53 sponse of a rigid 2-D circular cylinder. The two-dimensional potential flow approach was adopted in their research. The re-

54 duced-order model also used in predicting VIV response of a 3-D top tensioned riser undergoing a stepped current was pre-

55

56 sented in their research. The simulation results highlighted the combination of standing wave and traveling wave occurring in

57 structure vibration.

58 However, there are few studies on the coupled in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibration of deep sea real-scale

59

60

top-tension riser considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency and hydrodynamic force.

Therefore, it is necessary to study the vortex-induced vibration response of the deep sea real-scale top-tension riser. In this pa-

per, the coupled in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibration response of a real-scale top-tension riser used in a practical

oil/gas production system in the South China Sea in the non-locking region is studied. First, a modified nonlinear

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Page 3 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

three-dimensional time domain prediction model considering the effect of the riser in-line motion on vortex shedding frequency

1 and hydrodynamic force has been proposed to predict the vortex-induced response of the riser. Then, two comparisons between

2 the numerical and experimental results show the validity of the prediction model. Finally, the vibration response of a riser sub-

3

4 jected to linear sheared flow and the effect of sea surface current velocity and top-tension force on the riser vibration response

5 have been discussed.

6

7 2. Model description

8

9 2.1. Structural model

10

11 In the actual production of deep sea oil/gas, the top end of the top-tension riser is connected with the floating system

12 through the top tension system and the bottom end of the riser is connected with the subsea wellhead device through flex ball

13

joint. So, the top-tension riser model can be idealized as an Euler–Bernoulli beam located in the vertical plane and subjected to

14

15 both non-uniform axial tension force and non-uniform lateral force generated by sea current.

16 A Cartesian coordinate system with its origin at the bottom of the riser has been used, in which the x axis is parallel to the

17 sea current, z coincides with the vertical axis of the riser in its un-deflected configuration and y is perpendicular to both (see

18

19 Fig.1). The following assumptions are applied: (i)The material of the riser is linearly elastic; (ii)The strain of the riser is small;

20 (iii)The riser outer diameter and cross-section remains unchanged; (iv)The influence of other structures on the riser is ignored.

21

Fo

22

23

24

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25

26

27

28

ee

29

30

31

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32

33

34

35

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37

38

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39

40 The equations of the motion of deep sea top-tension riser can be written as [28-30]:

41

42 4 x ( z, t ) 2 x ( z, t ) x ( z, t ) 2 x ( z, t ) x( z , t )

43 EI 4

T (z) 2

w m 2

cx f x ( z, t )

z z z t t

44 4 2 2

(1)

45 EI y ( z , t ) T ( z ) y ( z, t ) w y ( z, t ) m y ( z , t ) c y ( z, t ) f ( z , t )

46 z 4 z 2 z t 2

y

t

y

47

48 where EI is the riser bending stiffness; T ( z ) is the riser effective axial tension force; w is the wet weight of per unit length ris-

49 er; m is the equivalent mass of per unit length riser; cx is the damping coefficient of the in-line direction; c y is the damping

50

51

coefficient of the cross-flow direction; x( z , t ) and y ( z , t ) denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration displacement respec-

52 tively; x( z , t ) t and y ( z, t ) t denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration velocity respectively; 2 x ( z, t ) t 2 and

53 2 y ( z , t ) t 2 denote the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration acceleration respectively; f x ( z, t ) and f y ( z , t ) denote the in-line and

54

cross-flow fluctuating hydrodynamic force acting on the riser.

55

56 Considering the effect of the top-tension force, riser self-weight, buoyancy force, as well as the internal and external hydro-

57 static pressure acting on the riser [31], the effective axial tension force of top-tension riser can be written as:

58 H

59 T ( z ) Ttop wdz

z

(2)

60

where Ttop is the top-tension force acting on riser, Ttop f top wH , f top is the top tension force coefficient, H is the water depth.

The formulas of the wet weight and the corresponding mass of per unit length riser are as follows:

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Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 4 of 16

w (mr mf ma ) g

1

2 m mr mf ma

2 2

3 mr π r (D d ) / 4 (3)

4 2

5 mf πf d / 4

m C π D 2 / 4

6 a a w

7

where mr , mf , ma denote the mass of per unit length riser, internal fluid and external seawater respectively; g is the gravity ac-

8

9 celeration; r , f , w denote the density of the riser, internal fluid and external seawater respectively; D and d denote the riser

10 outer and inner diameters; Ca is the added external seawater mass coefficient.

11

The formulas of the corresponding damping coefficients are as follows [25]:

12

13 cx c c x ; cx 2 f w D 2

14 (4)

15 c y c c y ; c y f w D 2

16

where c is the structure damping coefficient; cx , c y denote the fluid damping coefficient of the in-line and cross-flow direction

17

18 respectively; is the related coefficient ( = CD 4πSt ); f is the vortex shedding angular frequency; CD is the mean drag force

19 coefficient; St is the Strouhal number.

20

21 In the non-locking region, it is assumed that the vortex shedding frequency of the riser satisfies the Strouhal formula

Fo

22

( f 2πSt u ( z ) D ) [11, 25]. Meanwhile, taking into account the effect of the motion of the riser in the in-line direction, the

23 modified vortex shedding angular frequency can be expressed as follows:

24

u ( z ) x( z , t ) / t

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25 f 2πSt (5)

26 D

27 where u ( z ) is the sea current velocity at different water depths.

28

ee

Assuming that the sea current is linear sheared flow, the current velocity at different water depths can be written as follows:

29

30 z

u ( z ) ub (us ub ) (6)

31 H

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32 where us and ub denote the sea surface and bottom current velocity respectively.

33

34 Considering the effect of the motion of the riser in the in-line direction, the modified fluctuating hydrodynamic forces due

35

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to the vortex shedding according to the Morison equation can be expressed as follows:

36

37 2 x( z , t ) 2

f x ( z , t ) 0.5CD w Du ( z ) 0.5CD w D(u( z ) t )

38

iew

(7)

39 f ( z, t ) 0.5C D(u ( z ) x( z , t ) ) 2

40 y L w

t

41

where CD and CL denote the in-line vortex-induced drag force coefficient and the cross-flow vortex-induced lift force coefficient

42

43 of vibrational riser respectively.

44

45 2.3. Wake oscillator model and equations of motion

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47 In the wake region of the riser, the riser and fluid are regarded as a whole system, and the wake fluid is regarded as a non-

48 linear oscillator. The interaction between the riser and the fluid can be represented by a wake oscillator model which based on

49

the van der Pol oscillator [11, 25]. The present research results show that the vibration frequency of the wake fluid in the in-line

50

51 direction is about twice the vibration frequency of the wake fluid in the cross-flow direction. So, the modified equations of the

52 motion of the near wake fluid can be written as follows:

53

54 p 2 x f ( p 2 1) 4 f2 p Fx( z, t )

55 2 2

(8)

q y f (q 1) f q Fy( z, t )

56

57 where p, q denote the in-line and cross-flow wake fluid variable parameter respectively; p 2 CD CD0 , q 2 CL CL0 , CD0 and

58

CL0 denote the in-line vortex-induced drag force coefficient and cross-flow vortex-induced lift force coefficient of fixed riser

59

60 respectively; x , y are non-dimensional coefficients; Fx( z , t ), Fy( z , t ) denote the in-line and cross-flow force acting on the wake

fluid by the riser.

According to the research results[11, 25], the force acting on the wake fluid by the riser can expressed as follows:

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Page 5 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Ax 2 x( z , t )

1 Fx( z, t )

D t 2

(9)

2 F ( z , t ) Ay 2 y ( z, t )

3

y

D t 2

4

5 where Ax , Ay are non-dimensional coefficients.

6

7 2.4. Boundary and initial conditions

8

9 The riser model was pin-ended, so the displacements and curvatures were zero at each end of the riser. Hence, the boundary

10 conditions can be expressed as follows:

11

12

13 x (0, t ) 0, y (0, t ) 0, x( H , t ) 0, y ( H , t ) 0

2

14 x (0, t ) 2 y (0, t )

15 2

0, 0 (10)

z z 2

16

2 x( H , t ) 2 y( H , t )

17 2

0, 0

18 z z 2

19 Under initial conditions, zero dynamic displacements and velocities for both in-line and cross-flow are applied to the riser.

20

Values of fluid variables p and q are set as 2.0, and their first derivatives with respect to time are set to zero.

21

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22

23 2.5. Model parameters

24

Although the Strouhal number is dependent on Reynolds number and will vary along the direction of water depth, it is here

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25

26 taken as constant ( St 0.17 ), which is assumed to be an approximation for the subcritical range. This has been found to apply

27 for moving risers [24, 26]. The added fluid mass coefficient Ca is taken a value of 1.0 [22].

28

ee

29 Values of the mean drag coefficient ( CD ), the vortex-induced drag force coefficient ( CD0 ) and the vortex-induced lift force

30 coefficient ( CL0 ) are set as 1.2, 0.1 and 0.3, respectively [22, 26]. Values for coefficients in the wake oscillator equations are set

31

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as x 0.3 , y 0.3 , Ax 12 and Ay 12 [11, 22, 25].

33

34 2.6. Numerical solution method

35

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36 The flow chart of the numerical simulation is shown in Fig.2. The Galerkin-type finite element method was applied to solve

37 the equations of the vortex-induced vibration of the riser. First, the Hermite cubic interpolation functions were used to obtain

38

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the system flexural stiffness matrix, geometric stiffness matrix and mass matrix. Next, it is assumed that the vibrational shape

39

40 functions of the wake oscillators are trigonometric functions. Then the wake oscillators, initial conditions and boundary condi-

41 tions were used to obtain the system damping and dynamic load matrices at the initial condition. Last, the Newmark-β method

42 was used to solve the equations.

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

K{x} C x{x} M { x} Fx

52

K{ y} C y { y} M {

y} Fy

53

54

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58 Fig.2. Flow chart of numerical method.

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60 3. Validation of the simulation

In order to test the validity of the prediction model which proposed in the present study, comparisons with two sets of ex-

perimental results are carried out in this paper. The first comparative experiment was carried out at Delft Hydraulics in the Del-

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Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 6 of 16

ta Flume [32-33]. The main parameters of the riser model used in the experiment are given in Table 1.

1

Table 1

2 Main parameters of the riser model [26].

3

4 Parameters Values

5 Total length(m) 13.12

6 Outer diameter(mm) 28

7

8 Submerged length(m) 5.9

9 Bending stiffness(N·m ) 2

29.9

10 Mass ratio 3

11

Unit length mass in water(kg/m) 1.85

12

13 Length/diameter ratio 469

14 Structural damping coefficient (%) 0.3

15

16 Nine cases were calculated using the prediction model proposed in this paper. Comparisons of experimental and numerical

17

cross-flow vibration dominant frequencies and dominant mode numbers are shown in Table 2. The results show that the numer-

18

19 ical results in this paper are well in agreement with the experimental results except for a few cases (Case7 and Case9). The

20 Strouhal number is assumed to be constant ( St 0.17 ) in this paper. However, it can be seen from the experimental results that

21

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the Strouhal number in different cases is different. This leads to a relatively large difference between the numerical and experi-

22

23 mental results in these two cases. In general, the relative errors between the numerical and experimental results are acceptable

24 in engineering applications.

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26 Table 2

Measured and calculated dominant frequencies and dominant mode numbers (CF direction).

27

28 Measured Measured Calculated Calculated Calculated and

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Case dominant dominant dominant dominant Measured frequency

30 (N) (m/s)

31 frequency(Hz) mode number frequency(Hz) mode number error (%)

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33 2 407 0.21 1.298 3 1.273 3 -1.926

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3 457 0.31 1.971 4 1.914 4 -2.892

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37 5 598 0.54 3.343 6 3.276 6 -2.004

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iew

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40 7 743 0.70 4.528 7 4.294 7 -5.168

41 8 923 0.85 4.981 7 5.083 7 2.048

42 9 1002 0.95 6.082 7 5.875 8 -3.387

43

44 Experiments

1.2

45 Calculations

Experiments

12 Calculations

46

47

48 0.8

49 8

xmax/D

ymax/D

50

51

52 0.4

53 4

54

55

56 0 0.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

57 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

58 Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s)

59 Fig.3. Maximum VIV displacements of the riser model.

60

Fig.3 shows the experimental and numerical results of the model in-line and cross-flow maximum vibration displacements.

It can be seen that the numerical results in this paper are a little larger than the experimental results. The maximum relative er-

rors of the in-line and cross-flow maximumhttps://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aime

vibration displacements are 5.66% and 7.64% respectively. Overall, the relative

Page 7 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

1 The second comparative experiment was carried out at Hanøytangen outside Bergen in Norway [34]. The main parameters

2 of the riser model used in the experiment are given in Table 3.

3

4 Table 3

5 Main parameters of the riser model [34].

6 Parameters Values

7

8 Total length(m) 90

9 Outer diameter(m) 0.03

10 Inner diameter (m) 0.026

11 2

Bending stiffness(N·m ) 3.64×103

12

13 Riser density(kg/m3) 3211

14 Unit length mass(kg/m) 2.27

15

Mass ratio 3.13

16

17 Length/diameter ratio 3000

18 Top tension force(N) 3700

19

20 Fig.4 illustrates the experimental and numerical results of the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration root-mean square (RMS)

21

Fo

displacements. The numerical results reproduce the traveling wave vibration of the riser in-line and cross-flow directions which

22

23 observed in the experiment. The calculated numbers of the excited mode in the in-line and cross-flow directions of the riser is

24 the same as that obtained in the experiment. The riser in-line and cross-flow vibration root-mean square displacements obtained

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25 in the prediction model proposed in this paper are larger than the experimental results. The maximum relative errors of the

26

27 in-line and cross-flow are 18.3% and 10.7% respectively. This may be due to the value of the parameters used in this paper are

28 larger than the actual situation. In general, the relative errors of the numerical and experimental results are acceptable.

ee

29

30 0

Experiments

0

31 Calculations

Experiments

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33 -20 -20

34 -30

-30

35

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Depth(m)

36

Depth(m)

-40 -40

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-50 -50

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39 -60 -60

40

-70

41 -70

42 -80 -80

43

-90

44 -90

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

0 1 2 3 4

45 Rms of CF VIV Displacement(m) ×10-3

Rms of IL VIV Displacement(m) ×10-3

46

47 Fig.4. RMS displacements of the model (towing speed 0.54m/s).

48

49 From the above comparisons, it can be seen that the calculated vibration displacements obtained in the prediction model

50 proposed in this paper are larger than the experimental results. The numerical prediction results are conservative in the engi-

51 neering design of deep sea top-tension riser. The relative errors of the numerical and experimental results are acceptable in the

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53 engineering design. Overall, the prediction model proposed in this paper is valid in predicting the main features of the VIV re-

54 sponse of large length/diameter ratio top-tension riser.

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56 4. Case study

57

58 In the present study, a real scale top-tension riser used in a practical oil/gas production system in the South China Sea was

59 taken as an example to analyze the riser VIV response. The main parameters of the riser are given in Table 4.

60

Table 4

Main parameters of the top-tension riser.

Parameters Values

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1 Outer diameter D (m) 0.5334

2 Inner diameter d (m) 0.4826

3 2

4 Elastic modulus E (N/m ) 2.1×1011

5 Riser density ρr (kg/m3) 7850

6 Internal fluid density ρf (kg/m ) 3

865

7 3

Seawater density ρw (kg/m ) 1030

8

9 Length/diameter ratio 3750

10 Top-tension force coefficient ftop 1.1~1.6

11

Sea surface current velocity ut (m/s) 0.5~1.5

12

13 Sea bottom current velocity ub (m/s) 0.2

14 Structural damping coefficient c (%) 0.3

15

16 Some key features of riser VIV response can be illustrated by inspecting the eigenfrequencies of the riser. Hence, the sub-

17 space iteration method was first applied to calculate the riser eigenfrequencies. The sea surface current velocity was chosen to

18

19 be 1.5m/s. Fig.5 shows the eigenfrequencies of the riser with different top-tension force coefficients. It can be seen that with the

20 increase of the top-tension force coefficients, the eigenfrequencies of the riser increase gradually. It is clear that the eigenfre-

21 quencies of the riser are sensitive to the variation of top-tension force.

Fo

22

23 1.5

ftop=1.2

24 ftop=1.4

rP

25

Eigen frequency(Hz)

ftop=1.6

26 1.0

27

28

ee

0.5

29

30

31 0.0

rR

0 10 20 30 40 50

32

Mode number

33

Fig.5. The eigenfrequencies of the riser with different top-tension force coefficients. ( Ca 1.0 )

34

35

ev

36 According to Eq. (5), the maximum vortex shedding period is about 15.7s in theory. It is possible to work with longer time

37 series of steady state oscillations that the dominant frequency components of the response could be clearly identified. Mean-

38

iew

while, it can be known from the Newmark-β method that the smaller the calculation time interval, the easier the calculation

39

result will be recognized. Therefore, the total time of calculating vortex-induced vibration response of the top-tension riser

40

41 was run over a period of 500s at interval of 0.01s in this paper. It was assumed that the vortex-induced vibration of the riser

42 was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied the Eq. (5). The top-tension force coefficient was

43 chosen to be 1.6 and the sea surface current velocity was chosen to be 1.5m/s in the present study.

44

45 Fig.6 shows the displacements of the riser. The in-line root-mean square (RMS) displacement of the riser was obtained after

46 removing the in-line time-averaged displacement. As is shown in Fig.6 (a), the maximum in-line time-averaged displacement of

47 the riser is 24.27m, which is located in the water depth of 910m. The maximum rotation angle is 3.27°, which is located in the

48

49 top end of the riser. This shows that the in-line bending deformation of the riser is within the linear elastic range, and the as-

50 sumptions in section 2.1 are reasonable. Fig.6 (b) shows the RMS values of the in-line displacement along the riser. It can be

51 seen from the figure that there is 37th mode in the vibration response. The small size of the ripples indicates that the response

52

mainly consists of travelling waves. Fig.6 (c) shows the RMS values of the cross-flow displacement along the riser. It can be

53

54 seen from the figure that there is 25th mode in the vibration response. The small size of the ripples also indicates that the re-

55 sponse mainly consists of travelling waves. Comparing with Fig.6 (b) and Fig.6 (c), it can be seen that the cross-flow RMS dis-

56 placement of the riser is much larger than that of the in-line RMS displacement, and the magnitude of the cross-flow RMS dis-

57

58 placement is about 10 times of the in-line RMS displacement.

59

60

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Page 9 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

0

1 (a) (b) (c)

2

3 400

4

5

Water depth(m)

800

6

7

8 1200

9

10

11 1600

12

13

2000

14 0 15 30 0 10

-3

20 ×10 0 10 20 ×10-2

15 Displacement(m)

16

17 Fig.6. The displacements of the riser. (a)Time-averaged of IL displacement, (b)RMS of IL displacement, (c)RMS of CF displacement.

18

19 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser motion in different water depths (WD=10, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1990m) are given in

20 Fig.7. As can be seen from the figure, the maximum in-line vibration displacement of the riser is 0.0891m (0.167D), and the

21 maximum cross-flow vibration displacement of the riser is 0.6027m (1.13D). It is known that the cross-flow maximum vibra-

Fo

22

tion displacement of the riser is about 7.5 times of the in-line maximum vibration displacement. It can be seen from Fig.7 that at

23

24 the same position, the riser in-line vibration period is less than that of the cross-flow vibration. It is clear that the cross-flow

rP

25 vibration has larger amplitude but lower frequency than the in-line vibration, which agrees with the experimental observation.

26

Meanwhile, the in-line and cross-flow vibration periods and displacement amplitudes of the riser at different water depths are

27

28 also different. In a word, it can be seen from the figure that the in-line and cross-flow vibrations of the riser are very compli-

ee

29 cated, which are shown as quasi-periodic motion rather than completely symmetrical periodic motion.

30 ×10-2 ×10-1

31

rR

2 WD=10m 2 WD=10m

32 0 0

33 -2 -2

34 3 WD=500m 4 WD=500m

35

ev

0 0

CF vibration displacement(m)

IL vibration displacement(m)

36 -3 -4

37 3 WD=1000m 4 WD=1000m

38

iew

0 0

39

-3

40

-4

3 WD=1500m 4 WD=1500m

41 0 0

42

43

-3 -4

3 WD=1990m 2 WD=1990m

44

0 0

45

-2

46 -3

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

47 Times(s) Times(s)

48

(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

49

50 Fig.7. Time histories of the riser IL and CF vibration displacements in different water depths.

51

52 Fig.8 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement in different water depths. It can be seen that the bulk

53 of the in-line response is seen to exist between 0.021 and 1.178Hz, and the bulk of the cross-flow response is seen to exist be-

54 tween 0.021 and 0.594Hz. According to Fig.5, the first mode eigenfrequency is 0.024Hz, the 26th mode eigenfrequency is

55

56 0.597Hz, and the 44th mode eigenfrequency is 1.177Hz. It can be seen that the number of the in-line vibration participating

57 modes reaches 44, and the number of the cross-flow vibration participating modes reaches 26. It is clear that at the same sea

58 surface current velocity, the in-line maximum vibration frequency of the riser is approximately 2 times that of the cross-flow. At

59

60

the same time, the in-line and cross-flow vibration response of the riser are all shown to be high order multi-modal response at

each position. This is because even at the same position, the frequency of the vortex shedding is constantly changing due to the

motion of the riser in the in-line direction, which makes the riser vibration frequency constantly changing. As can be seen from

Fig. 8, the highest peak frequencies at different positions of the riser are different, and the number of participating modes in the

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vibration is also different. This is because the sea current velocity and the axial tension force at different positions are all dif-

1 ferent, which makes the vortex shedding frequency different in different position, thereby causing the above phenomenon. As

2 shown in Fig.8, the richness in frequency content indicates an irregular character of the response, which is corroborated by the

3

4 time history in Fig.7. Meanwhile, the in-line response is much more irregular than the cross-flow response, as can be seen from

5 the width of the spectrum and the high number of participating modes.

6 20 WD=10m

90

WD=10m

7 45

8

10

9 0

40 WD=500m

0

WD=500m

300

10

20

11 150

12 0

40 WD=1000m

0

WD=1000m

Amplitude

13

Amplitude

300

14

20 150

15 0

40 WD=1500m

0

400 WD=1500m

16

17

20 200

18 0

40 WD=1990m

0

WD=1990m

19

150

20 20 75

21 0 0

Fo

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

22 Frequency(Hz) Frequency(Hz)

24

Fig.8. Amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement in different water depths.

rP

25

26

4.1. Influence of sea surface current velocity

27

28

ee

According to the environmental condition in the South China Sea, three different sea surface current velocities were select-

29

30 ed in the present study and they were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s respectively. The top-tension force coefficient was chosen to be 1.6 in

31 this section. It was assumed that the VIV of the riser was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied

rR

33

34

Fig.9 shows the riser in-line time-averaged displacement. It can be seen from Fig.9 that the riser in-line time-averaged dis-

35 placement increases gradually with the increase of the sea surface current velocity. The maximum time-averaged displacements

ev

36 of the riser at the three velocities are 3.94, 11.89 and 24.27m, and the corresponding water depths are 1020, 940 and 910m.

37

According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (7), the hydrodynamic load acting on the riser increases when the sea current velocity increases.

38

iew

39 Therefore, the increase of the sea current velocity causes the riser in-line time-averaged displacement to increase. It is clear that

40 the variation of the sea surface current velocity has greatly changed the riser spatial configuration.

41

42 0

ut=0.5m/s

43 ut=1.0m/s

44 ut=1.5m/s

45 400

46

47

Water depth(m)

48 800

49

50

51 1200

52

53

1600

54

55

56

2000

57 0 10 20 30

58 IL time-averaged displacement(m)

59 Fig.9. IL time-averaged displacements of the riser with different sea surface current velocities.

60

The riser in-line and cross-flow RMS displacements at top-tension force coefficient 1.6 are shown in Fig.10. As are shown

in Fig.10, under the three sea surface current velocities, the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration mode numbers are 17, 24, 37

and 8, 17, 25, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity, the riser in-line

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Page 11 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

1

2 0 0

4 400 400

5

6

Water depth(m)

Water depth(m)

7 800 800

8

9 1200 1200

10

11

12 1600 1600

13

14 2000 2000

15 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2

-2

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

×10 ×10-1

16 Rms of IL VIV displacement(m) Rms of CF VIV displacement(m)

18

Fig.10. RMS of the IL and CF displacements of the riser with different sea surface current velocities.

19

20

21 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different sea surface

Fo

22 current velocities are shown in Fig.11. The vibration displacement amplitudes of the riser with different sea surface current ve-

23 locities are given in Table 5. It can be seen from Fig.11 and Table 5 that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity,

24

the riser vibration period decreases gradually and the riser vibration displacement increases continuously. It is clear that the

rP

25

26 variation of the sea surface current velocity has a great influence on the vibration displacement of the riser.

27

×10-2 ×10-1

28

ee

ut=0.5m/s 3 ut=0.5m/s

29 2

30 0 0

31

rR

32 -2

CF VIV displacement(m)

IL VIV displacement(m)

-3

33 ut=1.0m/s 4 ut=1.0m/s

34 2

35

ev

0 0

36

-2

37 -4

38 5

iew

3 ut=1.5m/s ut=1.5m/s

39

40 0 0

41

42 -3 -5

43 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time(s) Time(s)

44

45 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

46

Fig.11. Time histories of the riser vibration displacements with different sea surface current velocities.(WD=1000m)

47

48 Table 5

49 Riser displacement amplitudes with different sea current velocities.

50

Current Vibration displacement amplitude(m)

51

52 velocity(m/s) In-line Cross-flow

53 0.5 0.0317 0.2570

54

1.0 0.0693 0.4764

55

56 1.5 0.0891 0.6027

57

58 Fig.12 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different sea

59 surface current velocities. It can be seen from Fig.12 that with the increase of the sea surface current velocity, the maximum

60

vibration frequency of the riser and the number of the highest peak frequencies and participating modes increase gradually, and

the dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration changing constantly.

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500

ut=0.5m/s ut=0.5m/s

1 30

2 250

15

3

4 0 0

5 40 ut=1.0m/s

400

ut=1.0m/s

Amplitude

Amplitude

6

7 20 200

8

9 0 0

10 40 ut=1.5m/s

300

ut=1.5m/s

11

12 20 150

13

14 0 0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

15 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6

IL VIV frequency(Hz)

0.8 1.0 1.2

CF VIV frequency(Hz)

16

17 (a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

18 Fig.12. Amplitude spectrums of the riser vibration displacements with different sea surface current velocities. (WD=1000m)

19

20 According to Eq. (5), the frequency of vortex shedding increases with the increase of the sea current velocity in the

21 non-locking region. The increase of the vortex shedding frequency leads to (i) the maximum vibration frequency of the riser

Fo

22

increases gradually; (ii) the number of the participating modes increases continuously; (iii) the dominant frequencies and mode

23

24 numbers of the riser vibration changing constantly. It can be seen from Eq. (1) and Eq. (7) that the hydrodynamic load acting on

rP

25 the riser increases with the increase of the sea current velocity, which results in the increase of the riser vibration displacement.

26

All of these are consistent with the disciplines shown in Figures 10, 11, 12 and Table 5. It can be seen that in the non-locking

27

28 region, the variation of the sea current velocity has a great influence on the vortex-induced vibration of the riser, and the vibra-

ee

29 tion of the riser becomes more and more complicated with the increase of the sea current velocity.

30

31 4.2. Influence of top-tension force

rR

32

33 According to the process condition, three different top-tension force coefficients were selected in the present study and

34 they were 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 respectively. The sea surface current velocity was chosen to be 1.5m/s in this section. It was assumed

35

ev

that the VIV of the riser was in the non-locking region, and the vortex shedding frequency satisfied the Eq. (5).

36

37 Fig.13 shows the riser in-line time-averaged displacement. It can be seen from Fig.13 that the riser in-line time-averaged

38

iew

displacement decreases gradually with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient. The maximum time-averaged displace-

39

ments of the riser at the three top-tension force coefficients are 38.66, 29.64 and 24.27m, and the corresponding water depths

40

41 are 1010, 960 and 910m. According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), the overall bending stiffness of the riser increases when the

42 top-tension force coefficient increases. Therefore, the increase of the top-tension force coefficient causes the riser in-line

43 time-averaged displacement to decrease. It is clear that the variation of the top-tension force coefficient has greatly changed the

44

45 riser spatial configuration.

46

0

47 ftop=1.2

48 ftop=1.4

49 ftop=1.6

400

50

51

52

Water depth(m)

800

53

54

55 1200

56

57

58 1600

59

60

2000

0 10 20 30 40

IL time-averaged displacement(m)

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Page 13 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

The riser in-line and cross-flow RMS displacements at sea surface current velocity 1.5m/s are shown in Fig.14. As are

1 shown in Fig.14, under the three top-tension force coefficients, the riser in-line and cross-flow vibration mode numbers are 52,

2 44, 37 and 28, 26, 25, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the ris-

3

4 er in-line and cross-flow vibration RMS displacements are all decrease gradually.

5

6 0 0

ftop=1.2 ftop=1.4 ftop=1.6

7 ftop=1.2 ftop=1.4 ftop=1.6

8

400

9 400

10

Water depth(m)

Water depth(m)

11 800 800

12

13

14 1200 1200

15

16

17 1600 1600

18

19 2000

2000

20 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 ×10-2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 -1

×10

21 Rms of IL VIV displacement(m) Rms of CF VIV displacement(m)

Fo

22

(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

23

24 Fig.14. RMS of the IL and CF displacements of the riser with different top-tension forces.

rP

25

26 The time histories (0~100s) of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different top-tension

27 force coefficients are shown in Fig.15. The vibration displacement amplitudes of the riser with different top-tension force coef-

28

ee

ficients are given in Table 6. It can be seen from Fig.15 and Table 6 that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient,

29

30 the riser vibration period and displacement decrease gradually. It is clear that the variation of the top-tension force coefficient

31 has a great influence on the vibration displacement of the riser.

rR

32

×10-2 ×10-1

33

5 ftop=1.2 4 ftop=1.2

34

35

ev

0 0

36

37

CF VIV displacement(m)

-5 -4

IL VIV displacement(m)

38

iew

3 ftop=1.4 4 ftop=1.4

39

40 0 0

41

42 -3 -4

43 3 ftop=1.6 4 ftop=1.6

44

45 0 0

46

47 -3 -4

48 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

49 Time(s) Time(s)

50

(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

51

52 Fig.15. Time histories of the riser vibration displacements with different top-tension forces.(WD=1000m)

53

Table 6

54 Riser displacement amplitudes with different top-tension forces.

55

56 Top-tension force Vibration displacement amplitude(m)

57 coefficient In-line Cross-flow

58

1.2 0.0961 0.7621

59

60 1.4 0.0927 0.7204

1.6 0.0891 0.6027

Fig.16 shows the amplitude spectrum of the riser vibration displacement at the middle point of the riser with different

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Advances in Mechanical Engineering Page 14 of 16

top-tension force coefficients. It can be seen from Fig.16 that with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the maxi-

1 mum vibration frequency of the riser is almost unchanged. With the increase of the top-tension force coefficient, the number of

2 the highest peak frequencies, the dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration change constantly.

3

4 40 ftop=1.2 400 ftop=1.2

5

6 20 200

7

8 0 0

9 50 ftop=1.4 400 ftop=1.4

Amplitude

Amplitude

10

11 25 200

12

13 0 0

400 ftop=1.6

14 40 ftop=1.6

15

16 20 200

17

18 0 0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

19 IL VIV frequency(Hz) CF VIV frequency(Hz)

20

(a) In-line direction (b) Cross-flow direction

21

Fo

22 Fig.16. Spectrum analysis of the riser vibration displacements with different top-tension forces. (WD=1000m)

23

24 According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), the riser bending stiffness increases with the increase of the top-tension force coefficient.

rP

25 The increase of the riser bending stiffness leads to (i)The eigenfrequency of the riser changing constantly, (ii)The vibration dis-

26

placement of the riser decreases gradually, (iii)The dominant frequencies and mode numbers of the riser vibration changing

27

28 constantly. All of these are consistent with the disciplines shown in Figures 5, 14, 15, 16 and Table 6. It can be seen that in the

ee

29 non-locking region, the variation of the top-tension force coefficient has a great influence on the vortex-induced vibration of the

30 riser.

31

rR

32 5. Concluding remarks

33

34 A modified three-dimensional time domain prediction model of long flexible slender structure has been proposed in the

35

ev

present study to predict the vortex-induced vibration response of a real-scale top-tension riser used in a practical oil/gas produc-

36

37 tion system in South China Sea. The comparisons between the numerical and experimental results have shown that the predic-

38

iew

tion model is reasonable to predict the riser VIV response. The main conclusions can be drawn:

39

(1) The solution from the proposed model is capable of evaluating the vibration displacements, the dominant frequencies and

40

41 mode numbers, which are in good agreement with the results from the experiments.

42 (2) The VIV response of the deep sea real-scale top-tension riser performs as a form of high order multi-modal vibration in

43 the non-locking region, and the riser in-line and cross-flow VIV response mainly consists of travelling waves. The num-

44

45 ber of the participating modes of the riser in-line vibration is more than that of the cross-flow vibration. The maximum

46 vibration frequency of the riser in-line vibration is about 2 times that of the cross-flow vibration. The maximum vibration

47 displacement of the riser cross-flow vibration is about 10 times that of the in-line vibration. The in-line vibration response

48

of the riser is much more irregular than the cross-flow vibration response.

49

50 (3) In the non-locking region, whether the in-line or the cross-flow vibration response of the riser, the highest peak frequen-

51 cies at different positions of the riser are different, and the number of participating modes at different positions is also

52

different. In the in-line and cross-flow directions, the vibrations of the whole riser are all very complicated.

53

54 (4) The vortex-induced vibration of the riser is sensitive to the variation of the sea current velocity in the non-locking region.

55 The variation of the sea current velocity has great influence on the riser vibration displacement, the maximum vibration

56 frequency, the number of peak frequencies and participating modes, and the dominant mode numbers. In the non-locking

57

58 region, with the increase of the sea current velocity, the vibration displacement, the maximum vibration frequency, the

59 number of participating modes and dominant modes are all increase gradually.

60 (5) In the non-locking region, the vortex-induced vibration of the riser is sensitive to the variation of the top-tension force.

The variation of the top-tension force has great influence on the riser vibration displacement, the number of peak fre-

quencies and participating modes, and the dominant mode numbers. With the increase of the top-tension force, the max-

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Page 15 of 16 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

imum vibration displacement of the riser decreases gradually in the non-locking region. The variation of the vibration of

1 the riser caused by the change of the top-tension force is more complicated. In actual production, the top-tension force

2 coefficient should be selected reasonably according to the environmental conditions.

3

4 Acknowledgments

5

6 The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National High Technology Research and Development

7

8

Program of China (863 Program, Grant No. 2013AA092602), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

9 (Grant No. 16CX06015A).

10

11 References

12

13 [1] Gabbai RD, Benaroya H. An overview of modeling and experiments of vortex-induced vibration of circular cylinders. Journal of Sound and

14 Vi-bration 2005; 282(3): 575-616.

15 [2] Williamson CHK, Govardhan R. A brief review of recent results in vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial

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17 Aero-dynamics 2008; 96(6): 713-735.

18 [3] Sumner D. Two circular cylinders in cross-flow: a review. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2010; 26(6): 849-899.

19 [4] Bearman PW. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2011; 27(5): 648-658.

20

[5] Wu XD, Ge F and Hong YS. A review of recent studies on vortex-induced vibrations of long slender cylinders. Journal of Fluids and Structures

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Fo

23 [6] Birkoff G, Zarantanello E. Jets, wakes and cavities. New York: Academic Press, 1957.

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[7] Bishop RED, Hassan AY. The lift and drag forces on a circular cylinder oscillating in a flowing fluid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Lon-

rP

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26 don, Series A 1964; 227(1368): 51-75.

27 [8] Hartlen RT, Currie IG. Lift-oscillator model of vortex-induced vibration. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division 1970; 96(5): 577-591.

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ee

[9] Balasubramanian S, Skop RA. A nonlinear oscillator model for vortex shedding from cylinders and cones in uniform and shear flows. Journal of

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30 Fluids and Structures 1996; 10(3): 197-214.

31 [10] Krenk S, Nielsen SRK. Energy balanced double oscillator model for vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Engineering 1999; Mechanics 125(3):

rR

32 263-271.

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[11] Facchinetti ML, Langre ED and Biolley F. Coupling of structure and wake oscillators in vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Fluids and

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36 [12] Facchinetti ML, Langre ED and Biolley F. Vortex-induced travelling waves along a cable. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids 2004; 23(1):

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199-208.

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39 [13] Violette R, Langre ED, Szydlowski J. Computation of vortex-induced vibrations of long structures using a wake oscillator model: comparison

40 with DNS and experiments. Computers & structures 2007; 85(11): 1134-1141.

41 [14] Xu WH, Zeng XH, Wu YX. High aspect ratio (L/D) riser VIV prediction using wake oscillator model. Ocean Engineering 2008; 35(17):

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43 1769-1774.

44 [15] Violette R, Langre ED and Szydlowski J. A linear stability approach to vortex-induced vibrations and waves. Journal of Fluids and Structures

45 2010; 26(3): 442-466.

46

[16] Farshidianfar A, Zanganeh H. A modified wake oscillator model for vortex-induced vibration of circular cylinders for a wide range of

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48 mass-damping ratio. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2010; 26(3): 430-441.

49 [17] Farshidianfar A, Dolatabadi N. Modified higher-order wake oscillator model for vortex-induced vibration of circular cylinders. Acta Mechanica

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2013; 224(7): 1441-1456.

51

52 [18] Ogink RHM, Metrikine AV. A wake oscillator with frequency dependent coupling for the modeling of vortex-induced vibration. Journal of

53 Sound and Vibration 2010; 329(26): 5452-5473.

54 [19] Srinil N. Analysis and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of variable-tension vertical risers in linearly sheared currents. Applied Ocean

55

56 Re-search 2011; 33(1): 41-53.

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