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CHAPTER – III

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

The methodology followed in conducting the study plays a


prominent part in determining the dependability and usefulness of the
findings. Identifying and defining the nature of the population, techniques
used to select the representative sample and efficiency of the techniques
used in the data analysis are the important processes of an investigation.
The procedure of the study is given below:
3.1 Sampling
3.2 Psychological Inventories
3.3 Data Collection
3.4 Ethical Considerations
3.5 Scoring
3.6 Data Processing and Analysis

3.1 SAMPLING
Sampling is one of the important aspects of the methodology
followed in an investigation. The sample for the present study was
intended to represent sports persons of body builders and weight lifters.
For the sake of feasibility, the sample was restricted to the All India
Intervarsity and other state and national level tournaments.
The procedure of cluster sampling was adopted. In the cluster
sampling, the population is viewed as a collection of groups that are
much the same, i.e. strata are internally homogeneous and clusters are
internally heterogeneous.
Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

The data was collected during the session 2007-09. Total sample
size of sports persons is 400 hundreds (200 Body builders and 200
Weight lifters), with the age group of 18-25years.

3.2 PSYCHOLOGICAL INVENTRIES USED


In order to achieve the objectives of the study two measures were
used:
3.2.1 Life Attitude Profile (LAP) Inventory
For the present study LAP developed by Recker and Peacock
(1981) was used to assess the attitude toward life of bodybuilders and
weightlifters. The LAP has 44 statements and deals with seven factors
namely- life purpose, existential vacuum, life control, death acceptance,
will to meaning, goal seeking and future meaning to fulfill. Cronbach
Alpha internal consistency estimate of the factors scales range from 0.83
(life purpose), 0.75 (existential vacuum), 0.78 (life control), 0.7 (death
acceptance), 0.57 (will to meaning), 0.66 (goal seeking) and 0.55 (future
meaning to fulfill). Armov’s theta estimate range from 0.83 (life
purpose), 0.75 (Existential vacuum), 0.78 (life control), 0.71 (death
acceptance), 0.59 (will to meaning), 0.69 (goal seeking) and 0.56 (future
meaning to fulfill).
3.2.2 Multidimensional Assessment of Personality (MAP) Inventory
The personality of bodybuilders and weightlifters were measured
by using the multidimensional assessment of personality (MAP) scale,
developed by Sanjay Vohra (1993) of Psy-com services. The test is
constructed to measure 20 dimensions covering adaptability, achievement

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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

motivation, boldness, competition, enthusiasm, general ability, guilt


proneness, imagination, innovation, leadership, maturity, mental health,
morality, self control, sensitivity, shrewdness, self sufficiency,
suspiciousness, social warms and tension.
The MAP form A has 147 statements. Each of its items in the
questionnaire has three choices from which the subjects has to select one
category. The reliabilities of the MAP was calculated by spilt half and
test-retest method and given in Table 3.1.

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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

Table 3.1:
Test Retest and Split Half Reliability of 20 dimensions of MAP scale.

Dimensions Test-retest Split –half


Adaptability 0.69 0.72
Achievements Motivation 0.63 0.68
Boldness 0.72 0.76
Competition 0.71 0.75
Enthusiasm 0.70 0.73
General Ability 0.58 0.62
Guilt Proneness 0.65 0.69
Imagination 0.62 0.65
Innovation 0.68 0.75
Leadership 0.68 0.73
Maturity 0.65 0.70
Mental Health 0.70 0.73
Morality 0.72 0.75
Self-sufficiency 0.68 0.72
Self-control 0.72 0.66
Sensitivity 0.61 0.75
Shrewdness 0.72 0.68
Suspicious 0.65 0.75
Social Warmth 0.74 0.77
Tension 0.72 0.76

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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

Table 3.2:
Factorial validity coefficients, determined by the loadings, are given
in the following table:
Dimensions Validity coefficients
Adaptability 0.83
Achievement Motivation 0.79
Boldness 0.84
Competition 0.84
Enthusiasm 0.83
General Ability 0.76
Guilt Proneness 0.80
Imagination 0.78
Innovation 0.82
Leadership 0.82
Maturity 0.80
Mental Health 0.83
Morality 0.84
Self-control 0.78
Sensitivity 0.84
Shrewdness 0.80
Self-sufficiency 0.82
Suspicious 0.84
Social Warmth 0.86
Tension 0.84

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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

3.3 DATA COLLECTION


The data for the study were collected from The All-India
Intervarsity and other state and national level tournaments from 2007-09.
Before collecting the data, the investigator approached the heads of the
respective teams and obtained the permission for the same. Each player
was given two questionnaires, which were filled in two sittings. Important
instructions were given to the students regarding filling up the
questionnaires. The data were gathered individually by the investigator.

3.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS


The investigator has to take the sports persons under his
confidence. The investigator would like to ensure to all the sports
persons that those who going to fill my questionnaire their result would
be confidential. If any sports persons does not feel comfortable during
this may quit. I would also ensure the sports persons that their personal
information will be kept secret like Phone No/Address/E-mail. Etc.
3.5 SCORING
The scoring of both the tests was done according to the instructions
provide in the respective manual of each test undertaken for restudy.
The 44 statements of Life Attitude Profile (LAP) were scored using
Likert techniques of weighted score. The positive statements was given
the following weights.
Strongly Agree Slightly Undecided Slightly Disagree Strongly
Agree Agree Disagree Disagree
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Negative statements were scored vice-versa.


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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

Scoring of Multidimensional Assessment of personality (MAP) test was


done by a transparent scoring key available with the manual.

3.6 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE DATA PROCESSING AND


ANALYSIS
Raw data collected in this study were subjected to analyze by
Product-Moment Coefficients of Correlation, Regression Analysis
(stepwise) and z-test.
Regression analysis was conducted to obtain the effect of the
twenty independent variables on the dependent variable for total sample
as well as on different groups. In multiple regression analysis, the
approach was to find a linear combination of the original predictor
variables that best explained the variation in the criterion measure. The
dependent variable for the present study was Attitude towards life while
the personality variables constituted the independent variable.
There are several approaches for regression analysis. The present
study used the ‘stepwise’ regression analysis method. This method first
identifies the best predictor from among the predictor variable and
includes in the regression equation. In the second step, the method
identifies the second best predictor which has high validity coefficient but
low correlation with both of the existing predictor already selected. This
process continues until further addition of variable make insignificant
contribution to the prediction power of the predictor. In this approach, it
was not necessary to use all the predictor variables in the regression
equation. Only those predictors were taken which made significant

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Chapter-III: Design and Methodology

contribution to the prediction process. In multiple regression analysis


(step-wise) R= multiple regression, R2 =combined contribution of the
predictor variables on the criterion variable, R2 Change= individual
contribution of the predictor variables on the criterion variable, β= it is
similar as the coefficient of correlation, and F= is the analysis of variance
shows the significant value of the R2.
Finally z test was used for finding the significance of difference
between body builders and weight lifters in terms of mean scores.

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