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Discrete mathematics - Recurrence relations

Discrete mathematics - Recurrence relations

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Recurrence Relations

R S Selvaraj

Department of Mathematics

NIT Warangal

for

II B.Tech. CSE

of

VNRVJIET

21 & 22.10.2016

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

2 Recurrence Relations

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

2 Recurrence Relations

3 Generating Functions of sequences

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

2 Recurrence Relations

3 Generating Functions of sequences

4 Solving Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

2 Recurrence Relations

3 Generating Functions of sequences

4 Solving Recurrence Relations

by Generating Functions

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Presentation Overview

1 Sequences

2 Recurrence Relations

3 Generating Functions of sequences

4 Solving Recurrence Relations

by Generating Functions

by the Method of Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Definition

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Definition

The sequence can be listed as f (0), f (1), f (2), . . .

or

can be listed as f0 , f1 , f2 , . . .

or

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Definition

The sequence can be listed as f (0), f (1), f (2), . . .

or

can be listed as f0 , f1 , f2 , . . .

or

If the sequence is denoted as {an } or {sn } then it refers the

function a : W∗ → S or s : W∗ → S

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Examples

1 1 1

Here the sequence is 1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Examples

1 1 1

Here the sequence is 1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

Consider the sequence {an } where an = 3n :

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Examples

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Examples

The above an represents the binary representation of the positive

integer n with no leading zeros

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Sequences - Examples

The above an represents the binary representation of the positive

integer n with no leading zeros

Consider also a sequence {an } listed as:

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . .

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

equation that expresses the nth term an in terms of one or more

of the previous terms of the sequence

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

equation that expresses the nth term an in terms of one or more

of the previous terms of the sequence

For example, in the sequence 1, 3, 9, 27, 87 . . .,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

equation that expresses the nth term an in terms of one or more

of the previous terms of the sequence

For example, in the sequence 1, 3, 9, 27, 87 . . .,

Consider the Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . .,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 1 1

1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

CAN you construct a Recurrence relation on an ?

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 1 1

1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

CAN you construct a Recurrence relation on an ?

(n−1)an−1

Here, it must be an = n

, n ≥ 2 with a1 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 1 1

1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

CAN you construct a Recurrence relation on an ?

(n−1)an−1

Here, it must be an = n

, n ≥ 2 with a1 = 1

Now, consider a sequence

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 1 1

1, , , , . . .

2 3 4

CAN you construct a Recurrence relation on an ?

(n−1)an−1

Here, it must be an = n

, n ≥ 2 with a1 = 1

Now, consider a sequence

Here, it must be an = 2an−1 + 5, n ≥ 1 with a0 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Here, it must be an = an−1 + n2 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Here, it must be an = an−1 + n2 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 1

coefficients

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 1

coefficients

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 1

coefficients

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions

a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 3; then we can find sequentially the next

few elements of the sequence:

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 1

coefficients

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions

a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 3; then we can find sequentially the next

few elements of the sequence:

a4 = 5(3) − 4(2) + 1 + 32 = 17,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 1

coefficients

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions

a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 3; then we can find sequentially the next

few elements of the sequence:

a4 = 5(3) − 4(2) + 1 + 32 = 17,

a5 = 5(17) − 4(3) + 2 + 42 = 91 and so on.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

But it is NOT LINEAR because of the product an−1 an−2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

But it is NOT LINEAR because of the product an−1 an−2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

But it is NOT LINEAR because of the product an−1 an−2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 2(2)(1) + 32 = 13,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 2

an − 2an−1 an−2 = n2

It is inhomogeneous because of the n2

But it is NOT LINEAR because of the product an−1 an−2

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 2(2)(1) + 32 = 13,

a4 = 2(13)(2) + 42 = 68 and so on.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

It is homogeneous because of the 0 in the RHS

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

It is homogeneous because of the 0 in the RHS

It is LINEAR but the coefficient of an−1 is not a constant

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

It is homogeneous because of the 0 in the RHS

It is LINEAR but the coefficient of an−1 is not a constant

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

It is homogeneous because of the 0 in the RHS

It is LINEAR but the coefficient of an−1 is not a constant

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 9,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 3

an − nan−1 − 3an−2 = 0

It is homogeneous because of the 0 in the RHS

It is LINEAR but the coefficient of an−1 is not a constant

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; Still

we can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 9,

a4 = 42 and so on.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

It is homogeneous

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

It is homogeneous

But it is LINEAR with constant coefficients

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

It is homogeneous

But it is LINEAR with constant coefficients

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; we

can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

It is homogeneous

But it is LINEAR with constant coefficients

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; we

can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 3,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RR Example - 4

an = an−1 + an−2

sequence]

It is homogeneous

But it is LINEAR with constant coefficients

Suppose we are given the initial conditions a1 = 1, a2 = 2; we

can find sequentially the next few elements of the sequence:

a3 = 3,

a4 = 5 and so on.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Towers of Hanoi

There are 3 pegs: X, Y, Z and n circular disks of increasing diameter

on one peg X, with the largest disk on the bottom.

These disks are to be transferred onto peg Z using Y as an auxiliary or

intermediary peg such that

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Towers of Hanoi

There are 3 pegs: X, Y, Z and n circular disks of increasing diameter

on one peg X, with the largest disk on the bottom.

These disks are to be transferred onto peg Z using Y as an auxiliary or

intermediary peg such that

only one disk can be moved at a time

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Towers of Hanoi

There are 3 pegs: X, Y, Z and n circular disks of increasing diameter

on one peg X, with the largest disk on the bottom.

These disks are to be transferred onto peg Z using Y as an auxiliary or

intermediary peg such that

only one disk can be moved at a time

no disk can be placed on the top of a smaller disk

Determine the number of moves needed.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Consider top n − 1 disks on peg X and move to peg Y using Z

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Consider top n − 1 disks on peg X and move to peg Y using Z

It takes an−1 moves to transfer the top n − 1 disks to Y using Z

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Consider top n − 1 disks on peg X and move to peg Y using Z

It takes an−1 moves to transfer the top n − 1 disks to Y using Z

Now, only the largest disk is left in peg X; move it to Z; so 1

move

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Consider top n − 1 disks on peg X and move to peg Y using Z

It takes an−1 moves to transfer the top n − 1 disks to Y using Z

Now, only the largest disk is left in peg X; move it to Z; so 1

move

Now, transfer the n − 1 disks in Y to Z using X in an−1 moves.

JOB DONE!

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of moves needed to move from peg X

to peg Z using peg Y

Clearly, a1 = 1

Assume n ≥ 2

Consider top n − 1 disks on peg X and move to peg Y using Z

It takes an−1 moves to transfer the top n − 1 disks to Y using Z

Now, only the largest disk is left in peg X; move it to Z; so 1

move

Now, transfer the n − 1 disks in Y to Z using X in an−1 moves.

JOB DONE!

Total number of moves is

an = an−1 + 1 + an−1 = 2an−1 + 1, n ≥ 2 with a1 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

For example,

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

each valid expression ends in a digit

For example,

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

each valid expression ends in a digit

2 valid expressions can be combined by using the 4 arithmetic

operations

For example,

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

each valid expression ends in a digit

2 valid expressions can be combined by using the 4 arithmetic

operations

arithmetic operations should not occur consecutively or in

succession

For example,

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

each valid expression ends in a digit

2 valid expressions can be combined by using the 4 arithmetic

operations

arithmetic operations should not occur consecutively or in

succession

For example,

1 + 2, 5 × 980, 3 + 5 ÷ 0 − 3429 × 3 are all valid

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CS counting problem

Suppose that in a given prog. language, we wish to count the no. of

valid expressions that are formed using only the ten digits 0, 1, . . . , 9

and the four arithmetic operations +, −, ÷, ×. Conditions are

each valid expression ends in a digit

2 valid expressions can be combined by using the 4 arithmetic

operations

arithmetic operations should not occur consecutively or in

succession

For example,

1 + 2, 5 × 980, 3 + 5 ÷ 0 − 3429 × 3 are all valid

but 3 + −68, 980 − ÷ × 30, 3 + 56− are not valid;

How many such valid expressions of length n are there in this

language?

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of valid expressions of length n.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution

Let an denote the number of valid expressions of length n.

Then

an = 10an−1 + 40an−2 , n ≥ 2, a0 = 0; a1 = 10

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

a recurrence relation is called solving the recurrence relation

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

a recurrence relation is called solving the recurrence relation

Such a formula is called an explicit (or closed-form) formula

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

a recurrence relation is called solving the recurrence relation

Such a formula is called an explicit (or closed-form) formula

One technique for finding an explicit formula for the sequence

defined by a recurrence relation is backtracking (or

substitution)

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = an−1 + 3

= [an−2 + 3] + 3 = an−2 + 2(3)

= [an−3 + 3] + 2(3) = an−3 + 3(3)

.

= ..

= an−(n−1) + (n − 1)(3) = a1 + (n − 1)(3)

= 2 + (n − 1)3 = 3n − 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

the power series

∞

X

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . = an xn

n=0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

the power series

∞

X

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . = an xn

n=0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

the power series

∞

X

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . = an xn

n=0

Although, G(x) is called the generating function, it is not a

function in the usual sense (since we do not specify the domain

and codomain)

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

the power series

∞

X

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . = an xn

n=0

Although, G(x) is called the generating function, it is not a

function in the usual sense (since we do not specify the domain

and codomain)

It is simply an algebraic device which is amenable to algebraic

manipulation.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

the power series

∞

X

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . = an xn

n=0

Although, G(x) is called the generating function, it is not a

function in the usual sense (since we do not specify the domain

and codomain)

It is simply an algebraic device which is amenable to algebraic

manipulation.

We use it to solve Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

G(x) = 30 + 31 x + 32 x2 + 33 x3 + . . .

= 1 + 3x + (3x)2 + (3x)3 . . .

= (1 − 3x)−1

1

=

1 − 3x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

= (1 − x)−2

1

=

(1 − x)2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = 2an−1 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 5

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = 2an−1 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 5

G(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . .

= a0 + 2a0 x + 22 a0 x2 + 23 a0 x3 + . . .

= a0 (1 + 2x + (2x)2 + (2x)3 . . .)

1

= a0

1 − 2x

5

=

1 − 2x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = 2an−1 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 5

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = 2an−1 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 5

Multiply both sides by xn andPsum it from n = 1 to ∞ as n must

be ≥ 1 (Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

n=0 an x )

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

an = 2an−1 , n ≥ 1 with a0 = 5

Multiply both sides by xn andPsum it from n = 1 to ∞ as n must

be ≥ 1 (Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

n=0 an x )

∞

X ∞

X

n

an x = 2an−1 xn (put m = n − 1)

n=1 n=1

∞

X ∞

X

m+1

G(x) − a0 = 2 am x = 2x am xm = 2xG(x)

m=0 m=0

G(x) − 2xG(x) = a0

5

G(x) =

1 − 2x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 − fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 −P fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n=0 fn x

n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 −P fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n=0 fn x

n

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

fn x n − fn−1 xn − fn−2 xn = 0

n=2 n=2 n=2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 −P fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n=0 fn x

n

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

fn x n − fn−1 xn − fn−2 xn = 0

n=2 n=2 n=2

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

( fn xn − f0 − f1 x) − x fn−1 xn−1 − x2 fn−2 xn−2 = 0

n=0 n=2 n=2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 −P fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n=0 fn x

n

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

fn x n − fn−1 xn − fn−2 xn = 0

n=2 n=2 n=2

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

( fn xn − f0 − f1 x) − x fn−1 xn−1 − x2 fn−2 xn−2 = 0

n=0 n=2 n=2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Find the generating function of G(x) of the Fibonacci recurrence

relation fn − fn−1 −P fn−2 = 0, n ≥ 2 with f0 = 1, f1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n=0 fn x

n

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

fn x n − fn−1 xn − fn−2 xn = 0

n=2 n=2 n=2

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

( fn xn − f0 − f1 x) − x fn−1 xn−1 − x2 fn−2 xn−2 = 0

n=0 n=2 n=2

1

G(x) =

1 − x − x2

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1. Solve the RR an+2 − an+1 − 6an = 0, given that a0 = 2, a1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

P

n=0 an x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1. Solve the RR an+2 − an+1 − 6an = 0, given that a0 = 2, a1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

P

n=0 an x

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

n n

an+2 x − an+1 x − 6 an xn = 0

n=0 n=0 n=0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1. Solve the RR an+2 − an+1 − 6an = 0, given that a0 = 2, a1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

P

n=0 an x

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

n n

an+2 x − an+1 x − 6 an xn = 0

n=0 n=0 n=0

∞ ∞

1 X n+2 1X

an+2 x − an+1 xn+1 − 6G(x) = 0

x2 n=0

x n=0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1. Solve the RR an+2 − an+1 − 6an = 0, given that a0 = 2, a1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

P

n=0 an x

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

n n

an+2 x − an+1 x − 6 an xn = 0

n=0 n=0 n=0

∞ ∞

1 X n+2 1X

an+2 x − an+1 xn+1 − 6G(x) = 0

x2 n=0

x n=0

1 1

(G(x) − a0 − a1 x) − (G(x) − a0 ) − 6G(x) = 0

x2 x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1. Solve the RR an+2 − an+1 − 6an = 0, given that a0 = 2, a1 = 1

Recall that G(x) = ∞ n

P

n=0 an x

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

n n

an+2 x − an+1 x − 6 an xn = 0

n=0 n=0 n=0

∞ ∞

1 X n+2 1X

an+2 x − an+1 xn+1 − 6G(x) = 0

x2 n=0

x n=0

1 1

(G(x) − a0 − a1 x) − (G(x) − a0 ) − 6G(x) = 0

x2 x

2−x

G(x) =

1 − x − 6x2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution continued...

2−x 2−x

G(x) = =

1−x− 6x2 (1 − 3x)(1 + 2x)

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution continued...

2−x 2−x

G(x) = =

1−x− 6x2 (1 − 3x)(1 + 2x)

Split G(x) into partial fractions

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution continued...

2−x 2−x

G(x) = =

1−x− 6x2 (1 − 3x)(1 + 2x)

Split G(x) into partial fractions

1 1

G(x) = +

1 − 3x 1 + 2x

= (1 − 3x) + (1 + 2x)−1

−1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution continued...

2−x 2−x

G(x) = =

1−x− 6x2 (1 − 3x)(1 + 2x)

Split G(x) into partial fractions

1 1

G(x) = +

1 − 3x 1 + 2x

= (1 − 3x) + (1 + 2x)−1

−1

P∞

Recall that G(x) = n=0 an xn

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Solution continued...

2−x 2−x

G(x) = =

1−x− 6x2 (1 − 3x)(1 + 2x)

Split G(x) into partial fractions

1 1

G(x) = +

1 − 3x 1 + 2x

= (1 − 3x) + (1 + 2x)−1

−1

P∞

Recall that G(x) = n=0 an xn

Therefore, an = Coefficient of xn in G(x) = 3n + (−1)n 2n

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

1

SOLUTION should be an = 2

(3n+1 − 1)

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

1

SOLUTION should be an = 2

(3n+1 − 1)

a1 = 8

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

1

SOLUTION should be an = 2

(3n+1 − 1)

a1 = 8

1+(1−4x)2

You should get G(x) = (1−2x)2 (1−4x)

; Then split into partial

fractions

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

1

SOLUTION should be an = 2

(3n+1 − 1)

a1 = 8

2

1+(1−4x)

You should get G(x) = (1−2x) 2 (1−4x) ; Then split into partial

fractions

4 2

You will get G(x) = 1−4x − (1−2x) 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Functions

1

You should get G(x) = (1−x)(1−3x)

; Then split into partial

fractions −1 3

You will get G(x) = 1−x

2

+ 2

1−3x

1

SOLUTION should be an = 2

(3n+1 − 1)

a1 = 8

2

1+(1−4x)

You should get G(x) = (1−2x) 2 (1−4x) ; Then split into partial

fractions

4 2

You will get G(x) = 1−4x − (1−2x) 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RECALL:

Inhomogeneous Recurrence relations (kth order) :

c0 an + c1 an−1 + c2 an−2 + . . . + ck an−k = f (n), n ≥ k,

with initial conditions a0 = l0 , a1 = l1 , . . . , ak−1 = lk−1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RECALL:

Inhomogeneous Recurrence relations (kth order) :

c0 an + c1 an−1 + c2 an−2 + . . . + ck an−k = f (n), n ≥ k,

with initial conditions a0 = l0 , a1 = l1 , . . . , ak−1 = lk−1

c0 an + c1 an−1 + c2 an−2 + . . . + ck an−k = 0, n ≥ k,

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

RECALL:

Inhomogeneous Recurrence relations (kth order) :

c0 an + c1 an−1 + c2 an−2 + . . . + ck an−k = f (n), n ≥ k,

with initial conditions a0 = l0 , a1 = l1 , . . . , ak−1 = lk−1

c0 an + c1 an−1 + c2 an−2 + . . . + ck an−k = 0, n ≥ k,

Theorem

General solution is given by an = SH + PSINH

where SH = general solution of Homogeneous LRR

and PSINH = a particular solution of INhomogeneousLRR.

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Equation

The Characteristic Equation of the above LRR is given by

c0 αk + c1 αk−1 + c2 αk−2 + . . . + ck = 0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CASE: 1 - Distinct Roots

If α1 , α2 , . . . , αk are distinct real roots, then the solution is

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CASE: 1 - Distinct Roots

If α1 , α2 , . . . , αk are distinct real roots, then the solution is

If a root say α1 repeats with multiplicity m, then the solution is

SH = (A1 nm−1 +A2 nm−2 +. . .+Am )αn1 +Am+1 αnm+1 +. . .+Ak αnk

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

CASE: 1 - Distinct Roots

If α1 , α2 , . . . , αk are distinct real roots, then the solution is

If a root say α1 repeats with multiplicity m, then the solution is

SH = (A1 nm−1 +A2 nm−2 +. . .+Am )αn1 +Am+1 αnm+1 +. . .+Ak αnk

If α1 , α2 are complex roots and α1 = reiθ , α2 = re−iθ , then the

solution is

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The two roots are α1 = 1 and α2 = 9

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The two roots are α1 = 1 and α2 = 9

General Solution should be

an = A1 (1)n + A2 (9)n = A1 + A2 9n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The two roots are α1 = 1 and α2 = 9

General Solution should be

an = A1 (1)n + A2 (9)n = A1 + A2 9n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The two roots are α1 = 1 and α2 = 9

General Solution should be

an = A1 (1)n + A2 (9)n = A1 + A2 9n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

You will get A1 = 2 and A2 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The two roots are α1 = 1 and α2 = 9

General Solution should be

an = A1 (1)n + A2 (9)n = A1 + A2 9n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

You will get A1 = 2 and A2 = 1

Hence, the solution is

an = 2 + 9n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

√

1± 5

The two roots are α = 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

√

1± 5

The two roots are α = 2

General Solution should be √ √

an = A1 ( 1+2 5 )n + A2 ( 1−2 5 )n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

√

1± 5

The two roots are α = 2

General Solution should be √ √

an = A1 ( 1+2 5 )n + A2 ( 1−2 5 )n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

√

1± 5

The two roots are α = 2

General Solution should be √ √

an = A1 ( 1+2 5 )n + A2 ( 1−2 5 )n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

√ √

1+√ 5

You will get A1 = 2 5

and A2 = − 1−√ 5

2 5

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

√

1± 5

The two roots are α = 2

General Solution should be √ √

an = A1 ( 1+2 5 )n + A2 ( 1−2 5 )n

Now, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

√ √

1+√ 5

You will get A1 = 2 5

and A2 = − 1−√ 5

2 5

√ √

an = √1

5

[( 1+2 5 n+1

) − ( 1−2 5 n+1

) ]

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

3 roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

3 roots

The three roots are α1 = 12 , α2 = 1

2

and α3 = 4

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

3 roots

The three roots are α1 = 12 , α2 = 1

2

and α3 = 4

General Solution should be

an = (A1 n + A2 )( 21 )n + A3 (4)n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

roots

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

roots

The three roots are α1 = −2, α2 = −2 and α3 = −2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

roots

The three roots are α1 = −2, α2 = −2 and α3 = −2

General Solution should be

an = (A1 n2 + A2 n + A3 )(−2)n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1 ± i;

The two roots are √ √

π π

α1 = 1 + i = 2ei 4 , α2 = 1 − i = 2e−i 4

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1 ± i;

The two roots are √ √

π π

α1 = 1 + i = 2ei 4 , α2 = 1 − i = 2e−i 4

General Solution should be

√

an = ( 2)n (A cos n π4 + B sin n π4 )

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1 ± i;

The two roots are √ √

π π

α1 = 1 + i = 2ei 4 , α2 = 1 − i = 2e−i 4

General Solution should be

√

an = ( 2)n (A cos n π4 + B sin n π4 )

Now, use the initial conditions to find A and B

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1 ± i;

The two roots are √ √

π π

α1 = 1 + i = 2ei 4 , α2 = 1 − i = 2e−i 4

General Solution should be

√

an = ( 2)n (A cos n π4 + B sin n π4 )

Now, use the initial conditions to find A and B

You will get A = 1 and B = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1 ± i;

The two roots are √ √

π π

α1 = 1 + i = 2ei 4 , α2 = 1 − i = 2e−i 4

General Solution should be

√

an = ( 2)n (A cos n π4 + B sin n π4 )

Now, use the initial conditions to find A and B

You will get A = 1 and B = 1

Hence, the solution is

√

an = ( 2)n (cos n π4 + sin n π4 )

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The particular solution of the INhomogeneous LRR will RESEMBLE

(or look like) f (n) - Depending upon characteristic roots!!.

99K This is theoretically proved (can also be observed by

monitoring G(x) closely)!

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The particular solution of the INhomogeneous LRR will RESEMBLE

(or look like) f (n) - Depending upon characteristic roots!!.

99K This is theoretically proved (can also be observed by

monitoring G(x) closely)!

"some function of n that is similar to f (n)" as ASSUMED

PARTICULAR SOLUTION(APS);

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

The particular solution of the INhomogeneous LRR will RESEMBLE

(or look like) f (n) - Depending upon characteristic roots!!.

99K This is theoretically proved (can also be observed by

monitoring G(x) closely)!

"some function of n that is similar to f (n)" as ASSUMED

PARTICULAR SOLUTION(APS);

We will denote it as an itself and substitute in the given

INhomog. LRR to get the values of arbitrary constants in APS

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Root

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is NOT a char. root,

then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Root

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is NOT a char. root,

then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Root

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is NOT a char. root,

then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Root

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is NOT a char. root,

then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0

If f (n) = 3n, then APS an = P0 + P1 n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Characteristic Root

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is NOT a char. root,

then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0

If f (n) = 3n, then APS an = P0 + P1 n

If f (n) = 5n3 − 23, then APS an = P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 + P3 n3

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

Characteristic Root of multiplicity m

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

Characteristic Root of multiplicity m

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

Characteristic Root of multiplicity m

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )nm

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0 nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

Characteristic Root of multiplicity m

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )nm

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0 nm

If f (n) = 3n, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

Characteristic Root of multiplicity m

If f (n) = b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns and if 1 is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )nm

If f (n) = 10, then APS an = P0 nm

If f (n) = 3n, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)nm

If f (n) = 5n3 − 23, then APS

an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 + P3 n3 )nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Root

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is NOT a char.

root, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Root

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is NOT a char.

root, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Root

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is NOT a char.

root, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Root

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is NOT a char.

root, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n

If f (n) = 3n5n , then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)5n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Root

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is NOT a char.

root, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n

If f (n) = 3n5n , then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)5n

If f (n) = (5n3 − 23)(−2)n , then APS

an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 + P3 n3 )(−2)n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

of multiplicity m

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

of multiplicity m

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

of multiplicity m

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn nm

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

of multiplicity m

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn nm

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n nm

If f (n) = 3n5n , then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)5n nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

m)

of multiplicity m

If f (n) = (b0 + b1 n + b2 n2 . . . + bs ns )cn and if c is a char. root of

multiplicity m, then APS an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 . . . + Ps ns )cn nm

If f (n) = 2n , then APS an = P0 2n nm

If f (n) = 3n5n , then APS an = (P0 + P1 n)5n nm

If f (n) = (5n3 − 23)(−2)n , then APS

an = (P0 + P1 n + P2 n2 + P3 n3 )(−2)n nm

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P1 = 2 and P0 = 8

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P1 = 2 and P0 = 8

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n + 2n + 8

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P1 = 2 and P0 = 8

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n + 2n + 8

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P1 = 2 and P0 = 8

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n + 2n + 8

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

A1 = −9, A2 = 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

1 Solve an − 7an−1 + 10an−2 = 6 + 8n, with a0 = 1, a1 = 2

2&5

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n

Let APS an = P1 n + P0

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P1 = 2 and P0 = 8

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 (2)n + A2 (5)n + 2n + 8

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

A1 = −9, A2 = 2

Hence, THE solution is

an = −9(2)n + 2(5)n + 2n + 8

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Let APS an = (P1 n + P0 )n2 2n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Let APS an = (P1 n + P0 )n2 2n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Let APS an = (P1 n + P0 )n2 2n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

1

You will get P1 = 6

and P0 = 1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Let APS an = (P1 n + P0 )n2 2n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

1

You will get P1 = 6

and P0 = 1

Hence, the general solution is

an = (A1 n + A2 )2n + n2 ( n6 + 1)2n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&2

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )2n

Let APS an = (P1 n + P0 )n2 2n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

1

You will get P1 = 6

and P0 = 1

Hence, the general solution is

an = (A1 n + A2 )2n + n2 ( n6 + 1)2n

NO initial conditions given; So cannot find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Let APS an = P0 n2 1n = P0 n2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Let APS an = P0 n2 1n = P0 n2

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get P0 ;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Let APS an = P0 n2 1n = P0 n2

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get P0 ;

7

You will get P0 = 2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Let APS an = P0 n2 1n = P0 n2

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get P0 ;

7

You will get P0 = 2

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 n + A2 + 27 n2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

1&1

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )1n = A1 n + A2

Let APS an = P0 n2 1n = P0 n2

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get P0 ;

7

You will get P0 = 2

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 n + A2 + 27 n2

NO initial conditions given; So cannot find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Let APS an = P0 n1 2n + (P1 + P2 n)

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Let APS an = P0 n1 2n + (P1 + P2 n)

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Let APS an = P0 n1 2n + (P1 + P2 n)

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P0 = −2; P1 = 74 ; P2 = 1

2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Let APS an = P0 n1 2n + (P1 + P2 n)

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P0 = −2; P1 = 74 ; P2 = 1

2

Hence, the general solution is

n 7

an = A1 2n + A2 3n − 2n2n + 2

+ 4

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

2&3

General Homog. Solution SH = A1 2n + A2 3n

Let APS an = P0 n1 2n + (P1 + P2 n)

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

You will get P0 = −2; P1 = 74 ; P2 = 1

2

Hence, the general solution is

an = A1 2n + A2 3n − 2n2n + n2 + 74

NO initial conditions given; So cannot find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

7

You will get P0 = 1; P1 = 18

;

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

7

You will get P0 = 1; P1 = 18

;

Hence, the general solution is

7 2

an = (A1 n + A2 )3n + 2n + 18

n − 3n

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

7

You will get P0 = 1; P1 = 18

;

Hence, the general solution is

7 2

an = (A1 n + A2 )3n + 2n + 18 n − 3n

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

7

You will get P0 = 1; P1 = 18

;

Hence, the general solution is

7 2

an = (A1 n + A2 )3n + 2n + 18 n − 3n

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

5

A1 = 18

, A2 = 0

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Problems

5. Solve an+2 − 6an+1 + 9an = 3(2)n + 7(3)n , n ≥ 0, with

initial conditions a0 = 1, a1 = 4

Char. Eqn. is α2 − 6α + 9 = 0; the 2 roots are: 3&3

General Homog. Solution SH = (A1 n + A2 )3n

Let APS an = P0 2n + P1 n2 3n

Substitute this APS in the given INhomog. LRR; Get Pi ’s;

7

You will get P0 = 1; P1 = 18

;

Hence, the general solution is

7 2

an = (A1 n + A2 )3n + 2n + 18 n − 3n

NOW, use the initial conditions to find A1 and A2

5

A1 = 18

, A2 = 0

Hence, THE solution is

5 7 2

an = 18 n3n + 2n + 18

n − 3n

Recurrence Relations

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

References

Mathematics for Computer Scientists & Mathematicians", 2 ed.,

PHI, 1986.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

References

Mathematics for Computer Scientists & Mathematicians", 2 ed.,

PHI, 1986.

Thomas Koshy, “Discrete Mathematics with Applications",

Academic Press, Elsevier, 2004.

Overview Sequences & Recurrence Relations Solving RRs by Generating Functions Solving RRs by Characteristic Roots

Recurrence Relations

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