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CONTENTS
2.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent
2.2 Writing Equations
for Aqueous Ionic Reactions
2.3 Precipitation Reactions
2.4 Acid
Acid--Base or Neutralization Reactions
The Major Classes of
Chemical Reactions 2.5 Oxidation
Oxidation--Reduction
(REDOX
REDOX)) Reactions
Chapter 2
2.6 Reversible Reactions

A solution is a homogenous NaCl


Na Cl (Sodium Chloride)
mixture of 2 or more substances
The solute is (are) the substance
substance(s)
(s)
present in the smaller amount (s)
The solvent is the substance present
in the larger amount
Examples
Solution Solvent Solute
Soft drink (l
(l) H 2O Sugar, CO2
Air (g
( g) N2 O2, Ar, CH4

An electrolyte
A substance that, when dissolved in
water, results in a solution that can
conduct electricity.
electricity.
Non--
Non weak strong
A non
nonelectrolyte
electrolyte electrolyte electrolyte electrolyte
A substance that, when dissolved in
water, results in a solution that does
not conduct electricity.
electricity.

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Conduct electricity in solution? Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity?


Cations (+) & Anions (–) No cations (+) & anions (–
(–) in solution
C6H12O6 (s) H2O C6H12O6 (aq)
aq)
Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociation

NaCl (s) H2O Na+ (aq)


aq) + Cl– (aq)
aq)

Weak Electrolyte – not completely dissociated


CH3COOH → CH3COO– (aq)
→ aq) + H+ (aq)
aq)
Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because
its ionization in water is incomplete

2.3 Precipitation Reactions


Precipitate – insoluble solid that separates
from solution
molecular equation
Pb(NO3)2 (aq)
aq) + 2NaI (aq)
aq) PbI2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)
aq)

pr e c i pi ta te
total ionic equation PbI2

Pb2+ + 2NO3– + 2Na+ + 2I– PbI2 (s) + 2Na+ + 2NO3–

ionic equation Na+ & NO3–


Pb2+ + 2I– PbI2 (s) are spectator ions 4.2

Writing Net Ionic Equations Acids


1. Write the balanced molecular equation.
equation. Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to
2. Write ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid.
completely dissociated into cations & anions.
3. Cancel spectator ions on both sides of ionic equation. Cause color changes in plant dyes.
React with certain metals  produce hydrogen gas.
Write the net ionic equation for the reaction
of silver nitrate with sodium chloride.
chloride. 2HCl (aq)
aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq)
aq) + H2 (g)
AgNO3 (aq)
aq) + NaCl (aq
(aq)) AgCl (s
(s) + NaNO3 (aq)
aq) React with carbonates & bicarbonates
to produce carbon dioxide gas
Ag+ + NO3– + Na+ + Cl– (s) + Na+ + NO3–
AgCl (s
2HCl (aq)
aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq)
aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Ag+ + Cl– AgCl (s) Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.

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Bases Monopro tic acids

Have a bitter taste. HCl → H+ + Cl– Strong electrolyte,


electrolyte,
strong acid

Feel slippery
slippery.. Many soaps contain bases. HNO3 → H+ + NO3– Strong electrolyte,
electrolyte,
strong acid

Cause color changes in plant dyes. CH COOH → H+ + CH COO–


3

3
electrolyte, weak acid
Weak electrolyte,
Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity.
Diprotic acids
Examples: Strong electrolyte,
electrolyte,
H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4– strong acid
Weak electrolyte,
electrolyte,
NH3 OH– HSO – → H+ + SO 2–
4

4 weak acid

Triprotic acids 2.4 Neutralization Reaction


H3PO4 →→ H+ + H PO –
2 4
electrolyte, weak acid
Weak electrolyte,
acid + base salt + water
H2PO4– → H+ + HPO42–

HCl (aq)
aq) + NaOH (aq)
aq) NaCl (aq)
aq) + H2O
electrolyte, weak acid
Weak electrolyte,

H+ + Cl– + Na+ + OH– Na+ + Cl– + H2O


HPO42– → H+ + PO43–

electrolyte, weak acid
Weak electrolyte,
H+ + OH– H2O

Titrations Equivalence point


In a titration
titration,, a solution of accurately known – point at which reaction is complete
concentration is added gradually to another
solution of unknown concentration until the
chemical reaction between 2 solutions Indicator
is complete. – substance that
Acid Base changes color at
(or near) the
Volume (mL) Volume (mL) equivalence point
Concentration (M) Concentration (M)

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Slowly add base 5.the indicator changes color


to unknown acid

Until222.

Molar Concentration Calculate the volume of a 1.420 M NaOH


solution that is required to titrate
1 M NaOH solution 25.00 mL of a 4.50 M H2SO4 solution.
Understood as Write the Balanced Chemical Equation

1 mole NaOH / 1000 mL H2SO4 + 2NaOH 2H2O + Na2SO4


reaction
volume M moles moles M volume
acid acid acid coefficient base base base
100 mL
4.50 mol H2SO4 2 mol NaOH 1000 mL solution
0.1 mole NaOH 25.00 mL × × × 1.420 mol NaOH
1000 mL solution 1 mol H2SO4

1 M NaOH 1 M NaOH = 158 mL

Another Method (ratio of moles) Solution Stoichiometry


The concentration of a solution is the amount of
H2SO4 + 2NaOH 2H2O + Na2SO4 solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution.
moles of H2SO4 1 (M V ) 1000 ml M = molarity =
moles of solute
= = liters of solution
moles of NaOH 2 (M V ) 1000 ml Molar concentration

Find mass of KI required to make 500


MV 1 ( 4.50 M ) (25.00
25.00mL
mL)) 1 mL of a 2.80 M KI solution.
= = Molarity KI Molar mass KI
MV 2 ( 1.42 M ) V 2 volume KI moles KI grams KI
2 ( 4.50 M ) (25.00
25.00mL
mL)) 1 V 1L 2.80 mol KI 166 g KI
= 500 mL × × ×
( 1.42 M ) 1000 mL 1 L solution 1 mol KI
∴ V = 158 mL = 232 g KI Atomic Mass: K = 39, l = 127

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Dilution = procedure for preparing a less How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.2 M
concentrated solution from a more HNO3 from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO3?
concentrated solution.
MiVi = MfVf
Dilution
Mi = 4.00 M Vf = 0.06 L
Mf = 0.200 M Vi = ? L
Add Mf Vf 0.200 × 0.06
Solvent Vi = = = 0.003 L
Mi 4.00
Moles of solute Moles of solute = 3 mL
before dilution ((ii) = after dilution (f) 3 mL of acid + 57 mL of water
MiVi = MfVf = 60 mL of solution

Oxidation - Reduction Reactions


Oxidation-
(electron transfer reactions)
2Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2MgO (s)
2Mg 2Mg2+ + 4e– The Zn bar is in aqueous
half--reaction (lose e–)
Oxidation half solution of CuSO4

O2 + 4e– 2O2–
half--reaction (gain e–)
Reduction half
When a piece
2Mg + O2 + 4e− 2Mg2+ + 2O2− + 4e− Cu2+ ions are of copper wire is placed in
converted to Cu atoms. an aqueous AgNO3 solution, Cu
2Mg + O2 2MgO Zn atoms enter the atoms enter solution as Cu2+ ions.
solution as Zn2+ ions. Ag+ ions are converted to solid Ag.

Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq


aq)) ZnSO4 (aq
aq)) + Cu (s) Oxidation Number
The charge the atom would have in a molecule (or an ionic
Zn = oxidized
Zn Zn2+ + 2e− Zn = reducing agent
compound) if e l e c t r o n s w e r e c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f e r r e d .

1. Free elements (uncombined state) have an


Cu2+ = reduced oxidation number of zero.
Cu2+ + 2e− Cu Cu2+ = oxidizing agent Na, Be, K, Pb,
Pb, H2, O2, P4 = 0
Copper wire reacts with silver nitrate to form silver 2. In monatomic ions,
ions, oxidation number equal to
metal. What is the oxidizing agent in reaction? charge on ion.
Cu (s) + 2AgNO3 (aq
aq)) Cu(NO3)2 (aq
aq)) + 2Ag (s) Oxidation no Oxidation no Oxidation no
Li+, Li = +1;
+1; Fe3+, Fe = +3;
+3; O2−, O = –2
Cu Cu2+ + 2e−
Ag+ is reduced 3. Oxidation number of oxygen is usually –2.
Ag+ + 1e− Ag In H2O2 & O22− it is –1.
Ag+ is oxidizing agent

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4. Oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 except The oxidation numbers of


elements in their compounds
when bonded to metals in binary compounds.
compounds.
In such cases, its oxidation number is –1.
Li
5. Group IA metals = +1,
+1,
Group IIA metals = +2 & fluorine always –1.

6. Sum of oxidation numbers of all atoms in a


molecule/ion equal to charge on molecule/ion.
HCO3−
Oxidation numbers
of all elements in O = −2 H = +1
HCO − ? 3×(−2) + 1 + ? = −1
3
C = +4

Iodine heptafluoride
Oxidation
numbers IF7 4 Types of Redox Reactions
F = −1
of all elements in 7×(−1) + ? = 0
the following?  Combination reactions
I = +7
Sodium Iodate Potassium dichromate  Decomposition reactions
NaIO3 K2Cr2O7
Na = +1 O = −2 O = −2 K = +1  Displacement reactions*
3×(−2) + 1 + ? = 0 7×(−2) + 2
2××(+1)
+1)  Disproportion reactions
I = +5 +22×
×(?) = 0
Cr = +6

Displacement reactions  Hydrogen Displacement


Displacement reactions happen when an
Displace hydrogen from cold water
ion (or atom) in a compound is replaced by
e.g. Alkali metals & some alkaline earth metals
an ion (or atom) of another element:
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq
aq)) + H2(g)
A + BC AC + B
Displace hydrogen from steam
Most displacement reactions fit into 1 of 3 subcategories: e.g. For less reactive metals (Al & Fe)
Hydrogen Displacement,
Metal Displacement, or
Displace hydrogen from acids
e.g. For many metals, except Cu,
Cu, Ag,
Ag, & Au
Halogen Displacement.

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E.g. O x i d a t i o n n u m b e r

Electrochemical series
 Metal Displacement

for M e tal D i s pl a c e me n t
0 +2
Zn((s) → Zn2+(aq)
Zn aq) + 2e−
A metal in a compound can Electrochemical series
be displaced by another
metal in elemental state.
Electrochemical series
Convenient summary of
results of many possible
displacement reactions.
 Any metal above H2 will
displace it ((H
H2) from water**
For example:
or from an acid
acid..
 Any metal listed in the series will react (displace
(displace))
Zn(s) + CaSO
CaSO4(aq)
aq) Zn
ZnSO
SO4(aq)
aq) + Ca(s)
with any metal (in a compound) below it in the series. Zn(s) + CuSO
CuSO4(aq)
aq) Zn
ZnSO
SO4(aq)
aq) + Cu(s)

7A
Halogen Displacement F
Cl
A B
Power of halogens as oxidizing agents Br A reversible reaction.
decreases as we go down Group 7A from F2 to I2. I Reaction can occur in both directions.
Halogens’ behavior in halogen displacement reactions:
Strongest CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
oxidizing agent F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2 Forward reaction
Predict what will happen if molecular bromine (Br2) CaO(s) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s)
is added to a solution containing NaCl & NaI at 25°
25°C. Reverse reaction
Answer Br2 will oxidize I− but not Cl −
−1 0 0 –1
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
2I − + Br2 I2 + 2Br − END of
Chapter 2