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The Fourth IAS-OSLA Course on “Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk”

Muscat, Oman, February 2018

New Guidelines in Dyslipidemia Management


Dr. Khalid Al-Waili, MD, FRCPC, DABCL
Senior Consultant Medical Biochemist & Lipidologist
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital
Outline
• History of U.S. Dyslipidaemia Guideline Development

• New ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline published Nov 2013

• New NICE Guidelines 2014

• Guidelines for Patients with CKD

• New ESC/EAS Guidelines 2016

• New Middle East Guidelines 2016

• 2017 Update of ESC:EAS on PCSK9 Inhibitors


History of U.S. Dyslipidemia Guideline Development

1988 1993 2001 2004 2013

ACC/AHA
ATP I1 ATP II2 ATP III3 ATP III Update4
Guidelines5
• Exclusive focus • Risk • Lower LDL-C • Lower LDL-C • Use of
on LDL-C assessment threshold for threshold for moderate- or
guides therapy therapy therapy high-intensity
initiation in initiation in statin therapy
high risk very high risk for patients
patients patients across 4 major
groups at risk
for ASCVD*

*ASCVD, Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

1. NCEP. Arch Intern Med .1988;148:36-69. 2. NCEP ATP II. Circulation .1994;89:1333-445. 3. NCEP ATP III. Circulation. 2002;106:3143.
4. Grundy SM, et al. Circulation. 2004;110:227-239.. 5. Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013: doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. Available at:
http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770217. Accessed November 13, 2013.
NCEP ATP III Updated Report: LDL-C Goals Based on
Risk Category
Increasing Risk

Moderately
Lower Risk Moderate Risk High-Risk Very High-Risk
High-Risk

LDL-C LDL-C LDL-C LDL-C LDL-C


Goal Goal Goal Goal Goal
<160 <130 <130 <100 <100
mg/dL mg/dL mg/dL mg/dL mg/dL

Optional Goal Optional Goal


<100 mg/dL <70 mg/dL

Grundy et al. Circulation. 2004;110:227-239.


New ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline
published Nov 2013

AHA, American Heart Association


ACC, American College of Cardiology
What is new in the 2013 Guideline?

• Identification of 4 major statin benefit groups

• Shift away from treat to target approach

• Definitions of statin intensity provided

• New global risk assessment tool for primary prevention

• Addition of non-statin drug therapy to statins to further decrease ASCVD risk addressed

Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013: doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. Available at: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770217. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Major Statin Benefit Groups

ASCVD LDL (mg/dL) DM (40 – 75 years) 10 year risk ASCVD ≥ 7.5 %

1 Yes - - -

2 - > 190 - -

3 No 70 – 189 Yes -

4 No 70 – 189 No Yes

ASCVD, Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease


Group 1: Patients with clinical ASCVD
Guideline Direction
“High-intensity statin therapy should be initiated or continued as first-line
therapy in women and men ≤75 years of age who have clinical ASCVD, unless
contraindicated.”*

*ACC/AHA Guideline 2013/p 22/secondary prevention #1


Group 2: Patients with primary elevations of LDL–C
≥190 mg/dL (≥4.9 mmol/L)
Guideline Direction
“Adults ≥21 years of age with primary LDL–C ≥190 mg/dL (≥4.9
mmol/L) should be treated with statin therapy (10-year ASCVD risk
estimation is not required): Use high-intensity statin therapy unless
contraindicated.”*

*ACC/AHA Guideline 2013/p 22/primary prevention ≥21/#2


Group 3: Patients with diabetes aged 40-75 years with LDL 70-189
mg/dL (1.8-4.9 mmol/L) and without clinical ASCVD

Guideline Direction
“Moderate-intensity statin therapy should be initiated or continued for
adults 40 to 75 years of age with diabetes mellitus. High-intensity statin
therapy is reasonable for adults 40 to 75 years of age with diabetes
mellitus with a ≥7.5% estimated 10-year ASCVD risk unless
contraindicated.”*

*ACC/AHA Guideline 2013/p 23/primary prevention with diabetes/# 1,2


Group 3: Patients with diabetes aged 40-75 years with LDL 70-189
mg/dL (1.8-4.9 mmol/L) and without clinical ASCVD

Type 1 or 2 diabetes

No Consider statin
Age 40–75 years
individually
Yes

Estimate 10-year ASCVD risk


with Pooled Cohort Equations

ASCVD risk ≥7.5% ASCVD risk <7.5%

High-intensity statin* Moderate-intensity statin†

*Expected to reduce LDL-C by ≥50%


†Expected to reduce LDL-C by 30 to <50% Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7. Epub ahead of print
Group 4: Patients without clinical ASCVD or diabetes with LDL–C 70
to 189 mg/dL (1.8 to 4.9 mmol/L) and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk
≥7.5%

Guideline Direction
“Adults 40 to 75 years of age with LDL–C 70 to 189 mg/dL (1.8 to 4.9
mmol/L), without clinical ASCVD or diabetes and an estimated 10-year
ASCVD risk ≥7.5% should be treated with moderate- to high-intensity
statin therapy.”*

*ACC/AHA Guideline 2013/p 23/Primary Prevention w/o Diabetes/#2


Guidelines use new ASCVD risk calculator
10-year risk (%) of ASCVD (non-fatal MI, CHD death,
or fatal/non-fatal stroke) is calculated from simple parameters:
Risk factor
Sex (male or female)
Age (years)
Race (African-American or White/other) 10 year risk
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) and
HDL-C (mg/dL) Lifetime Risk
SBP (mmHg)
Treatment for high BP (yes or no)
Diabetes (yes or no)
Smoker (yes or no)
BP, blood pressure
HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol
Goff DC Jr, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7. Epub ahead of print
SBP, Systolic blood pressure
Guidelines specify statin doses
High-intensity Moderate-intensity ↓ Low-intensity
↓ LDL-C by ≥50% LDL-C by 30–50% ↓ LDL-C by <30%*
Atorvastatin (40)–80 mg 10–20 mg –
Rosuvastatin 20–40 mg 5–10 mg –
Simvastatin – 20–40 mg 10 mg
Pravastatin – 40–80 mg 10–20 mg
Lovastatin – 40 mg 20 mg

Fluvastatin XL – 80 mg –
Fluvastatin – 40 mg bid 20–40 mg
Pitvastatin – 2–4 mg 1 mg
Bold: Statins and doses evaluated in RCTs
Italics: Statins and doses approved by US FDA but not tested in RCTs reviewed Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7. Epub ahead of print
*Should be used in patients unable to tolerate moderate-to high-intensity therapy Reproduced with kind permission from American College of Cardiology Jan 2014
Asian ancestry may modify the statin dose prescribed
Patients outside the four benefit groups:
Consider statin therapy individually
Statins can be considered for patients with 10-year ASCVD risk <7.5% based on
additional factors1

C-reactive protein >2 mg/L


Elevated LDL-C >160 mg/dL
Family history of (~19 nmol/L)
lifetime ASCVD (~4.0 mmol/L)
ASCVD1 Ankle-brachial index <0.9
risk1 Other genetic hyperlipidemias1
High coronary artery calcium (CAC)
score1

Carotid intimal-medial
thickness not recommended2

Exceptions:1
NYHA class II–IV HF Individual discussion of benefits
or maintenance hemodialysis –
insufficient evidence
and risks1
1. Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7. Epub ahead of print
HF, heart failure 2. Goff DC Jr, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7. Epub ahead of print
A New Perspective on LDL–C and/or Non-HDL–C
Treatment Goals

Lack of RCT evidence to support continued use of


specific LDL–C and/or non-HDL–C treatment targets

No recommendations for or against specific LDL-C and


non-HDL-C goals for primary or secondary prevention

Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013: doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. Available at:

http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770217. Accessed November 13, 2013.


Summary: 2013 Guideline
Recommendations for Statin Therapy
ASCVD Statin Benefit Groups
Heart healthy lifestyle habits are the foundation of ASCVD prevention

Estimated 10-yr ASCVD risk


Clinical ASCVD LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL Diabetes; age 40-75 years*
≥7.5%†; age 40-75 years*

• High-Intensity statin (age • High-intensity statin • Moderate-intensity statin • Moderate- to high-intensity


≤75 years) statin
• Moderate-intensity statin if • High-intensity statin if
• Moderate-intensity statin if not a candidate for high- estimated 10 year ASCVD
>75 years or not a candidate intensity statin risk ≥7.5%
for high-intensity statin

ASCVD prevention benefit of statin therapy may be less clear in other groups . Consider additional factors influencing ASCVD risk , potential ASCVD
risk benefits and adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences for statin treatment.
* With LDL-C of 70-189 mg/dL
† Estimated using the Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations

Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013: doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. Available at:


http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770217. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Safety Considerations

Creatinine Kinase (CK)


• Routine monitoring of CK not recommended
• Measurement may be useful at baseline in those at increased risk of muscle events and in patients with
muscle symptoms
• Guideline provides recommendations for management of muscle symptoms

Alanine Transaminase (ALT)


• Baseline measurement recommended
• Routine hepatic monitoring not recommended unless symptoms suggesting hepatotoxicity are present

Type-2 Diabetes
• Statins modestly increase risk of type-II diabetes in patients with risk factors for diabetes
• Potential for ASCVD risk reduction benefit outweighs risk of diabetes in all but lowest risk individuals
• Evaluate for new onset diabetes according to current diabetes screening guidelines

Stone NJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013: doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. Available at:

http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770217. Accessed November 13, 2013.


NICE July 2014
Key priorities for implementation – NICE 2014
Identifying and assessing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk

* For the primary prevention of CVD in primary care, use a systematic strategy to identify
people who are likely to be at high risk. [2008, amended 2014]

* Prioritize people for a full formal risk assessment if their estimated 10-year risk of CVD is
10% or more. [2008, amended 2014]

* Use the QRISK2 risk assessment tool to assess CVD risk for the primary prevention of
CVD in people up to and including age 84 years. [new 2014]

* Do not use a risk assessment tool to assess CVD risk in people with an estimated
glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or albuminuria. These
people are at increased risk of CVD. [new 2014]
Key priorities for implementation
Lipid modification therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of CVD

* Before starting lipid modification therapy for the primary prevention of CVD, take at least 1
lipid sample to measure a full lipid profile. This should include measurement of TC, HDL, non-
HDL and triglyceride concentrations. A fasting sample is not needed. [new 2014]

* Offer atorvastatin 20 mg for the primary prevention of CVD to people who have a 10% or
greater 10-year risk of developing CVD. Estimate the level of risk using the QRISK2 assessment
tool. [new 2014]

* Start statin treatment in people with CVD with atorvastatin 80 mg. Use a lower dose of
atorvastatin if any of the following apply:
* potential drug interactions
* high risk of adverse effects
* patient preference [new 2014]
Key priorities for implementation
Lipid modification therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of CVD

* Measure TC, HDL and non-HDL in all people who have been started on high-intensity statin
treatment at 3 months of treatment and aim for > 40% reduction in non-HDL cholesterol. If a
greater than 40% reduction in non-HDL cholesterol is not achieved:
* discuss adherence and timing of dose
* optimize adherence to diet and lifestyle measures
* consider increasing dose if started on less than atorvastatin 80 mg and the person is judged to be at higher
risk because of comorbidities, risk score or using clinical judgment. [new 2014]
Grouping of Statins as per NICE
Reduction in LDL-C
Dose (mg/day) 5 10 20 40 80
Fluvastatin – – 21%1 27%1 33%2
Pravastatin – 20%1 24%1 29%1 –
Simvastatin – 27%1 32%2 37%2 42%3,4
Atorvastatin – 37%2 43%3 49%3 55%3
Rosuvastatin 38%2 43%3 48%3 53%3 –

1 20%–30%: low intensity.


2 31%–40%: medium intensity.
3 Above 40%: high intensity.
4 Advice from the MHRA: there is an increased risk of myopathy associated with high-dose (80 mg) simvastatin. The 80 mg dose should be

considered only in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and high risk of cardiovascular complications who have not achieved their
treatment goals on lower doses, when the benefits are expected to outweigh the potential risks.
Be Aware
NICE 2014 - Do not delay in 2ndary prevention
NICE 2014 - NODM
NICE 2014 - T1DM
NICE 2014 - T2DM
Guidelines for Patients with CKD
* ACC/AHA did not address specific recommendations for patients with CKD
* Appendix of Evidence Statements includes the following statement regarding use of atorvastatin
for secondary prevention in patients with CKD, based on results of TNT:
‒ In adults with CHD/CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (excluding hemodialysis), fixed high-intensity
statin treatment (atorvastatin 80 mg) that achieved a mean LDL–C of 79 mg/dL reduced CHD/CVD events
more than fixed lower-dose statin treatment that achieved a mean LDL–C of 99 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). In
this trial, the mean LDL–C levels achieved differed by 20 mg/dL (0.52 mmol/L), or 20% between the 2
groups.
* However, KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) 2013 guidelines recommend statin
therapy for CKD patients ≥50 years of age and patients 18-49 years of age with known coronary
disease, diabetes, prior ischemic stroke, or 10-year CHD risk >10%
* Once appropriate therapy has been selected, measuring LDL-C is not recommended unless
results would change management
* Escalation to reach specific LDL-C goals is no longer recommended
NICE 2014 - CKD
Adapted from reference : National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney
disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(suppl 2);S1-S179.
† Low HDL-C
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and other arterial revascularization procedures,
stroke and TIA, aortic aneurysm and PAD. forthe roles of ethnicity and
Cardiovascular of specific &
Prevention conditions or diseases(EACPR)
Rehabilitation that may that the reduction
Recommendations for lipid control
be associated with a higher than calculated risk, such as CKD, auto-
Unequivocally documented CVD on imaging Authors/Task Force Members: Massimo F. Piepoli* (Chairperson) (Italy), CVD.38
includes plaque on coronary immune
Arno W. Hoes diseases, etc. The way modifiers
* (Co-Chairperson) are related to
(The Netherlands), CV risk
Stefan may (Norway)1,
Agewall
angiography or carotid ultrasound. It does NOT Christian Albus (Germany) 9, Carlos Brotons (Spain) 10, Alberico L. Catapano (Italy) 3,
be very different. Social deprivation and being overweight, for ex- Meta-analyses
include some increase in continuous imaging Marie-Therese Cooney (Ireland) 1, Ugo Corrà (Italy) 1, Bernard Cosyns (Belgium) 1,
parameters such as intima–media thickness of
ample,
Christi DeatonRecommendations
are important
(UK) 1, Ian as ‘causes
Graham
de
of the 1causes’
(Ireland) , Michael Class a
ofStephen
CVD, inLevel b
that(UK)
Hall 7, Ref c tive reduction in
F. D. Richard Hobbs (UK) 10, Maja-Lisa Løchen (Norway) 1, Herbert Löllgen
the carotid artery. they may be associated with higher levels of conventional risk fac-
(Germany) 8, Pedro Marques-Vidal (Switzerland) 1, Joep Perk (Sweden) 1, Eva Prescott duction in LDL-
• DM with target organ damage such as tors. Family
(Denmark) In patients
history
1, Josep at
Redon VERY
may (Spain)HIGH
reflect CV risk,
5,aDimitrios
shared environment, genetic1fac-
J. Richter (Greece) , Naveed Sattar
proteinuria or with a major risk factor such (UK) 2, Yvo an LDL-C
Smulders goal
(The <1.8 mmol/L
Netherlands) 1, Monica Tiberi (Italy) 1, reduction in CVD
tors or both. Markers such as computed tomography (CT)
H. Bart van der Worp (The Netherlands) 6, Ineke van Dis (The Netherlands) 4,
as smoking or marked hypercholesterolaemia (<70 mg/dL), or a(The
reduction of at rather
or marked hypertension. W.calcium
M. Moniquescoring are indicators
Verschuren of disease
Netherlands) 1 than
I risk factors B 350–353
• Severe CKD (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). least
for future disease.
Additional Contributor:50% if
Simone the baseline
Binno (Italy) is between 3a.7.3 Apolipo
• A calculated SCORE ≥10%. 1.8 and 3.5 mmol/L (70 and 135 mg/
* Corresponding authors: Massimo F. Piepoli, Heart Failure Unit, Cardiology Department, Polichirurgico Hospital G. Da Saliceto, Cantone Del Cristo, 29121 Piacenza, Emilia Romagna,
Italy, Tel: +39 0523 30 32 17, Fax: +39 0523 30 32 20, E-mail: m.piepoli@alice.it, m.piepoli@imperial.ac.uk.
Apolipoprotein
dL) categories:
is recommended. f
Arno W. Hoes, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500 (HP Str. 6.131), 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands,

2.3.7 Risk priorities


Tel: +31 88 756 8193, Fax: +31 88 756 8099, E-mail: a.w.hoes@umcutrecht.nl.
High-risk Subjects with: ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) and National Cardiac Societies document reviewers: listed in the Appendix.
lipoproteins) lev
• Markedly elevated single risk factors, in Individuals at highest risk gain most from preventive efforts, and this
ESC entities having participated in the development of this document:

particular cholesterol >8 mmol/L (>310 mg/dL) In patients at HIGH CV risk, an


Associations: European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), European Association of
Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), Heart Failure Association (HFA). in parallel with LD
guides the priorities, which are detailed in Table 5.
LDL-C goal <2.6 mmol/L
Councils: Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions, Council for Cardiology Practice, Council on Cardiovascular Primary Care.
(e.g. in familial hypercholesterolaemia) or
BP ≥180/110 mmHg.
Working Groups: Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
The content of these European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines has been published for personal and educational use only. No commercial use is authorized. No part of the that apoB is a sim
(<100 mg/dL), or a reduction of at
ESC Guidelines may be translated or reproduced in any form without written permission from the ESC. Permission can be obtained upon submission of a written request to Oxford

I B
University Press, the publisher of the European Heart Journal and the party authorized to handle such permissions on behalf of the ESC.
2.3.8 Risk 350–353 to be less labor
• Most other people with DM (with the
exception of young people with type 1 DM
leastfactor
50% iftargets
the baseline is between
Disclaimer. The ESC Guidelines represent the views of the ESC and were produced after careful consideration of the scientific and medical knowledge and the evidence available at
the time of their publication. The ESC is not responsible in the event of any contradiction, discrepancy and/or ambiguity between the ESC Guidelines and any other official recom-

Risk factor
2.6goals andmmol/L
target levels for important CV risk factors are
mendations or guidelines issued by the relevant public health authorities, in particular in relation to good use of healthcare or therapeutic strategies. Health professionals are encour-

and 5.1 (100 and


aged to take the ESC Guidelines fully into account when exercising their clinical judgment, as well as in the determination and the implementation of preventive, diagnostic or
LDL-C, particula
and without major risk factors that may be therapeutic medical strategies; however, the ESC Guidelines do not override, in any way whatsoever, the individual responsibility of health professionals to make appropriate and
presented200in mg/dL)
Table 6.is recommended.
accurate decisions in consideration of each patient’s health condition and in consultation with that patient and, where appropriate and/or necessary, the patient’s caregiver. Nor
at low or moderate risk). do the ESC Guidelines exempt health professionals from taking into full and careful consideration the relevant official updated recommendations or guidelines issued by the competent
public health authorities, in order to manage each patient’s case in light of the scientifically accepted data pursuant to their respective ethical and professional obligations. It is also the [.3.4 mmol/L (.
• Moderate CKD (GFR 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2). health professional’s responsibility to verify the applicable rules and regulations relating to drugs and medical devices at the time of prescription.

• A calculated SCORE ≥5% and <10%.


& The European Society of Cardiology 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
In the remaining patients on LDL-C
2.3.9 Conclusions is a better predic
Moderate risk SCORE is ≥1% and <5% at 10 years. Many middle- lowering
Estimation of totaltreatment, an LDL-C
CV risk remains goal part of the present
a crucial
IIa C 350–353
aged subjects belong to this category. guidelines. The priorities (risk categories) be
<3.0 mmol/L (<115 mg/dL) should defined in this section 3a.7.4 Triglyce
considered.
are for clinical use and reflect the fact that those at highest risk of
Low-risk SCORE <1%. Hypertriglycerida
a CVD event gain most from preventive measures. This approach
should complement public actions to reduce community risk factor but the associatio
ACS ¼ acute coronary syndrome; AMI ¼ acute myocardial infarction; BP ¼ blood levelsCV
and¼promote a healthy
cardiovascular; lifestyle.
HDL-C The principles
¼ high-density of risk estima-
lipoprotein cholesterol; The
35
risk is associ
Piepoli et al. European Heart Journal doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106
pressure; CKD ¼ chronic kidney disease; DM ¼ diabetes mellitus; GFR ¼
glomerular filtration rate; PAD ¼ peripheral artery disease; SCORE ¼ systematic
tion and the ¼
LDL-C definition of priorities
low-density reflect
lipoprotein an attempt to make com-
cholesterol. severe hypertri
a
Priority Patient Groups for PCSK9 Inhibition

• Patients with clinical ASCVD and substantially elevated LDL-C levels.

Patients should be on maximally tolerated statin therapy (ideally with


concomitant ezetimibe), or unable to tolerate three or more statins.

• Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients without clinical ASCVD but with


substantially elevated LDL-C levels

Patients should be on maximally tolerated statin therapy plus ezetimibe

Landmesser U et al. Eur Heart J 2017; https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx549


Patients with Clinical ASCVD : When to Consider a PCSK9 Inhibitor

Two LDL-C thresholds:

>3.6 mmol/L (>140 mg/dL)

>2.6 mmol/L (>100 mg/dL) with


additional indices of risk severity

Landmesser U et al. Eur Heart J 2017; https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx549


Patients with Clinical ASCVD : When to Consider a PCSK9 Inhibitor

Two LDL-C thresholds:

>4.5 mmol/L (>180 mg/dL)

>3.6 mmol/L (>140 mg/dL) with


additional indices of risk severity

Landmesser U et al. Eur Heart J 2017; https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx549


LDL-C Thresholds for Considering a PCSK9 Inhibitor
Patients with clinical ASCVD
LDL-C threshold
•On maximally tolerated statin (with or without
>3.6 mmol/L (140 mg/dL)
ezetimibe) or with statin intolerance
>2.6 mmol/L or 100 mg/dL
•With additional indices of risk severity
Indices of risk severity: FH, diabetes mellitus with target organ damage or with a major risk factor such
as marked hypertension; severe or extensive ASCVD; or rapid progression of ASCVD (repeated acute
coronary syndrome, unplanned coronary revascularizations or ischaemic stroke within 5 years of the
event).
Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients without
clinical ASCVD LDL-C threshold
•On maximally tolerated statin plus ezetimibe >4.5 mmol/L (180 mg/dL)
•With additional indices of risk severity (see >3.6 mmol/L (140 mg/dL)
below)
Indices of risk severity: Diabetes mellitus with target organ damage or with a major risk factor such as
marked hypertension; lipoprotein(a) >50 mg/dl; major risk factors such as smoking, marked
hypertension; >40 years without treatment; premature ASCVD (<55 years in males and <60 years in
females) in first degree relatives; and imaging indicators of increased risk.
Conclusions
• It has been proven in many large clinical trials that reducing level of LDL cholesterol
reduces the risk of having a cardiovascular event. The benefit is proportional to the
CVD risk.

• More intensive treatments are more effective in preventing clinical events

• Low LDL-C is safe

• Statins are the cornerstone of LDL-C lowering

• Addition of ezetimibe to a statin reduces ASCVD events (IMPROVE-IT trial)

• Large clinical ASCVD outcomes trials of PCSK9 inhibitors showed that these agents
reduce ASCVD risk (FOURIER and SPIRE-2)
Thank you

*Questions ????