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7.

0 Tesla MRI Brain Atlas

ERRNVPHGLFRVRUJ
Zang-Hee Cho
Editor

7.0 Tesla MRI Brain Atlas


In-vivo Atlas with Cryomacrotome Correlation

Second Edition

0¡VOLEURVHQ
ERRNVPHGLFRVRUJ
Editor
Zang-Hee Cho
Neuroscience Research Institute
Gachon University
Incheon
Korea
Republic of (South Korea)

ISBN 978-3-642-54397-5 ISBN 978-3-642-54398-2 (eBook)


DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-54398-2
Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London

Library of Congress Control Number: 2014957396

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015


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Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)


v

This work is dedicated to Dr. Gil-Ya Lee,


founder of the Neuroscience Research Institute,
Gachon University of Medicine and Science.
vii

New Brain Atlas


Ultrahigh-Resolution Human Brain Maps, Obtained by 7.0 T MRI In Vivo
and Cadaver Cryomacrotome, Based on New Reference System

7.0 T MRI Imaging Cryomacrotome Imaging


**
Zang-Hee Cho, Ph.D1, 8 *
Min Suk Chung, MD, Ph.D2

Young-Bo Kim, MD, Ph.D1 Jin Seo Park, Ph.D5


Jae-Yong Han, Ph.D1 Jun-Won Lee, B.S.2
Hoon-Ki Min, M.Sc1, 8 Hyo-Seok Park, B.S.5
Sang-Han Choi, M.Sc1 Dong Sun Shin, Ph.D2
Dong-Hwan Har, Ph.D6
Do-Hee Cho, M.Sc.6

Neuroanatomy Neurology
*
*
Je-Geun Chi, MD, Ph.D3 Duk L. Na, MD, Ph.D4

Chan-Woong Park, MD, Ph.D1 So-Young Moon, MD2


Cheol-Wan Park, MD, Ph.D1 Sang Won Seo, MD4
Young-Bo Kim, MD, Ph.D1 Sook-Hui Kim, MD4
Jong-Min Lee, Ph.D7 Seok-Min Go, MD4
James H. Fallon, Ph.D8

**
Principal Author
*
Coprincipal Authors
1. Neuroscience Research Institute (NRI), Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon,
Republic of Korea
2. Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea
3. Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
4. Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
5. Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
6. Graduate School of Advanced Imaging Science, Multimedia & Film, Chung-Ang University, Seoul,
Republic of Korea
7. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
8. University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA
viii

Foreword

I write this Foreword in gratitude to Professor Zang-Hee Cho, one of the great innovators and proponents
of progress in the field of magnetic resonance imaging. The “New Brain Atlas,” prepared by Professor
Cho and his colleague at the Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and
Science, will set new standards in neuroanatomy. It is indeed fascinating to browse through this atlas,
which has been produced both from cadaver macrotomes and from 7.0 T magnetic resonance images
(MRI). Indeed, this volume illustrates the great power and usefulness of modern MRI, which has been
developed and perfected during the past decades by numerous scientists and engineers all around the
world. The research group of Professor Zang-Hee Cho was instrumental in these astounding
developments.

Studying more closely the pictures in the Atlas reveals a wealth of details of the brain stem and midbrain
structures, which were once thought impossible to visualize in vivo. I am convinced that these remarkable
achievements are a triumph of modern advanced MRI and medical technology in general. MRI has
already been very helpful in the past for localizing early tumors and receiving timely information on the
formation of strokes and spinal cord degeneration. MRI is now entering a new era of finding deformations
and atrophy of the hippocampus, which many experts believe to be the main causes of Alzheimer’s disease
and epilepsy. The new ultrahigh-field MRI investigations are not only capable of imaging the minute
details of the mentioned deformations and atrophy of the hippocampus but are also in a position to dis-
tinguish the normal and abnormal neuromorphology of the substantia nigra, the key neuronal site for
major movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease . In addition to all those fine structures of the
brain—the most intricate of all in our human body—it can be used for finding the sites of therapeutic
targets such as the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, previously impossible to find in vivo, serving
the important deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Today, it is possible to rely on the cadaver brain atlas
and apply computer fitting to low-resolution MRI or CT images, taking advantage also of the microelec-
trode molecular probe. The same procedure could be applied in the field of submillimeter precision neu-
roanatomy in vivo.

In close analogy to the discoveries with astronomical telescopes, where each time we are capable
of improving resolution and are finding new galaxies previously unknown, in the same manner we experience
new revelations in medicine and biology by improving our instruments. Especially in brain science, there is
still much to be discovered, and much is waiting for interpretation and understanding at the macroscopic
ix

and morphological levels as well as on biomolecular and cellular grounds. Magnetic resonance studies,
especially ultrahigh-field MRI, will continue to play a fundamental role in this field. I am convinced that the
NEW BRAIN ATLAS will provide many answers and new inspiration for further experimental studies.
It is thus a very valuable addition to any respectable library of medicine and an inexhaustible source for
specialists and students.

Zurich, September 9, 2008

Richard R. Ernst*

ETH Zürich
Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie
Zürich, Switzerland

*Professor Ernst received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 for his contribution to the development
of Fourier Transform NMR, which not only revolutionized modern NMR but is also the backbone of
MRI—magnetic resonance imaging—to which mankind owes so much today.
x

Preface

As is true in any scientific field, the advances in neuroanatomy have been made possible by the improvement
of the tools available to researchers. These tools have undergone revolutionary changes in the past 100 years.
When one of the first Nobel prizes was awarded to neuroscientists Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y
Cajal in 1906, the main research technique available to neuroscientists was staining or coloring nerve cells
and observing the effect either visually or under an optical microscope. When various forms of much more
powerful scanning electron microscopy were introduced later in the twentieth century, they were immedi-
ately applied to neuroanatomy, thus greatly benefiting it.

Among all tools and techniques available in neuroanatomy, imaging techniques allowing the researcher
to study the human brain in vivo play a special role. These imaging techniques include CT scanners using
X-rays, the nuclear imaging techniques PET and SPECT, and MRI. Recent advances in MRI, especially those
in the area of ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI such as 7.0 Tesla (T), have attracted significant attention in the field
of brain imaging for neuroscience research as well as for clinical applications. Many physical and engineer-
ing problems related to UHF MRI are yet to be resolved. For example, due to the increased radio frequency
(RF) in UHF MRI, the RF field suffers from inhomogeneity and introduces image distortions. Nevertheless,
7.0 T MRI has begun to reveal unseen images of numerous fine structures in the human brain in vivo. With
these images providing drastically improved contrast as well as resolution, researchers have begun to dem-
onstrate that MRI is indeed capable of showing very small brain structures. These structures include the
subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra and its surroundings in the midbrain area, as well as various
abnormalities. Since these new images began to reveal numerous, strikingly fine structural details in the
human brain in  vivo, many experts in the field began to wonder how high-resolution MRI would affect
modern medicine and neuroscience research as a whole.

The advances in neuroanatomy are no longer of interest only to the anatomist. In the nervous system,
structural organization is most essential in understanding functional concepts. Therefore, a solid under-
standing of the subtle details of the brain structure became important for a lucid communication among
clinicians, scientists, and other specialists working in the field of neuroscience and clinical medicine. The
wealth of information offered by modern imaging techniques made it imperative for the interpreter of the
images to be thoroughly familiar with the anatomical minutiae of the brain. A specialized knowledge of the
brain anatomy is a prerequisite, which goes beyond merely that of gross anatomy, including a complete
familiarity with the brain in sections in various planes. It is no longer adequate to use such vague terms as
xi

the “frontoparietal region” or “basal ganglia.” The gyrus or a specific nucleus involved in the pathological
process should be precisely defined and described.

New applications of neuroimaging arise almost every day. It used to be important just to locate and deter-
mine the extent and the exact position of an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Now, that goal has been
extended to define non-neoplastic lesions, i.e., cerebral hemorrhage, edema, and infarction as well as demy-
elinating diseases and various neurodegenerative processes.

Let us consider the following analogy: When a new generation of giant cosmic telescopes became avail-
able to astronomers, the significance of these new tools was not limited to an increased resolution or to
clearer and more informative images. They brought about a new level of understanding of the universe.
Similarly, with increased field strength in MR imaging and hence with increased resolution, we began to
obtain images of unprecedented resolution and contrast that had not even been anticipated. Improvements
came from several different avenues besides the obvious signal-to-noise improvement predicted by the laws
of physics. We began to see various changes in physical parameters such as changes in T1 and T2 relaxation
times or, rather, in their combinations. On another front, we have witnessed great advances in the imaging
of human cadavers using cryomacrotome with increased sophistication and techniques. Now, one can create
cadaver images of unprecedented resolution and contrast with markedly conserved brain structures. With
all these super-resolution images that can be obtained with UHF MRI such as 7.0 T and the advanced cry-
omacrotome technology developed recently, we thought that development of a New Brain Atlas would be an
important and timely contribution to the medical and neuroscience community.

Therefore, in this book, we made a set of ultrahigh-resolution brain images obtained from a cadaver by
cryomacrotome and by reconstructed partner images (sagittal and coronal), together with corresponding
in vivo ultrahigh-resolution human brain images obtained by 7.0 T MRI. Thus, we have been able to obtain
a complete set for the entire brain atlas with axial, sagittal, and coronal images of the cadaver and a 7.0 T
MRI of the in vivo brain. In this book, we applied a reference system that can be applicable to both cadaver
gross anatomy and MRI anatomy. In addition, a system of Cartesian axes is defined on the midpoint of the
central intercommissural distance with coordinates expressed in mm and +/− in axial, coronal, and sagittal
planes. This system will enable us to standardize the sectional planes and the levels of the slices in any brain
that may be encountered in practice.

We have also applied a “reference adjusted unit,” which is designed for the reader, the MRI user, to predict
the structure to be seen at any level of plane regardless of the absolute size of the brain that is obtained by
clinical MRI. We expect that our image-numbering system could contribute to the establishment of clinico-
pathologic mapping of the human brain through massive global feedback of related information. Eventually,
we hope that this book will serve as a roadmap both in the clinical arena and for neuroscience researchers
for years to come.

Zang-Hee Cho
Min Suk Chung
Je-Geum Chi
Duk L. Na
xii

Preface to the Second Edition

Since the publication of the first edition of this Atlas, we were convinced that the precise localization of the
reference system was much in need for easier identification; therefore, we have integrated a new coordinate
system in this new edition.

In this revised edition, therefore, we have put a coordinate matrix in every image, both cadaver and MRI,
based on a central intercommissural line to make a more convenient approach for the readers. By doing this,
readers would be able to compare their images with those of others based on the same coordinate system.

The other major revision is that we have reduced the book size for handiness without reduction of real
brain size of the original images seen in the first edition. Because of the reduction of the book size, all the
labels are abbreviated and explained at the bottom of every image.

As we are also working on the 7.0 T MRI Tractography Atlas, we have learned many new fiber tracts “hid-
den” in the white matter, and therefore, some of the tracts are newly labeled in this Atlas based on cadaver
and MRI images.

For this edition, we would like to appreciate Dr. Jin Seo Park for his critical review of the revision and
Sang-Han Choi for editing the manuscripts.

Zang-Hee Cho
Min Suk Chung
Je-Geum Chi
Duk L. Na
xiii

Table of Contents

Foreword ··············································································································································· viii


Preface ························································································································································ x
Preface of the 2nd Edition ·············································································································· xii
Introduction ·········································································································································· xiv
Reference of Brain Image Setting ·············································································································· xiv
Orientation of Brain Images ······················································································································· xiv
Orientation of Image Sections and Planes
Standard of the Sectional Brain Image Planes and Sizes
Adjustment of the MRI Brain to the Reference Brain
Terminology & Labeling
Data Collection System for Clinicopathologic Brain Mapping
Sources of Brain Images ································································································································ xx
In vivo Images using 7.0T MRI
Cadaver Images by Cryomacrotome
Image reconstruction and volume rendering
3D Images by Volume Rendering ············································································································· xxii
Coronal, Sagittal and Axial Cuts – Cadaver (Fig. 4)
Coronal, Sagittal and Axial Cuts – MRI (Fig. 5)
Sulcus and Gyrus – MRI (Fig. 6)
Brodmann areas – MRI (Fig. 7)
Acknowledgements ····································································································································· xxvi

Part I. Coronal Images of Cadaver and Human Brain of 7.0 T MRI In Vivo ··············································· 1
Part II. Sagittal Images of Cadaver and Human Brain of 7.0 T MRI In Vivo ··········································· 183
Part III. Axial Images of Cadaver and Human Brain of 7.0 T MRI In Vivo ··············································· 345

References ································································································································································ 510


Abbreviations ·························································································································································· 511
Index ········································································································································································ 520
xiv

Introduction

Reference of Brain Image Setting


The cadaver brain used in this atlas was designated as the “reference” brain; this is because this brain was
used as a reference to be compared with brain images obtained by 7.0 T MRI. However, note that the cadaver
image does not mean the “standard” brain image. All the slices are shown in a 2 mm interval (or distance)
starting from the zero point in the axial and coronal axis images, ±2 mm from the center, with the anterior
commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) line being aligned as the midline of the axial slice and the
center point of the AC-PC line as the midline of the coronal slice. In sagittal slices, both cadaver and MRI
images start from ±2 mm from the center point, with the AC-PC line being aligned to the midline.

Images of the cadaver (reference) brain were juxtaposed with 7.0 T MRI images of a living subject to
compare the anatomy of the brain. In each set of images, the cadaver (reference) brain image is placed on the
left page while the corresponding MRI image is placed on the right page to facilitate a comparison. We have
attempted to match the MRI brain images as closely as possible with the cadaver images. This type of pre-
sentation will facilitate correlational visualization of the anatomy of the reference image with that of the
corresponding MR image.

Orientation of Brain Images


Orientation of Image Sections and Planes
Even though several common protocols exist, there is no fully defined standard for the orientation of sectional
images up to now. There has been considerable confusion about axial images, for example. It is true that all the
coronal images in clinical practice are now viewed as shown in Fig. 1 (i) as if the examiner and the patient viewed
each other face to face. The left side of the sagittal image is seen on the right side as if we looked face to face (See
Fig. 1 (ii)). The axial-view images are also shown as if the examiner looked at a patient from the bottom up.

This type of arrangement of axial-, sagittal-, and coronal-view images has been widely adopted in recent
years. Therefore, we will follow that convention in our New Brain Atlas also (see Fig. 1).

Standard of the Sectional Brain Image Planes and Sizes


For the sake of convenience, we have presented all the images of the reference brain as well as the MRI brain in
our atlas on the scale of 1:1. In other words, both cadaver and MRI images are all in the actual metric base
frames and systems except for the expanded images. It is known that the average shrinkage of the cerebral hemi-
sphere resulting from freezing is approximately 1 %; therefore, that shrinkage may be neglected. For the reader’s
convenience, we have displayed a few selected view images with expanded views to visualize the details of the
images. We believe that the expanded or magnified images provide information not previously available.
xv

Extracerebral reference lines have been generally used in radiography, computed tomography (CT), and
MRI studies. In 1962, the World Federation of Radiology defined Reid’s base line as the line between the
infraorbital margin and the upper margin of the external auditory meatus. In radiological practice, however,
the canthomeatal line has been more frequently used. The canthomeatal line is the line between the lateral
canthus and the central point of the external auditory meatus. The line is tilted approximately 10° nose up
with respect to Reid’s base line, which approximately parallels the “true” horizontal line. However, intrace-
rebral reference points have not been standardized. In stereotactic surgery, the foramen of the Monro-
posterior commissure line or the anterior commissure–posterior commissure line has been used.
Schaltenbrand et al. and Talairach et al. suggested that anterior and posterior commissures might be consid-
ered to have a constant relationship with the deep cerebral structures. They proposed using the line between
these two structures as the basic reference line.

In our New Brain Atlas, the horizontal plane passing through the central point of the anterior commis-
sure (AC) and the posterior commissure (PC) of the reference brain is designated as the reference axial plane
defined as the central AC–PC intercommissural line. This differs from the convention used in stereotaxy and
functional MRI, where the tangential AC–PC line passes through the superior edge of the AC and the infe-
rior edge of the PC (see Fig. 2).

The central AC–PC line is approximately 10° nose up with respect to Reid’s base line. We thought, there-
fore, that the central AC–PC line is equivalent to the extracerebral canthomeatal line and can be used as an
intracerebral reference axial line for the anatomical horizontal plane (see Fig. 3).

We have extended the concept of the central AC–PC line to the entire brain. We found that our AC–PC
line is easy to define and independent of the sizes of the AC and the PC, which vary from 3 to 6 mm and
from 2 to 4 mm, respectively. We also found that our central AC–PC line is approximately parallel to the
canthomeatal line. This line is approximately parallel to the “true” horizontal plane. We thought, therefore,
that the central AC–PC line could be designated as an anatomical horizontal plane of the brain. This is close
to the normal position of the head in the living subject.

In our book, as mentioned earlier, we have adopted the system of Cartesian coordinates, where the x-axis
is defined by the central AC–PC line and by the midpoint of the intercommissural distance as x = 0. The
horizontal plane is defined as an axial plane, i.e., an x-y plane, which contains the AC–PC line at the center,
with a positive sign superiorly (axial plane) and a negative sign inferiorly. The y-z plane, which contains the
AC–PC line, is defined as the center plane of the sagittal planes. Similarly for the coronal plane, the x-z
plane is assumed, and those planes anterior to the midline plane are set with a positive sign, while posterior
planes are noted as negative. As implied, the central coronal image is defined as the image plane at the cen-
ter of the AC–PC line. For the sagittal-view images, those on the left side are set as negative, while those at
the right are denoted as positive. The midline image is set with the longitudinal cerebral fissure as the ori-
gin. In this book, the axial planes are sequenced from superior (1) to inferior (2), whereas the coronal
planes progress from anterior (1) to posterior (2). The sagittal planes are arranged from right (1) to left (2)
(see Figs. 1 and 3).

Adjustment of the MRI Brain to the Reference Brain


In order to easily accommodate the anatomical images of the reference brain to different sizes of in vivo
brain images that will be obtained by an MRI, we have introduced a “Reference Adjusted Unit (RAU)” noted
in millimeters (mm). The RAU (mm) represents the MRI image, which resembles the cadaver images. For
example, the thalamus lies at the same RAU for both a given MRI and a cadaver image but not in the actual
mm scale given in the atlas.
xvi

Recognizing that the actual measurements of brains are subject to individual variations, all three standard
planes of the MRI in this atlas are generated from the same individual, a 27-year-old healthy man. The actual
lengths in millimeters from the reference points are shown in every slice of MRI in this atlas. Their actual
measurements were shown in mm, and the corresponding RAU in mm was shown as No. X. We put the
actual mm values in parenthesis next to the RAU number.

For instance, “Axial-MRI: No. 162 (166 mm)” means “an axial MR image that is located at 66 mm supe-
rior to the reference axial plane (AC–PC plane), which also corresponds to the cadaver (reference) brain
image at 62 mm superior to the reference axial plane, which is “No. 162.” A similar compensation technique
is applied to individual variations in both the coronal and sagittal planes.

Terminology and Labeling
Different authors use different names for the same brain structures. In this atlas, in an attempt to use the
most up-to-date anatomical terminology, we have adopted the standards used in Terminologia Anatomica by
the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists published in 1998. It supersedes the previous
standards in Nomina Anatomica.

Many commonly used positional and directional notations are abbreviated. For example, ant. stands for
anterior, post. for posterior, sup. for superior, inf. for inferior, lat. for lateral, med. for medial, int. for internal,
and ext. for external.

Every identifiable anatomical structure was labeled on both the cadaver brain and the MRI brain. Because
of the structural difference between the right and left hemispheres, important structures were labeled on
both sides. The cerebral gyri were generally labeled at the white matter core rather than the cortical surface.
In the brainstem, the major nuclei and tracts are labeled in the expanded views. We have also divided all the
brain sections into major anatomical compartments, i.e., frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital
lobe, brainstem, and cerebellum, and also depicted the laterality such as right (R) and left (L). The structures
that appear more than once were labeled in number (this does not apply in expended views).

Data Collection System for Clinicopathologic Brain Mapping


If a clinicopathologic mapping of the human brain was available, it would be a useful supplementary source
of information for clinical diagnosis by neuroradiologists as well as for the scientist in neuroscience research.
We have to admit, however, that this clinicopathologic brain mapping could only be established by collect-
ing massive amounts of data from clinicians, particularly radiologists handling MRI, scattered throughout
the world. Through the collaboration and unselfish support of radiologists and clinicians, we might be able
to establish a valuable database that could benefit everyone in this field.

For instance, a focal lesion of any size could be traced via the image-numbering system that is presented
in this New Brain Atlas. First, all MR images should be produced based on x-, y-, and z-axes at the midpoint
(0, 0, 0) of the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure so that those images are consistent with
our atlas in Cartesian coordinates. Images are then normalized to our New Brain Atlas. The determination
of a location of the pathological finding could then be possible simply by using the grid system consisting of
coronal (x), sagittal (y), and axial (z) section lines (Fig. 3). The target point is obtained, then would be indi-
cated as single dot, or indicating a midpoint of a target area, identifying a lesion, for instance, in three
dimensions. For instance, C(y) – 10, S(x) + 28, A(z) – 20 indicates axial 20 mm inferior to the AC–PC plane,
coronal 10 mm posterior to the midpoint of the AC–PC distance, and sagittal 28 mm right to the midsagittal
plane. This three-dimensional location of the lesion would be reported to the NRI center with pertinent
neurological findings, together with an identification of the patient (see, e.g., Figs. 4 and 5).
xvii

(i) Coronal view Superior 7.0T

Right Left
(i) Coronal Slice

+z
+y
+x
Inferior
(ii) Sagittal view Superior

Anterior Posterior

(ii) Sagittal Slice


Inferior
(iii) Axial view Anterior

(iii) Axial Slice

Right Left

Posterior

Fig. 1 Views and directions of the brain image


xviii

Anterior commissure Posterior commissure

Central AC-PC
Diagram

Tangential intercommissural line Habenular commissure


Pineal recess Pineal body
Central intercommissural line

Quadrigeminal plate

7.0T T2*
Image

Central intercommissural line

1.5T T1
Image

Central intercommissural line

Fig. 2 Definition of central intercommissural line (central AC–PC line)


xix

+1z +1x
+1y

AC
0

PC

−2x −2y
−2z

+z
Sign of data slice
Coronal(x) Anterior side of center of AC-PC line +y (+)
108
Posterior side of center of AC-PC line –y (–) +y AC
PC
Sagittal(y) Right side of AC-PC line +x (+) AC-PC
li ne
108
Left side of AC-PC line –x (–) -y
08 Reid’s base line (RBL)
Axial(z) Superior side of AC-PC line +z (+) Cantho
meatal
line (CM
Inferior side of AC-PC line –z (–) L)
-z

Fig. 3 Standardization and data set


xx

Sources of Brain Images


In Vivo Images Using 7.0 T MRI

MRI: 7.0 T Research Prototype MRI at NRI, Gachon Univ. of Med. & Sci.
Volunteer: M, 27 years
Axial: No. + 62 (+66 mm) ~ No. −58 (−64 mm): 2 mm interval, Central AC–PC line is set as 0 mm
Sagittal: No. + 60 (+65 mm) ~ No. −60 (−65 mm): 2 mm interval, Center is set at the longitudinal cerebral fissure
Coronal: No. + 64 (+66 mm) ~ No. −72 (−80 mm): 2 mm interval, Midpoint of AC–PC line is set as 0 mm

Our prototype MRI consists of a Siemens Magnetom 7.0 T with a Siemens Avanto series console and elec-
tronics. The 7.0 T MRI gradient coil consists of a water-cooled gradient with a field strength of 40 mT/m
(4 G/cm). All the images were acquired using a conventional 2D Gradient Echo (GRE) sequence. The spe-
cific MRI parameters used were repetition time (TR) 750 ms, echo time (TE) 17.8 ms, flip angle 45°, total
number of slices per acquisition time (TA) of 12.50 min (or 6.30 min with reduction factor 2 in SENSE
mode) 17, and bandwidth (BW) 30. The in-plane resolution was 0.25 mm, with a slice thickness of 2 mm.
Cardiac gating was used to minimize pulsation artifacts during in vivo human brain imaging. The nonuni-
formity of the whole brain imaging was then corrected by a post-processing.

We used a specifically designed 7.0 T brain-optimized SENSE coil (200 mm long and 300 mm in diame-
ter), which can cover the entire brain. Our design features include the elongation of the coil to cover the
entire brain, especially the lower part. The design incorporates multiple symmetric loop coils to encompass
the entire brain from the top of the brain to the lower part of the brain in a crownlike shape.

Among many candidates, we have selected the image set of a healthy male volunteer in his twenties. The
legal and ethical aspects of the experiments performed for this study were reviewed and approved by the
institutional review board (IRB) as well as the government authority, the Korean Food and Drug
Administration (KFDA).

Cadaver Images by Cryomacrotome

Cryomacrotome: Cryomacrotome designed and developed at Ajou Univ.


Volunteer: M, 67 years
Axial: No. + 62 (+62 mm) ~ No. −58 (−58 mm): 2 mm interval, Central AC–PC line is set as 0 mm
Sagittal: No. + 60 (+60 mm) ~ No. −60 (−60 mm): 2 mm interval, Center is set at the longitudinal cerebral fissure
Coronal: No. + 64 (+64 mm) ~ No. −72 (−72 mm): 2 mm interval, Midpoint of AC–PC line is set as 0 mm

The cadaver used for this atlas is that of a 67-year-old male, 162 cm tall, weighing 45 kg, who died of cardio-
respiratory arrest. He was known to have myasthenia gravis, for which he had been treated for the last sev-
eral years. He experienced several bouts of an acute upper respiratory infection prior to his death.

His body was first brought to the MRI machine to get a precise axial line along the anterior commissure
and the posterior commissure and a sagittal line along the longitudinal cerebral fissure. The axial and sagittal
lines were marked with laser indicators. After that, the cadaver was frozen to −70 °C for 7 days. The head,
together with the upper chest, were separated from the main body. The head block was placed into a spe-
cially made rectangular frame and frozen again slowly, together with embedding media.
xxi

The head block was serially sectioned to a 0.1 mm thickness using a cryomacrotome. The sectioning, the
rotating speed of the cutting disc, and the advancing speed of the embedding box were adjusted so that
0.1 mm sectioning at each step was precisely accomplished. The sectioning started from the top of the head
and advanced inferiorly along the horizontal plane to the upper end of the spinal cord. A total of 1,248 sec-
tioned surfaces were made, each of which was photographed using a digital camera (Canon EOS 5D; 50 mm
microlens) and digitized to produce a digital image with 0.1 mm pixel size.

Image Reconstruction and Volume Rendering


Based on the original digital axial image data obtained from the horizontal sectioning of the cadaver, we
have reconstructed both digital coronal and sagittal images. Image errors such as misalignment and nonuni-
formity in brightness were corrected with image-processing techniques.

To verify specific structures of the brain, 3D volume rendering was carried out with both cadaver images
and 7.0 T MRI images (Figs. 6 and 7). We then have outlined the axial brain image at every 1 mm interval.
The brain images are stacked to produce 3D images that were used for the identification of structures on 3D
planes. Rendering of the surface anatomy of the cerebral hemisphere was also carried out on both the cadaver
brain and the MRI brain so that individual gyrus and sulcus as well as deep structures could be identified
and matched in all three planes.
xxii

3D Images by Volume Rendering

Superior view Inferior view


Left Right Right Left
No.60 No.60
No.50 No.50
No.40 No.40
No.30 No.30
No.20 No.20
No.10 No.10
No.0 No.0
No.–10 No.–10
No.–20 No.–20
No.–30 No.–30
No.–40 No.–40
No.–50 No.–50
No.–60 No.–60
No.–70 No.–70
Posterior view Frontal view
No.60 No.40 No.20 No.0 No.–20 No.–40 No.–60 No.60 No.40 No.20 No.0 No.–20 No.–40 No.–60
No.50 No.30 No.10 No.–10 No.–30 No.–50 No.50 No.30 No.10 No.–10 No.–30 No.–50
Left Right Right Left

Right lateral view Left lateral view

No.60 No.60
No.50 No.50
No.40 No.40
No.30 No.30
No.20 No.20
No.10 No.10
No.0 No.0
No.–10 No.–10
No.–20 No.–20
No.–30 No.–30
No.–40 No.–40
No.–50 No.–50
XX

Fig. 4 Coronal, sagittal, and axial cuts—cadaver


xxiii

Superior view Inferior view


Left Right Right Left
No.60 No.60
No.50 No.50
No.40 No.40
No.30 No.30
No.20 No.20
No.10 No.10
No.0 No.0
No.–10 No.–10
No.–20 No.–20
No.–30 No.–30
No.–40 No.–40
No.–50 No.–50
No.–60 No.–60
No.–70 No.–70
Posterior view Frontal view
No.60 No.40 No.20 No.0 No.–20 No.–40 No.–60 No.60 No.40 No.20 No.0 No.–20 No.–40 No.–60
No.50 No.30 No.10 No.–10 No.–30 No.–50 No.50 No.30 No.10 No.–10 No.–30 No.–50
Left Right Right Left

Right lateral view Left lateral view


No.60 No.60
No.50 No.50
No.40 No.40
No.30 No.30
No.20 No.20
No.10 No.10
No.0 No.0
No.–10 No.–10
No.–20 No.–20
No.–30 No.–30
No.–40 No.–40
No.–50 No.–50
XX

Fig. 5 Coronal, sagittal, and axial cuts—MRI


xxiv

Precentral gyrus Central sulcus (Rolandic Fissure)


Sulcus Precentral sulcus
Superior frontal gyrus Postcentral gyrus
Gyrus & Lobe
Postcentral sulcus
Inferior frontal sulcus

Middle frontal gyrus Superior parietal lobule

Superior frontal sulcus Supramarginal gyrus

Inferior frontal gyrus Intraparietal sulcus


opercular part

Inferior frontal gyrus Angular Gyrus


triangular part

Occipital
Inferior frontal gyrus lobe
orbital part

Lateral orbital gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus

Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) Inferior temporal sulcus


Middle temporal gyrus

Superior temporal gyrus Superior temporal sulcus


Paracentral lobule
Precentral sulcus
Central sulcus
Corpus callosum, body
Marginal sulcus
Sulcus of corpus callosum

Cingulate gyrus Precuneus

Superior frontal Parieto-occipital


gyrus sulcus
Cingulate sulcus Corpus callosum,
splenium

Corpus callosum,
genu
Thalamus
Cuneus
Subcallosal gyrus
Calcarine sulcus

Gyrus rectus Lingual gyrus

Occipitotemporal sulcus

Lateral occipitotemporal (fusiform) gyrus


Parahippocampal gyrus
Medial occipitotemporal (fusiform) gyrus
Collateral sulcus
Rhinal sulcus
Uncus Inferior temporal gyrus

Fig. 6 Sulcus and gyrus—MRI


xxv

5
4
8 31
6 7
2
9
9
40
7

10 40
46 6 39
43
45 44 41
22 18
47 19
11 38 17
21 19
21 37

20
20

1 2
6 3 5
4
8
7
24 31

9
32
24 23
33
19
10 29
Thalamus 26 18
17
25 30 17
27 37 18
12 34
25 19
11 28 20
35
38 36

Fig. 7 Brodmann areas—MRI


xxvi

Acknowledgments

This atlas was made possible through the generous support of Dr. Gil-Ya Lee, Chair of the Gil Foundation,
whose vision was instrumental in establishing and supporting the Neuroscience Research Institute (NRI).
All staff members of the NRI have enjoyed and appreciated the opportunity to work at one of the most
advanced research facilities in the world. Thanks are also due to Dr. Chul-Ock Lee, former adviser to the
NRI, whose enthusiasm, commitment, dedication, and support made the NRI what it is now. We would also
like to thank Simens as well as their technical staff, who helped us make the 7.0 T system work and function.
Without their help, it could not be possible to obtain these fine images, as it is seen in the book.

The authors and collaborators are indebted to a large number of individuals both within and outside the
NRI who greatly contributed to this project. Due to space limitations, it is impossible to list them all, but we
are grateful to all of them. The following individuals deserve our special gratitude:

First, we would like to express our gratitude and respect to the cadaver donor for granting permission to
use his body for medical research and teaching and to the volunteer who allowed us to procure his MRI
images.

We would like to thank all members of the NRI who worked on this project including the students who
helped create the brain maps and improve their appearance: Myung-Ho In, M.Sc., Nam-Bum Kim, M.Sc.,
Sung-Tae Kim, M.Sc., So-Hee Lee, B.A., Chan-A Park, B.A., Jung-Hwan Kim, B.A., Seok-Il Hwang, B.A.,
Sung-Yeon Park, B.A., and Keum-Hwan Ryu, B.A.. Without their efforts, this project could not be
accomplished.

We would like to thank the Departments of Anatomy of the Seoul National University and the Catholic
University for letting us review cadaver brains to verify the consistency of the AC–PC plane. Thanks are also
due to Dr. Kyu-Chang Wang, Professor of Neurosurgery at the Seoul National University College of Medicine,
for his advice in formulating the reference adjustment. We would like to thank Dr. Kun-Sang Kim, Professor
of Radiology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine; Dr. Dong-Ik Kim, Professor of Neuroradiology,
Yonsei University College of Medicine; Dr. Gham Hur, Professor of Radiology, Inje University Ilsan Paik
Hospital; and Dr. In One Kim, Professor of Radiology, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, for
their advice in formulating the reference plane.

We would like to thank the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information for the financial sup-
port during the making of the reference brain images. We also appreciate the collaboration of Ki Ho Im, MS,
Hanyang University; Hyun Ji Kwon, BA, Samsung Medical center; and Hong Gyun Park, MD, Yonsei
University.
Chapter I
Coronal Images of Cadaver and Human
Brain of 7.0 T MRI In Vivo
Coronal Slices of the Cadaver

No.+64(+64mm)
No.+62(+62mm)
No.+60(+60mm)
No.+56(+58mm)
No.+56(+56mm)
No.+54(+54mm)
No.+52(+52mm)
No.+50(+50mm)
No.+48(+48mm)
No.+46(+46mm)
No.+44(+44mm) Expanded view
No.+42(+42mm)
No.+40(+40mm)
No.+38(+38mm)
No.+36(+36mm)
No.+34(+34mm) Expanded view
No.+32(+32mm)
No.+30(+30mm)
No.+28(+28mm)
No.+26(+26mm)
No.+24(+24mm) Expanded view
No.+22(+22mm)
No.+20(+20mm)
No.+18(+18mm)
No.+16(+16mm)
No.+14(+14mm) Expanded view
No.+12(+12mm)
No.+10(+10mm) Expanded view
No. +8(+8mm)
No. +6( +6mm) Expanded view
No. +4( +4mm)
No. +2( +2mm) Expanded view
No. +0( +0mm)
No. -2( -2mm) Expanded view
No. -4( -4mm)
No. -6( -6mm) Expanded view
No. -8( -8mm)
No. -10( -10mm) Expanded view
No. -12( -12mm)
No. -14( -14mm) Expanded view
No. -16( -16mm)
No. -18( -18mm) Expanded view
No. -20( -20mm)
No. -22( -22mm) Expanded view
No. -24( -24mm)
No. -26( -26mm) Expanded view
No. -28( -28mm)
No. -30( -30mm)
No. -32( -32mm)
No. -34( -34mm)
No. -36( -36mm) Expanded view
No. -38( -38mm)
No. -40( -40mm)
No. -42( -42mm)
No. -44( -44mm)
No. -46( -46mm) Expanded view
No. -48( -48mm)
No. -50( -50mm)
No. -52( -52mm)
No. -54( -54mm)
No. -56( -56mm)
No. -58( -58mm)
No. -60( -60mm)
No. -62( -62mm)
No. -64( -64mm)
No. -66( -66mm)
No. -68( -68mm)
No. -70( -70mm)
No. -72( -72mm)

2
Coronal Slices of the 7.0 T MRI

No.+64(+66mm)
No.+60(+62mm)
No.+62(+64mm)
No.+56(+60mm)
No.+56(+58mm)
No.+54(+56mm)
No.+52(+54mm)
No.+50(+52mm)
No.+48(+50mm)
No.+46(+48mm)
No.+44(+46mm) Expanded view
No.+42(+44mm)
No.+40(+42mm)
No.+38(+40mm)
No.+36(+38mm)
No.+34(+36mm) Expanded view
No.+32(+34mm)
No.+30(+32mm)
No.+28(+30mm)
No.+26(+28mm)
No.+24(+26mm) Expanded view
No.+22(+24mm)
No.+20(+22mm)
No.+18(+20mm)
No.+16(+18mm)
No.+14(+16mm) Expanded view
No.+12(+14mm)
No.+10(+12mm) Expanded view
No. +8(+10mm)
No. +6( +8mm) Expanded view
No. +4( +6mm)
No. +2( +4mm) Expanded view
No. +0( +2mm)
No. -1( +0mm)
No. -2( -2mm) Expanded view
No. -4( -4mm)
No. -6( -6mm) Expanded view
No. -8( -8mm)
No. -10(-10mm) Expanded view
No. -12(-12mm)
No. -13(-14mm)
No. -14(-16mm) Expanded view
No. -16(-18mm)
No. -18(-20mm) Expanded view
No. -20(-22mm)
No. -22(-24mm) Expanded view
No. -24(-26mm)
No. -26(-28mm) Expanded view
No. -28(-30mm)
No. -30(-32mm)
No. -32(-34mm)
No. -33(-36mm)
No. -34(-38mm)
No. -36(-40mm) Expanded view
No. -38(-42mm)
No. -40(-44mm)
No. -42(-46mm)
No. -44(-48mm)
No. -46(-50mm) Expanded view
No. -48(-52mm)
No. -50(-54mm)
No. -51(-56mm)
No. -52(-58mm)
No. -54(-60mm)
No. -56(-62mm)
No. -58(-64mm)
No. -60(-66mm)
No. -62(-68mm)
No. -64(-70mm)
No. -66(-72mm)
No. -68(-74mm)
No. -70(-76mm)
No. -72(-78mm)

3
Coronal - Cadaver
+64(+64mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 ImFS MObG MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS SFG SRG SFS MFG MObG

MFG(2)

LObG
LObG

FMG
FMG

SOM

SRM
LPS
RIGHT

LEFT
0
SRM SOM

MRM MRM

LaG
LaG

IOM
IOM

IRM
IRM

– 80 INC
MNC INC SepC MNC IobN MxS

+ 50 0 – 50

CF: Cerebral falx MxS: Maxillary sinus


FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus SepC: Septal cartilage
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
INC: Inferior nasal concha SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IOM: Inferior oblique muscle SOM: Superior oblique muscle
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LaG: Lacrimal gland SRM: Superior rectus muscle
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LPS: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MNC: Middle nasal concha
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
MRM: Medial rectus muscle

4
Coronal - MRI
+64(+66mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFG(2) SFG(1) SSS CF


CF SFG(1) SFG(2) + 80

SFS

SFS

MFG

MFG(1)
GHT
RIGHT

LEFT
RIG H

0
RI

IFS

MFG(2)

FMG

FMG

– 80
Ey ObG ObG Ey

+ 50 0 – 50

CF: Cerebral falx


Ey: Eyeball
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
ObG: Orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

5
Coronal - Cadaver
+62(+62mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(2) ImFS MFG(1) SFS SFG SSS CF SFG(1) SFG(2) SRG SFS

MFG(1)

AObG

ImFS

IFS
MFG(2)

FMG

IFS
LObG
FMG
RIGHT

LEFT
FMS LObG
0
FMS
LPS
AObG
SRM SRM

SOM SOM

LRM LRM

IOM IOM

IRM
− 80 MRM
IRM MObG SepC MObG MRM IobN

+ 50 0 − 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MRM: Medial rectus muscle


CF: Cerebral falx SepC: Septal cartilage
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
FMS: Frontomarginal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SOM: Superior oblique muscle
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IOM: Inferior oblique muscle SRM: Superior rectus muscle
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
LPS: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus

6
Coronal - MRI
+62(+64mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG(2) SFG(1) SSS CF SFG(1) TFPG SFG(2) + 80

SFS

MFG

SRG

IFS
MFG
RIGHT

IFS

LEFT
0
FMG

FMG

LObG

LObG

AObG

Ey
– 80
Ey MObG IRG MObG AObG

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus TFPG: Transverse frontopolar gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx
Ey: Eyeball
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

7
Coronal - Cadaver
+60(+60mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(1) SFS SFG SRG(1) STFG SSS CF SF SRG(1) STFG SRG(2) SFS MFG ImFS

ImFS

IRG
SRG(2)

MFG(2)
IFS
IFS

FMG IFG

FMS
LObG

FMS FMG

AObG
LObG
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IRG
AObG
SG
SRM
LPS

SRM
FZS

FZS
LRM

LRM
SOM

SOM

IOM
– 80
MRM IRM MObG MNC INC MObG MRM IobN IRM

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus LPS: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx LRM: Lateral rectus muscle
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
FMS: Frontomarginal sulcus MNC: Middle nasal concha
FZS: Frontozygomatic suture MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus MRM: Medial rectus muscle
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
INC: Inferior nasal concha SG: Straight gyrus
IOM: Inferior oblique muscle SOM: Superior oblique muscle
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SRM: Superior rectus muscle
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

8
Coronal - MRI
+60(+62mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFG(1) CF SSS STFG SFG(1) SFG(2) SFS + 80


SFG(2)

MFG(1)

SFS

MFG(2)

MFG
IFS

STFG
RIGHT

IFS SRG

LEFT
0

FMG FMG

LObG
LObG

SRG

– 80
Ey AObG MObG IRG SG(1) SG(2) IRG MObG AObG Ey

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus


CF: Cerebral falx STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
Ey: Eyeball
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SG:Straight gyrus
SRG: Superior rostral gyrus

9
Coronal - Cadaver
+58(+58mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG SRG SFS SFG SGFT CF SSS SRG SFG STFG SRG IRG SFS MFG

ImFS

MFG(2) MFG(2)

SG

IRG
IFS

FMS
IFG

FMG
AObG

FMG
RIGHT

LEFT
LObG
0
LObG

SRM
SRM

SOM
SOM

LRM

LRM

MObG

MRM
MRM
– 80
IRM MObG SG INC MNC IRM IobN

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MNC: Middle nasal concha


CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus MRM: Medial rectus muscle
FMS: Frontomarginal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SOM: Superior oblique muscle
INC: Inferior nasal concha SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SRM: Superior rectus muscle
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus

10
Coronal - MRI
+58(+60mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG(2) STFG SFG(1) CF SSS SFG(1) SCV STFG SFG(2) SRG + 80

SFS

MFG(1)

MFG

MFG(2) IFS

IRG
IFS
RIGHT

FMG

LEFT
0
FMG

LObG

LObG

AObG

Ey
Ey

SRG MObG IRG OlS SG SG MObG AObG − 80

+ 50 0 − 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SG: Straight gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
Ey: Eyeball SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SCV: Superior cerebral vein
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus

11
Coronal - Cadaver
+56(+56mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 IR MFG SRG SFS STFG SFG CS SSS CF STFG SFG SRG SFS MFG(1)

ImFS(1)

IRG

ImFS(2) ImFS

SG
MFG(2)

OlS

IFS FMG

AObG

FMG AObG
RIGHT

LEFT
LObG LObG
0

LObS SG

SRM SRM

SOM
SOM

LRM
LRM
MObG

MObG
MRM

IRM MRM

– 80
OlB MNC INC INC MNC IRM

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MNC: Middle nasal concha


CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MRM: Medial rectus muscle
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus OlB: Olfactory bulb
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
INC: Inferior nasal concha SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SOM: Superior oblique muscle
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LObS: Lateral orbital sulcus SRM: Superior rectus muscle
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus

12
Coronal - MRI
+56(+58mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SRG SFG(2) STFG SFG(1) SSS CF SFG(1) SFG(2) + 80


SCV
SFS

SFS

MFG

STFG

MFG
IFS

IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
FMG 0

FMG
LObG

LObG

AObG
SRG

− 80
Ey MObG IRG SG SG IRG MObG AObG Ey

+ 50 0 − 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Ey: Eyeball STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
FMG: Frontomarginal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
SCV: Superior cerebral vein
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SG: Straight gyrus

13
Coronal - Cadaver
+54(+54mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 ImFS CS MFG(1) SRG SFS SFG STFG SSS CF SFG SFS MFG

IRG
SG

MFG(2)

MFG(3) IFS

LObG

LObG
IFS

IFGob
IFGob
RIGHT

LEFT
0
SG AObG

SRM
SRM

TrM
SOM
ON
LRM
LRM
ON

SOM
MRM

IRM
– 80
MObG OlS OlB OlS MObG IRM MRM

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus OlB: Olfactory bulb


CF: Cerebral falx OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ON: Optic nerve
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SOM: Superior oblique muscle
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRM: Superior rectus muscle
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus TrM: Trapezius muscle
MRM: Medial rectus muscle

14
Coronal - MRI
+54(+56mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG CF SSS SFG(1) SFG(2) SFS + 80

STFG

MFG(1)

MFG(1)

STFG

MFG(2)
MFG(2)

IFS
IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IFG-
ob(1)

IFGob

IFG-
ob(2)
CS

LObG
LObG

SRG

– 80
AObG SRG OlS IRG SG SG IRG MObG AObG

+50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus STFG: Superior transverse frontopolar gyrus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SG: Straight gyrus

15
Coronal - Cadaver
+52(+52mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Im FS CG M FG (1) SFS SFG CF SSS CG SFG SFS MFG AObG

CS

MFG(2) IFS

SRG

MFG(3)

IFS(1) IFGob

IRG

IFS(2) LObG

LObS
SRM
IFGob
RIGHT

LEFT
0
MObG
SOM
SRM

SOM
ON

LRM
LRM

ON

MRM

MRM

IRM
IRM
– 80
OlS SG OlB OlB SG MObG

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MObG: Medial orbital gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx MRM: Medial rectus muscle
CG: Cingulate gyrus OlB: Olfactory bulb
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part ON: Optic nerve
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SOM: Superior oblique muscle
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LObS: Lateral orbital sulcus SRM: Superior rectus muscle
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus

16
Coronal - MRI
+52(+54mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG CF SSS SFG(1) CG(1) SFG(2) SFS + 80


MFG(1)

CS(1)

MFG(1)
CS

CG

MFG(2)
MFG(2)

IFS
RIGHT

IFS

LEFT
0

IFGob(1) IFGob

IFGob(2) LObG

LObG
AObG

– 80
AObG CS(2) MObG SG IRG SG SRG MObG CG(2)

+ 50 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SG: Straight gyrus

17
Coronal - Cadaver
+50(+50mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SRG CS(2) MFG(1) CG CS(1) SFS SFG SSS CF SC V CS(1) SFG SFS CG CS(2)

MFG

MFG(2)

MFG(3)

IFS
IRG

IFS

IFGob
SG

IFGob LObG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 LObG AObG

OlS SRM

MObG
SG

SOM

ON
ON

LRM
OlB(1)

SOM

– 80
SNC MNC INC OlB(2) SNC MObG MRM IRM

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MObG: Medial orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx MRM: Medial rectus muscle
CG: Cingulate gyrus OlB: Olfactory bulb
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part ON: Optic nerve
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
INC: Inferior nasal concha SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IRM: Inferior rectus muscle SG: Straight gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SNC: Superior nasal concha
LRM: Lateral rectus muscle SOM: Superior oblique muscle
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
MNC: Middle nasal concha SRM: Superior rectus muscle

18
Coronal - MRI
+50(+52mm)
<Real Size>
A P
P L
L R

MFG(1) SFS CS(1) SFG SSS CF SF G (1) SC V SFG (2) SFS + 80

CG
CG

CS(2)
MFG(1)

MFG(2)

MFG(2)

IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
IFS
0
IFGob(1)

IFGtr
IFGob(2) & IFGob

LObG

LObG

AObG
– 80
AObG MObG OlS SG IRG SG CS SRG MObG

– 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SCV: Superior cerebral vein

19
Coronal - Cadaver
+48(+48 mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Im FS CG MFG(1) CS(1) SFS SFG SSS CF SCV SFG CG


CS(2)
SFS
SRG

MFG(2)
CS(1)

IRG MFG(1)
IFS

MFG(2)

IFGob
IFS

AObG
RIGHT

CS(2)

LEFT
0 SG

IFGtr
MObG

OlB LObG

ON AObG

SNC
ON

MObG
– 80
SNM MNC INC INM OlB SG OlS

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MNC: Middle nasal concha


CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus OlB: Olfactory bulb
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part ON: Optic nerve
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SCV: Superior cerebral vein
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcusIm SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
FS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
INC: Inferior nasal conchaI SG: Straight gyrusS
NM: Inferior nasal meatus NC: Superior nasal concha
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SNM: Superior nasal meatus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

20
Coronal - MRI
+48(+50mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS SF G (1) CG (1) SFG(2) SFS + 80


MFG

MFG(2)

CS(1)

PcA

CG(2)

CG
IFS

IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
IFGtr 0

IFGtr

LObG
LObG

AObG
AObG

CS(2)
CS

– 80
MObG OlS SG IRG SG SRG OlS MObG

+ 50 0 – 50

AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus


CF: Cerebral falx SG: Straight gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
PcA: Pericallosal artery
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

21
Coronal - Cadaver
+46(+46 mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS SCV SFG CS(1) SFS

CS(1)

CG
CG

MFG(1)
MFG(2)

ACA MFG(2)

IFS IFS
RIGHT

IFGtr

LEFT
0 IFGtr
CS(2)

LObG
SRG

CS(2)
LObG

AObG AObG

MObG

ON
ON

– 80
IRG MxN OlS OlB SG OlB SG MObG MxN

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery OlS: Olfactory sulcus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus ON: Optic nerve
CF: Cerebral falx SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SG: Straight gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
MxN: Maxillary nerve
OlB: Olfactory bulb

22
Coronal - MRI
+46(+48mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG CF SSS SFG CS(1) SFS MFG(1) + 80


CS(1)

CG
MFG

CG(1) MFG(2)

CG(2)

IFS

IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IFGtr
IFGtr(1)

IFGtr(2)
LObG

LObG

AObG

AObG

– 80
MObG CS(2) SG ACA SG CS(2) MObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx
CG: Cingulate gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
SG: Straight gyrus

23
Coronal - Cadaver
+44(+44 mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SFS PcA SFG SSS CF SCV SFG CS(1)


CS(1)

SFS
CG

MFG
MFG

IFS

IFS

IFGtr
RIGHT

CG

LEFT
0
CS(2)

IFGtr
SRG

ObG

LObG
IRG

MObG

CS(2)
ON

− 80
MxN OlS SG OlB OlB SG MxN MObG

+ 50 0 − 50

CF: Cerebral falx ON: Optic nerve


CG: Cingulate gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
MxN: Maxillary nerve
ObG: Orbital gyrus
OlB: Olfactory bulb
OlS: Olfactory sulcus

24
Coronal - MRI
+44(+46mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG(1) SFS CS(1) SFG SSS CF SFG CS(1) SFS + 80

CG PcA

MFG(2)

MFG

MFG(3)

IFS IFS

IFGtr(1)
RIGHT

IFGtr

LEFT
0
IFGtr(2)

CG
CS(2)

LObG

LObG

AObG

AObG

– 80
MObG ACA OlS SG SG IRG MObG CS(2)

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SFG: Superior frontal gyrus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx SG: Straight gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
PcA: Pericallosal artery

25
Coronal - Cadaver
+44(+44 mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 SFG CF SSS SFG MeFG

SFS

SFG

MFG(1)

SFS
ImFS

CS(1)
CS(1)
MFG(2) LCF
MFG

PcA CG

IFS

IFS IFG

CG
RIGHT

CG

LEFT
0 0
CS(2)
ACA
IRG
CS(2)
IFGtr

LObS

LObG
ObG
AObG

MObG
– 30
ON MObG SRG IRG OlS SG OlB OlB SG OlS ON

+ 30 0 – 30

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery MeFG: Medial frontal gyrus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ObG: Orbital gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlB: Olfactory bulb
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part ON: Optic nerve
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure SG: Straight gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LObS: Lateral orbital sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

26
Coronal - MRI
+44(+46mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

SFG CS(I) CF SSS LCF SFG(1) SFG(2) + 55


SFS
SFS

MFG(1)
CG

MFG
CS(2)

CS(1)
MFG(2)

CG(1)
CG(1)

MFG(2)
IFG

IFG CG(2)
RIGHT

LEFT
CG(2) CS(2) 0

CS(3) LObG

IRG
LObG
AObG

AObG
MObG

- 25
ACA IRG MObG OlS SG OlS

+ 30 0 - 30

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SFS: Superior frontal sulcus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

27
Coronal - Cadaver
+42(+42 mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

– 80 SFS CS(1) SFG SSS CF SCV SFG CS(1)

MFG(1)
MFG(1)

PcA
MFG(2)

MFG(2)

MFG(3)

IFS

CG
CG

IFS
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IFGtr
IFGtr

LObG ACA

CS(2) LObG

AObG
AObG

TP
– 80
MObG MxN SRG OlS SG IRG SG OlB IRG ON CS(2)

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery OlS: Olfactory sulcus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus ON: Optic nerve
CF: Cerebral falx PcA: Pericallosal artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CS: Cingulate sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus TP: Temporal pole
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
MxN: Maxillary nerve
OlB: Olfactory bulb

28
Coronal - MRI
+42(+44mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS CG(1) SFG CS(1) SFS + 80

MFG

CS(1)

MFG(2) CG(2)

CG(1)
IFS

IFS
IFGtr
RIGHT

LEFT
IFGtr(1) 0

CS(2)

IFGtr(2)

LObG

LObG

AObG

CG(2)

– 80
CS(2) MObG OlS SG IRG IRG SG OlS MObG ACA

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SFS: Superior frontal sulcus


AObG: Anterior orbital gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

29
Coronal - Cadaver
+40(+40 mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS SFG SCV SFS CS(1) MFG(1)

CS(1) MFG(2)

MFG(2)
CG

IFS
MFG(3)

CG(1) FOF

IFS
IFGtr
RIGHT

LEFT
0
CCg Fmi

IFGtr

ACA
LS

LObG
CG(2)

CG

LObG
TP

IRG(1)

ON

– 80
SRG MObG MxN OlB IRG(2) SG SG CS(2) MObG MxN

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery MObG: Medial orbital gyrus


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MxN: Maxillary nerve
CF: Cerebral falx OlB: Olfactory bulb
CG: Cingulate gyrus ON: Optic nerve
CS: Cingulate sulcus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
Fmi: Forceps minor SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SG: Straight gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SRG: Superior rostral gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus TP: Temporal pole
LS: Lateral sulcus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus

30
Coronal - MRI
+40(+42mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS CS(1) SFG CF SSS SFG CG(1) CS(1) SFS MFG + 80

MFG(1)
IFS

MFG(2)
IFGtr(1)

CG(1)
IFGtr(2)

IFS
IFGtr(3)
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IFGtr(1)
ACA

IFGtr(2)
CG(2)

CG(2)

LObG ObG

CS(2)

MObG

– 80
MObG IRG OlS SG ACA IRG SG CS(2) OlS

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SFS: Superior frontal sulcus


CF: Cerebral falx SG: Straight gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
ObG: Orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

31
Coronal - Cadaver
+38(+38mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(1) SFS SFG CF SSS SFG CS(1) SCV CG(1) MFG(1)

MFG(2)
CG

ImFS
CCg

MFG(2)

IFS
IFS

ACA
IFGtr(1)

IFGtr
RIGHT

LEFT
LVa
0
LSa

IFGtr(2)
IFG

CNh
PObG

LS
CG(2)

TP
LObG

CS(2)
– 80
TP MxN MObG OlS SG SG OlT MObG MxN ON

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn TP: Temporal pole
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MxN: Maxillary nerve
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlT: Olfactory tract
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus ON: Optic nerve
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcusIm SCV: Superior cerebral vein
FS: Intermediate frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
LS: Lateral sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
LSa: Lateral sulcus, anterior ramus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

32
Coronal - MRI
+38(+40mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS CS(1) SFG CF SSS CG(1) SFG CS(1) CG(2) SFS + 80

MFG(1)

MFG

MFG(2)
IFS

CG(1) CG(3)

IFGtr
ACA

ACA(4)
RIGHT

IFS

LEFT
0

CG(5)
IFGtr

CG(2)
LObG
LObG

TP

PObG
PObG

MObG

CS(2)
– 80
MObG OlS IRG SG ACA IRG SG CS(2) OlS

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery SFS: Superior frontal sulcus


CF: Cerebral falx SG: Straight gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus TP: Temporal pole
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
OlS: Olfactory sulcus
PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

33
Coronal - Cadaver
+36(+36mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Cg CG(1) CS SFG SSS CF SFG SFS SCV CG(1) MFG(1)

MFG(1)
CCg

MFG(2)
MFG(2)

IFS
LVa

Scc
IFGtr(1)

IFGtr
CNh
RIGHT

LEFT
0 ACA
IFGtr(2)

LS

MCVs

PObG

LObG

TP CG(2)

PObG
TP

– 80
CG(2) MxN MObG OlS IRG SG SG IRG CS MObG MxN ON

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein TP: Temporal pole
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MxN: Maxillary nerve
Cg: Cingulum OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head ON: Optic nerve
CS: Cingulate sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
LS: Lateral sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

34
Coronal - MRI
+36(+38mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CG SFS CS(1) SFG ISS SSS CF SCV SFG CS SFS + 80

CG(1)
MFG

MFG
CCg

IFS

IFS(1)

CG(2)

IFS(2)

IFGtr
RIGHT

LEFT
IFGtr 0

MCVs
ACA

LObG
LObG

PObG PObG

CS(2)
– 80
IRG MObG OlS SG ACA SG MObG CG(3)

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery OlS: Olfactory sulcus


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SG: Straight gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein
MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
MObG: Medial orbital gyrus

35
Coronal - Cadaver
+34(+34mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 MFG(1) Cg CG SFG CF SSS SFG CS(1) CG(1) SFS MFG(1) CCg


ACA

MFG(2) MFG(2)

LVa FOF

CNh IFS

CS

IN
IFGtr(1)

IFGtr(2) IFGtr
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IN CG(2)

LS LS

LObG
MCVs

STG STG

MCA
STS

– 80 CS(2)
MTG LObG ON MxN MObG IRG SG SG MObG MxN ON MFG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery LS: Lateral sulcus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx MCA: Middle cerebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein
Cg: Cingulum MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus MxN: Maxillary nerve
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part ON: Optic nerve
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IN: Insula SFS: Superior frontal sulcus:
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

36
Coronal - MRI
+34(+36mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG SFS CG SFG CS(1) SSS CF ISS SFG CS CG(1) SFS + 80

MFG

CCg
CG(2)

ACA(1)
IFS

IFS IN

IFGtr

IFGtr
LVa
RIGHT

LEFT
ACA(2) CNh 0

LS
LS

MCVs

LObG

STG

PObG
LObG

MTG
CS(2)
– 80
MObG OlS SG CS(3) IRG SG OlS MObG CG(3) PObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein
CF: Cerebral falx MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IN: Insula SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
LS: Lateral sulcus

37
Coronal - Cadaver
+34(+34mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 SF G CF SSS SFG SFS

SFS MFG

MFG(1) CS(1)

CG(1)
CS(1)

MFG
CG

SLF(1)
MFG(2)
SFO
PcA LVa

Cg
SLF(2)

CCg CNh

IFO
LVa
IN
RIGHT

LEFT
LS
0 0
IN
CR

LS IFGob
CS(2) Fmi
IRG
LObG
LObG
CG(2)

MCA PObG

CS(2)
MObG
– 30
ON OlT SG ACA SG OlT OlS MObG IRG

+ 30 0 – 30

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LS: Lateral sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Cg: Cingulum MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CR: Corona radiata OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OlT: Olfactory tract
Fmi: Forceps minor ON: Optic nerve
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part PcA: Pericallosal artery
IFO: Inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IN: Insula SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus SFO: Superior fronto-occipital fasciculus

38
Coronal - MRI
+34(+36mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CS(2) CS(1) CF SFG SFG SFS + 55

CG(1)
SFS

CG(2)
MFG
MFG

CG(1)
IFS

Cg
PcA

IFG

CG(2) FOF

CCg CNh

IN
IN
RIGHT

LEFT
CG(3)
0

CS(3) LVa

IFG
CG(3)

LObG
LObG

PObG
PObG
CS

– 25
IRG MObG OlS SG CG(4) IRG SG OlS MObG MTG

+ 30 0 – 30

CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MFG: Middle frontal gyrus


CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head PcA: Pericallosal artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
IN: Insula
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn

39
Coronal - Cadaver
+32(+32mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CG (1) CS SFS MFG PcA CMA SFG SSS CF CMA SFG C S(1) SFS MFG(1)

CG

ImFS
MFG(2)
MFG(2)

MFG(3) CCg

LVa IFS

CNh
LVa

IFGtr(1)
IFGtr

IN IN
RIGHT

LEFT
0
IFGtr(2)
ACA
IFG
LS IFGob
CG(2)
LS
IRG
STG
STG

MCA

LObG
STS

STS

MTG

– 80
ITS ITG MxN MObG SG IRG SG ON MxN MxA CS(2) MTG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LS: Lateral sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus MxA: Maxillary artery
ImFS: Intermediate frontal sulcus MxN: Maxillary nerve
IN: Insula ON: Optic nerve

40
Coronal - MRI
+32(+34mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS CG CS(1) SFG CF SS S CG (1) SFG SFS CCg CG(2) + 80


MFG(1)
MFG

MFG(2)

CS

CNh

IFS

IFS

IFGtr
IFGtr

IN IN
RIGHT

LEFT
LS LS 0

IFGob MCVs

STG
STG

LObG
LObG

MTG
MTG

PObG

PObG
– 80
CS(2) MObG IRG OlS SG ACA SG MObG OlS

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
IN: Insula SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus
LS: Lateral sulcus

41
Coronal - Cadaver
+30(+30mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PcA SFS CS SFG(2) SFG(1) CMA SSS CF CG(1) CS(1) SFG SFS
CG(2)

Cg
MFG
MFG(1)

IFS
MFG(2)

IFS LVa

CCg
IFGtr

LVa
CR

IFGtr
Cl
RIGHT

LEFT
CNh
0 EmC
IN
MCVs
MCA
LS
LS
STG
STG
LObG
LObG

STS
STS

MTG

MTG

– 80
CG N6 MxN ON OlT SG ACA SG CS(2) MxA MxN CG(3) MObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IN: Insula ON: Optic nerve


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CF: Cerebral falx LS: Lateral sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
Cg: Cingulum MCA: Middle cerebral artery: SG: Straight gyrus
Cl: Claustrum MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MObG: Medial orbital gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CR: Corona radiata MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MxA: Maxillary artery
EmC: Extreme capsule MxN: Maxillary nerve
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part N6: Abducens nerve
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus OlT: Olfactory tract

42
Coronal - MRI
+30(+32mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

PcA(2) CG SFS SFG C S(1) PcA(1) SS S ISS SFG C S(1) SFS M FG (1) + 80
CG(1)
MFG(1)

MFG(2)
MFG(2)

CG(2)

IFS IFS

IFGtr
CCg

LS
IFGtr
MCA
RIGHT

LEFT
IN
0
IFGob
MCVs
LS

IFGob CNh

STG
STG
CG

MTG

LVa
ITG

– 80
PObG CS(2) OlS SG Scc ACA CS(2) SG OlS ObG MTG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery MCA: Middle cerebral artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ObG: Orbital gyrus
IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part OlS: Olfactory sulcus
IFGtr: Inferior frontal gyrus, triangular part PcA: Pericallosal artery
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
IN: Insula Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
LS: Lateral sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

43
Coronal - Cadaver
+28(+28mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Cg PcA SFS CS SFG SSS CF SFG CG(1) CS SFS Scc MFG(1)


CCg
MFG(2)

MFG

IFS
LVa

LVa
IFS

IFGop(1)
CNh

IFGop IFGop(2)

ICa
EmC
RIGHT

IN

LEFT
Cl
0 LS
IN
MCVs
LS
MCA(1)
STG

MCA(2) CG(2)

STG MCA(1)

CCF
MCA(2)
ObG

STS STS

ITG
MFG(3)

– 80
MOTG N4 OptN N6 MxN ON OlT SG ACA SG OlS MxN MxA ITG ObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus OlT: Olfactory tract
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber LS: Lateral sulcus ON: Optic nerve
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn OptN: Ophthalmic nerve
CF: Cerebral falx MCA: Middle cerebral artery PcA: Pericallosal artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
Cg: Cingulum MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MxA: Maxillary artery SG: Straight gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MxN: Maxillary nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EmC: Extreme capsule N4: Trochlear nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part N6: Abducens nerve STS: Superior temporal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus ObG: Orbital gyrus
IN: Insula OlS: Olfactory sulcus

44
Coronal - MRI
+28(+30mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

IFS SFS SFG CS(1) CMA(1) SSS LCF CS SFG SFS CS(2) MFG(1) + 80
CG(1)
CG(1)

MFG(2)

CMA(2)

IFS

MFG

IFGop
CCg
LVa
IFGop

IN
CNh
RIGHT

LEFT
ICa
0
IN
LS

LS
STG

STG(1)

MTG
STG(2)

LObG

MTG

PObG

LObG
IFG CS(2) SG ACA CG(2) ACA SG CS(3) MObG SPS – 80

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery LS: Lateral sulcus


CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn
CG: Cingulate gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part SG: Straight gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
IN: Insula SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus
LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus

45
Coronal - Cadaver
+26(+26mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CCb Cg SFG(2) CS SFG(1) PcA SSS CF CG(1) CS SFG(1) SFG(2) CG(2) SFS MFG(1)

Cg

SFS MFG(2)

IFS
MFG
LVa

SP SLF

IFGop
CNh
CCr

IFGop ICa

EmC
ICa
Cl
EC
RIGHT

LEFT
IN
0 LS
LS IN
MCVs SCG
Pu STG

STG CG(3)

EC IFG

MCA MCA

CCF ObG
STS

ITG
ObG

MObG
OTS
– 80
N4 OptN N6 MxN ON CCr ACA IRG SG ICA MxN MxA MObG MOTG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery ICA: Internal carotid artery MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus: MxA: Maxillary artery SG: Straight gyrus
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber: IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part MxN: Maxillary nerve SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula N6: Abducens nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus IRG: Inferior rostral gyrus ObG: Orbital gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus ON: Optic nerve STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum LS: Lateral sulcus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery PcA: Pericallosal artery
EC: External capsule MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein Pu: Putamen
EmC: Extreme capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MObG: Medial orbital gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

46
Coronal - MRI
+26(+28mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG CCg SFS SFG CG SSS CF CMA SFG SFS CS MFG CG(1) + 80

CCr IFS

CNh
LVa

IFGop IFGop

ICa
ICa

IN
IN
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
LS MCVs
0
IFG
STG
STG

STS Pu

STS
IFG

MTG
MTG

LObG

LObG

SPtS
ITG
– 80
PObG CS(1) SG CS(2) ACA ACA CG(2) SG PObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCg: Corpus callosum, genu LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum LS: Lateral sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb Pu: Putamen
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
IN: Insula SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus

47
Coronal - Cadaver
+24(+24mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SFS CCr SFG(2) Cg CS SFG(1) PcA SSS CF SFG CS CG(1) SFS MFG(1)

CNh
CG(2)

MFG(2)
MFG

IFS
ICa CCb

IFGop
Cl

IFGob LVa

IN
SP

LS ICa
RIGHT

LEFT
MCVs
0 LS
EC Pu

EmC SCA

STG
MCA
MCA(1)
MTG
STS
LObG
MCA(2)
ITS
LObG
MObG
ITG
ITG
OTS
MOTG
– 80
N3 MxN ICA SG ACA SG ICA N3 MxA MOTG MObG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IFGob: Inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus MxA: Maxillary artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula MxN: Maxillary nerve
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus N3: Oculomotor nerve
Cg: Cingulum ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LS: Lateral sulcus Pu: Putamen
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SCA: Subcallosal area
EC: External capsule MCA: Middle cerebral artery SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
ICA: Internal carotid artery MObG: Medial orbital gyrus SP: Septum pellucidum

48
Coronal - MRI
+24(+26mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG PcA SFS SFG CS CMA SSS ISS CMA SFG SFS CS(1) MFG + 80

CCb CS(2)

CG

LVa
IFS

IFGop
IFGop

EC CNh

EC

CCr
IN
RIGHT

LEFT
IN LS 0

LS
STG

STG STS

STS
ICa

MTG MTG

Pu
LObG

– 80
ITG MObG SG CG ACA ACA SG SV MObG SP LObG

+ 50 0 – 50

Aca: Anterior cerebral artery ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum LS: Lateral sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SV: Septal vein
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
EC: External capsule PcA: Pericallosal artery
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb Pu: Putamen
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
IN: Insula SG: Straight gyrus
ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SP: Septum pellucidum

49
Coronal - Cadaver
+24(+24mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 CG CMA SFG CF SSS CG SFG SFS


CS

CS MFG(1)

PcA Cg
CCb
MFG(2)

IFG
CSP

FOF
CNh

CCr SLF

ICa IFG

CCF
LVa
Cl
EC SP

Pu
RIGHT

LEFT
CCr
0 EmC 0
ICa

PTG
IN
ACA NA
IN
CCF
LObG
SCG
MCA
LS
MObG
MCA
OIS
LObG

– 30
N3 OptN N4 N6 ICA SG LCF SG ON N3 OIS MObG

+ 30 0 – 30

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery EmC: Extreme capsule N3: Oculomotor nerve SG: Straight gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus N4: Trochlear nerve SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CCF: Corpus callosum, fiber ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb N6: Abducens nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum ICA: Internal carotid artery NA: Nucleus accumbens SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus OIS: Olfactory sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus IN: Insula ON: Optic nerve
Cg: Cingulum LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure OptN: Ophthalmic nerve
Cl: Claustrum LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LS: Lateral sulcus PTG: Paraterminal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn Pu: Putamen
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
CSP: Cavum septum pellucidum MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
EC: External capsule MObG: Medial orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus

50
Coronal - MRI
+24(+26mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

SFS CS(1) SFG CMA CF CS CG(1) + 55

CS(2)

MFG CG(2)

CCb PcA

FOF

SP
LVa
CNh

CCr

EC SV

Cl ICa

EmC
Pu

IN
RIGHT

LEFT
IN
0
CSP

LS

ICa
MCA

MObG CG(3)

LObG LObG
– 25
CG OIS SG CS(2) ACA SG CS(3) MObG

+ 30 0 – 30

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IN: Insula SP: Septum pellucidum


CCb: Corpus callosum, body LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SV: Septal vein
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum LS: Lateral sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCA: Middle cerebral artery
Cl: Claustrum MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MObG: Medial orbital gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head OIS: Olfactory sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CSP: Cavum septum pellucidum Pu: Putamen
EC: External capsule SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb SG: Straight gyrus

51
Coronal - Cadaver
+22(+22mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVa MFG SFS CG CS SFG SSS CF CS SFG PcG CCb


MFG

IFS SP

IFS
CNh

ICa
PrG
IFGop
ICa
IN
Pu
Cl
EC
SCG
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
LS
0 IN
STG
SuCV

STG STS

CCF
EmC
MCA(1)
Cg
MTG
CCF

MTG MCA(2)
SCG

ITS ObG

ObG
N3 ITG

N4
– 80
MOTG OptN MxN N6 ICA SG ACA SG ON MxN N3 MxA OTS

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part N3: Oculomotor nerve SG: Straight gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber IN: Insula N6: Abducens nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus ObG: Orbital gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus ON: Optic nerve STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cg: Cingulum LS: Lateral sulcus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve SuCV: Superficial cerebral vein
Cl: Claustrum LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MCA: Middle cerebral artery PcG: Paracingulate gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus
EC: External capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
EmC: Extreme capsule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MxA: Maxillary artery SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ICA: Internal carotid artery MxN: Maxillary nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus

52
Coronal - MRI
+22(+24mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SFS SFG CMA(2) CS CMA(1) SSS CFISS CgS SFG PcG SFS CG PcA + 80

MFG MFG

SV
CG

IFS
CCb
CNh
SP
IFGop

IFGop
EC

LVa IN

Ica
EmC
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
IN 0
MCA(1)
LS
MCA(2)
STG Cl

Pu
STS

MTG
ITS
ITS

ITG
LObG

– 80
LObG MOTG PObG OlS SG CCr ACA ACA SG PObG MOTG ITG

+ 50 0 – 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IN: Insula PcG: Paracingulate gyrus
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LS: Lateral sulcus SG: Straight gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SP: Septum pellucidum
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part OIS: Olfactory sulcus

53
Coronal - Cadaver
+20(+20mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CCb MFG(1) SFS CS SFG PcA SSS CF SFG CS SFS CG MFG


LVa
Cg

MFG(2)
IFS
CNh
FOF
PrG

SP
ICa

SLF

IFGop
ICa
IN
EC Cl
LS
RIGHT

Pu

LEFT
0 SCV
IN
STG LS

EmC STG

STS
SCG
MCA
MCA(1)
CCF
MTG
ObG

ITS
ITS

ITG
ITG

N3
– 80
N4 OptN MxN N6 ICA(1) ICA(2) SG ACA SG ON ICA MxN MOTG CCF MCA(2)

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery ICA: Internal carotid artery N3: Oculomotor nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part N4: Trochlear nerve SG: Straight gyrus
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus N6: Abducens nerve SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula ObG: Orbital gyrus SP: Septum pellucidum
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Cg: Cingulum ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus ON: Optic nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum LS: Lateral sulcus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn PcA: Pericallosal artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery PrG: Precentral gyrus
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus Pu: Putamen
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MxN: Maxillary nerve SFG: Superior frontal gyrus

54
Coronal - MRI
+20(+22mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

M FG CS SFG CG C M A(1) SSS CF CG CS SF G PcA SFS M FG + 80

CMA(2)
IFS

CCb CNh

SP ICa

IFGop IFGop

LVa Pu

SV EC
RIGHT

LS

LEFT
LS
0
IN
EmC

STG
MCVs

STS
Cl

MTG
MCA

ITS
ITS

LObG
ITG

LObG- 80
PObG MOTG OlS SG CCr CavS SCG SG OlS PObG NA

+ 50 0 - 50

CavS: Cavernous sinus IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus OlS: Olfactory sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IN: Insula PcA: Pericallosal artery
CCr: Corpus callosum, rostrum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PObG: Posterior orbital gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus LObG: Lateral orbital gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum LS: Lateral sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MCA: Middle cerebral artery SG: Straight gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein SP: Septum pellucidum
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part NA: Nucleus accumbens SV: Septal vein

55
Coronal - Cadaver
+18(+18mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVa MFG Cg PcA SFG SSS CF SFG CS CG(1) SFS CG(2) Cg


MFG(1)
PrS
CCb
ICa
MFG(2)

PrG PrS

SP
EC
IFS

IN PrG

CNh
CCF
ICa
IFGop
Pu

EmC IFGop

SCA
RIGHT

LEFT
0 OlT LS

LS
NA
STG

IN
STS
STS
ICA(1)
MTG

ITS CCF

ITS
ITG
MCA
OTS ObG
PaA
N4
Ent
OptN
MOTG
- 80
ICA(2) N6 MxN CavS ACA AdH ON SG ICA MxN CavS MxA N3

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MxA: Maxillary artery PrG: Precentral gyrus
AdH: Adenohypophysis ICA: Internal carotid artery MxN: Maxillary nerve PrS: Precentral sulcus
CavS: Cavernous sinus IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part N3: Oculomotor nerve Pu: Putamen
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SCA: Subcallosal area
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber IN: Insula N6: Abducens nerve SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus NA: Nucleus accumbens SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus ObG: Orbital gyrus SG: Straight gyrus
Cg: Cingulum LS: Lateral sulcus OlT: Olfactory tract SP: Septum pellucidum
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn ON: Optic nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery OptN: Ophthalmic nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PaA: Paralofactory area
Ent: Entorhinal cortex MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery

56
Coronal - MRI
+18(+20mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG CS SFS CMA SFG SSS CF CMA SFG CS SFS CCb MFG + 80

CG
CNh

IFS
ICa

IFG
Pu

IFGop IFGop

SP EmC

EC
LVa
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
STG
IN
0

LS MCVs

IN
STG

MTG
STS

MCA

MTG
SV

ITS

ITS

- 80
ITG MOTG ACA SCG ACA NA ITG

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IN: Insula SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SP: Septum pellucidum
CG: Cingulate gyrus LS: Lateral sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MCA: Middle cerebral artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein SV: Septal vein
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus NA: Nucleus accumbens
IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part Pu: Putamen
IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus

57
Coronal - Cadaver
+16(+16mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SP SFS CS SFG PcA SSS CF SFG(1) SFG(2) CG SFS Cg MFG(1) CCb


MFG(2)
LVa

ICa
CNh

EC
IFS
IFGop
ICa
PrG

IN Pu
PrG
EmC
Cl
LS
IFGop

Cl IN

CCF SuCV
RIGHT

LEFT
0
STG
LS
MCA
NA
STS
STG
LCF
MCA

MTG STS

ITS
ITS
CCF
ITG
ITG

Amg OTS

MOTG
- 80
N4 OptN MxN N6 ICA CavS AdH OC ACA(2) ACA(1) ICA Oltr MxN N3 MOTG

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
AdH: Adenohypophysis ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus ICA: Internal carotid artery MxN: Maxillary nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CavS: Cavernous sinus IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part N3: Oculomotor nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber IN: Insula N6: Abducens nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus NA: Nucleus accumbens STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus OC: Optic chiasm SuCV: Superficial cerebral vein
Cg: Cingulum LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure Oltr: Olfactory trigone
Cl: Claustrum LS: Lateral sulcus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery PcA: Pericallosal artery
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus

58
Coronal - MRI
+16(+18mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG CG SFS SFG CS CMA SSS CF ISS PcA SFG CG SFS CCb SP + 80

CNh
IFS

LVa IFS

SV
SCG
ICa

IFGop
IFGop

Pu

IN
EC

LS Cl
RIGHT

LEFT
LS 0
MCVs

STG MCA(1)

STS
STS

MCA(2)

MTG
ITS
ITS

GPe

ITG

- 80
MOTG ColS Oltr ACA ACA Oltr CavS MOTG NA ITG

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part NA: Nucleus accumbens
CavS: Cavernous sinus IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus Oltr: Olfactory trigone
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IN: Insula PcA: Pericallosal artery
CF: Cerebral falx ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SP: Septum pellucidum
ColS: Collateral sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein STG: Superior temporal gyrus
EC: External capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus

59
Coronal - Cadaver
+14(+14mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVa SP Cg CS SFG PcA SSS CF SFG SFS CG MFG


PrS PrS

LVa
ICa

CNh
PrG
PrG(1)
AC
Pu
GPe
Cl
EC PrG(2)

LS IN
RIGHT

LS

LEFT
EmC
0
STG NA
IN
STS

MCA(1)

STS
ITS
MCA(1)

MTG Amg

ITS
ITG

ITG
OTS

- 80
SI MOTG N3 MxN CavS AdH NH OC ICA(2) ICA(1) CavS MxA PHG

+ 50 0 - 50

AC: Anterior commissure ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb N3: Oculomotor nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
AdH: Adenohypophysis ICA: Internal carotid artery NA: Nucleus accumbens SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus IN: Insula NH: Neurohypophysis STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CavS: Cavernous sinus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus OC: Optic chiasm STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LS: Lateral sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery
Cg: Cingulum LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum MCA: Middle cerebral artery PrG: Precentral gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head MFG: Middle frontal gyrus PrS: Precentral sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
EC: External capsule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MxA: Maxillary artery SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MxN: Maxillary nerve SI: Substantia innominata

60
Coronal - MRI
+14(+16mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG CS SFS CG CMA SFG SSS CF ISS CMA SV(1) SFS SP + 80


CCb
SV(2)
LVa

IFS
IFS

PrG
CNh
SPs

IFGop
IFGop

ICa
Pu

IN LS

MCVs
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
0
EC
STG
STS(1)
MCA(1)
EmC
MCA(2)
STS(2)

MTG Cl

NA ITS

GPe
ITS

MOTG

- 80
ColS Amg SCG ICS ACA CavS Amg PHG MCA ITG

+ 50 0 - 50

ACA: Anterior cerebral artery GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CavS: Cavernous sinus ICS: Intercavernous sinus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFGop: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part NA: Nucleus accumbens
CF: Cerebral falx IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus IN: Insula PrG: Precentral gyrus
Cl: Claustrum ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Pu: Putamen
CMA: Callosomarginal artery ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SP: Septum pellucidum
EC: External capsule MCA: Middle cerebral artery SPs: Stylus of septum pellucidum
EmC: Extreme capsule MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

61
Coronal - Cadaver
+14(+14mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 CCb CS SFG CG CF PcA SFG SFS Cg MFG


Dur

SP
FOF
LVa

PSN SPs

CeS
CNh
BN
ICa
GPi

IFS
PrG

GPe SLF

EmC IFG

TcG
EC
Pu
Cl
RIGHT

IN

LEFT
0 IN 0
NA
AC
DB

CCF
UF
ACA
NA
OlT
LCF
PaA

Amg Amg

MCA Ent
- 30
N3 N4 OptN N6 ON AdH NH OC ICA N3

+ 30 0 - 30

AC: Anterior commissure CS: Cingulate sulcus IN: Insula OptN: Ophthalmic nerve
ACA: Anterior cerebral artery DB: Diagonal band of Broca LCF: Longitudinal cerebral fissure PaA: Paralofactory area
AdH: Adenohypophysis Dur: Dura mater LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn PcA: Pericallosal artery
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EC: External capsule MCA: Middle cerebral artery PrG: Precentral gyrus
BN: Bed nucleus of stria terminalis EmC: Extreme capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus PSN: Posterior septal nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Ent: Entorhinal cortex N3: Oculomotor nerve Pu: Putamen
CCF: Corpus callosum fiber FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus N4: Trochlear nerve SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment N6: Abducens nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment NA: Nucleus accumbens SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb NH: Neurohypophysis SP: Septum pellucidum
Cg: Cingulum ICA: Internal carotid artery OC: Optic chiasm SPs: Stylus of septum pellucidum
Cl: Claustrum IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus OlT: Olfactory tract TcG: Transcapsular gray
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus ON: Optic nerve UF: Uncinate fasciculus

62
Coronal - MRI
+14(+16mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

PcA CS ISS CF CG CMA CS Cg CCb + 55


CG MFG

SV

SPs
LVa

SV
CNh
ICa

TcG
GPe

ICa
Pu

AC

Pu

EC

SCG Cl
RIGHT

LEFT
EmC 0

SCG

UF
SI

MCA

MCA Un
- 25
Amg ACA CavS SI Amg

+ 30 - 30

AC: Anterior commissure EmC: Extreme capsule TcG: Transcapsular gray


ACA: Anterior cerebral artery GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment UF: Uncinate fasciculus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb Un: Uncus
CavS: Cavernous sinus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn
CF: Cerebral falx MCA: Middle cerebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum PcA: Pericallosal artery
Cl: Claustrum Pu: Putamen
CMA: Callosomarginal artery SCG: Subcallosal gyrus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head SI: Substantia innominata
CS: Cingulate sulcus SPs: Stylus of septum pellucidum
EC: External capsule SV: Septal vein

63
Coronal - Cadaver
+12(+12mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 ICa LVa SFG Cg PcA SSS CF CS CG(1) CG(2) CCb SFS


SP

AC Fxc

CNh

PrG
ICa

GPi
PrG
EC

EmC Pu

LS IN
RIGHT

Cl

LEFT
IN
0
MCA(1) GPe
STG
MCA(2)

STS LS
Amg
MCA(1)
ITS

N3
MTG
PHG
UF
ITG
AC
N4
NA

MOTG ITG
- 80
ColS OptN MxN N6 ICA AdH OC NH ICA MCA(2) ColS Ent PaA

+ 50 0 - 50

AC: Anterior commissure Ent: Entorhinal cortex MTG: Middle temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
AdH: Adenohypophysis Fxc: Fornix, column MxN: Maxillary nerve SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment N3: Oculomotor nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment N4: Trochlear nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CF: Cerebral falx ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb N6: Abducens nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICA: Internal carotid artery NA: Nucleus accumbens STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum IN: Insula NH: Neurohypophysis STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus OC: Optic chiasm UF: Uncinate fasciculus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve Un: Uncus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus PaA: Paralofactory area
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn PcA: Pericallosal artery
EC: External capsule MCA: Middle cerebral artery PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus

64
Coronal - MRI
+12(+14mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

M FG CG SFS CMA CS SFG CF SSS ISS PcA SFG CG CC b SFS + 80

SP

LVa
CNh

IFS
ICa
SV(1)
PrG
SV(2)

PrG EC

SCA EmC

Pu
MCVs
AC
LS
RIGHT

LEFT
LS
0
Cl
STG

IN
MCA(1)
STS

ITG
ITS

ITS

MCA(2)

ITG
- 80
Amg SI CavS OC Fxc GPi AC Un ColS MOTG

+ 50 0 - 50

AC: Anterior commissure Fxc: Fornix, column MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment OC: Optic chiasm Un: Uncus
CavS: Cavernous sinus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb PcA: Pericallosal artery
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SCA: Subcallosal area
Cl: Claustrum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CNh: Caudate nucleus, head LS: Lateral sulcus SI: Substantia innominata
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVa: Lateral ventricle, anterior horn SP: Septum pellucidum
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EC: External capsule MCVs: Superficial middle cerebral vein STG: Superior temporal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus

65
Coronal - Cadaver
+10(+10mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SFS Fxc Cg SFG CG SSS CF SFG CS CC SFS SP

PrS CNb

PrS
PrG

ICa
GPll
PrG

Pu
EmC
GP
IN
Cl
RIGHT

LS

LEFT
LS
0
STG MCA(1)

IN
STS
SI
MCA(2)
MTG

Amg
ITS

ITS

Amg
ITG

ITG

PHG
- 80
MOTG CavS AuT AuTcp TuC AC NH OT ICA N3 MCA MxA

+ 50 0 - 50

AC: Anterior commissure Fxc: Fornix, column N3: Oculomotor nerve STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GP: Globus pallidus NH: Neurohypophysis TuC: Tuber cinereum
AuT: Auditory tube GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina OT: Optic tract
AuTcp: Auditory tube, cartilaginous part ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CavS: Cavernous sinus ICA: Internal carotid artery PrG: Precentral gyrus
CC: Corpus callosum IN: Insula PrS: Precentral sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum MCA: Middle cerebral artery SI: Substantia innominata
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SP: Septum pellucidum
CS: Cingulate sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EmC: Extreme capsule MxA: Maxillary artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus

66
Coronal - MRI
+10(+12mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

MFG CS SFS SFG CG CF SSS ISS SFG CG CCb CNb MFG + 80

CMA IFS

PcA PrG

LVb ICa

Fxc Pu

EmC
SV

V3(1) LS
RIGHT

LEFT
LS Cl
0

STG STS

AC IN

MTG
MTG

ITS

ITS

Amg

ITG

- 80
MOTG PHG CavS OT V3(2) OC CavS GPi ColS GPe

+ 50 0 - 50

AC: Anterior commissure GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment OC: Optic chiasm
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment OT: Optic tract
CavS: Cavernous sinus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb PcA: Pericallosal artery
CCb: Corpus callosum, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula PrG: Precentral gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Pu: Putamen
Cl: Claustrum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LS: Lateral sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
EmC: Extreme capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
Fxc: Fornix, column MTG: Middle temporal gyrus V3: Third ventricle

67
Coronal - Cadaver
+10(+10mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 CCb CS CF CMA CG SFG SFS

SFS PcA

SP
Cg

LVb
V3
CNb
PrG

ST
Fxc
ICa

BN
POA
EC GPe

EmC GPll

AC Cl

IN
Cl
Pu
RIGHT

LEFT
IN AC(1)
0 0
OlTu AC(2)

MCA(1)
OT
UF
Ent

Amg GPi

N3 NA

V3
PHG

Amg
- 30
Cl Pa ColS N4 OptN N6 Hyp OC NH OT N3 ICA Un ColS MCA(2)

+ 30 0 - 30

AC: Anterior commissure EC: External capsule N3: Oculomotor nerve Pu: Putamen
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EmC: Extreme capsule N4: Trochlear nerve SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
BN: Bed nucleus of stria terminalis Ent: Entorhinal cortex N6: Abducens nerve SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxc: Fornix, column NA: Nucleus accumbens SP: Septum pellucidum
CF: Cerebral falx GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment NH: Neurohypophysis ST: Stria terminalis
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment OC: Optic chiasm UF: Uncinate fasciculus
Cg: Cingulum GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina OlTu: Olfactory tubercle Un: Uncus
Cl: Claustrum Hyp: Hypothalamus OptN: Ophthalmic nerve V3: Third ventricle
ClPa: Sphenoid bone, anterior clinoid process ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb OT: Optic tract
CMA: Callosomarginal artery ICA: Internal carotid artery PcA: Pericallosal artery
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IN: Insula PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body POA: Preoptic area
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery PrG: Precentral gyrus

68
Coronal - MRI
+10(+12mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

SV CG ISS CF CS CMA CG + 55
Cg

FOF Scc

CCb

TSV SP

CNb

ICa FOF

LVb
GPe
ICa

Fxc

V3(1)

EC Pu

AC
Cl
RIGHT

LEFT
EmC V3(2)
0

UF

Un
IN
Amg

PHG
GPi

– 25
AP PHG Amg OT Ib Hyp OT ColS

+ 30 – 30

AC: Anterior commissure EmC: Extreme capsule Pu: Putamen


Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
AP: Ansa peduncularis Fxc: Fornix, column SI: Substantia innominata
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment SP: Septum pellucidum
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment SV: Septal vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hyp: Hypothalamus TSV: Thalamostriate vein
Cg: Cingulum Ib: Infundibulum UF: Uncinate fasciculus
Cl: Claustrum ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb Un: Uncus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery IN: Insula V3: Third ventricle
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body
CS: Cingulate sulcus OT: Optic tract
EC: External capsule PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus

69
Coronal - Cadaver
+8(+8mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

LV PoS ICV Cg CS SuCV SFG PcA SSS CF CG SFG CCb PrS(1) PrG Fxb CeS(1) CNb
+ 80

Fxc
PrG
PrS(2)

PoG(1)
CeS
ICg

PoG CeS(2)

BN
GPml
PrS(2)

Pu
EmC
GPe
GPll
AC
Cl
PoG(2)
IN LS(1)
RIGHT

LEFT
0 GPe
LS LS(2)
EC
STG
GPi
MCA
AC
STS
Amg
UF
OT
MTG

ITS SI

ITG(1)
OTS
Amg

ITG(2)
ITG
PHG
– 80
MOTG PHG PCA CavS N3 TuC Hyp V3 ICA OT CavS MxA ColS OTS

+ 50 0 – 50

AC: Anterior commissure CS: Cingulate sulcus IN: Insula PCA: Posterior cerebral artery TuC: Tuber cinereum
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EC: External capsule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus UF: Uncinate fasciculus
BN: Bed nucleus of stria terminalis EmC: Extreme capsule ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CavS: Cavernous sinus Fxb: Fornix, body LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxc: Fornix, column LV: Lateral ventricle PrG: Precentral gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MCA: Middle cerebral artery PrS: Precentral sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina MxA: Maxillary artery SI: Substantia innominata
Cgs: Cingulum, subcallosal Hyp: Hypothalamus N3: Oculomotor nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Cl: Claustrum ICA: Internal carotid artery OT: Optic tract STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICg: Internal capsule, genu OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein PcA: Pericallosal artery SuCV: Superficial cerebral vein

70
Coronal - MRI
+8(+10mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

SV(2) SV(1) SFS SFG CS CG SSS CF CMA SFG SFS CS + 80


CNb MFG

CG

Fxb

CCb

Pu
LVb

PrG
PrG
GPe
ICa

IN EC

LS
EmC
RIGHT

LEFT
STG 0
STG
MCA

STS GPll

GPml MTG

Amg
ITS

ITG
Amg

ITG

OTS
– 80
MOTG ColS PHG GPi Ib V3 OT PHG MOTG SI

+ 50 0 – 50

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MTG: Middle temporal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina OT: Optic tract
CF: Cerebral falx GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus Ib: Infundibulum PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
Cgs: Cingulum, subcallosal ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb PrG: Precentral gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery IN: Insula Pu: Putamen
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus SI: Substantia innominata
EC: External capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EmC: Extreme capsule MCA: Middle cerebral artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Fxb: Fornix, body MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SV: Septal vein

71
Coronal - Cadaver
+6(+6mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

CNb PrS ICV Cg SCV SFG CS SSS CF CG SFG PcA CCb Fxb FOF
+ 80

PrS

PrG LVb

PrG(1)

CeS AN

ICg
PoG
SLF

Pu
EC
GPll

Pu PoS

CeS
EmC
Cl
RIGHT

LEFT
IN
0 PrG(2)
LS
LS
GPe
MCA

MTG STG

GPi
STS

LVi EmC

Amg GPml

UF

– 80
LOTG OTS MOTG PHG CavS TuC Fxc OT ICA CavS ColS AL Amg

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis EC: External capsule LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EmC: Extreme capsule LS: Lateral sulcus PrS: Precentral sulcus
AN: Anterior nucleus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body Pu: Putamen
CavS: Cavernous sinus Fxb: Fornix, body LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxc: Fornix, column MCA: Middle cerebral artery SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina OT: Optic tract STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum ICA: Internal carotid artery PcA: Pericallosal artery TuC: Tuber cinereum
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICg: Internal capsule, genu PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus UF: Uncinate fasciculus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein PoG: Postcentral gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus IN: Insula PoS: Postcentral sulcus

72
Coronal - MRI
+6(+8mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

PcA CG SFS SFG ISS CF SSS CS Fxb SFG LVb AN + 80


IFS
MFG

Cg
ICg
CCb

CNb
Pu

GPml
PrG

GPml EmC

Cl LS

IN
RIGHT

LS

LEFT
0
EC
STG

STS
STS

GPe
MTG

ITS ITS

MCA GPi

LVi
ITG
– 80
MOTG Amg PHG OT V3 LVb Amg PHG ColS

+ 50 0 – 50

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
AN: Anterior nucleus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ICg: Internal capsule, genu OT: Optic tract
CG: Cingulate gyrus IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery
Cg: Cingulum IN: Insula PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
ColS: Collateral sulcus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
EC: External capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
EmC: Extreme capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Fxb: Fornix, body MCA: Middle cerebral artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus

73
Coronal - Cadaver
+6(+6mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 LVb Fxb SFG Cg CF CCb CS CG Scc

SP
ICV
FOF

V3 CNb
MFG
SMT
IML

AN
VA
TcG
ICg
SLF
PVN
RetN
AP
VA
EC
Pu
Cl
EmC GPll

GPml
OT
RIGHT

LEFT
GPe
0 Amg 0
GPi
N3 AL

AC
N4 IFO
SI
LVi
LHA
PHG UF/ILF
Amg
ColS PHG

– 30
MOTG TuC N6 IR Ib Fxc N3 Un Ent ColS MOTG

+ 30 0 – 30

AC: Anterior commissure EC: External capsule IFO: Inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus Un: Uncus
AL: Ansa lenticularis EmC: Extreme capsule ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus Pu: Putamen V3: Third ventricle
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus Ent: Entorhinal cortex IML: Internal medullary lamina PVN: Paraventricular nucleus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
AN: Anterior nucleus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus IR: Infundibular recess RetN: Reticular nucleus
AP: Ansa peduncularis Fxb: Fornix, body LHA: Lateral hypothalamic area Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxc: Fornix, column LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SI: Substantia innominata
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
Cg: Cingulum GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
Cl: Claustrum GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina N3: Oculomotor nerve SP: Septum pellucidum
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body Ib: Infundibulum N4: Trochlear nerve TcG: Transcapsular gray
ColS: Collateral sulcus ICg: Internal capsule, genu N6: Abducens nerve TuC: Tuber cinereum
CS: Cingulate sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein OT: Optic tract UF: Uncinate fasciculus

74
Coronal - MRI
+6(+8mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

SP Cg CG CS CCb CF CS CMA Cg Scc + 55

Fxb
LVb

FOF

CNb CP
AN

SV ICg

SLF
TSV

ICg Pu
EC

EC Cl

Pu EmC

GPe
RIGHT

GPe

LEFT
0

HS GPi

GPi SI

SI
Un
OT

Amg

Amg
LVi
– 25
PHG Hyp Fxc V3 CP3 IVF PHG

+ 30 0 – 30

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EmC: Extreme capsule PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus


AN: Anterior nucleus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus Pu: Putamen
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxb: Fornix, body Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
CF: Cerebral falx Fxc: Fornix, column SI: Substantia innominata
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
Cg: Cingulum GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment SP: Septum pellucidum
Cl: Claustrum HS: Hypothalamic sulcus SV: Septal vein
CMA: Callosomarginal artery Hyp: Hypothalamus TSV: Thalamostriate vein
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICg: Internal capsule, genu Un: Uncus
CP3: Choroid plexus in the third ventricle IVF: Interventricular foramen V3: Third ventricle
CP: Choroid plexus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn
EC: External capsule OT: Optic tract

75
Coronal - Cadaver
+4(+4mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CNb PrS AN SMT SCV SFG SSS CF PcA SFG CS CG CCb Fxb ICV FOF

MI
PrG

ICa
IML
PrG
CS

SLF
CeS
CeS
PoG(1)
PoG

VA Pu
EC
PoG(2) Cl
LS IN
EmC
RIGHT

LEFT
0 IN LS

GPe TTG

STS
EML
STG
MTG MCA

GPi AL

LVi
ITG(1)
ILF

AL
ITS

ITG
ITG(2)
Amg
– 80
OT ColS PHG PCA(1) PCA(2) Fxc N3 CavS ICA PCA ColS MOTG

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis EC: External capsule IN: Insula PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
AL: Ansa lenticularis EmC: Extreme capsule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EML: External medullary lamina ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus
AN: Anterior nucleus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus LS: Lateral sulcus PrS: Precentral sulcus
CavS: Cavernous sinus Fxb: Fornix, body LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pu: Putamen
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxc: Fornix, column MCA: Middle cerebral artery SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CeS: Central sulcus GPe: Globus pallidus, externalsegment MI: Massa intermedia SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
Cl: Claustrum ICA: Internal carotid artery N3: Oculomotor nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein OT: Optic tract STG: Superior temporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PcA: Pericallosal artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus IML: Internal medullary lamina PCA: Posterior cerebral artery TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus

76
Coronal - MRI
+4(+6mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CCb MFG PcA CG CS SFG CF SSS ISS CS CMA SFS SV MFG AN + 80

IML

LVb IFS

VA
CNb

Fxb PrG

PrG GPml

Pu MCA(1)

ICg Cl

LS EC
RIGHT

LEFT
IN EmC
0
MCA(2)
STG
STS
STS
GPll
MTG

ITS GPe

ITG
ITS
AL

LVi

MOTG

MOTG
Amg ColS PHG OT V3 HS Fxc GPi Amg ColS – 80

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis Fxb: Fornix, body ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus Fxc: Fornix, column LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
AN: Anterior nucleus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MCA: Middle cerebral artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SV: Septal vein
Cl: Claustrum HS: Hypothalamic sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CMA: Callosomarginal artery ICg: Internal capsule, genu MTG: Middle temporal gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus OT: Optic tract
ColS: Collateral sulcus IML: Internal medullary lamina PcA: Pericallosal artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus IN: Insula PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
EC: External capsule ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PrG: Precentral gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen

77
Coronal - Cadaver
+2(+2mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 ICV PrS CCb SCV SFG CF SSS PcA CG CS SFG Fxb MFG(1) LVb MFG(2) PrS

PrG CNb

AN VL

PrG
CeS

CeS
PoG
EC
IML GPe

Cl
VA
EmC
Pu
LS PoG

DM LS
RIGHT

LEFT
0 IN IN
STS
STG

MTG
TTG
ICp
GPml

LVi
ICp
Hi
GPi
OTS
Amg
ITG
OTS

OT
– 80
MOTG PHG ICA IPtS BA PCA MB N3 IPtS LF MOTG

+ 50 0 – 50

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus Fxb: Fornix, body LS: Lateral sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus
AN: Anterior nucleus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus
BA: Basilar artery GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PrS: Precentral sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina MB: Mammillary body Pu: Putamen
CeS: Central sulcus Hi: Hippocampus MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
CF: Cerebral falx ICA: Internal carotid artery MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Cl: Claustrum ICV: Internal cerebral vein N3: Oculomotor nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IML: Internal medullary lamina OT: Optic tract STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus IN: Insula OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PcA: Pericallosal artery VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
EC: External capsule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
EmC: Extreme capsule LF: Lenticular fasciculus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus

78
Coronal - MRI
+2(+4mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Fxb CCb MFG CG PcA CF SSS ISS CG SFG CS SV MFG LVb + 80


PrG
CNb
AN

SMT ICV

CeS
PrG
ICp

VL PoG

Cl
Pu
GPll EC

EmC
LS
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
STS STS 0

GPe
GPml

MTG
MTG

ITS LVi

ITG
ITS

ITG
GPi

MOTG
MOTG

– 80
Amg PHG OT AL DM V3 TF Un Amg ColS Hi

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis EmC: Extreme capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus Fxb: Fornix, body LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn STG: Superior temporal gyrus
AN: Anterior nucleus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SV: Septal vein
CeS: Central sulcus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTG: Middle temporal gyrus TF: Thalamic fasciculus
CF: Cerebral falx GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina OT: Optic tract Un: Uncus
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hi: Hippocampus PcA: Pericallosal artery V3: Third ventricle
Cl: Claustrum ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein PoG: Postcentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
EC: External capsule LS: Lateral sulcus SMT: Stria medullaris thalami

79
Coronal - Cadaver
+2(+2mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 LVb SP CCb CG CS PcA CF CS SFG CG Cg MFG


Scc

AN Fxb

ICp ICV

EML SMT

IML CNb
ST
LF
MTT

ICp
Pu

VA
GPe DM

GPi
Pu

EmC
GPll
EC
LF
RIGHT

LEFT
0 Cl 0
AL

OT OT

Amg ST
CrC UF

CNt CNt

Amg
Hi
LVi
V3
Hi

MB Fxc
– 30
N3 N4 N5 IPtS BA PCA Ib N3 IR Un PHG ColS

+ 30 0 – 30

AL: Ansa lenticularis DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IML: Internal medullary lamina PcA: Pericallosal artery VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EC: External capsule IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery
BA: Basilar artery EmC: Extreme capsule IR: Infundibular recess PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EML: External medullary lamina LF: Lenticular fasciculus Pu: Putamen
CF: Cerebral falx Fxb: Fornix, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
CG: Cingulate gyrus Fxc: Fornix, column LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MB: Mammillary body SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
Cl: Claustrum GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SP: Septum pellucidum
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTT: Mammillothalamic tract ST: Stria terminalis
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail Hi: Hippocampus N3: Oculomotor nerve TF: Thalamic fasciculus
ColS: Collateral sulcus Ib: Infundibulum N4: Trochlear nerve UF: Uncinate fasciculus
CrC: Crus cerebri ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb N5: Trigeminal nerve Un: Uncus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein OT: Optic tract V3: Third ventricle

80
Coronal - MRI
+2(+4mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

Cg Scc CS CF CG CS PcA MTG CMA + 55


CCb

SP

SV
LVb
Fxb

CNb
CNb
AN
AN
ICV
IML
VL

VA
Pu

ICV GPll

ICp GPe

DM EC
Cl

MI EmC
RIGHT

LEFT
0
AC GPll

GPi
AL

OT OT

Amg
Amg LVi

Hi Hi
– 25
LVi PHG Hyp V3 HS TF PHG ColS

+ 30 0 – 30

AC: Anterior commissure DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
AL: Ansa lenticularis EC: External capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus EmC: Extreme capsule MI: Massa intermedia
AN: Anterior nucleus Fxb: Fornix, body MTG: Middle temporal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment OT: Optic tract
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment PcA: Pericallosal artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
Cg: Cingulum Hi: Hippocampus Pu: Putamen
Cl: Claustrum HS: Hypothalamic sulcus Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
CMA: Callosomarginal artery Hyp: Hypothalamus SP: Septum pellucidum
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb SV: Septal vein
ColS: Collateral sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein TF: Thalamic fasciculus
CS: Cingulate sulcus IML: Internal medullary lamina V3: Third ventricle

81
Coronal - Cadaver
±0(±0mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PrG DM PrS LVb AvN SMT CCb PcA SSS CF CG SFG CS Fxb MFG V3 LVb CNb
IML
VA
PrG

CeS ICp

MI CeS

PoG EC

GPe
VL
Cl
Pu
PoG
IN
EmC
LS
LS
TTG
TTG
RIGHT

TF

LEFT
IN
0
STS
GPll
STN
GPi
PCA
MFG
SN
AL
ITG(1)

LVi CNt

ITG(2) OT

OTS ITG

Amg OTS

Hi
PHG

– 80
CavS ICA MTT MB BA SN PN BP IPtS CrC CavS PCA ColS OTS

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis ColS: Collateral sulcus IML: Internal medullary lamina PcA: Pericallosal artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus CrC: Crus cerebri IN: Insula PCA: Posterior cerebral artery TF: Thalamic fasciculus
AvN: Anteroventral nucleus CS: Cingulate sulcus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
BA: Basilar artery DM: Dorsomedial nucleus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus V3: Third ventricle
BP: Basis pontis EC: External capsule LS: Lateral sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CavS: Cavernous sinus EmC: Extreme capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Fxb: Fornix, body LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PrS: Precentral sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MB: Mammillary body Pu: Putamen
CF: Cerebral falx GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MI: Massa intermedia SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
Cl: Claustrum Hi: Hippocampus MTT: Mammillothalamic tract SN: Substantia nigra
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICA: Internal carotid artery OT: Optic tract SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STN: Subthalamic nucleus

82
Coronal - MRI
±0(+2mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CNb MFG AN LVb Fxb SFG CG CF SSS PcA SFG CS CG MFG CCb ICV + 80
DM
PrG

VA
DM
PrG

MI
VL
CeS

Pu PoG

CeS
ICp
PoG EmC

LS LS
TTG
TTG
STG
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
EC
0
STS Cl

STS
MTT
GPll

GPe
MTT

ITS
ITG

ITG IML

AL

MOTG
– 80
GPi MOTG Hi PHG STN MB V3 SN CrC PHG Hi ColS

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis EmC: Extreme capsule MB: Mammillary body STG: Superior temporal gyrus
AN: Anterior nucleus Fxb: Fornix, body MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MI: Massa intermedia STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTT: Mammillothalamic tract V3: Third ventricle
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hi: Hippocampus PcA: Pericallosal artery VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
Cl: Claustrum ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein PoG: Postcentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus IML: Internal medullary lamina PrG: Precentral gyrus
CrC: Crus cerebri ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CS: Cingulate sulcus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LS: Lateral sulcus SN: Substantia nigra
EC: External capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

83
Coronal - Cadaver
–1(–1) mm
<Real Size>
A P R L

DM AN PrS CCb SFG CF SSS PcA CG SFG CS Fxb MFG LVb CNb PrG
+ 80

CS V3

CeS
VA
ICp
VL

PoG EC

Cl PoG

Pu GPe

LS Cl
EC
MI LS
TF TTG
RIGHT

LEFT
0
STS IN

STN STG

LVi GPi

MTG
SN
AL
ITG
OT

Hi STN

ITG
OTS
Sb

Amg

PHG OTS

– 80
CavS MTT IPC MB SN BA BP PN IPtS ICA CrC ColS

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis CrC: Crus cerebri ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus CS: Cingulate sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
AN: Anterior nucleus DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrS: Precentral sulcus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
BA: Basilar artery EC: External capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pu: Putamen
BP: Basis pontis Fxb: Fornix, body MB: Mammillary body Sb: Subiculum
CavS: Cavernous sinus GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MI: Massa intermedia SN: Substantia nigra
CeS: Central sulcus Hi: Hippocampus MTT: Mammillothalamic tract SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx ICA: Internal carotid artery OT: Optic tract STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
Cl: Claustrum IN: Insula PcA: Pericallosal artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IPC: Interpeduncular cistern PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus TF: Thalamic fasciculus
ColS: Collateral sulcus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PN: Pontine nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus

84
Coronal - MRI
–1(±0mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

IML CNb LVb AN Fxb CG SFG CCb SSS CF CG SFG CG MFG ICV DM + 80

PrG
CM
MI
VA
CeS

VL
PoG

Pu IML

CeS ICp

EC
PoG

LS LS

TTG TTG
RIGHT

LEFT
STG EC 0

STS STS

MTG GPll

GPe AL

ITS ITG

ITG
LVi

GPi

– 80
ColS Hi PHG STN Scom MB V3 SN STN CC PHG ColS MOTG

+ 50 0 – 50

AL: Ansa lenticularis GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MFG: Middle frontal gyrus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
AN: Anterior nucleus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MI: Massa intermedia STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CC: Corpus callosum GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Hi: Hippocampus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CeS: Central sulcus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx ICV: Internal cerebral vein PoG: Postcentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus IML: Internal medullary lamina PrG: Precentral gyrus
CM: Centromedian nucleus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus Scom: Supramammillary commissure
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SN: Substantia nigra
EC: External capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
Fxb: Fornix, body MB: Mammillary body STG: Superior temporal gyrus

85
Coronal - Cadaver
–2(–2mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PrG LVb PrS AvN V3 CC SFG PcA SSS CF CG SFG Cg Fxb MFG LVb CNb PrG

AN
IML

CeS
CeS

VA ICp

PoG EC

DM GPe

PoG
VL
IN
Pu Cl
LS EC
TTG LS
IN TTG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 STG GPll

STS
GPml
MTG GPi

CM
OT
LVi
CNt
Hi

PCA STN

FF ITG

ITG

OTS

– 80 ColS
MOTG PHG CrC ICA IPtS Hyp IPF BA PN CrC CavS PCA ICA SN

+ 50 0 – 50

AN: Anterior nucleus ColS: Collateral sulcus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
AvN: Anteroventral nucleus CrC: Crus cerebri IML: Internal medullary lamina PcA: Pericallosal artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
BA: Basilar artery DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IN: Insula PCA: Posterior cerebral artery TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CavS: Cavernous sinus EC: External capsule IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CC: Corpus callosum FF: Fields of Forel IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PN: Pontine nucleus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CeS: Central sulcus Fxb: Fornix, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LS: Lateral sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrS: Precentral sulcus
Cg: Cingulum GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pu: Putamen
Cl: Claustrum GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CM: Centromedian nucleus Hi: Hippocampus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SN: Substantia nigra
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body Hyp: Hypothalamus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ICA: Internal carotid artery OT: Optic tract STG: Superior temporal gyrus

86
Coronal - MRI
–2(–2mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Pr G CCb SFS CS CG SFG CF SSS SFG Fx b CS ICV DM VA LVb PrS VL + 80

PrS PrG

CNb GPll

MFG
CeS
GPe
Pu

EC PoG

TTG SMG

LS TTG

LS
STG
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
0
STS STS

GPi
Cl
MTG
EmC
ITG

ITS
ITS

GPml LVi

GPi

MOTG
– 80
STN PHG CrC SN V3 IPF MI PHG Hi ColS

+ 50 0 – 50

CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
Cl: Claustrum Hi: Hippocampus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein PrG: Precentral gyrus VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PrS: Precentral sulcus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CS: Cingulate sulcus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LS: Lateral sulcus SFS: Superior frontal sulcus
EC: External capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
EmC: Extreme capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SN: Substantia nigra
Fxb: Fornix, body MFG: Middle frontal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MI: Massa intermedia STG: Superior temporal gyrus

87
Coronal - Cadaver
–2(–2mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 AN Fx b CS CG CCb SMT DN Cg ApN SZ


VA
LVb

FOF
CNb
LD
V3
IML
ST

PHyA
DM
SLF
ICp

VL
CM

EmC Pu

EC GPll

Cl GPi
GPml
FF
RIGHT

LEFT
0 GPe 0
STN
LF
OT
OT
CrC STN
Amg
ZI
CNt
ILF
LVi CrC
Hi
Hi
Sb
– 30
ColS N5 N4 SN TPF TF PN SN Ent N5 PCA ColS

+ 30 0 – 30

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus DM: Dorsomedial nucleus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb Pu: Putamen ZI: Zona incerta
AN: Anterior nucleus DN: Dentate nucleus ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus Sb: Subiculum
ApN: Anteroprincipal nucleus EC: External capsule IML: Internal medullary lamina SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EmC: Extreme capsule LD: Lateral dorsal nucleus SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CG: Cingulate gyrus Ent: Entorhinal cortex LF: Lenticular fasciculus SN: Substantia nigra
Cg: Cingulum FF: Fields of Forel LVb: Lateral ventricle, body ST: Stria terminalis
Cl: Claustrum FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CM: Centromedian nucleus Fxb: Fornix, body N4: Trochlear nerve SZ: Stratum zonale
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment N5: Trigeminal nerve TF: Thalamic fasciculus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment OT: Optic tract TPF: Transverse pontine fibers
ColS: Collateral sulcus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina PCA: Posterior cerebral artery V3: Third ventricle
CrC: Crus cerebri GPml: Globus pallidus, medial medullary lamina PHyA: Posterior hypothalamic area VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus Hi: Hippocampus PN: Pontine nucleus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus

88
Coronal - MRI
–2(–2mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CNb Cg CS CCb CF CG CMA PcA + 55

Fxb
MI

ICV

VL AN

FOF

VP VA

DM
ICp

VL

FF
Pu
ICp

EmC Pu

Cl
GPll
EC
RIGHT

GPi

LEFT
HS 0
ZI

OT
STN
CNt

CrC LVi

STN
Hi
Hi

ColS
ColS
– 25
PHG HiS V3 IPF LF SN PHG HiS

+ 30 0 – 30

AN: Anterior nucleus EC: External capsule LF: Lenticular fasciculus ZI: Zona incerta
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EmC: Extreme capsule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn
CF: Cerebral falx FF: Fields of Forel MI: Massa intermedia
CG: Cingulate gyrus FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus OT: Optic tract
Cg: Cingulum Fxb: Fornix, body PcA: Pericallosal artery
Cl: Claustrum GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina Pu: Putamen
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body Hi: Hippocampus SN: Substantia nigra
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail HiS: Hippocampal sulcus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus HS: Hypothalamic sulcus V3: Third ventricle
CrC: Crus cerebri ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IPF: Interpeduncular fossa VP: Ventral posterior nucleus

89
Coronal - Cadaver
–4(–4mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 SZ PrG LVb PrS DM CCb PcA SFG SSS CF CS CG SFG Cg PrS Fxb PrG
LVb
CeS
CNb

PoS CeS

ICp
LP
PoG
PoG
EC
IN

Cl
LS
LS
TTG

Pu TTG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 STG
STS
EmC
VL
GPll
CM
MTG
LVi
GPe
ITG

Hi CNt

V3
Hi

STN
OTS

ColS MOTG
– 80
PHG N5 N4 IPtS N6 SN IPF PN BA ICS CrC ICA SN FF

+ 50 0 – 50

BA: Basilar artery DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus SZ: Stratum zonale
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EC: External capsule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus EmC: Extreme capsule LP: Lateral posterior nucleus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CF: Cerebral falx FF: Fields of Forel LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus Fxb: Fornix, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus
Cg: Cingulum GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PrS: Precentral sulcus
Cl: Claustrum GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CM: Centromedian nucleus Hi: Hippocampus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICA: Internal carotid artery N4: Trochlear nerve SN: Substantia nigra
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb N5: Trigeminal nerve SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus ICS: Intercavernous sinus N6: Abducens nerve STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CrC: Crus cerebri IN: Insula OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PcA: Pericallosal artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus

90
Coronal - MRI
–4(–4mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

ICp VL CeS PrG CNb PrS LP SCV SFG CF SSS ISS PrG CS CG CCb Fxb + 80

CeS
Pu

EmC LVb

PoG PoG

GPe
ICV

MCA
SMG

TTG
LS
IN
STG
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
IN 0
EC
STS
STS

GPll MTG

GPi IFS

IFS CNt

Hi MOTG

ColS
ColS

PHG
– 80
CM PCA V3 Po DM SN CrC STN PHG Hi

+ 50 0 – 50

CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MCA: Middle cerebral artery SN: Substantia nigra
CeS: Central sulcus GPi: Globus pallidus, internal segment MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hi: Hippocampus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CM: Centromedian nucleus ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein Po: Pons TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
ColS: Collateral sulcus IN: Insula PrG: Precentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PrS: Precentral sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Pu: Putamen
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus SCV: Superior cerebral vein
EC: External capsule LS: Lateral sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Fxb: Fornix, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SMG: Supramarginal gyrus

91
Coronal - Cadaver
–6(–6mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80
LVb PrG Fxb CCb PcA PaL SSS CF PaL CG CS PrS PrG Cg
SZ

CeS
CeS
LVb
PoG
CNb
PoS
DM
LP
ICp
IN
EC
Pu
LS IN
LS
VL
Cl
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 EmC
STS
ICp GPe

MTG
V3

CNt STN

LGN
HiS
Hi

MOTG
OTS

LOTG

MOTG

PCA

– 80
ColS PHG SPtS ICA N5 IPtS SN RaN PN BA RN CrC SPtS

+ 50 0 – 50

BA: Basilar artery EC: External capsule LS: Lateral sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EmC: Extreme capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrS: Precentral sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus Fxb: Fornix, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pu: Putamen
CF: Cerebral falx GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MTG: Middle temporal gyrus RaN: Raphe nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hi: Hippocampus N5: Trigeminal nerve RN: Red nucleus
Cg: Cingulum HiS: Hippocampal sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SN: Substantia nigra
Cl: Claustrum ICA: Internal carotid artery PaL: Paracentral lobule SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PcA: Pericallosal artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail IN: Insula PCA: Posterior cerebral artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus PN: Pontine nucleus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus SZ: Stratum zonale
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus PoS: Postcentral sulcus V3: Third ventricle

92
Coronal - MRI
–6(–6mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CeS LVb PrG(2) PrG(1) CS CCb SFG ISS SSS CF CG PrG CS Fxb ICV CeS + 80

PoG
CNb

DM V3

PoS
LP

SMG

IN PrS

EC
TTG
Cl

LS LS
RIGHT

LEFT
Pu STG
0
STS STS

GPll MTG

ITS
GPe

CNt
ITG

Hi

VP Msi

ColS

CrC PHG

– 80
SCA RN VeA(1) VeA(2) IPF Po SN PCA

+ 50 0 – 50

CCb: Corpus callosum, body GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SN: Substantia nigra
CeS: Central sulcus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx Hi: Hippocampus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICV: Internal cerebral vein Po: Pons STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cl: Claustrum IN: Insula PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PoS: Postcentral sulcus V3: Third ventricle
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PrG: Precentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
ColS: Collateral sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PrS: Precentral sulcus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus Pu: Putamen
CS: Cingulate sulcus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus RN: Red nucleus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LS: Lateral sulcus SCA: Subcallosal area
EC: External capsule LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
Fxb: Fornix, body Msi: Marginal sinus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus

93
Coronal - Cadaver
–6(–6mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 Cg CCb PcA CF CG CS Cg

Fxb
AN
LVb
DM
SMT

CNb LP

SZ EML

V3 LP

ICp FF

Pu ZI
TF
RN

EmC GP
EC STN
CI
RIGHT

LEFT
AR AR
0 0
LGN
OR LGN

CNt SNr
LVi
LVi
OT
Hi
Hi

SNr
HiS
CrC
Amg ColS
– 30
MOTG N4 N5 RaN PN SNc N5 PCA PHG

+ 30 0 – 30

Amg: Amygdaloid nucleus DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
AN: Anterior nucleus EC: External capsule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SNc: Substantia nigra, pars compacta
AR: Auditory radiation EmC: Extreme capsule N4: Trochlear nerve SNr: Substantia nigra, pars reticularis
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EML: External medullary lamina N5: Trigeminal nerve STN: Subthalamic nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx FF: Fields of Forel OR: Optic radiation SZ: Stratum zonale
CG: Cingulate gyrus Fxb: Fornix, body OT: Optic tract TF: Thalamic fasciculus
Cg: Cingulum GP: Globus pallidus PcA: Pericallosal artery V3: Third ventricle
Cl: Claustrum Hi: Hippocampus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery ZI: Zona incerta
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body HiS: Hippocampal sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PN: Pontine nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus Pu: Putamen
CrC: Crus cerebri LP: Lateral posterior nucleus RaN: Raphe nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body RN: Red nucleus

94
Coronal - MRI
–6(–6mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CCb Cg CF CG CS PcA + 55

Fxb

ICV

CNb
LVb
SMT
EML

LP
AN

V3 VI

VP SMT

ICp TC

DM
EC
EmC
IN
Cl
CM
Pu
ICrl
GPll
RIGHT

LEFT
AR 0
GPe

LGN
HS
CNt Hi
LVi
DG
Hi
Hif

ColS
ColS
– 25
CrC PCA BP IPF SNc RN SNr PHG

+ 30 0 – 30

AN: Anterior nucleus CS: Cingulate sulcus ICrl: Internal capsule, retrolenticular SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
AR: Auditory radiation DG: Dentate gyrus ICV: Internal cerebral vein SNc: Substantia nigra, pars compacta
BP: Basis pontis DM: Dorsomedial nucleus IN: Insula SNr: Substantia nigra, pars reticularis
CCb: Corpus callosum, body EC: External capsule IPF: Interpeduncular fossa TC: Tela choroidea
CF: Cerebral falx EmC: Extreme capsule LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus V3: Third ventricle
CG: Cingulate gyrus EML: External medullary lamina LP: Lateral posterior nucleus VI: Velum interpositum
Cg: Cingulum Fxb: Fornix, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
Cl: Claustrum GPe: Globus pallidus, external segment LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn
CM: Centromedian nucleus GPll: Globus pallidus, lateral medullary lamina PcA: Pericallosal artery
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body Hi: Hippocampus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus HS: Hypothalamic sulcus Pu: Putamen
CrC: Crus cerebri ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb RN: Red nucleus

95
Coronal - Cadaver
–8(–8mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CeS LP PrG LVb DM PcA PaL SSS CF CS CG Cg PcA CeS

LVb
PoG

PoG
CM
CNb
PoS

Fxb
SMG
SMT
VP

LS ICa
ICp
Pu
STG TTG
RIGHT

LEFT
STS
V3
0
LGN
LVi
MTG
CNt
ITS
ML
Hi
RN

ITG
LOG

PHG
PCA

MOTG
CrC

ColS N5

– 80
SPtS PCA SN IPtS PN VTA BA MLF RaN ICA

+ 50 0 – 50

BA: Basilar artery ICa: Internal capsule, anterior limb MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus ICA: Internal carotid artery N5: Trigeminal nerve SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CF: Cerebral falx ICp: Internal capsule, posterior limb PaL: Paracentral lobule SN: Substantia nigra
CG: Cingulate gyrus IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PcA: Pericallosal artery SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
Cg: Cingulum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CM: Centromedian nucleus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LOG: Lateral occipital gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CrC: Crus cerebri LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus VTA: Ventral tegmental area
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pu: Putamen
Fxb: Fornix, body ML: Medial lemniscus RaN: Raphe nucleus
Hi: Hippocampus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus RN: Red nucleus

96
Coronal - MRI
–8(–8mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Fxb CeS PrG(2) PrG(1) CCb CS SFG SSS CF ISS CG PrG CS TCF CeS LVb + 80

ICV PoG

DM
CNb

LP PoS

VP
SMG

CM
V3

MCA TTG
Pu
LS
LS

EC STG
RIGHT

LEFT
STS 0
STS

CNt
MTG

Hi ITS

ITG
LVi

ColS Hi

PHG
ColS

Msi
CC

PHG
– 80
PCA SCbllA RN Po VeA(1) VeA(2) IPF SN CrC PCA

+ 50 0 – 50

CC: Corpus callosum Fxb: Fornix, body MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Hi: Hippocampus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus ICV: Internal cerebral vein PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx IPF: Interpeduncular fossa Po: Pons TCF: Transverse cerebral fissure
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CM: Centromedian nucleus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus V3: Third ventricle
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LP: Lateral posterior nucleus Pu: Putamen VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus RN: Red nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus MCA: Middle cerebral artery SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
EC: External capsule Msi: Marginal sinus SN: Substantia nigra

97
Coronal - Cadaver
–10(–10mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80
CeS LVb PrG SMT PcA PaL SSS CF CG CS Cg PrS CCb

LVb
PoG

PrS CNb

DM Fxb

SMG
SMG
V3

ML
LS
MGN
TTG

STG LGN
RIGHT

LEFT
0
STS CNt

LVi MTG

ITS SN
Hi
PHG
ITG

ITG PCA

OTS
CrC
ColS

N5

– 80
MOTG SPtS SN IPtS MLF PN RaN BA EV RN ICA

+ 50 0 – 50

BA: Basilar artery Fxb: Fornix, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus RN: Red nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body Hi: Hippocampus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus ICA: Internal carotid artery N5: Trigeminal nerve SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CF: Cerebral falx IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SN: Substantia nigra
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PaL: Paracentral lobule SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
Cg: Cingulum ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PcA: Pericallosal artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LS: Lateral sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PN: Pontine nucleus V3: Third ventricle
CrC: Crus cerebri LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PoG: Postcentral gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MGN: Medial geniculate nucleus PrG: Precentral gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus ML: Medial lemniscus PrS: Precentral sulcus
EV: Emissary vein MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus RaN: Raphe nucleus

98
Coronal - MRI
−10(−10mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CeS PrG CS CG SFG CF SSS ISS PrG CG CS CCb CeS + 80


PoG
Fxb

LVb
PoS

ICV
CNb
LP
SMG
DM

SMT
IN

VP V3
LS
LS
IC
RIGHT

TTG

LEFT
STG 0

STS STS

MTG CNt

ITS ITS

LVi
CM
ITG

MOTG
Hi

PHG ColS

- 80
CrC SCbllA RN VeA(1) VeA(2) IPF PN RN Msi PHG

+ 50 0 - 50

CCb: Corpus callosum, body IC: Internal capsuleI MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus CV: Internal cerebral vein PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx IN: Insula PN: Pontine nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus IPF: Interpeduncular fossa PoG: Postcentral gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CM: Centromedian nucleus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus RN: Red nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
CrC: Crus cerebri LS: Lateral sulcus SFG: Superior frontal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
Fxb: Fornix, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SN: Substantia nigra
Hi: Hippocampus Msi: Marginal sinus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

99
Coronal - Cadaver
−10(−10mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 Cg CS CCb CF PcA CMA CG PrS

LVb PrS

ICV

SMT
CNb

DM
Fxb
LP

CM
VL
VPM

V3
IML
VP
VPL

MGN ML
RIGHT

LEFT
LGN MGN
0 0
OR
LGN

OR
Hia
CNt
Hi LVi

RN Hia
Hi
RaN
Sb
PHG
OTS
ColS
PCA
N4 PHG
− 30
SPtS N5 VTA PN TPF SCP RN SN CrC ColS

+ 30 0 − 30

CCb: Corpus callosum, body Hi: Hippocampus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus TPF: Transverse pontine fibers
CF: Cerebral falx Hia: Hippocampus, alveus PcA: Pericallosal artery V3: Third ventricle
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICV: Internal cerebral vein PCA: Posterior cerebral artery VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
Cg: Cingulum IML: Internal medullary lamina PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CM: Centromedian nucleus LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus PN: Pontine nucleus VPL: Ventral posterior lateral nucleus
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LP: Lateral posterior nucleus PrS: Precentral sulcus VPM: Ventral posterior medial nucleus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body RaN: Raphe nucleus VTA: Ventral tegmental area
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn RN: Red nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MGN: Medial geniculate nucleus Sb: Subiculum
CrC: Crus cerebri ML: Medial lemniscus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CS: Cingulate sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus N5: Trigeminal nerve SN: Substantia nigra
Fxb: Fornix, body OR: Optic radiation SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus

100
Coronal - MRI
−10(−10mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CS ISS CF CS CG PcA + 55

Fxb

CCb ICV

LVb

CNb

LVb SMT

LP

VI DM

TC IN

CM

ICrl
TTG
VL
VPL
RIGHT

HS

LEFT
ICrl
0
OR

Hi CNt
DG
LVi
DG

Hi

ColS ColS

ML

- 25
PHG CrC N5 V3 IPF PN RN SN CrC PHG

+ 30 0 - 30

CCb: Corpus callosum, body HS: Hypothalamic sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ICrl: Internal capsule, retrolenticular PN: Pontine nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICV: Internal cerebral vein RN: Red nucleus
CM: Centromedian nucleus IN: Insula SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body IPF: Interpeduncular fossa SN: Substantia nigra
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus TC: Tela choroidea
ColS: Collateral sulcus LP: Lateral posterior nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CrC: Crus cerebri LVb: Lateral ventricle, body V3: Third ventricle
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn VI: Velum interpositum
DG: Dentate gyrus ML: Medial lemniscus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus N5: Trigeminal nerve VPL: Ventral posterior lateral nucleus
Fxb: Fornix, body OR: Optic radiation
Hi: Hippocampus PcA: Pericallosal artery

101
Coronal - Cadaver
−12(−12mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVb CeS PrG CG PaL SSS CF PaL Cg CS PoS CC


LVb
PoG
PoG
DM

CNb
PoS

Fxcr
Pv
ICV
TTG
SMG

VP PC

LS
LS
TTG
STG
MGN
RIGHT

STS

LEFT
0
BSC RaN

CNt LVi
MTG
ILF
Hi
PCA
ITS
RN
ITG
ColS
PCA
RN
OTS
SPtS
ColS
CrC
MOTG

- 80
PHG CLw ICA IPtS SN PN VTA VeA IPtS EV SCPd

+ 50 0 - 50

BSC: Brachium of superior colliculus EV: Emissary vein MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus RN: Red nucleus
CC: Corpus callosum Fxcr: Fornix, crus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
CeS: Central sulcus Hi: Hippocampus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ICA: Internal carotid artery PaL: Paracentral lobule SN: Substantia nigra
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICV: Internal cerebral vein PC: Posterior commissure SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
Cg: Cingulum ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CLw: Central lobule, wing IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CrC: Crus cerebri LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus VTA: Ventral tegmental area
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus MGN: Medial geniculate nucleus RaN: Raphe nucleus

102
Coronal - MRI
−12(−12mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Fxcr CeS PrG ICV CS CG CF SSS PrG CeS ISS CS CCb CeS + 80

CNb PoG

DM PoS

LVb
VL

SMG
CM

VP SMT

LS LS
TTG V3

STG
RIGHT

LEFT
STG
STS 0
STS
CNt
MTG
ILF
ITS
ITS
ILF

Hi
Hi
Msi

ColS

ColS

MOTG
PHG

- 80
PHG CrC SCbllA SN VeA(1) VeA(2) BP SCP RN CrC

+ 50 0 - 50

BP: Basis pontis CS: Cingulate sulcus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus V3: Third ventricle
CCb: Corpus callosum, body DM: Dorsomedial nucleus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CeS: Central sulcus Fxcr: Fornix, crus PrG: Precentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CeS: Central sulcus Hi: Hippocampus RN: Red nucleus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx ICV: Internal cerebral vein SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CM: Centromedian nucleus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LS: Lateral sulcus SN: Substantia nigra
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CrC: Crus cerebri Msi: Marginal sinus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus

103
Coronal - Cadaver
−13(−13mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVb CeS PrG CCb PaL SSS CF PaL CG CS PrS Cg

LVb

PoG
PoG
CCs

CNb
PoS

DM Fxcr

Pv PC

SMG
TTG
TTG
TTG
LS
VP
STG
RIGHT

STS

LEFT
CGS
0
MTG LVi

CNt ILF

RN
BSC
ITG
Hi
SN

PHG
CrC

ColS N7

N8
MOTG

SPtS ML
− 80
CLw N4 PCA IPtS PN SCPd VeA(2) VeA(1) EV ICA

+ 50 0 − 50

BSC: Brachium of superior colliculus CS: Cingulate sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PrS: Precentral sulcus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body DM: Dorsomedial nucleus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium EV: Emissary vein N4: Trochlear nerve RN: Red nucleus
CeS: Central sulcus Fxcr: Fornix, crus N7: Facial nerve SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
CF: Cerebral falx Hi: Hippocampus N8: Vestibulocochlear nerve SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ICA: Internal carotid artery PaL: Paracentral lobule SN: Substantia nigra
Cg: Cingulum ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PC: Posterior commissure SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CGS: Central gray substance IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CLw: Central lobule, wing ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LS: Lateral sulcus PN: Pontine nucleus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
CrC: Crus cerebri ML: Medial lemniscus PrG: Precentral gyrus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus

104
Coronal - MRI
−13(−14mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Fxcr CeS PrG ICV CS CG CF SSS ISS PrG CeS CG CS CCb PoG + 80

LVb
CNb

PoS
DM

TC
VL
SMG
CM

SMT
TTG

LS LS

VP STG
RIGHT

LEFT
STG
STS 0

STS Hi

MTG
ITS

ITS
OR

ITG
Hi

MS

MOTG
ColS

ColS
PHG

- 80
PHG CrC SCbllA SN VeA RN VeA BP SCP Aq CrC

+ 50 0 - 50

Aq: Aqueduct Hi: Hippocampus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
BP: Basis pontis ICV: Internal cerebral vein PrG: Precentral gyrus VL: Ventral lateral nucleus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus RN: Red nucleus VP: Ventral posterior nucleus
CeS: Central sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CG: Cingulate gyrus LS: Lateral sulcus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CM: Centromedian nucleus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SMT: Stria medullaris thalami
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SN: Substantia nigra
ColS: Collateral sulcus MS: Marginal sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CrC: Crus cerebri MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OR: Optic radiation STS: Superior temporal sulcus
DM: Dorsomedial nucleus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus TC: Tela choroidea
Fxcr: Fornix, crus PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus

105
Coronal - Cadaver
−14(−14mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PoG CeS PrG LVb PC PaL SSS CF CG CS PrG Cg


Pv
CC

PoG
PoS
LVb
PCA
CNb
TTG(1)
Fxcr

TTG(2) SMG

LS TTG

STG
CGS
Hif
CNt
RIGHT

LEFT
LVi
0
Hi STS

PHG RN

MTG
ITS
ITS
ITG

LOTG MOTG

SN
ColS

CbllT

SPtS
− 80
CLw ICA IPtS Pyd PN VeA(2) VeA(1) IPtS SCPd N8

+ 50 0 − 50

CC: Corpus callosum Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria PC: Posterior commissure SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CeS: Central sulcus ICA: Internal carotid artery PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Cg: Cingulum ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CGS: Central gray substance LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
CLw: Central lobule, wing LS: Lateral sulcus PrS: Precentral sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn Pyd: Pyramid
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus RN: Red nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
Fxcr: Fornix, crus N8: Vestibulocochlear nerve SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus PaL: Paracentral lobule SN: Substantia nigra

106
Coronal - MRI
−14(−16mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Fxcr CeS CCb CS CG PrG ISS SSS CF PrG CeS CG PoG PcA + 80
ICV
CNb

PoS
SMG

LVb

Pv
SMG
TTG
LS

LS
Pv
PT

Hi
RIGHT

LEFT
STG
0
STG
STS
MTG
LGN
ITS
OR
ColS

CNt ITG

MOTG
ITG

PHG
MOTG

- 80
ColS Msi SCbllA SC VeA SCPd Po PC PQL PCA

+ 50 0 - 50

CCb: Corpus callosum, body ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus LGN: Lateral geniculate nucleus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
CF: Cerebral falx LS: Lateral sulcus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CG: Cingulate gyrus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PrG: Precentral gyrus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PT: Planum temporale
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail Msi: Marginal sinus Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SC: Superior colliculus
CS: Cingulate sulcus OR: Optic radiation SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
Fxcr: Fornix, crus PC: Posterior commissure SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
Hi: Hippocampus PcA: Pericallosal artery SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
ICV: Internal cerebral vein PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Po: Pons STS: Superior temporal sulcus

107
Coronal - Cadaver
−14(−14mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 Scc PcA CS CF CG CS CMA Cg

CCb Fxcr

CV FOF

LVb CNb

CCs TSV

DM
CNt
PG
SLF
MCA
Pv
HC
HN
TTG
TTG
PC PR

MGN
PCA
RIGHT

LEFT
Ptc
0 0
CNt Hif
Hia
OR
Hi
LVi
CGS
PHG ILF
Hi
OTS
ML
ColS
PCA MOTG

MOTG PHG
ColS
− 30
N4 CLw MpT PN ML SCPd MLF CLw SN PCA

+ 30 0 − 30

CCb: Corpus callosum, body DM: Dorsomedial nucleus ML: Medial lemniscus PR: Pineal recess
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus Ptc: Pretectum
CF: Cerebral falx Fxcr: Fornix, crus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus HC: Habenular commissure MpT: Mesopontine tegmentum Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
Cg: Cingulum Hi: Hippocampus N4: Trochlear nerve SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
CGS: Central gray substance Hia: Hippocampus, alveus OR: Optic radiation SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus
CLw: Central lobule, wing Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SN: Substantia nigra
CMA: Callosomarginal artery HN: Habenular nucleus PC: Posterior commissure TSV: Thalamostriate vein
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PcA: Pericallosal artery TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PCA: Posterior cerebral artery
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PG: Pineal gland
CS: Cingulate sulcus MCA: Middle cerebral artery PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CV: Cavum vergae MGN: Medial geniculate nucleus PN: Pontine nucleus

108
Coronal - MRI
−14(−16mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CS PcA CMA CF ISS CG Cg + 55


CG
Scc

CCb
Fxcr

LVb LVb

CNb Fxcr

Pv ICV

VI
HC
Pv
PC
PR

ChF ICrl

Pv
RIGHT

LEFT
CNt
0

Hia Hi

LVi DG

Hi
PHG

ColS
PHG

MOTG
- 25
ColS CbllT ML CGS SCPd Aq PQL SC

+ 30 0 - 30

Aq: Aqueduct DG: Dentate gyrus PcA: Pericallosal artery


CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium Fxcr: Fornix, crus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CCb: Corpus callosum, body HC: Habenular commissure PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CF: Cerebral falx Hi: Hippocampus PR: Pineal recess
CG: Cingulate gyrus Hia: Hippocampus, alveus Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
Cg: Cingulum ICrl: Internal capsule, retrolenticular SC: Superior colliculus
CGS: Central gray substance ICV: Internal cerebral vein Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
ChF: Choroid fissure ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
CMA: Callosomarginal artery LVb: Lateral ventricle, body VI: Velum interpositum
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ML: Medial lemniscus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PC: Posterior commissure

109
Coronal - Cadaver
−16(−16mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 LVtr CeS PrG CS CCs PaL SSS CF CG Cg PR TSV


PoG

Fxcr PoG

SCc

Pv
PoS

MpT
SC

SMG
LS
N3N
Hi

ColS CNt

STG
STS
RIGHT

LEFT
0 OR LVi

MOTG MTG

PF PCA
ITS PHG
ITG
MOTG

MOTG OTS

SPtS PSF

AQL PQL

HF
SSL

IJV
N7
− 80
ML N8 IPtS MLF ION PN SCPd Pyd VeA N12 N8 MCP

+ 50 0 − 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ION: Inferior olivary nucleus N12: Hypoglossal nerve PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium IPtS: Inferior petrosal sinus N3N: Oculomotor nerve nucleu PR: Pineal recess STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus N7: Facial nerve PrG: Precentral gyrus TSV: Thalamostriate vein
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus N8: Vestibulocochlear nerve PSF: Posterior superior fissure VeA: Vertebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus LS: Lateral sulcus OR: Optic radiation Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
Cg: Cingulum LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus Pyd: Pyramid
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PaL: Paracentral lobule SC: Superior colliculus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SCc: Commissure of superior colliculus
CS: Cingulate sulcus ML: Medial lemniscus PF: Primary fissure SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation
Fxcr: Fornix, crus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
HF: Horizontal fissure MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PN: Pontine nucleus SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
Hi: Hippocampus MpT: Mesopontine tegmentum PoG: Postcentral gyrus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
IJV: Internal jugular vein MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus

110
Coronal - MRI
−16(−18mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Po G CeS CC CG ISS PrG SSS CF PrG CeS PcA CS PoG LVtr + 80


Fxcr

PoS
ICV
SPL

CNb
Pv

PG LS

SMG
SC

LS Msi

OR
STG
Hi
RIGHT

LEFT
STS
STG 0
MTG ColS

CNt
MTG
Hi
ITS
ITS
ITG

ITG

MOTG
ColS

MOTG PHG

- 80
PHG SCbllA Aq ION VeA Po MCP MpT PQL PCA

+ 50 0 - 50

Aq: Aqueduct ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PG: Pineal gland SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CC: Corpus callosum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus Po: Pons STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx LS: Lateral sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MpT: Mesopontine tegmentum PrG: Precentral gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus Msi: Marginal sinus Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
Fxcr: Fornix, crus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SC: Superior colliculus
Hi: Hippocampus OR: Optic radiation SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
ICV: Internal cerebral vein PcA: Pericallosal artery SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
ION: Inferior olivary nucleus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SPL: Superior parietal lobule

111
Coronal - Cadaver
−18(−18mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PoG PoS Cg PrG PoG CeS CS PaL SSS CF PaL CG CCs CeS

SMG LVtr

PG
Fxcr
LS

CNt SC
N3N
ST

Hif

PHG Hi
PT
STG
LVi
Hia
STS
RIGHT

LEFT
0 LL ColS
MTG
N4N
ITS
OTS PCA

CbllT ITG

LOTG MOTG

SPtS
AQL
PSF
PF
SSL

MLF
AQL

− 80 MCP N7 ISL ICP SN5N ION Pyd ML VeA SCP N12 N10 HF IJV

+ 50 0 − 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hia: Hippocampus, alveus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PF: Primary fissure SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria ML: Medial lemniscus PG: Pineal gland SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CeS: Central sulcus IJV: Internal jugular vein MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ION: Inferior olivary nucleus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule N10: Vagus nerve PrG: Precentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
Cg: Cingulum ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus N12: Hypoglossal nerve PSF: Posterior superior fissure
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus N3N: Oculomotor nerve nucleu PT: Planum temporale
ColS: Collateral sulcus LL: Lateral lemniscus N4N: Trochlear nerve nucleus Pyd: Pyramid
CS: Cingulate sulcus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus N7: Facial nerve SC: Superior colliculus
Fxcr: Fornix, crus LS: Lateral sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
HF: Horizontal fissure LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PaL: Paracentral lobule SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SN5N: Spinal trigeminal nucleus

112
Coronal - MRI
−18(−20mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

PoG CCs CeS CG CS ISS PrG SSS CF PrG CeS CS PoG PcA + 80
PoS

ICV SPL

CNb LVb

Fxcr
SMG

SMG
SC
Msi
LS
OR
STG
PHG
RIGHT

STS

LEFT
0
MTG
CNt
MTG ColS

Hi MOTG

ITS ITS

ITG PCA

ColS
PF

MOTG

SCbllA(1) PQL
- 80
PQL SCbllA(2) LS Po ION Pyd VeA Aq MCP HF AQL

+ 50 0 - 50

Aq: Aqueduct ICV: Internal cerebral vein PCA: Posterior cerebral artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ION: Inferior olivary nucleus PF: Primary fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Po: Pons VA: Ventral anterior nucleus
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CNb: Caudate nucleus, body LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PrG: Precentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Pyd: Pyramid
CS: Cingulate sulcus Msi: Marginal sinus SC: Superior colliculus
Fxcr: Fornix, crus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery
HF: Horizontal fissure OR: Optic radiation SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus PcA: Pericallosal artery SPL: Superior parietal lobule

113
Coronal - Cadaver
−18(−18mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 Cg CS PaL CF PaL CS CG

Hic
Scc

CCs

TSV
LVtr

FOF
PG
Fxcr
Hif
SLF
CNt
Pv
SC
MCA

ST
Hif

Hi Hi

Aq PHG

CNt
RIGHT

Hia

LEFT
0 0
PHG PCA
N4 LVi
ColS ColS

MOTG OR
N4
OTS
MOTG
AQL

LOTG LOTG

AQL
SPtS
− 30
PF MCP N4N MLF CGS SN5N SCP PF PQL

+ 30 0 − 30

Aq: Aqueduct Hi: Hippocampus OR: Optic radiation SN5N: Spinal trigeminal nucleus
AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hia: Hippocampus, alveus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium Hic: Hippocampus, commissure PaL: Paracentral lobule ST: Stria terminalis
CF: Cerebral falx Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria PCA: Posterior cerebral artery TSV: Thalamostriate vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PF: Primary fissure
Cg: Cingulum LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PG: Pineal gland
CGS: Central gray substance LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail MCA: Middle cerebral artery PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
ColS: Collateral sulcus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle Pv: Pulvinar nucleus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus SC: Superior colliculus
FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
Fxc: Fornix, column N4: Trochlear nerve SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
Fxcr: Fornix, crus N4N: Trochlear nerve nucleus SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus

114
Coronal - MRI
−18(−20mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

CS CF CG CeS CS + 55

PcA
Cg

Fxc
CCb

ICV
LVb

CPlv

Fxcr
Pu

SC

PHG
OR
RIGHT

LEFT
DG 0

Hi
Hi

PHG

ColS
ColS
MOTG

OTS MOTG

- 25
CGS PQL SCP Aq SCPd PF PQL

+ 30 0 - 30

Aq: Aqueduct Hi: Hippocampus SCPd: Superior cerebellar peduncle, decussation


CCb: Corpus callosum, body ICV: Internal cerebral vein
CeS: Central sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body
CF: Cerebral falx MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus OR: Optic radiation
Cg: Cingulum OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus
CGS: Central gray substance PcA: Pericallosal artery
ColS: Collateral sulcus PF: Primary fissure
CPlv: Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
DG: Dentate gyrus Pu: Putamen
Fxc: Fornix, column SC: Superior colliculus
Fxcr: Fornix, crus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle

115
Coronal - Cadaver
−20(−20mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PoS CCs PoG CeS CS PaL CF SSS PaL CG PrG CS LVtr

PoG

Hif SC

CGS

LS SMG

CNt
CNt

SMG
Hia
Hi
LS
Hi
TTG
LVi
STG
PHG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 ColS
ColS
MTG
N4 N4
CLw
MOTG
ITG
PF
OTS
PQL
SPtS
PSF
AQL
SSL

PQL ISL

HF
IJV
- 80
GL MLF N10 N12 N5st&n ION ML RF SCP N11 MCP LGF

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hia: Hippocampus, alveus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus IJV: Internal jugular vein N4: Trochlear nerve PSF: Posterior superior fissure
CF: Cerebral falx ION: Inferior olivary nucleus N10: Vagus nerve RF: Reticular formation
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule N11: Accessory nerve SC: Superior colliculus
CGS: Central gray substance ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus N12: Hypoglossal nerve SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CLw: Central lobule, wing LGF: Lunogracile fissure N5st&n: Spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LS: Lateral sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PaL: Paracentral lobule SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PF: Primary fissure SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
GL: Gracile lobule MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
HF: Horizontal fissure ML: Medial lemniscus PoG: Postcentral gyrus TTG: Transverse temporal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus PoS: Postcentral sulcus

116
Coronal - MRI
-20(-22mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

PoG CCs CG CeS(2) ISS CeS(1) PrG SSS CF PrG CeS PoG CS PoS CG SPL + 80
ICV Fxcr

PoS SPL

GCV
LVb

SMG
Hif
CNt
SMG
SC

Msi
LS

ICol
ICol
STG
STS
RIGHT

Hi

LEFT
OR 0
MTG
MTG
PHG
ColS
BV

MOTG
IFG
PF
OTS

AQL

MOTG

PQL
PF

- 80
SCbllA SCP Aq PICA ION VeA MLF MCP Fl LL

+ 50 0 - 50

Aq: Aqueduct Hi: Hippocampus Msi: Marginal sinus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hif: Hippocampus, fimbriaI MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
BV: Basal vein Col: Inferior colliculus OR: Optic radiation SPL: Superior parietal lobule
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ICV: Internal cerebral vein OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CeS: Central sulcus IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus PF: Primary fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx ION: Inferior olivary nucleus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PICA: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery VeA: Vertebral artery
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail LL: Lateral lemniscus PoG: Postcentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
Fl: Flocculus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PrG: Precentral gyrus
Fxcr: Fornix, crus MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus SC: Superior colliculus
GCV: Great cerebral vein MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCbllA: Superior cerebellar artery

117
Coronal - Cadaver
−22(−22mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PoS PrG CG CS CeS CF SSS CG PaL CCs CeS PCA LL


SMG(1) SCP

LVtr
SMG
SMG(2)

CGi Hi

STG LS

STS
LVi
ICol
ColS

LG CLw
RIGHT

LEFT
ColS
0 MTG
AQL
CbllT
PF
OTS
ITG
SPtS

SSL
OTS
MCP
PQL
ISL

LGF
PcF

IJV
HF
GL

- 80 Fl
N10 N11 N7m N12 ION Pyd VeA PN N12 BvL ICP N11

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule HF: Horizontal fissure LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PoS: Postcentral sulcus
BvL: Biventral lobule Hi: Hippocampus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium ICol: Inferior colliculus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PrG: Precentral gyrus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle N10: Vagus nerve Pyd: Pyramid
CeS: Central sulcus IJV: Internal jugular vein N11: Accessory nerve SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CF: Cerebral falx ION: Inferior olivary nucleus N12: Hypoglossal nerve SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule N7m: Motor nucleus of facial nerve SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CGi: Cingulate gyrus, isthmus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CLw: Central lobule, wing LG: Lingual gyrus PaL: Paracentral lobule SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LGF: Lunogracile fissure PCA: Posterior cerebral artery STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus LL: Lateral lemniscus PcF: Preculminate fissure STS: Superior temporal sulcus
Fl: Flocculus LS: Lateral sulcus PF: Primary fissure VeA: Vertebral artery
GL: Gracile lobule LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PN: Pontine nucleus

118
Coronal - MRI
−22(−24mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CCs CS PoS MS ISS CeS PrG CF SSS PrG MS PoS PcA SPL + 80
GCV

PoS

LVb

ICV
SMG

CPlv
SMG

Hi
LS
PHG

STG
OR
RIGHT

LEFT
STS
0
MTG
ColS

LG ITS

ITS
ColS
ITG

MOTG
MOTG
ICol
PF

PQL

PQL

- 80
SCP Fl Aq PICA VeA SCP MCP AQL

+ 50 0 - 50

Aq: Aqueduct ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus


AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PICA: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus LG: Lingual gyrus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CF: Cerebral falx LS: Lateral sulcus PrG: Precentral gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVb: Lateral ventricle, body SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CPlv: Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
Fl: Flocculus MS: Marginal sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
GCV: Great cerebral vein MTG: Middle temporal gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus OR: Optic radiation STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ICol: Inferior colliculus PcA: Pericallosal artery VeA: Vertebral artery
ICV: Internal cerebral vein PF: Primary fissure

119
Coronal - Cadaver
−22(−22mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 CG CS CF PaL CS CeS

Cg PoG

CCs
CG

FOF GCV

SMG LVtr

LVtr CP

CGi

CGi
CNt

OR
Cg
ICol LS

N4 Hia
RIGHT

OR

LEFT
Hi
0 0
AQL PCA

ColS
ILF
PcF
N4N
CGS
ColS
PF
N4
PQL
MOTG
PSF LL
CbllT
PF
SPtS
- 30 PSF
SSL NC MCP MLF SCP AQL PQL SSL

+ 30 0 - 30

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule FOF: Fronto-occipital fasciculus N4N: Trochlear nerve nucleus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium GCV: Great cerebral vein NC: Nucleus ceruleus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium Hi: Hippocampus OR: Optic radiation
CeS: Central sulcus Hia: Hippocampus, alveus PaL: Paracentral lobule
CF: Cerebral falx ICol: Inferior colliculus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery
CG: Cingulate gyrus ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PcF: Preculminate fissure
Cg: Cingulum LL: Lateral lemniscus PF: Primary fissure
CGi: Cingulate gyrus, isthmus LS: Lateral sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus
CGS: Central gray substance LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus PSF: Posterior superior fissure
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CP: Choroid plexus N3: Oculomotor nerve SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CS: Cingulate sulcus N4: Trochlear nerve SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus

120
Coronal - MRI
−22(−24mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

Scc CG MS CMA CF MS CG + 55

Cg

CCs

Fxcr

ICV ICV

LVtr

CNt
Hif

CPlv
Hif
GCV

OR DG
RIGHT

LEFT
OR 0

PHG
ILF

PHG
ICol
ColS

MOTG

ColS
- 25
LG MCP CGS Aq SCc SCP AQL IC

+ 30 0 - 30

Aq: Aqueduct GCV: Great cerebral vein SCc: Commissure of superior colliculus
AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ICol: Inferior colliculus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CF: Cerebral falx ICV: Internal cerebral vein
CG: Cingulate gyrus ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
Cg: Cingulum LG: Lingual gyrus
CGS: Central gray substance LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone
CMA: Callosomarginal artery MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle
CNt: Caudate nucleus, tail MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MS: Marginal sulcus
CPlv: Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle Msi: Marginal sinus
DG: Dentate gyrus OR: Optic radiation
Fxcr: Fornix, crus PHG: Parahippocampal gyrus

121
Coronal - Cadaver
−24(−24mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Po S CCs PoG CS CG PaL CF SSS PaL CL PCA CeS PoG MLF

SMG

Hi
LVtr

SMG
SMG
SCP

ICol
AQL
STS
LG
STG
ColS STS
MTG
RIGHT

LEFT
0 CLw SSL

AQL OTS

ITG
MOTG
SPtS
ITG
HF
PF
MCP
PSF
ISL
SSL
GL

HF

LGF
N7m

- 80 IJV
ISL GL PbF N6 N12 VN ION Pyd VeA ICP BvL Fl N11sr

+50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ICol: Inferior colliculus N6: Abducens nerve SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
BvL: Biventral lobule ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle N7m: Motor nucleus of facial nerve SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium IJV: Internal jugular vein N11sr: Accessory nerve, spinal root SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CeS: Central sulcus ION: Inferior olivary nucleus N12: Hypoglossal nerve SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CF: Cerebral falx ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PaL: Paracentral lobule STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CLw: Central lobule, wing LG: Lingual gyrus PbF: Prebiventral fissure STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LGF: Lunogracile fissure PCA: Posterior cerebral artery VeA: Vertebral artery
CS: Cingulate sulcus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PF: Primary fissure VN: Vestibular nucleus
Fl: Flocculus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PoG: Postcentral gyrus
GL: Gracile lobule MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
HF: Horizontal fissure MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PSF: Posterior superior fissure
Hi: Hippocampus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus Pyd: Pyramid

122
Coronal - MRI
−24(−26mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

CCs PoG PcA MS ISS CeS PrG SSS CF PoG MS CG PoG GCV + 80
PoS SPL

BV
LVtr

LVtr
SMG

CP
Hif

SMG
DG

LS PR

ICol ColS
STG
RIGHT

LEFT
STS MOTG0

MTG
ITS
LG
OTS
ColS

ITG
PF

AQL
SSL

HF
PQL
- 80
PF Fl BvL PICA V4 VeA SCP CLw GL MCP

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule GL: Gracile lobule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
BV: Basal vein HF: Horizontal fissure OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
BvL: Biventral lobule Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria PcA: Pericallosal artery SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium ICol: Inferior colliculus PF: Primary fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CeS: Central sulcus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PF: Primary fissure STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PICA: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery V4: Fourth ventricle
CG: Cingulate gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CLw: Central lobule, wing LG: Lingual gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
ColS: Collateral sulcus LS: Lateral sulcus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CP: Choroid plexus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PR: Pineal recess
DG: Dentate gyrus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PrG: Precentral gyrus
Fl: Flocculus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
GCV: Great cerebral vein MS: Marginal sulcus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus

123
Coronal - Cadaver
−26(−26mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 PoS PCA PoG MS PaL CF SSS PaL CG ICol PoG PoS LVtr

LVtr
CLw

SMG

LVi
POS

AQL

LG

STG
LVi

STG PF
RIGHT

LEFT
0 MOTG
MTG

PSF
ColS

ITG
ITG
SPtS
MOTG
SSL

SPS LGF

GL

CbllT
Fl

PQL PbF
- 80
MCP IJV SCP ICP V4 VN Uv ION VeA BvL CL VeA N11sr

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ION: Inferior olivary nucleus PCA: Posterior cerebral artery Uv: Uvula
BvL: Biventral lobule ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PF: Primary fissure V4: Fourth ventricle
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium LG: Lingual gyrus PoG: Postcentral gyrus VeA: Vertebral artery
CF: Cerebral falx LGF: Lunogracile fissure POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus VN: Vestibular nucleus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CL: Central lobule LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CLw: Central lobule, wing MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PSF: Posterior superior fissure
ColS: Collateral sulcus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
Fl: Flocculus MS: Marginal sulcus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
GL: Gracile lobule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
ICol: Inferior colliculus N11sr: Accessory nerve, spinal root SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle PaL: Paracentral lobule SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
IJV: Internal jugular vein PbF: Prebiventral fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus

124
Coronal - MRI
−26(−28mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

LVtr CC Scc ISS PoG CeS SSS CF PoG PaCG MS Pc CG SPL + 80

PoS
ICV

Hif
SMG

SMG
SVV

Hi
LVtif OR

ColS
STG
AQL
LG
RIGHT

STS

LEFT
IFS
0
MTG
OTS
ColS
MOTG
ITS
PSF
ITG

PF
SSL

PSF
HF

PQL
CLw

- 80
GL Fl BvL SCP V4 Lg BvL GL MCP

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ICV: Internal cerebral vein OR: Optic radiation SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
BvL: Biventral lobule IFS: Inferior frontal sulcus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CC: Corpus callosum ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Pc: Precuneus STS: Superior temporal sulcus
CeS: Central sulcus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PF: Primary fissure SVV: Superior vermian vein
CF: Cerebral falx ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V4: Fourth ventricle
CG: Cingulate gyrus LG: Lingual gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus
CLw: Central lobule, wing Lg: Lingula PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVtif: Lateral ventricle, toward the inferior horn PSF: Posterior superior fissure
Fl: Flocculus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone Scc: Sulcus of corpus callosum
GL: Gracile lobule MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
HF: Horizontal fissure MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus MS: Marginal sulcus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule

125
Coronal - Cadaver
−26(−26mm)
<Expanded>
A P R L

+ 50 PoG MS PaL CF PaL MS PoG

CG

PoS
PoS
CG

CGrs

CCs
Fmj

LVtr LVtr

SMG

CGi
PCA

Hi
POS

POS
RIGHT

TP

LEFT
Tp
0 0
OR OR
LG ILF

ILF
ColS
ICol
AQL
ColS
PF

AQL MOTG

CbllT

PQL PQL

SSL
- 30
PF MCP CL V4 SCP CLw

+ 30 0 - 30

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium LG: Lingual gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CCs: Corpus callosum, splenium LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CF: Cerebral falx MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CG: Cingulate gyrus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Tp: Tapetum
CGi: Cingulate gyrus, isthmus MS: Marginal sulcus TP: Temporal pole
CGrs: Cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial OR: Optic radiation V4: Fourth ventricle
CL: Central lobule PaL: Paracentral lobule
CLw: Central lobule, wing PCA: Posterior cerebral artery
ColS: Collateral sulcus PF: Primary fissure
Fmj: Forceps major PoG: Postcentral gyrus
Hi: Hippocampus POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus
ICol: Inferior colliculus PoS: Postcentral sulcus

126
Coronal - MRI
−26(−28mm)
<Expanded>
A P L R

MS CF Pc CS MS CG + 55

SS
ISS

CGi

ICV

LVtr

SLF
BV
Tp

CP OR

Hi
Hif

LVtr
Hi

Tp CalS
RIGHT

LEFT
OR 0
LG
DG
ColS
CalS
CbllT
ColS
AQL
LG

PF
SVV
- 25
CLw SCP V4 CLw MCP PQL

+ 30 0 - 30

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule Hif: Hippocampus, fimbria SS: Straight sinus
BV: Basal vein ICV: Internal cerebral vein SVV: Superior vermian vein
CalS: Calcarine sulcus ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus Tp: Tapetum
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium LG: Lingual gyrus V4: Fourth ventricle
CF: Cerebral falx LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone
CG: Cingulate gyrus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle
CGi: Cingulate gyrus, isthmus MS: Marginal sulcus
CLw: Central lobule, wing OR: Optic radiation
ColS: Collateral sulcus Pc: Precuneus
CP: Choroid plexus PF: Primary fissure
CS: Cingulate sulcus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
DG: Dentate gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
Hi: Hippocampus SLF: Superior longitudinal fasciculus

127
Coronal - Cadaver
−28(−28mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CGrs PoG SPL(2) PoS CS SPL(1) CF SSS Cul CeS CGi PoG Fmj PoS

SPL

POS
LVp

SMG
SMG
PcF

POS
ILF
OR

LVi ColS

STG STG

MTG
RIGHT

LEFT
IcF
0
LG MTG
AQL MOTG
ColS PSF

ITG LOTG

OTS SSL

PF SpS

HF
PQL

CL LGF

SCP
MCP
- 80
Lg To VeA (1) VN VeA(2) Pyd Uv ICP BvL PbF IJV GL

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule IcF: Intraculminate fissure MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
BvL: Biventral lobule ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle OR: Optic radiation SPL: Superior parietal lobule
CeS: Central sulcus IJV: Internal jugular vein OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SpS: Sphenoid sinus
CF: Cerebral falx ILF: Inferior longitudinal fasciculus PbF: Prebiventral fissure SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CGi: Cingulate gyrus, isthmus ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PcF: Preculminate fissure SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CGrs: Cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial LG: Lingual gyrus PF: Primary fissure STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CL: Central lobule Lg: Lingula PoG: Postcentral gyrus To: Tonsil
ColS: Collateral sulcus LGF: Lunogracile fissure POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus Uv: Uvula
CS: Cingulate sulcus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
Cul: Culmen LVi: Lateral ventricle, inferior horn PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule VN: Vestibular nucleus
Fmj: Forceps major LVp: Lateral ventricle, posterior horn PSF: Posterior superior fissure
GL: Gracile lobule MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle Pyd: Pyramid
HF: Horizontal fissure MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle

128
Coronal - MRI
−28(−30mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

LVtr SCbllV Pc PoG MS SCV CF SSS PoG MS Pc SS SPL + 80


PoS
Cu

SMG
CP

SMG CalS

LVp
Cu

CalS OR

STG

LG LG

MTG
RIGHT

STS

LEFT
0
ColS
ColS
ITG
MTG

ITS PF

ITG
PSF

PQL

LOTG

HF
MOTG

- 80
HF MCP SCP BvL V4 ICP BvL Fl GL Lg

+ 50 0 - 50

BvL: Biventral lobule Lg: Lingula PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule


CalS: Calcarine sulcus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus PSF: Posterior superior fissure
CF: Cerebral falx LVp: Lateral ventricle, posterior horn SCbllV: Superior cerebellar vein
ColS: Collateral sulcus LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
CP: Choroid plexus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle SCV: Superior cerebral vein
Cu: Cuneus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
Fl: Flocculus MS: Marginal sulcus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
GL: Gracile lobule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SS: Straight sinus
HF: Horizontal fissure OR: Optic radiation SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle Pc: Precuneus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PF: Primary fissure STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus V4: Fourth ventricle
LG: Lingual gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus

129
Coronal - Cadaver
−30(−30mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 Cul PoS(2) PoS(1) SPL ISS CF SSS PcF IcF PoG PoS SPL
CL POS

POS SCP

ColS
SMG

LG PF

Lg PQL

STG
STG
OR
OTS
RIGHT

MTG

LEFT
0 MTG
ColS
ITG
CbllT
PSF

SSL
MOTG
SPtS
ITG
HF
OTS
ISL
PSF

PQL
GL
DN
PbF
MCP
IJV

- 80
SigS No To Nam N12N MLF ICP VeA(2) BvL N11sr VeA (1) Uv

+ 50 0 - 50

BvL: Biventral lobule ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus PbF: Prebiventral fissure SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx LG: Lingual gyrus PcF: Preculminate fissure SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CL: Central lobule Lg: Lingula PF: Primary fissure SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PoG: Postcentral gyrus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
Cul: Culmen MLF: Medial longitudinal fasciculus POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus To: Tonsil
DN: Dentate nucleus MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PoS: Postcentral sulcus Uv: Uvula
GL: Gracile lobule MTG: Middle temporal gyrus PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule VeA: Vertebral artery
HF: Horizontal fissure N11sr: Accessory nerve, spinal root PSF: Posterior superior fissure
IcF: Intraculminate fissure N12N: Hypoglossal nerve nucleus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle Nam: Nucleus ambiguus SF: Secondary fissure
IJV: Internal jugular vein No: Nodule SigS: Sigmoid sinus
ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule OR: Optic radiation SMG: Supramarginal gyrus

130
Coronal - MRI
−30(−32mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

POS SPL SS Pc MS PaCG CF SSS PoG Pc POS SPL + 80


LVtr Cu

Cu SMG

SMG
CalS

CalS
LVp

STG

OR LG

STS
ColS
RIGHT

LEFT
ColS
0
PF
MTG

LG PSF

ITS
TS
ITG

SSL
MOTG

SigS
HF

ISL
ISL

- 80
CL GL BvL SCP V4 To Lg CLw AQL

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule LG: Lingual gyrus SCP: Superior cerebellar peduncle
BvL: Biventral lobule Lg: Lingula SF: Secondary fissure
CalS: Calcarine sulcus LVp: Lateral ventricle, posterior horn SigS: Sigmoid sinus
CF: Cerebral falx LVtr: Lateral ventricle, collateral trigone SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
CL: Central lobule MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus SPL: Superior parietal lobule
CLw: Central lobule, wing MS: Marginal sulcus SS: Straight sinus
ColS: Collateral sulcus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
Cu: Cuneus OR: Optic radiation SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
GL: Gracile lobule Pc: Precuneus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
HF: Horizontal fissure PF: Primary fissure STS: Superior temporal sulcus
ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule PoG: Postcentral gyrus To: Tonsil
ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus TS: Transverse sinus
ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PSF: Posterior superior fissure V4: Fourth ventricle

131
Coronal - Cadaver
−32(−32mm)
<Real Size>
A P R L

+ 80 CL POS SPL Cul Pc CF SSS ISS Pc CG PcF SPL Cu

POS

Lg
SMG
LG

ColS IcF

MOTG ColS

AQL
STG
STG
PF OR
MTG
RIGHT

MOTG

LEFT
0 CbllT
OTS
LOTG PQL

ITG
OTS
SSL

PQL SPtS

HF
PSF
DN
MCP
ISL

To GL

SigS
- 80
SigS N10D VeA Nam Uv ICP VeA (2) N11sr BvL VeA (1) PbF

+ 50 0 - 50

AQL: Anterior quadrangular lobule ICP: Inferior cerebellar peduncle OR: Optic radiation SPtS: Superior petrosal sinus
BvL: Biventral lobule ISL: Inferior semilunar lobule OTS: Occipitotemporal sulcus SSL: Superior semilunar lobule
CbllT: Cerebellar tentorium ISS: Inferior sagittal sinus PbF: Prebiventral fissure SSS: Superior sagittal sinus
CF: Cerebral falx ITG: Inferior temporal gyrus Pc: Precuneus STG: Superior temporal gyrus
CG: Cingulate gyrus LG: Lingual gyrus PcF: Preculminate fissure To: Tonsil
CL: Central lobule Lg: Lingula PF: Primary fissure Uv: Uvula
ColS: Collateral sulcus LOTG: Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus POS: Parieto-occipital sulcus VeA: Vertebral artery
Cu: Cuneus MCP: Middle cerebellar peduncle PQL: Posterior quadrangular lobule
Cul: Culmen MOTG: Medial occipitotemporal gyrus PSF: Posterior superior fissure
DN: Dentate nucleus MTG: Middle temporal gyrus SF: Secondary fissure
GL: Gracile lobule N10D: Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve SigS: Sigmoid sinus
HF: Horizontal fissure N11sr: Accessory nerve, spinal root SMG: Supramarginal gyrus
IcF: Intraculminate fissure Nam: Nucleus ambiguus SPL: Superior parietal lobule

132
Coronal - MRI
−32(−34mm)
<Real Size>
A P L R

Cu POS SPL Pc(2) Pc(1) MS PoG CF SSS MS Pc SS SPL CL POS + 80

LVtr
SMG

SMG

Cu

CalS
CalS

LG AG
LVp
CLw
LG
ColS OR
RIGHT

PF ColS

LEFT
0
MTG ITS

ITS MOTG

ITG ITG

PQL
LOTG

TS

SSL
SigS
ISL

SCP PQL

- 80
GL Flp V4 BvL No To BvL PbF DN GL

+ 50 0 - 50

AG: Angular gyrus ITS: Inferior temporal sulcus PoG: Postcentral gyrus