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Department of Civil and Environmental


Foundation Engineering
BAA 4513
Chapter 2: Shallow Foundation
Analysis and Design Part 1

Dr. Muzamir bin Hasan

Course Outline

 Introduction
 Ultimate soil-bearing capacity for Shallow
 Terzaghi’s Equation
 Effect of water table
 Factor of safety
 General bearing capacity equation
 Ultimate load for Shallow Foundations under
eccentric load
 Plate load test
Shallow Foundations

 Foundation – design for transferring load from

structure columns to the soil
 The lowest part of a structure generally is
referred to as the foundation.
 A properly designed foundation transfers the
load throughout the soil without overstressing
the soil.
 Overstressing the soil can result in either
excessive settlement or shear failure of the soil,
both of which cause damage to the structure.

Figure 1 Settlement
(A)Building Before Settlement Occurs;
(B)Uniform Settlement (C) Differential Settlement
Figure 2 Building Consisting of Three Parts
Superstructure, substructure, and foundation.
The substructure in this example contains two levels of basements,
and foundation.
Figure3 Concrete Footings
(A)Column Footing;
(B)Wall Footing

Figure 4 Deep Foundations

(A) Spread Footing;
(B) Mat Foundation
(C)Pile Foundation
(D)Drilled Shaft F.
Types of Foundation

 A spread footing is simply an enlargement of

a load-bearing wall or column that makes it
possible to spread the load of the structure
over a larger area of the soil.
 In soil with low load-bearing capacity, the
size of the spread footings required is
impracticably large. In that case, it is more
economical to construct the entire structure
over a concrete pad. This is called a mat
Types of Foundation

 Pile and drilled shaft foundations are used for heavier

structures when great depth is required for supporting
the load. Piles are structural members made of timber,
concrete, or steel that transmit the load of the
superstructure to the lower layers of the soil.
 In the case of drilled shafts, a shaft is drilled into the
subsoil and then is filled with concrete. A metal casing
may be used while the shaft is being drilled. The casing
may be left in place or may be withdrawn during the
placing of concrete. Generally, the diameter of a drilled
shaft is much larger than that of a pile.
Types of Foundation

 Spread footings and mat foundations generally are

referred to as shallow foundations, whereas pile and
drilled-shaft foundations are classified as deep
foundations. In a more general sense, shallow
foundations are foundations that have a depth-of-
embedment to-width ratio of approximately less than
four. When the depth-of-embedment-to-width ratio of
a foundation is greater than four, it may be classified
as a deep foundation.
A foundation supports a number
of loads:

 The dead load of the building, which is the

sum of the weights of the frame; the floors,
roofs, and walls; the electrical and
mechanical equipment; and the foundation
 The live load, which is the sum of the weights
of the people in the building; the furnishings
and equipment they use; and snow, ice, and
water on the roof.
A foundation supports a number
of loads:

 Wind loads, which can apply lateral, downward, and uplift

loads to a foundation
 Horizontal pressures of earth and water against
basement walls
 In some buildings, horizontal thrusts from arches, rigid
frames, domes, vaults, or tensile structures
 On some building sites, buoyant uplift forces from
underground water, identical to the forces that cause a
boat to float
 During earthquake, horizontal and vertical forces caused
by the motion of the ground relative to the building.
The factors that affect the choice
of a foundation type:

1. Subsurface soil and groundwater
2. Structural requirements, including
foundation loads, building configurations,
and depth.
The factors that affect the choice
of a foundation type:

1. Construction methods, including access and
working space;
2. Environmental factors, including noise,
traffic, and disposal of earth and water ;
3. Building codes and regulations;
4. Impact on adjacent property;
5. Time available for construction;
6. Construction risks.
Factors to be taken into consideration
when determining the type of the
building foundations:

 Function of the structure

 Loads from the structure
 Bearing capacity of foundation material
 Total and differential settlement of foundation
 Uplift forces acting on the foundation
 Costs
Limit States

Serviceability Ultimate
Shallow Foundations

• Shallow Foundations versus Deep


Shallow Deep

Mat Driven Drilled Others
Shallow Foundations

Factors in Selection of Foundation

 Type of foundation – shallow, deep
 Condition of supportively soil
 Design & size of the proposed structure –
measurement, loading
 Capital
 Factor of Safety
Shallow Foundations

 Shallow Foundation

 Terzaghi – D  B

 Other researchers - D
 4 -5B
Shallow Foundations
Shallow Foundations
Shallow Foundations

1- Cost (affordable)
2- Construction Procedure (simple)
3- Materials (mostly concrete)
4- Labor (does not need expertise)

1- Settlement
2- Limit Capacity * Soil * Structure
3- Irregular ground surface (slope, retaining
4- Foundation subjected to pullout, torsion,
Shallow vs. Deep Foundations
Shallow Foundations

• Usually the more economical option

• As a general rule, consider deep foundations only
when shallow foundations do not give satisfactory
• Types of Shallow foundations
• Spread footings (square, circular, rectangular)
• Combined Footings
• Continuous Footings
• Mat or Raft Foundations
Combined/Strap Footing
Construction Methods

• Excavation; Backhoe followed by handwork

o Neat footing-no formwork used
o Formed footing
Mat (or Raft) Foundation