Anda di halaman 1dari 88

1 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P R E AM B L E

WE, TH E PEOP LE O F IND IA, h avi n g s olemn l y res o lve d t o


con s t it u t e In d i a i nt o a SOVERE IG N SOC IA LIST SECU LA R
DEMOCRA T IC REPUB LIC an d t o s ecu re t o all i t s ci t i zen s :

J USTIC E, s oci al, econ omi c an d p oli t i cal;

LIB ERT Y o f t h ou gh t , exp res si on , b eli ef, fai t h and wors h ip ;

EQU A LITY o f s t at u s an d of op p ort u n it y;

an d t o p romot e amon g t h em all

FRA TER N ITY as s u ri n g th e di gn i t y o f t h e in d i vid u al and t h e un i t y


an d i n t egrit y o f t h e Nat i on ;

IN OUR C ONST ITU ENT ASS EMB LY t h i s t went y-s i x t h d ay o f


Novemb er, 1 9 4 9 , d o HERE BY AD OPT, EN ACT AN D G IV E T O
OURSE LVES TH IS CO NST ITU TION.
2 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
1 . Nam e a nd terri tory of the Uni on.—(1 ) In d i a, t h at i s Bh arat, s h all b e
a Un i on of St at es .
(2 ) Th e St at es an d th e t erri t ories t h ereof s h al l b e as s p eci fi ed i n t h e
Fi rs t Sch edu le.
(3 ) Th e t errit ory o f In d i a sh all comp ri s e—
(a ) t h e t errit ori es of t h e St at es ;
(b ) t h e Un i on terri t ori es s p eci fi ed in th e Fi rs t Sch ed u le; an d
(c) s u ch ot h er t erri t ori es as may b e acqu i red.
2 . Admi s si on or es ta bl is hm ent of new Sta tes .—Parli amen t may b y la w
ad mi t in t o t h e Un i on , or es t ab li sh , n ew St at es on s u ch t erms an d con d i ti on s
as i t t hi n ks fi t .
2 A. [S i kki m t o b e as so cia t ed wit h t h e Uni on .] Rep . b y th e Co ns t it u ti on
(Th i rt y- s i xt h Amend men t ) Act , 19 7 5, s . 5 (w.e.f . 26 -4 -1 9 7 5 ).
3 . F orm a ti on of new Sta tes and a l tera ti on of a rea s , bounda ri es or
na m es of exi s ti ng Sta tes .—Parli amen t may b y la w—
(a ) form a n ew St at e b y s ep arat ion o f t erri t or y from an y St at e o r b y
u n it in g t wo or m ore St at es or p art s of St at es or b y u n i t i n g an y t erri t ory
t o a p art of an y St at e;
(b ) i n creas e th e area of an y St at e;
(c) d i min is h t h e area of an y St at e;
(d ) alt er t h e b ou nd ari es of an y S t at e;
(e) alt er t h e n ame of an y St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n o Bi ll fo r t h e p u rp os e s h all b e i n t rod u ced i n ei th er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t ex cept on th e recommen d ati on of t h e Pres i d en t an d u n les s ,
wh ere t h e p rop os al con t ain ed in th e Bi ll affect s t h e area, b ou n d ari es or
n ame of an y o f t h e St at es , t h e Bi ll h as b een referred b y t h e Pres i d ent t o t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h at St at e for ex p ress in g i t s vi ews t h ereon wi t h in s u ch
p eri od as may b e sp eci fi ed i n t he referen ce or wi t h in su ch fu rt her p eri od as
t h e Presi d en t may all ow an d t h e p eri od s o sp eci fi ed or allowed h as exp i red.
Exp l a na ti on I.—In t h i s arti cle, i n clau s es (a ) t o (e), “St at e’’ i n clu d es a
Un i on t errit ory, b u t in th e p rovi s o, “St at e’’ d oes n ot in clud e a Uni on
t erri t ory.
Exp l a na ti on II.—Th e p ower con ferred on Par li amen t b y cl au s e (a )
i n clu d es th e p ower t o form a n ew St at e or Un i on t errit ory b y u n i t in g a p art
o f an y St at e or Un i on t erri t ory t o an y ot h er St at e or Un i on t erri tor y.
4 . Law s ma de under a rti cl es 2 a nd 3 to provi de f or the a m endm ent of
the F i rs t a nd the F ourth Schedul es a nd s uppl em ental , i ncidenta l a nd
cons equenti a l m a tters . —(1 ) An y law re ferred t o i n art i cle 2 or art i cle 3
s h all con t ai n s u ch p rovi s i on s fo r t h e amen d men t of t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le and
t h e Fou rt h Sch edu le as may b e n eces s ary t o gi ve e ffect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of

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3 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e law an d may a ls o c on t ai n su ch su pp lemen t al, in ci den t al and


con s eq u en ti al p rovi s i ons (in clu d in g p rovi s i ons as t o rep resen t ati on i n
Parli amen t and i n t h e Legi s lat u re or Legi s lat u res o f t h e St ate or St at es
affect ed b y s u ch law) as Parli amen t may d eem n ecess ary.
(2 ) No s u ch law as afores ai d s h all b e d eemed t o b e an amend ment of t h is
Con s t it ut i on for t h e pu rp os es of art i cle 3 68 .
4 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART II
CITIZENSHIP
5 . Ci ti zens hi p a t the com m encem ent of the Cons ti tuti on. —At t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Cons t it uti on , every p ers on wh o h as h i s domi ci le i n
t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a an d —
(a ) wh o was b orn in th e t erri t ory of In d i a; or
(b ) ei th er of wh os e p aren t s was b orn i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a; or
(c) wh o h as b een ordi n ari l y res i d en t i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a for n ot
les s t h an fi ve years i mmed i at ely p reced in g s uch commen cemen t,
s h all b e a ci ti zen of In d i a.
6 . Ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p of certa i n pers ons w ho ha ve m igra ted to
I ndi a f rom P a ki s ta n.—Not wi th s t an di n g an yt h i n g in arti cle 5 , a p ers on
wh o h as mi grat ed t o th e terri t ory o f In d i a from t h e t errit ory n o w i n clu d ed
i n Pakis t an sh all b e d eemed t o b e a ci ti zen of In d i a at t h e commen cement
o f t h i s Cons ti t ut i on i f—
(a ) h e or ei th er of h i s p aren ts or an y o f h i s gran d p aren ts was b orn in
In d i a as d efi n ed i n t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act , 1 9 3 5 (as ori gi n all y
en act ed ); and
(b )(i ) in th e cas e wh ere s u ch p ers on h as s o mi grat ed b efore t h e
n i n et eent h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 , h e h as b een ord in ari ly res i d ent i n th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a s i n ce t h e d at e o f h i s mi grati on , or
(i i ) i n th e cas e wh ere s u ch p ers on h as s o mi grat ed on or a ft er t h e
n i n et eent h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 , h e h as b een regi st ered as a ci ti zen o f In d i a
b y an o ffi cer ap p oi n t ed in t hat b eh alf b y t h e G overn men t o f t h e
Domi n i on of In d i a on an ap p li cat i on mad e b y h i m th erefor t o s u ch
o ffi cer b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on i n t h e form an d
man n er p res crib ed b y t h at G overn ment :

Provi d ed t h at n o p ers on s h all b e s o regi s t ered u n les s h e has b een


res i d en t i n th e t erri t ory o f In d i a for at leas t s ix mont hs immed i at el y
p reced in g t h e d at e of h i s ap p li cat i on .

7 . Ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p of certai n mi g ra nts to Pa ki s ta n.—


Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n arti cles 5 an d 6 , a p ers on wh o h as aft er t h e
fi rs t d ay o f March , 1 9 47 , mi grat ed from t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a t o t h e
t erri t ory n ow i n clu d ed i n Pakist an sh all n ot b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of
In d i a:
Provi d ed t h at n ot h in g i n th is art i cle s h all ap p l y t o a p ers on w h o, aft er
h avi n g s o mi grat ed t o t h e t erri tor y n ow i n clu d ed i n Pakis t an , has ret u rn ed
t o t h e t errit ory o f In d i a u nd er a p ermi t for res et t lemen t or p erman en t ret u rn
i s su ed b y or u n d er t h e aut h ori t y o f an y la w an d ever y s u ch p erson s h all for

4
5 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e p u rp os es of clau s e (b ) of ar t i cle 6 b e d eemed t o h ave mi grat ed t o t he


t erri t ory o f In d i a aft er t h e n in eteen t h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 .
8 . Rig hts of ci ti zens hi p of certa i n pers ons of I ndi a n ori g i n res i di ng
outs i de I ndia .— Not wi t hs t and ing an yt h i n g in arti cle 5 , an y p erson wh o or
ei t h er of wh os e p aren t s or an y o f wh os e gran d p aren t s was b orn in In d i a as
d efi n ed i n th e G overn ment of In d i a Act , 19 35 (as ori gi n all y en act ed ), and
wh o i s ord i n ari ly res i d i n g i n any cou n t ry ou t s i d e In d i a as s o d efi n ed s h all
b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a i f h e h as b een regi s t ered as a ci t i zen of
In d i a b y t h e d ip lomat i c or con s u lar rep res ent at i ve of In d i a i n th e cou n t ry
wh ere h e i s for t h e t i me b ein g res i d in g on an ap p li cat i on mad e b y h i m
t h erefor t o s u ch di p lomat i c or con s u lar rep res en t ati ve, wh eth er b efore o r
aft er t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on , in t h e form a n d mann er
p res crib ed b y t h e G overn men t of t h e D omi n i on of In d i a or t h e G overn men t
o f In d i a.
9 . P ers ons vol unta ri ly a cqui ring ci ti zens hi p of a f orei g n State not to
be ci ti zens .— No p ers on sh all b e a ci t i zen of In d i a b y vi rt u e o f art i cle 5 ,
or b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a b y vi rt u e of art i cle 6 or art i cle 8 , i f
h e h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red th e ci t i zen sh i p of an y forei gn St at e.
1 0 . Conti nua nce of the ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p.—Ever y p ers on wh o i s or
i s d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a u n d er an y o f t h e foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s of
t h is Part s h all, s u b j ect t o t h e provi s i on s of an y law t h at may b e mad e b y
Parli amen t , con ti nu e t o b e s u ch ci t i zen .
1 1 . Pa rl iam ent to reg ul a te the ri g ht of ci ti zens hi p by l aw .—Not h i n g
i n t h e foreg oi n g p ro vi s i on s of t h i s Part sh all d ero gat e from t h e p ower o f
Parli amen t t o make an y p rovi s i on wi th res p ect t o th e acq ui s it i on and
t ermi n at i on of ci t i zens hi p an d all ot h er mat t ers relat in g t o ci ti zen s hi p .
6 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART III
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
Gen er a l
1 2 . Def i ni ti on.—In t h i s Part , unles s t h e con t ex t ot h erwis e requ ires , “t h e
St at e’’ in clu d es t h e G overn men t an d Parli ament of In d i a an d t he
G overn men t an d t h e Legi s lat u re o f each of t h e St at es and all l o cal or ot h er
au t h orit i es wi th in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a or u nd er t h e con trol o f t h e
G overn men t of In d i a.
1 3 . Law s i ncons is tent w i th or i n deroga ti on of the f unda m enta l
ri g hts .—(1 ) All laws i n force in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a i mmedi at el y b efor e
t h e commen cement of t h i s Con st i tu t i on, i n s o far as t h e y are i n con s is t en t
wi t h th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part , s h all, t o t h e ext ent of s u ch in con s i st en cy,
b e voi d .
(2 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot make an y la w wh i ch t akes away or ab ri d ges t h e
ri gh t s con ferred b y t h i s Part an d an y la w mad e i n con t raven t i on o f t h i s
clau s e s h all, t o t h e ex t en t of t h e con t raven t i on , b e voi d .
(3 ) In t h is arti cle, u n les s t h e cont ex t oth erwi s e req ui res ,—
(a ) “la w” i n clu d es an y Ord i n ance, ord er, b ye -law, ru le, regu lat i on ,
n ot i fi cat i on , cus t om or u s age h avi n g i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a th e forc e
o f law ;
(b ) “la ws i n force” i n clu d es laws p ass ed or mad e b y a Legi s lat u re or
ot h er comp et ent aut h ori t y i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on and n ot p revi ou s ly r ep ealed ,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g t h at an y s u ch law or an y p art t h ereof ma y n ot b e t h en in
op erat i on eit h er at all or i n p art icu lar areas .
(4 ) Not h in g i n th i s art i cle s h all ap p l y t o an y amen d men t of t hi s
Con s t it ut i on mad e un d er art i cle 3 6 8.
Ri g h t t o Eq ua l it y
1 4 . Equal i ty bef ore l aw .—The St at e s h all n ot d en y t o an y p ers on
eq u ali t y b efore t h e la w or t h e eq u al p rot ect i on of t h e la ws wi t h in t he
t erri t ory o f In d i a.
1 5 . P rohi bi ti on of di s cri mi na ti on on g rounds of rel ig i on, ra ce, ca s te,
s ex or pl a ce of bi rth.—(1 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot d i s cri mi n at e agai n s t an y
ci t i zen on grou n d s on l y o f reli g i on , race, cas t e, s ex , p lace of b i rt h or an y
o f t h em.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all, on grou n d s on l y o f reli gi on , race, cas t e, s ex , p lace
o f b i rt h or an y o f t h em, b e s ub j ect t o an y d i s ab i li t y, li ab i li t y, res t ri ct i on or
con d i ti on wi th regard t o—
(a ) acces s t o s h ops , pu b li c restau ran ts , h ot els an d p laces of p u b li c
en t ert ai n men t ; or

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7 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) t h e u s e of we l ls , t an ks , b ath in g gh at s , road s an d p laces of p u b li c


res ort main t ain ed wh oll y or p art l y ou t of St at e fu n d s or d edi cat ed t o t h e
u s e of t h e gen eral p ub li c.
(3 ) Not h i n g in t hi s art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from maki n g an y
s p eci al p rovi s i on for w omen an d ch i ld ren .
(4 ) Not h i n g i n t hi s arti cle or i n clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 2 9 s h all p reven t t h e
St at e from ma ki n g an y s p eci al p rovi s i on for t h e ad van cemen t of an y
s oci all y an d ed u cati on all y b ackward clas s es of ci t i zens or for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es and th e Sch edu led Tri b es .
1 6 . Equa li ty of opportuni ty in m a tters of publ i c em pl oyment.—(1 )
Th ere s h all b e eq u ali t y o f op p ort u ni t y for al l ci t i zen s in mat t ers relat i n g t o
emp lo ymen t or ap p oi n tmen t t o an y o ffi ce u n d er t h e St at e.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all, on grou n d s on ly o f reli gi on , race, ca s t e, s ex,
d es cent , p lace of b i rt h , res i d en ce or an y o f t h em, b e in eli gib le for, or
d i s cri min at ed agai ns t in resp ect of, an y emp lo ymen t or offi ce u nd er t he
St at e.
(3 ) Not h in g i n t hi s art i cle sh all p reven t Parli ament from maki n g an y law
p res crib in g, i n regard t o a c las s or c las s es o f emp l o ymen t or a p p oi nt ment
t o an offi ce u n d er th e G overnmen t of, or an y loca l or ot h er au t h orit y
wi t h in , a St at e or Un i on t errit or y, an y req u i remen t as t o res i den ce wi t hin
t h at St at e or Un i on t erri t ory p ri or t o s u ch emp loymen t or ap p oi n tmen t .
(4 ) Not h i n g in t hi s art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from maki n g an y
p rovi s i on for t h e res ervat i on of ap p oi n t ment s or p os ts i n favou r o f an y
b ackward clas s o f ci t i zen s whi ch , in t h e op in i on of t h e St at e, i s n ot
ad equ at ely rep res en t ed i n t h e s ervi ces u nd er th e St at e.
(4 A) Not h i n g i n t h is art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from mak i n g an y
p rovi s i on for res ervat i on i n mat t ers of p romot i on , wi th con s eq u en ti al
s en i orit y, t o an y clas s or c las s es o f p os t s i n th e s ervi ces u nd er th e St at e in
fa vou r o f t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es an d t h e Sch ed u led Tri b es which , i n th e
op i n i on of t h e St at e, are n ot adeq u at ely rep res en t ed i n th e s ervi ces un d er
t h e St at e.
(4 B) Not h i n g i n t hi s arti cle s h all p reven t t h e St at e from c on s i d eri n g an y
u n fi lled vacan ci es o f a year wh i ch are res erved for b ei n g fi l led u p i n t h at
yea r i n accord an ce wit h an y p rovi s i on for res ervat i on mad e un d er clau s e
(4 ) or clau s e (4 A) as a s ep arate clas s of vacan ci es t o b e fi lle d up in an y
s u cceedi n g year o r years an d s u ch clas s of vacan ci es s h all n ot b e
con s i d ered t oget h er wi t h th e vacan ci es of t h e year i n wh i ch t h ey are b ei n g
fi l led u p for d et ermi n i n g th e cei li n g o f fi ft y p er cen t . res ervat ion on t ot al
n u mb er of vacan ci es of t h at year .
(5 ) Not h in g i n t hi s art i cle sh all affect t h e op erat i on of an y la w wh i ch
p rovi d es t h at th e i n cu mb en t of an offi ce i n con n ecti on wit h t he affai rs of
an y reli gi ou s or d en omi n at i on al i n st i tu ti on or an y memb er of t h e govern i n g
8 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

b od y t h ereo f s h all b e a p ers on p ro fes s i n g a p arti cu lar reli gi on or b elon gi n g


t o a p art i cu lar d en omin ati on .
1 7 . Abol i ti on of Untoucha bi l ity .—“Un t ou ch abi li t y’’ i s ab oli sh ed an d
i t s p ract i ce i n an y form i s for b i dd en. Th e en forcemen t of an y d i s abi li t y
ari s in g ou t of “Un t ou ch ab i li ty’’ s h all b e an offen ce p u ni s h ab le i n
accord an ce wi t h law.
1 8 . Abol i ti on of ti tl es .—(1 ) No t i t le, n ot b ei n g a mi li t ary or a cad emic
d i st in ct i on , sh all b e con ferred b y t h e St at e.
(2 ) No ci t i zen of In d i a s h all accep t an y t i t le fr om an y forei gn St at e.
(3 ) No p ers on wh o is n ot a ci ti zen of In d i a s h all, wh i le h e hold s an y
o ffi ce of p ro fi t or t ru s t un d er th e St at e, accep t wit h out t h e con s ent of t h e
Pres i d en t an y t i t le fr om an y fore i gn St at e.
(4 ) No p ers on h old i n g an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t or t ru s t u nd er th e Stat e s h all,
wi t h ou t t h e con s en t of t h e Pres i d en t , accept an y p res ent , emolu men t , or
o ffi ce o f an y ki n d from or u n d er an y forei gn St at e.
Ri g h t t o Fr eed o m
1 9 . P rotecti on of certai n ri g hts reg a rdi ng f reedom of s peech, etc.—
(1 ) All ci t i zen s s h all h ave t h e righ t —
(a ) t o freed om o f s p eech and exp res si on ;
(b ) t o as s emb le p eaceab l y an d wi t h out arms ;
(c) t o form as s oci at i ons or u ni ons ;
(d ) t o move free l y t h rou gh ou t t he t erri t ory o f In d i a;
(e) t o res i d e an d s ett le i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a; an d
* * * * *
(g ) t o p ract i s e an y p ro fes s i on , or t o carr y on an y occu p at i on , trad e
or b u s in ess .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (a ) o f clau s e (1 ) s h all a ffect t h e op erat i on o f
an y ex i s t in g law, or p reven t the St at e from maki n g an y law, i n s o far as
s u ch law i mp os es reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on t h e ex erci s e of t h e ri gh t
con ferred b y t h e s ai d s ub -clau s e i n t h e in t erest s of t h e s o ve rei gn t y an d
i n t egri t y of In d i a, t h e s ecu ri t y of t h e St at e, fri end ly re lat i on s wit h forei gn
St at es , p ub li c ord er, d ecen cy o r morali t y, or i n relat i on t o c on t emp t of
cou rt , d efamat i on or i n ci t emen t t o an offen ce.
(3 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (b ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, in t he i nt eres ts of t h e s overei gn t y an d in t egri t y
o f In d i a or p u b li c ord er, reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on t h e ex ercis e o f t h e ri gh t
con ferred b y t h e s aid su b -clau s e.
(4 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (c) o f t h e s aid clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, in t he i nt eres ts of t h e s overei gn t y an d in t egri t y
9 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f In d i a or p u b li c ord er or m ora li t y, reas on ab le res t ri ct i ons on t h e ex erci s e


o f t h e ri gh t con ferred b y t h e s aid su b -clau s e.
(5 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s es (d ) an d (e) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e
op erat i on of an y ex i s t i n g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p revent th e St at e
fr om maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on th e ex erci s e of
an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y t he s aid su b -clau s es ei t h er i n th e in t erest s of
t h e gen eral p ub li c or for t h e p rot ect i on of t h e i n t eres t s of an y Sch ed u led
Tri b e.
(6 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (g ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y la w i mp os i n g, i n t h e i n t erest s of t h e gen eral p u b li c, reas on ab le
res t ri cti on s on th e ex ercis e of t h e ri gh t con ferred b y t h e s ai d s u b -clau s e,
an d , i n p arti cu lar, n ot h in g i n the s aid su b -clau s e sh all affect t h e op erat i on
o f an y ex i s t i n g law i n s o far a s i t relat es t o, or p reven t t h e St at e from
maki n g an y la w relat i n g t o,—
(i ) t h e p rofes s i on al or t ech n i cal q u ali fi cat i on s n eces s ary for
p ract is in g an y p ro fes s i on or carr yi n g on an y occu p at i on , trad e or
b u si n es s , or
(i i ) th e carryi n g on b y t h e Stat e, or b y a corp orat i on own ed or
con t rolled b y t h e St at e, of any t rad e, b us i n es s , in du s t ry or s ervi ce,
wh et h er t o th e ex clu s i on , comp let e or p art i al, of ci t i zens or ot h erwi s e.
2 0 . P rotecti on i n res pect of convi cti on f or off ences .—(1 ) No p ers on
s h all b e con vi ct ed of an y o ffen ce ex cep t for vi olat i on o f a la w i n force at
t h e t i me of t h e commis s i on of t h e Act ch arged as an offen ce, n or b e
s u bj ect ed t o a p en alt y great er t h an th at whi ch mi gh t h ave b een i n fli ct ed
u n d er t h e law i n force at t h e t ime of t h e commi s s i on of t h e offen ce.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e p ros ecut ed and pu ni sh ed for t h e s ame o ffen ce
more t h an on ce.
(3 ) No p ers on accu s ed of an y o ffen ce s h all b e comp el led t o b e a wi t n ess
agai n s t h i ms elf.
2 1 . P rotecti on of l if e a nd pers ona l l i berty.—No p ers on sh all b e
d ep ri ved of h i s li fe or p ers on al li b ert y ex cep t accord i n g t o p roced u re
es t ab lis h ed b y law.
1
2 2 . P rotecti on a g ai ns t a rres t and detenti on i n certa i n ca s es . —(1 ) No
p ers on wh o i s arres t ed sh all b e d et ain ed i n cu s t od y wi t h ou t b ei n g
i n formed , as s oon as may b e, of t h e grou nd s for s u ch arrest n or s h all h e b e
d en i ed t h e ri gh t t o con s u lt , and t o b e d e fen d ed b y, a le gal p ract i ti on er o f
h i s ch oi ce.
(2 ) Ever y p ers on wh o i s arres t ed an d d et ain ed i n cu st od y s h all b e
p rod u ced b efore t h e n earest magi s t rat e wit hi n a p eri od of twen t y-fou r
h ou rs of s u ch arrest ex clud i n g th e t i me n ecess ary for t h e j ou rn ey from t h e
p lace o f arres t t o t h e cou rt of t h e magi s t rat e an d n o s u ch p erson s h all b e

_______________________________________________
1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended
as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.
10 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

d et ain ed in cus t od y b eyon d the s aid p eri od wit h ou t th e aut hori t y o f a


magi s t rat e.
(3 ) Not h i n g in clau s es (1 ) an d (2) s h all ap p ly—
(a ) t o an y p ers on wh o for t h e t ime b ein g i s an en emy ali en ; or
(b ) t o an y p ers on wh o is arres t ed or d et ai n ed un d er an y law
p rovi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et en t ion .
(4 ) No law p rovi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et ent i on s h all au th ori s e t he
d et ent i on of a p ers on for a l on ge r p eri od th an t h ree mon t hs u n less —
(a ) an Ad vi s ory B oard con s i s ti ng o f p ers on s wh o are, or h ave b een ,
or are q u ali fi ed t o b e ap p oi n t ed as , J ud ges o f a Hi gh Cou rt h as r ep ort ed
b efore t h e exp i rati on of t h e s aid p eri od of t h ree mon t hs t h at there i s in
i t s opi ni on su ffi ci en t cau s e for s u ch d et en t i on :
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g in th is su b-c lau s e s h all au t h oris e th e d et ent i on
o f an y p ers on b eyon d t h e maximu m p eri od p res cri b ed b y an y l aw mad e
b y Par li amen t un d er s ub -clau s e (b ) of clau s e (7 ); or
(b ) s u ch p ers on i s d et ai n ed i n accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i on s of an y
law mad e b y Par li amen t un d er su b -clau s es (a ) an d (b ) of clau s e (7 ).
(5 ) Wh en an y p ers on is d et ain ed in pu rsu an ce of an ord er mad e un d er
an y law p ro vi d i n g fo r p reven t i ve d et ent i on , th e au th ori t y maki n g t h e ord er
s h all, as s oon as may b e, commu n i cat e t o s u ch p ers on th e grou n ds on wh i ch
t h e ord er h as b een mad e an d sh all afford h i m t h e earli es t opport u n it y o f
maki n g a rep res en t ati on agai ns t t h e ord er.
(6 ) Not h i n g in clau s e (5 ) sh all req u i re t h e au th ori t y maki n g an y s u ch
ord er as i s referred t o i n t h at clau s e t o d is clos e fact s wh i ch su ch au th ori t y
con s i d ers t o b e again st th e pu b lic i n t eres t t o d is clos e.
(7 ) Parli amen t may b y la w p res cri b e—
(a ) t h e ci rcu ms t an ces un d er wh ich , an d th e clas s or c las s es o f c as es
i n wh i ch , a p ers on may b e d et ai n ed for a p eri od lon ger t h an t h ree
mon t h s un d er an y law p ro vi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et en t i on wi t h ou t
ob t ai ni n g th e op in i on of an Ad vi s ory Board i n accord an ce wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of s u b -clau s e (a ) of clau s e (4 );
(b ) t h e maxi mu m p eri od for wh i ch an y p ers on ma y i n an y c las s or
clas s es of cas es b e d et ain ed un d er an y law p ro vi d i n g for p reven t i ve
d et ent i on ; and
(c) t h e p roced u re t o b e fol l owed b y an Ad vi s ory Board i n an in qu i ry
u n d er s ub -clau s e (a ) of clau s e (4 ).
Ri g h t a ga in st Exp lo i ta ti on
2 3 . P rohi bi ti on of tra ffi c i n hum a n bei ng s a nd f orced l a bour.—(1 )
Tra ffi c i n h u man b ei n gs and b ega r an d ot h er si mi lar forms o f for ced lab ou r
are p roh ib i t ed an d an y con t rave n t i on of t h i s p rovi s i on sh all b e an offen ce
p u ni sh ab le in accord an ce wit h law.
11 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Not h i n g i n th is art i cle sh all p reven t t h e St at e from i mp os i n g


comp u ls or y s ervi ce for p u b li c pu rp os es , an d in i mp os i n g su ch s ervi ce t h e
St at e sh all n ot make an y d i s crimi n ati on on grou n d s on ly o f rel i gi on , race,
cas t e or clas s or an y o f t h em.
2 4 . P rohi bi ti on of em pl oym ent of chi l dren i n fa ctori es , etc. —No
ch i ld b elow t h e age o f fou rt een years s h all b e emp lo yed t o work i n an y
fact or y or mi n e or en gaged i n any ot h er h azard ou s emp loymen t .

Ri g h t t o Fr eed o m o f Reli g io n
2 5 . F reedom of cons ci ence a nd f ree prof es si on, pra cti ce a nd
propa g a ti on of rel ig i on.—(1 ) Su b j ect t o p u b li c ord er, morali t y an d h ealt h
an d t o th e ot h er p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part , all p ers on s are equ all y en ti t led t o
freed om o f c on s ci en ce an d th e ri gh t freel y t o p ro fes s , p ract i s e an d
p rop agat e reli gi on .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n t hi s art i cle s h all affect t h e op erat i on of an y ex i s t in g law
or p reven t t h e St at e from maki ng an y law—
(a ) regu lat i n g or res t ri ct in g an y econ omi c, fi n an ci al, p oli t i cal or
ot h er s ecu lar acti vi t y wh i ch may b e ass oci at ed wi t h reli gi ou s p ract i ce;
(b ) p rovi d i n g for s oci al we l fare an d reform or t h e t h rowi n g op en of
Hi n d u reli gi ou s i n st it ut i on s of a pu b li c ch aract er t o all clas s es an d
s ect i ons of Hi n d u s .
Exp l a na ti on I.—Th e weari n g and carryi n g o f ki r p an s s h all b e deemed t o
b e in clu d ed i n t h e p rofes s i on of t h e Si kh reli gi on .
Exp l a na ti on II.—In s ub -clau s e (b ) of c lau s e (2 ), t h e referen ce to Hi n d u s
s h all b e con st ru ed as i n clud in g a referen ce t o p ers on s p rofes s i ng t h e Si kh ,
J ai n a or Bu dd hi s t reli gi on , and th e referen ce t o Hi n d u reli gi ou s i n s ti tu t i ons
s h all b e con s t ru ed accordi n gly.
2 6 . F reedom to ma nag e reli gi ous affa i rs .—Sub j ect t o p ub li c ord er,
morali t y an d h ealt h , every reli gi ou s d en omin ati on or an y s ect i on t h ereof
s h all h ave t h e ri ght —
(a ) t o es t ab li sh and mai n t ai n i nst i tu t i ons for reli gi ou s an d ch ari tab le
p u rp os es ;
(b ) t o man age it s own affai rs i n mat t ers of reli gi on ;
(c) t o own an d acqu i re movab le an d i mmovab le p rop ert y; an d
(d ) t o ad mi n is t er s u ch p rop ert y i n accord an ce wit h law.
2 7 . F reedom a s to pay m ent of ta xes f or prom oti on of a ny parti cul ar
rel i gi on.—No p ers on s h all b e c omp elled t o p a y an y t ax es , t h e p roceed s of
wh i ch are sp eci fi call y ap p rop ri at ed in p aymen t of ex p en s es for t h e
p romot i on or main t en an ce of an y p art i cu lar reli gi on or reli gi ou s
d en omin at i on .
12 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

2 8 . F reedom a s to a ttenda nce a t rel i g i ous i ns tructi on or r el i gi ous


w ors hi p i n certai n educa ti onal i ns ti tuti ons .—(1 ) No reli gi ou s i n st ru ct i on
s h all b e p rovi d ed i n an y ed u cati on al i n s ti tu t i on wh oll y mai n t ain ed ou t of
St at e fu n ds .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n clau s e (1 ) sh all a p p ly t o an ed u cat i on al i ns t it ut i on wh i ch
i s ad min is t ered b y t h e St at e bu t h as b een est ab li sh ed un d er an y en d owmen t
or t ru s t wh i ch req ui res t h at religi ou s in s t ru cti on sh all b e imp art ed i n su ch
i n st i tu ti on .
(3 ) No p ers on at t en d in g an y e d u cati on al i n st it u ti on recogn i s ed b y t h e
St at e or recei vi n g ai d ou t o f St at e fu n d s s h all b e req u i red t o t ake p art i n
an y re li gi ou s i n s t ru ct i on th at may b e i mp art ed in s u ch i ns t itu t i on or t o
at t end an y reli gi ou s wors h i p that may b e c on d u ct ed i n s u ch i ns t it u ti on or
i n an y p remi s es at t ach ed th eret o u n less su ch p ers on or, i f s u ch p ers on i s a
mi n or, hi s gu ard i an h as gi ven his con s ent th eret o.
Cu l tu ra l a nd Ed u ca ti on al Ri gh t s
2 9 . P rotecti on of i nteres ts of m i nori ti es .—(1 ) An y s ecti on of t h e
ci t i zen s res i di n g in th e t erri t or y o f In d i a or an y p art t h ereof h avi n g a
d i st in ct lan gu age, s cri p t or cult u re of i t s own s h all h ave t he ri gh t t o
con s erve t h e s ame.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all b e d en i ed ad mi ss i on in t o an y ed u cat i on al i n s t it u ti on
mai n t ai n ed b y t h e St at e or receivi n g ai d ou t of St at e fu n d s on grou n d s on l y
o f reli gi on , race, cas t e, lan gu age or an y o f t h em.
3 0 . Ri g ht of mi nori ti es to es ta bli s h a nd a dm i ni s ter educa ti ona l
i ns ti tuti ons . — (1 ) All mi n ori ties , wh et h er b as ed on reli gi on or lan gu age,
s h all h ave t h e ri ght t o es t ab li s h an d admi ni st er edu cati on al i ns ti t ut i on s of
t h ei r ch oi ce.
(1 A) In maki n g an y la w p ro vi d in g for t h e comp u ls or y acq u i s i ti on o f an y
p rop ert y o f an ed u cat i on al i n s ti t ut i on es t ab li sh ed and ad min ist ered b y a
mi n ori t y, re ferred t o i n c lau s e (1 ), t h e St at e sh all en s u re t h at t h e amou n t
fi x ed b y or d et ermi n ed un d er such law for t h e acqu i si ti on of s u ch p rop ert y
i s s u ch as wou ld n ot res t ri ct or ab rogat e t h e ri gh t gu aran t eed u n d er th at
clau s e.
(2 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot , in gran t in g ai d t o ed u cat i on al i ns tit u ti on s ,
d i s cri min at e agai ns t an y ed u cati on al i n s ti tu t i on on t h e grou nd t h at i t is
u n d er t h e man agement of a mi n ori t y, wh et h er b as ed on reli gi on or
lan gu age.
13 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

* * *
3 1 . [ Co mp ul so r y a cq ui s it io n of p r op ert y.] Rep . b y th e Cons t it u ti on
(Fo r t y-fo ur t h Amen d men t ) Act , 19 7 8, s . 6 (w.e.f . 20 -6 -1 9 7 9 ).
S a vin g o f Cer ta in La ws
3 1 A. Sa vi ng of l aw s provi di ng f or a cqui s i ti on of es ta tes, etc.—
(1 ) Not wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g con t ai n ed i n art i cle 1 3 , n o law p rovi d in g
for—
(a ) t h e acqu i si ti on b y t h e St at e o f an y es t at e or o f an y ri gh t s t herei n
or t h e ex ti n gui sh ment or mod i fi cat i on of an y s u ch ri ght s , or
(b ) t h e t aki n g over o f t h e man agemen t of an y p rop ert y b y t h e St at e
for a li mi t ed p eri od ei th er in th e p ub li c in t erest or in ord er t o s ecu re th e
p rop er man agement of t h e p rop ert y, o r
(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper
management of any of the corporations, or
(d ) t h e ex ti n gu is h men t or mod ifi cat i on of an y ri gh t s of man agi n g
agen t s , s ecret ari es an d t reasu rers , man agin g di rect ors , d i rect ors or
man agers of corp orat i on s , or o f an y vot i n g ri gh t s of s h areh old ers
t h ereof, or
(e) t h e ex ti n gu is hmen t or modi fi cat i on of an y ri gh t s accru ing b y
vi rt u e of an y a greemen t , leas e or li cen ce for t h e p u rp os e of s earch i n g
for, or wi n n i n g, an y mi n eral or mi n eral oi l, or t h e p remat u re t ermi n ati on
or can cellat i on o f an y s u ch agreemen t , leas e or li cen ce,
s h all b e d eemed t o b e voi d on t h e grou n d th at i t is i n cons is t en t wi th , or
t akes awa y or ab ri d ges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y art i cle 1 4 or art i cle
19:
Provi d ed t h at wh ere su ch law i s a law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re o f a
St at e, t h e p rovi s i ons of t h is art icle s h all n ot app ly t h eret o u n less su ch law,
h avi n g b een res erved for t h e con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres i den t, has recei ved
h i s as s en t :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at wh ere an y law makes an y p rovi s i on for t h e
acq u is it i on b y t h e St at e of an y e s t at e and wh ere an y lan d comp ri s ed th erei n
i s h eld b y a p ers on un d er h is p ers on al cu lt i vat i on , i t s h all n ot b e law fu l for
t h e St at e t o acq ui re an y p ort i on of s u ch lan d as i s wit hi n t h e cei li n g li mi t
ap p li cab le t o h i m u nd er an y law for t h e t i me b ein g i n force o r a n y b u i ld i n g
or s t ru ctu re s t an di n g th ereon or ap p u rt en an t t h eret o, u n les s t h e law relat i n g
t o t h e acqu i si ti on of s u ch lan d , b u i ldi n g or s t ru ct u re, p rovi d es for p a ymen t
o f comp en s at i on at a rat e wh i ch s h all n ot b e les s t h an t h e market va lu e
t h ereof.
(2 ) In t hi s arti cle,—
(a ) t h e ex p res s i on ‘‘es t at e’’ s h all, i n relat i on t o an y l oca l area, h ave
t h e s ame meani n g as t h at exp res s i on or it s local eq u i valen t h as i n t he
14 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ex i st in g law re lat i n g t o lan d t enu res in force i n t h at area and shall a ls o


i n clu d e—
(i ) an y j a g ir , in a m or mu af i or ot h er s imi lar gran t and i n t h e
St at es of Tami l Nad u an d Kerala, an y j a n ma m ri gh t ;
(i i ) an y lan d h eld un d er ryot wari s et t lement ;
(i i i ) an y lan d h eld or let for p u rp os es of agri cu lt u re or for
p u rp os es an ci llar y t h eret o, in clu d in g was t e lan d , fores t lan d , lan d
for p as t u re or s it es of b ui ld i n gs and ot h er s t ru ctu res occup i ed b y
cu lt i vat ors of lan d , agri cu lt u ral lab ou rers an d vi llage art i s ans ;
(b ) t h e exp res si on ‘‘ri ght s ’’, i n relat i on t o an es t at e, sh all i n clu d e
an y ri gh t s ves t i n g i n a p rop ri et or, s ub -p rop ri et or, u n d er-p rop ri et or,
t en u re-h old er, ra i yat , u nd er -r aiya t or oth er in t ermed i ary an d an y ri gh t s
or p ri vi leges i n resp ect of lan d reven u e.
3 1B . Va li da ti on of certa i n Acts a nd Reg ul a ti ons .—Wi th ou t prej u di ce
t o t h e gen eralit y o f t h e p rovi s ion s con t ai n ed in arti cle 3 1 A, non e of t h e
Act s and Regu lat i ons sp eci fi ed in th e Nin th Sch ed u le n or an y o f t h e
p rovi s i on s t h ereof s h all b e d eemed t o b e voi d , or ever t o h ave b ecome
voi d , on t h e grou n d t h at s u ch Act , Regu lat i on or p rovi s i on is in con s is t ent
wi t h , or t akes awa y o r ab ri dges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferr ed b y, an y
p rovi s i on s of t h is Part, and n otwi t h st and in g an y j u d gment , d ecree or ord er
o f an y cou rt or Tri b u n al t o t h e con t rary, each o f t h e s ai d Act s an d
Regu lat i on s s h all, s u b j ect t o t he p ower o f an y comp et en t Leg i s lat u re t o
rep eal or amen d it , con ti nu e in force.
3 1 C. Sa vi ng of l aw s g i vi ng eff ect to certa i n di recti ve pri nci pl es .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n art i cle 1 3, n o law gi vi n g e ffect t o
1
t h e p oli cy o f t h e St at e t oward s s ecu rin g [all or an y o f t h e p ri nci p les lai d
d own i n Part IV] s h all b e d ee med t o b e voi d on t h e gr ou n d t h at i t is
i n con si s ten t wit h , or t akes away or ab ri d ges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y
2
art i cle 1 4 or art i cle 1 9 ; a n d n o l a w co n ta in in g a d ecl a ra ti on t ha t i t i s for
g i vin g ef f ect to s u ch po li cy sh all b e ca ll ed i n qu est i on i n a n y co u rt o n t h e
g r ou nd th at it do es n ot gi ve eff ect t o s u ch p o li cy:
Provi d ed t hat wh ere s uch law i s mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re of a S t at e, t he
p rovi s i on s of t h is art i cle sh all n ot app ly t h eret o u n les s su ch law, h avi n g
b een res erved for t h e con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres i d en t , h as recei ved h i s
as s ent .
3 1 D. [S a vi ng o f la ws in r esp ect o f a nt i -na ti on a l a ct i vi ti es .] Rep. b y t h e
Co n st it ut i on (Fo rt y-th i rd Amen dmen t ) Act ,19 77 , s .2 (w.e.f .13 -4 -1 9 78 ).
Ri g h t t o Con s ti tu t io na l Remed i es
3 2 . Rem edi es f or enf orcem ent of ri g hts conf erred by this Pa rt.—(1 )
Th e ri gh t t o move t h e Sup reme Cou rt b y ap p rop ri at e p roceedin gs for t h e
en forcemen t o f t h e ri gh ts con ferred b y t h i s Part is gu arant eed .

____________________________________________
1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for “the principles specified in
clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the
Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591.
2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the
provisions in italics to be invalid.
15 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all h ave p ower t o i s s u e d i rect i on s or ord ers or


wri t s , in clu di n g wri t s i n t h e n at u re of h a b eas cor pu s , ma n da mu s,
p roh i bi t i on, q uo wa r ra nt o and cer t io ra r i, whi ch ever may b e ap p rop ri at e,
for t h e en forcemen t of an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y t h is Part .
(3 ) Wi t h out p rej ud i ce t o th e p owers con ferred on t h e Su p reme Cou rt b y
clau s es (1 ) and (2 ), Parli ament ma y b y law emp ower an y ot h er cou rt t o
ex erci s e wi th in t h e local li mi t s o f i t s j u ri sd i ct i on all or an y o f t h e p owers
ex erci s ab le b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt un d er clau s e (2 ).
(4 ) Th e ri gh t gu aran t eed b y t h i s art i cle sh all n ot b e su sp end ed ex cep t as
ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed for b y t h i s Con s t it u ti on .
3 2 A. [Co ns t it ut i on al va l id it y o f S ta t e l a ws n ot to b e co ns id er ed in
p r o ceed in gs u nd er a r ti cl e 32 .] Rep . b y t h e Co ns ti t ut io n (Fo r t y-th ir d
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 77 , s . 3 (w.e.f . 13 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
3 3 . P ow er of Pa rl iam ent to m odi f y the rig hts conf erred by thi s Pa rt
i n thei r a ppl i ca ti on to F orces , etc.—Parli amen t may, b y la w, d et ermi n e t o
wh at ext ent an y o f t h e ri gh ts con ferred b y t h is Part sh all, i n t h ei r
ap p li cati on t o,—
(a ) t he memb ers of t h e Armed Forces ; or
(b ) t h e memb ers of t h e Force s ch arged wi t h th e main t en an ce o f
p u b li c ord er; or
(c) p ers on s emp lo yed i n any b u reau or ot h er organ i s at i on
es t ab lis h ed b y t h e St at e for p u rp os es of i n t elli gen ce or cou n t er
i n t elli gen ce; or
(d ) p ers ons emp lo yed in, or in con n ect i on wit h , the
t elecommu n i cati on s ys t ems s et u p for t h e p u rp os es of an y Fo rc e, b u reau
or or gan i s ati on referred t o i n clau s es (a ) t o (c),
b e rest ri ct ed or ab rogat ed s o as t o ens u re th e p rop er d is ch arge o f t h ei r
d u ti es an d t h e mai nt en an ce of d i s ci p lin e amon g t h em
3 4 . Res tri cti on on rig hts conferred by this P a rt w hil e m a rtia l l aw is
i n f orce i n a ny a rea .—Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in th e fore goi n g
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , Parli amen t may b y la w i n d emn i fy an y p e rs on i n t h e
s ervi ce of t h e Un i on or o f a St at e or an y ot h er p ers on in res p ect o f an y act
d on e b y h i m i n con n ect i on wi t h t h e mai n t en an ce or res t orat i on o f ord er i n
an y area wi t h i n th e t erri t ory o f In d i a wh ere marti al law was i n force o r
vali d at e an y s en t en ce p as s ed , pu n is h men t i n fli ct ed , for fei t u re ord ered or
ot h er act d on e un d er mart i al law i n s u ch area.
3 5 . Legi s la ti on to g i ve ef f ect to the pr ovi s i ons of thi s P a rt.—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a ) Parli amen t sh all h ave, an d t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all n ot
h ave, p ower t o make laws —
16 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i ) wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers whi ch u nd er clau s e (3 ) of


art i cle 1 6 , clau s e (3 ) of art i cle 3 2 , art i cle 3 3 and art i cle 3 4 may b e
p rovi d ed for b y law mad e b y Par li amen t ; an d
(i i ) for p res cri bi n g p un is h men t for t h os e act s wh i ch are
d eclared t o b e offen ces un d er thi s Part ;
an d Parli amen t sh all, as s oon as ma y b e a ft er t h e commen cemen t o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , make laws for p res cri b in g p u ni sh ment for t h e act s referred
t o i n su b -clau s e (ii );
(b ) an y law i n force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on i n th e t errit ory o f In d i a wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers
referred t o i n s u b -clau s e (i ) o f clau s e (a ) or p ro vi d i n g for p u ni s h men t
for an y act re ferred t o i n s ub -cl au s e (ii ) of t h at clau s e sh all, s ub j ect t o
t h e t erms t h ereof an d t o an y ad ap t ati on s and mod i fi cat i ons t h at ma y b e
mad e t h erei n un d er arti cle 3 72 , con t in u e in force u n t i l alt ered or
rep ealed or amen d ed b y Parli amen t .
Exp l a na ti on .—In t hi s arti cle, t he ex p ress i on "law i n force ''h as t h e s ame
mean in g as in art i cle 37 2.
17 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I V
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
3 6 . Def i ni ti on.—In t hi s Part , unles s t h e cont ext ot h erwi s e requ i res , ‘‘t h e
St at e’’ h as th e s ame meani n g as i n Part III.
3 7 . Appli ca ti on of the pri nci pl es contai ned i n this Part.—Th e
p rovi s i on s con t ai n ed i n t h is Part s h all n ot b e en forceab le b y an y cou rt , b u t
t h e p rin ci p les th erei n lai d d own are n everth eles s fu nd ament al i n t he
go vern an ce of t h e cou nt ry an d i t sh all b e th e d u t y of t h e St ate t o ap p ly
t h es e p rin cip les i n maki n g laws .
3 8 . Sta te to s ecure a s oci al order f or the prom oti on of w elf are of the
peopl e.—(1 ) Th e St at e s h all s t rive t o p romot e t h e wel fare o f t h e p eop le b y
s ecu rin g an d p rot ect in g as effe ct i vel y as i t may a s oci al ord e r i n wh i ch
j u st i ce, s oci al, econ omi c and poli t i cal, s h all i n form a ll t h e i n st i tu t i ons of
t h e n at i on al li fe.
(2 ) Th e St at e sh all, i n p art i cu lar, s t ri ve t o mi n imi s e t h e in equ ali t i es in
i n come, an d en d eavou r t o eli mi n at e in equ ali t i es i n s t atu s , faci li t i es an d
op p ort u ni t i es , n ot on ly amon gs t i n di vi du als b ut als o amon gs t grou p s o f
p eop le res i di n g in di ffe ren t areas or en gaged i n d i fferen t vocat i o n s .
3 9 . Certai n pri nci pl es of pol icy to be f ol l ow ed by the State.—Th e
St at e sh all, i n p art i cu lar, d i rect i t s p oli cy t o ward s s ecu rin g—
(a ) t h at th e ci ti zens , men and women eq u all y, h ave t h e ri gh t t o an
ad equ at e mean s of li ve li h ood ;
(b ) t h at th e own ers h ip and con trol o f t h e mat eri al res ou rces of t h e
commu n it y are s o d i s t rib ut ed as b es t t o s ub s erve th e common good ;
(c) t h at th e op erat i on of t h e econ omi c s ys t em d oes n ot resu lt in t h e
con cen t rati on of wea lt h an d mean s of p rod u ct i on t o t h e common
d et ri men t ;
(d ) t h at th ere is equ al p ay for eq u al work for b ot h men and women ;
(e) t h at t h e h ealt h an d st ren gth o f wor kers , men an d women , and t h e
t en d er age of ch i ld ren are n ot ab u s ed an d t h at ci ti zens are n ot forced b y
econ omi c n ecess i t y t o en t er avocat i on s u ns ui t ed t o th ei r age or st ren gt h ;
(f ) t h at ch i ld ren are gi ven op p ort u ni t i es and faci li t i es t o d evelo p i n
a h ealt h y man n er an d in con dit i on s of freed om an d di gn it y a n d t h at
ch i ld h ood an d you t h are p rot ect ed agai n st ex p loi t ati on an d agai n s t
moral an d mat eri al ab an d on men t.
3 9 A. Equa l jus ti ce a nd f ree l eg a l ai d.—Th e St at e s h all s ecu re t h at th e
op erat i on of t h e legal s ys t em p romot es j us t i ce, on a b as i s of eq u al
op p ort u ni t y, an d s h all, i n p art icu lar, p rovi d e free lega l ai d , b y s u i t ab le
legi s lat i on or s ch emes or in an y ot h er way, t o en s u re t h at op p ort u ni ti es for

17
18 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s ecu rin g j u s ti ce are n ot d en i ed t o an y ci t i zen b y reas on o f e con omi c or


ot h er d is abi li t i es .
4 0 . Org a ni sa ti on of vi l la g e pancha y a ts .—Th e St at e sh all t ake s t eps t o
organ i s e vi llage p an ch ayat s an d en d ow th em wit h s u ch powers an d
au t h orit y as may b e n ecess ary t o en ab le th em t o fu n ct i on as u ni t s of s el f-
go vern men t .
4 1 . Rig ht to w ork, to educa ti on a nd to publ i c a s si s ta nce i n certa i n
ca s es .—Th e St at e sh all, wi t h i n t h e li mi t s of i t s econ omi c cap aci t y an d
d evelop men t , make effect i ve p r ovi s i on for s ecu ri n g t h e ri ght to w ork, t o
ed u cati on an d t o pu b li c as si stan ce in cas es of u n emp lo ymen t , old age,
s i ckn ess and di s ab lemen t , an d i n ot h er cas es of u n d es erved want .
4 2 . Provi s i on f or jus t a nd hum a ne condi ti ons of w ork a nd m a terni ty
rel i ef .—Th e St at e s h all make p rovi s i on for s ecu ri n g ju s t an d h u man e
con d i ti on s of wor k an d for mat ern i t y reli e f.
4 3 . Li vi ng w ag e, etc., f or w or kers .—Th e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o
s ecu re, b y s u i t ab le legi s lat i on or ec on omi c or gan i s ati on or i n an y ot h er
wa y, t o a l l w orkers , agri cu lt u ral, i n d us t ri al or ot h erwi s e, wor k, a li vi n g
wage, con d i t i on s of work en s u ri n g a d ecen t s t an d ard of li fe an d fu ll
en j oymen t of lei s u re an d s oci al an d cu lt u ral opp ort un i ti es and , i n
p art i cu lar, t h e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o p romot e cot t age i n du st ri es on an
i n di vi du al or co -op erat i ve b as i s i n ru ral areas .
4 3 A. P a rti ci pa ti on of w orker s i n m a nag em ent of i ndus tries .—Th e
St at e sh all t ake s t ep s , b y s u i t ab le legi s lat i on or i n an y ot h er wa y , t o s ecu re
t h e p art i ci p at i on of worke rs i n t h e man agement of u nd ert aki n gs ,
es t ab lis h men t s or ot h er organ i s at i on s en gaged i n an y i n d us t ry.
4 4 . Unif orm ci vi l code f or the ci ti zens .—Th e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o
s ecu re for t h e ci t i zen s a u ni fo rm ci vi l c od e t h rou gh ou t t h e terri t ory o f
In d i a.
4 5 . P rovi s i on f or f ree a nd com pul s ory educa ti on f or chi l dren.—Th e
St at e s h all en d eavou r t o p ro vi d e, wi t h in a p eri od of t en yea rs fr om t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con st i tu ti on , for free an d comp u ls ory ed u cat i on for
all ch i ld ren u nt i l t h ey comp let e t h e age of fou rt een years .
4 6 . P rom oti on of educa ti ona l a nd econom i c i nteres ts of Schedul ed
Ca s tes , Schedul ed Tri bes a nd other w ea ker s ecti ons .—Th e St at e sh all
p romot e wi t h sp eci al care t h e ed u cati on al and econ omi c i nt eres t s of t h e
weaker s ect i on s of t h e p eop le, an d , in p arti cu lar, of t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es
an d th e Sch ed u led Trib es , an d sh all p rot ect t h em from s oci al i n j u st i ce an d
all forms o f ex p loi t at i on .
4 7 . Duty of the Sta te to ra i s e the l evel of nutri ti on a nd the s ta nda rd
of l i vi ng a nd to i m prove publ i c hea l th.—Th e St at e sh all regard t h e
rai s in g o f t h e le vel o f n u t ri t i on an d th e s t an d ard of li vi n g o f i t s p eop le an d
t h e i mp rovemen t of p ub li c h ealt h as amon g it s p ri mary d uti es an d , i n
p art i cu lar, t h e St at e sh all en deavou r t o b ri n g ab ou t p roh ib iti on of t h e
19 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

con s u mp t i on ex cep t for med i cin al p u rp os es of i n t oxi cati n g d ri n ks an d of


d ru gs wh i ch are i n ju ri ous t o h ealt h .
4 8 . Orga ni sa ti on of a g ri cul ture a nd a nim al hus ba ndry .—Th e St at e
s h all en d eavou r t o organ is e agri cu lt u re and ani mal hu sb and ry on mod ern
an d s ci ent i fi c li n es and sh all, i n p arti cu lar, t ake s t ep s for p res ervi n g an d
i mp rovi n g th e b reeds , an d p rohi b it in g t h e s lau ght er, of cows an d calves
an d oth er mi lch an d d rau ght cat tle.
4 8 A. P rotecti on a nd i m provem ent of envi ronm ent a nd saf eg ua rdi ng
of f ores ts a nd w il d li fe.—The St at e sh all en d eavou r t o prot ect an d
i mp rove t h e en vi ron ment and t o s afegu ard t h e fo res t s and wi ld li fe o f t h e
cou n t ry.
4 9 . P rotecti on of m onum ents a nd pl a ces a nd objects of na ti onal
i m porta nce.—It s h all b e t h e ob li gat i on o f t h e St at e t o p rot ect ever y
mon u ment or p lace or ob j ect of art i st i c or h i st ori c i n teres t , d eclared b y o r
u n d er law mad e b y Parli ame n t t o b e of n at i on al i mp ort an ce, from
s p oli at i on , d i s fi gu rement , d es t ru ct i on , removal, d i sp os al or ex p ort , as th e
cas e may b e.
5 0 . Sepa ra ti on of judi ci a ry f rom executi ve.—Th e St at e s h all t ake s t ep s
t o s ep arat e t h e j ud i ci ary from t h e ex ecu t i ve in th e p ub li c s ervi ces of t h e
St at e.
5 1 . P rom oti on of i nterna ti onal pea ce a nd s ecuri ty .—Th e Stat e s h all
en d eavou r t o—
(a ) p romot e i nt ern at i on al p eace an d s ecu rit y;
(b ) main t ain ju st and h on orab le relat i on s b et ween n at i on s ;
(c) fos t er res p ect for i n t ern at i on al law an d t reat y ob li gat i on s in t h e
d eali n gs of or gan i zed p eop les wit h on e an ot h er; an d
(d ) en cou rage s ett lemen t of i n t ern at i on al di sp u t es b y arb i t rat i on .

PART I VA
20 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I VA
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
5 1 A. F undam ental duti es .—It s h all b e t he du t y of ever y c i t i zen of
In d i a—
(a ) t o ab i d e b y t h e Con s t i tu t i on and res p ect i t s id eals an d
i n st i tu ti on s , t h e Nati on al Fla g a n d t h e Nati on al An t h em;
(b ) t o ch eri sh an d fol lo w t h e n ob le id eals wh i ch i ns pi red ou r
n at i on al st ru ggle for freed om ;
(c) t o u p h old an d p rot ect th e s overei gn t y, u n i t y an d i n t egrity o f
In d i a;
(d ) t o d efen d t h e cou n t ry an d ren d er n ati on al s ervi ce wh en called
u p on t o d o s o;
(e) t o p romot e h armon y an d t h e sp i rit of c ommon b rot h erh ood
amon gs t all t h e p eop le of In d i a t rans cend i n g reli gi ou s , li n gu is t i c an d
regi on al or s ect i on al d i vers it i es ; t o ren ou n ce p ract i ces d erogat ory t o t h e
d i gn it y o f women ;
(f ) t o valu e an d p res erve t h e ri ch h erit age of ou r comp os i t e cu lt u re;
(g ) t o p rot ect an d i mp rove t h e n at u ral en vi ron ment i n clud i n g
fores t s , lakes , ri vers an d wi ld li fe, an d t o h ave comp as s i on fo r li vi n g
creat u res ;
(h ) t o d evelop t h e s ci ent i fi c temp er, hu mani s m an d t h e s pi rit of
i n qu i ry an d reform;
(i ) t o s afegu ard p ub li c p rop ert y an d t o ab ju re vi olen ce;
(j ) t o s t ri ve t oward s ex cellen ce i n all s p h eres of i n d i vi du al an d
col lect i ve act i vi t y s o t h at t h e n at i on con s t an t ly ri s es t o h i gh er l evels o f
en d eavou r and achi evemen t .

20
21 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART V
THE UNION
C H A P T ER I.—T H E E X EC U T I V E
Th e Pr es id ent an d Vi ce-Pr es id ent
5 2 . The P resi dent of I ndia .—Th ere s h all b e a Pres i d en t of In d i a.
5 3 . Executi ve pow er of the Uni on.—(1 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e
Un i on s h all b e ves t ed in t h e Pres i d en t and sh all b e ex erci s ed b y h i m ei th er
d i rect ly or t h rou gh o ffi cers s u b ord i n at e t o h im i n accord an ce wi t h th is
Con s t it ut i on .
(2 ) Wi t h ou t p rej ud i ce t o t h e gen erali t y o f t h e fore goi n g p rovi s i on , t h e
s u p reme comman d of t h e Defen ce Forces o f t h e Un i on s h all be ves t ed in
t h e Presi d en t an d t h e ex ercis e thereo f s h all b e regu lat ed b y la w.
(3 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all—
(a ) b e d eemed t o t ran s fer t o t h e Pres i d en t an y fu n ct i ons con fe rred
b y an y ex i s t in g law on t h e G overn men t of an y St at e or ot h er au t h orit y;
or
(b ) p reven t Parli amen t from con fer ri n g b y la w fu n ct i on s on
au t h orit i es ot h er th an t h e Pres iden t .
5 4 . El ecti on of P resi dent.—Th e Pres id en t s h all b e elect ed b y t h e
memb ers of an elect oral co l lege con s i st i n g of—
(a ) t h e elect ed memb ers of b ot h Hou s es of Par li amen t ; an d
(b ) t h e elect ed memb ers of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb li es of t h e St ates .
Exp l a na ti on .—In th i s art i cle an d i n art i cle 55 , ‘‘St at e’’ in clu d es th e
Nat i on al Cap i t al Terri t ory o f De lh i an d t h e Un i on t erri t ory o f P o n d i ch erry.
5 5 . M a nner of el ecti on of P resi dent. —(1 ) As far as p ract i cable, t h ere
s h all b e u n i formi t y i n t h e s cale o f rep res en t ati on of t h e d i fferen t St at es at
t h e elect i on of t h e Presi d en t .
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os e of s ecu rin g s u ch un i formi t y amon g t h e St at es in t er
s e as wel l as p ari t y b et ween t h e St at es as a wh ole an d t h e Un i on , t he
n u mb er of v ot es wh i ch each elect ed memb er of Parli amen t an d of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each Stat e is en t it led t o cas t at su ch elect i on s h all
b e d et ermi n ed in th e fol lo wi n g man n er:—
(a ) ever y e lect ed memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e
s h all h ave as man y vot es as th ere are mu lt ip les of on e t h ou s and in th e
q u ot i en t obt ain ed b y d i vi d in g th e p opu lat i on of t h e St at e b y t h e t ot al
n u mb er of t h e elect ed memb ers o f t h e As s emb ly;

21
22 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) i f, aft er t aki n g t h e s aid mu lti p les of on e t h ous and , t h e remain d er


i s n ot les s t h an fi ve h u n d red , then t h e vot e o f each memb er re ferred t o
i n su b -clau s e (a ) s h all b e fu rt h er i n creas ed b y on e;
(c) each elect ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of
votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members
of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total
number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one-
half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded.
(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of
proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such
election shall be by secret ballot.
Explanation.— In this article, the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population as
ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the
relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken
after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.
56. Term of office of President.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five
years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that—
(a ) t h e Presi d en t may, b y wri t i n g u n d er h i s h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Vi ce-Pres i d en t , res i gn h i s offi ce ;
(b ) t h e Pres id en t may, for vi o lat i on o f t h e Con s t i t ut i on , b e removed
fr om o ffi ce b y i mp each men t i n th e mann er p rovi d ed in art i cle 61;
(c) t h e Pres id ent sh all, n ot wi t hs t and in g t h e exp i rat i on of h i s term,
con t i nu e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u ccess or en t ers up on hi s offi ce.
(2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to
clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People.
57. Eligibility for re-election.—A person who holds, or who has held, office as President
shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that
office.
58. Qualifications for election as President.—(1) No person shall be eligible for election
as President unless he—
(a ) i s a ci ti zen of In d i a,
(b ) h as comp let ed th e age of t h i rt y-fi ve years , an d
(c) i s qu ali fi ed for elect i on as a memb er of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(2 ) A p ers on sh all n ot b e eli gi b le for e lect i on as Pres i d en t i f h e h olds
an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of
an y St at e or un d er an y loca l or ot h er aut h ori t y s ub j ect t o t h e con t rol of an y
o f t h e s aid G overn men t s.
23 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp l a na ti on .—For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s arti cle, a p ers on s h all n ot b e


d eemed t o h old an y o ffi ce o f p r o fi t b y reas on on l y t h at h e i s t he Pres i d ent
or Vi ce- Pres i d en t of t h e Union or t h e G overn or o f an y St at e or i s a
Mi n is t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for an y St at e.
5 9 . Condi ti ons of P resi dent' s of fi ce.—(1 ) Th e Pres i d en t sh all n ot b e a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parl i amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of
an y St at e, and i f a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t or of a Hou s e of
t h e Legi s lat u re of an y St at e b e elect ed Pres id ent , h e s h all b e d eemed t o
h ave vacat ed h is s eat i n th at Hou s e on th e d at e on whi ch h e ent ers up on h is
o ffi ce as Pres id ent .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent sh all n ot h old an y ot h er o ffi ce o f p ro fi t .
(3 ) Th e Presi d en t s h all b e ent it led wi th ou t p aymen t of ren t t o t he u s e of
h i s offi ci al res i d en ces an d s hall b e als o en t i t led t o s u ch emolu men t s ,
all owan ces an d p ri vi leges as may b e d et ermin ed b y Parli amen t by law an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, su ch emolu ment s , allo wan ces and
p ri vi leges as are sp eci fi ed in th e Secon d Sch ed u le.
(4 ) Th e emolu men ts an d allowan ces of t h e Pres id ent sh all n ot b e
d i min is h ed du rin g h is t erm of o ffi ce.
6 0 . Oa th or aff i rma ti on by the P resi dent.—Every Pres i d en t an d every
p ers on act in g as Pres i d en t or d i s ch argi n g t h e fu n cti on s of t h e Pres i d ent
s h all, b efore en t eri n g u p on h is o ffi ce, make an d s u b s crib e i n th e p res en ce
o f t h e Chi ef J u st i ce of In d i a or, i n h is ab s en ce, th e s en i or-mos t Ju d ge of
t h e Sup reme Cou rt avai lab le, an oat h or a ffi rmat i on i n th e fo ll o wi n g form,
t h at i s t o s ay—
"I, A.B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I wi ll fai t h fu ll y ex ecu t e
solemnly affirm
t h e offi ce o f President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being
of the people of India.".
6 1 . P rocedure f or i m pea chm ent of the P res i dent.—(1 ) Wh en a
Pres i d en t is t o b e i mp each ed fo r vi olat i on o f t h e Con s t it ut i on , t h e ch arge
s h all b e p referred b y ei t h er Hou s e of Par li amen t .
(2 ) No s u ch ch arge s h all b e p referred u n less —
(a ) t h e p rop os al t o p refer s u ch ch arge i s con t ai n ed i n a res olu t i on
wh i ch h as b een moved aft er at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce i n wri t i n g
s i gn ed b y n ot les s t h an on e-fou r t h of t h e t ot al n u mb er of memb e rs of t h e
Hou s e h as b een gi ven of t h ei r i nt en ti on t o move t h e res olu ti on , an d
(b ) s u ch res olu t i on h as b een p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f n ot les s t h an
t wo -t h i rds of t h e t ot al memb ershi p of t h e Hou s e.
(3 ) Wh en a ch arge h as b een s o p referred b y ei t h er Hou s e o f Pa rli amen t ,
t h e ot h er Hou s e sh all i n ves t i gat e t h e ch arge or cau s e th e charge t o b e
i n ves ti gat ed and th e Pres id ent s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o app ear an d t o b e
rep res ent ed at su ch i n vest i gat i on .
24 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than
two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or
caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been
sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as
from the date on which the resolution is so passed.
62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill
casual vacancy. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be
completed before the expiration of the term.
(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death,
resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case
later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to
fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for the
full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office.
63. The Vice-President of India.—There shall be a Vice-President of India.
64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—The Vice-
President shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other
office of profit:
Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges
the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of
Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable
to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97.
65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the
office, or during the absence, of President.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the
President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date
on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his
office.
(2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or
any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the
President resumes his duties.
(3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as,
or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President
and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by
Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments,
allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.
66. Election of Vice-President.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members
of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance
with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and
the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.
(2 ) Th e Vi ce-Pres i d en t s h all n ot b e a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t or of a Hou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of an y St at e, an d i f a memb er
o f ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t or of a Hou s e o f t h e Legi s lat u re of an y St at e
b e elect ed Vi ce-Pres i d en t , h e sh all b e d eemed t o h ave vacat ed h i s s eat i n
25 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h at Hou s e on t h e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers u p on h i s offi c e as Vi ce-


Pres i d en t .
(3 ) No p ers on s h all b e eli gi b le for elect i on as Vi ce-Pres i d en t un les s
h e—
(a ) i s a ci ti zen of In d i a;
(b ) h as comp let ed th e age of t h i rt y-fi ve years ; an d
(c) i s qu ali fi ed for elect i on as a memb er of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es.
(4 ) A p ers on s h all n ot b e eli gib le for e lect i on as Vi ce-Pres i den t i f h e
h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er th e G overn ment of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e or u n d er an y l ocal or ot h er au t h ori t y s u b j ect t o
t h e con t rol of an y o f t h e s ai d G overn men t s.
Exp l a na ti on .— For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s art i cle, a p ers on s h all n ot b e
d eemed t o h old an y o ffi ce o f p r o fi t b y reas on on l y t h at h e i s t he Pres i d ent
or Vi ce- Pres i d en t of t h e Union or t h e G overn or o f an y St at e or i s a
Mi n is t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for an y St at e.
6 7 . Term of off i ce of Vi ce-P res i dent.—Th e Vi ce-Pres i d en t sh all h o ld
o ffi ce fo r a t erm of fi ve years fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers up on hi s
o ffi ce:
Provi d ed t h at —
(a ) a Vi ce-Pres i d en t may, b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d add ress ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce;
(b ) a Vi ce-Pres i d en t may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on
o f t h e Coun ci l of St at es p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e th en memb ers of
t h e Coun ci l an d agreed t o b y t he Hou s e of t h e Peop le; b ut n o res olu t i on
for t h e p u rp os e of t h i s clau s e s h all b e moved u n les s at leas t fou rt een
d ays 'n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t he i n t en ti on t o move t h e res olu ti on ;
(c) a Vi ce-Pres i d ent sh all, n ot wi t hs t an d in g th e exp i rat i on of h is
t erm, con t in u e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u cces s or ent ers u p on h i s o ffi ce.
6 8 . Tim e of hol di ng el ecti on to f il l va ca ncy i n the off i ce of Vi ce-
P res i dent a nd the term of of fi ce of pers on el ected to f il l ca s ual
va ca ncy .—(1 ) An elect i on t o fi l l a vacan c y cau s ed b y t h e exp i rat i on of t h e
t erm of o ffi ce o f Vi ce -Pres i d ent s h all b e comp let ed b efore t h e ex p i rat i on
o f t h e t erm.
(2 ) An elect i on t o fi ll a va can cy i n t h e offi ce o f Vi ce -P res i d en t
occu rri n g b y reas on o f h i s d eat h, res i gn at i on or remova l, or ot h erwi s e s h all
b e h eld as s oon as p oss ib le aft er t h e occu rren ce of t h e vacan cy, an d t h e
p ers on elect ed t o fi ll t h e vacan cy s h all, s u b j ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of art i cle
6 7 , b e en ti t led t o h old offi ce fo r t h e fu ll t erm of fi ve years fr o m t h e d at e
on wh i ch h e ent ers u p on h is offi ce.
69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, before
entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed
26 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say—
"I, A.B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I wi l l b ear t ru e fai t h and
s o l e mn l y a f f i r m
alle gi an ce t o th e Cons ti tu t i on of In d i a as b y law es t ab li s h ed an d t h at I wi ll
fai t h fu l l y d i s ch arge t h e d ut y u p on wh i ch I am ab ou t t o en t er. "
70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may make
such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any
contingency not provided for in this Chapter.
71. Ma tters rela ti ng to, o r connected w i th, the el ection of a
P res i dent or Vi ce-P res i dent.—(1 ) All d ou b t s an d d i sp ut es aris i n g ou t of
or i n con n ect i on wit h t h e elect i on of a Pres i d ent or Vi ce-Pres i d en t s h all b e
i n qu i red in t o and d eci d ed b y t he Su p reme Cou rt wh os e d eci si on sh all b e
fi n al.
(2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the
Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of
the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the
decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any
matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
(4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question
on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the
electoral college electing him.
72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons,
reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence
of any person convicted of any offence—
(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;
(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law
relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any
officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by
a Court Martial.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or
commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the
time being in force.
73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this
Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend—
(a ) t o t h e matt ers wi th resp ect t o wh i ch Parli amen t h as p ower t o
make laws ; an d
27 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) t o t h e ex ercis e of s u ch ri gh t s , au th ori t y an d ju ri sd i ct i on as are


ex erci s ab le b y t h e G overn men t o f In d i a b y vi rt u e of an y t re at y or
agreemen t :
Provi d ed th at t h e ex ecu ti ve power re ferred t o i n s ub -clau s e (a ) sh all
n ot , s ave as ex p ress ly p rovi d ed i n t hi s Cons ti t ut i on or i n an y law mad e b y
Parli amen t , ext end i n an y St at e t o mat t ers wi th res p ect t o wh i ch t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e h as als o p ower t o make laws .
(2 ) Un t i l ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed by Parli amen t , a St at e an d an y o ffi cer or
au t h orit y o f a St at e ma y, n ot wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t hi s art i cle, con t i n u e
t o ex ercis e in mat t ers wi th res pect t o whi ch Parli amen t h as p ower t o make
laws for t h at St at e s u ch ex ecu t i ve p ower or fu n ct i on s as th e St at e or o ffi cer
or au t h ori t y t h ereof cou ld ex erci s e immedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement
o f t h i s Cons ti t ut i on .
Co un ci l o f Mi n is t er s
7 4 . Counci l of Mi nis ters to a i d a nd a dvi s e P res i dent.—(1 ) Th ere
s h all b e a Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers wi t h th e Pri me Mi n is t er at t h e h ead t o aid
an d ad vis e t h e Pres id en t wh o shall, i n t h e ex ercis e of h i s fu n ct ion s , act in
accord an ce wi t h su ch ad vi ce:
Provi d ed th at t h e Presi d en t may req u i re t h e Cou n ci l of Mi n is t ers t o
recon s i d er su ch ad vi ce, ei th er gen erall y or ot h erwi s e, an d th e Pres i d en t
s h all act i n accord an ce wi th th e ad vi ce t end ered aft er su ch recons i d erat i on .
(2 ) Th e q u es ti on wh et h er an y, an d i f s o wh at , ad vi ce was t end ered b y
Mi n is t ers t o th e Pres id ent sh all n ot b e i nq u i red in t o in an y cou rt .
7 5 . Other provi si ons a s to Mi ni s ters .—(1 ) Th e Pri me Min is ter s h all
b e app oi nt ed b y t h e Pres id ent and th e oth er Mi ni s t ers s h all b e app oi n t ed b y
t h e Presi d en t on t h e ad vi ce of t h e Pri me Min is t er.
(1 A) Th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n is ters , i n clud in g t h e Prime Min i st er, i n th e
Cou n ci l o f Mi n i s t ers s h all n ot e x ceed fi ft een p er cen t . o f t h e t o t al n u mb er
o f memb ers of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(1 B) A memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parli amen t b elon gi n g t o an y p oli t i cal
p art y wh o i s d i s qu ali fi ed for b ei n g a memb er of t h at Hou s e u nd er
p aragrap h 2 of t h e Ten th Sch ed u le sh all als o b e d i s qu alifi ed t o b e
ap p oi nt ed as a Mi ni st er u nd er clau s e (1 ) for d u rat i on of t h e p eri od
commen ci n g from t h e dat e of h is di sq u ali fi cat i on t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e
t erm of h i s offi ce as su ch memb er wou ld exp i re or wh ere h e con t es ts an y
elect i on t o ei th er Hou s e of Parli amen t b efore t h e ex pi ry o f s u ch p eri od , t i ll
t h e d at e on whi ch h e is d eclared elect ed , wh i ch ever i s earli er.
(2 ) Th e Min is t ers s h all h old offi ce du ri n g th e p leasu re of t h e Pres i d en t .
(3 ) Th e Cou n ci l of Mi ni st ers s h all b e collect i vel y res p on s i b le t o th e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
28 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Before a Mi n is t er en t ers u p on hi s offi ce, t h e Presi d en t s h all


ad min i st er t o h i m t h e oat hs of o ffi ce an d of s ecrecy acc ord i n g to t h e forms
s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n t h e Thi rd Sch ed u le.
(5 ) A Mi ni st er wh o for an y p eri od of s i x con s ecut i ve mon th s i s n ot a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t s h all at th e ex pi rat i on of t h at p eri od
ceas e t o b e a Mi ni st er.
(6 ) Th e s alari es an d allo wan ces of Mi n i s t ers s h all b e s u ch as Parli amen t
may from t i me t o t i me b y l aw d et ermi n e an d , u nt i l Parli amen t s o
d et ermin es , s h all b e as s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
The Attorney-General for India
76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who is
qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India.
(2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India
upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from
time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions
conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force.
(3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in
all courts in the territory of India.
(4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall
receive such remuneration as the President may determine.
Conduct of Government Business
77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of the
Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be
authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and
the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question
on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President.
(3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of
the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business.
* * * * *
78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the
President, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister—
(a ) t o commu n i cat e t o t h e Presi d ent all d eci s i on s of t h e Cou n ci l o f
Mi n is t ers relat i n g t o t h e ad min is t rati on of t h e affai rs o f t h e Un i on and
p rop os als for legi s lat i on ;
(b ) t o fu rn i s h s u ch i n format i on relat i n g t o t h e ad min i st rati on of t h e
affai rs o f t h e Un i on an d p rop osals for le gi s lat i on as t h e Pres iden t may
call for; an d
(c) i f t h e Pres i d en t s o req u i res, t o s u b mi t for t h e con s i d erat i on o f
t h e Cou n ci l of Mi n i st ers an y ma t t er on wh i ch a d eci si on h as b een t aken
b y a Mi n i s ter bu t whi ch h as n ot b een cons i d ered b y t h e Cou n ci l.
29 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT
General
79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall
consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and
the House of the People.
80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of—
(a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the
provisions of clause (3); and
(b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of
the Union territories.
(2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the
States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf
contained in the Fourth Schedule.
(3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1)
shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such
matters as the following, namely:—
Literature, science, art and social service.
(4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the
elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of
proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
(5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in
such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.
81. Composition of the House of the People.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article
331, the House of the People shall consist of—
(a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from
territorial constituencies in the States, and
(b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such
manner as Parliament may by law provide.
(2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),—
(a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People
in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far
as practicable, the same for all States; and
(b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the
ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is,
so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:
Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the
purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population
of that State does not exceed six millions.
30 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the
last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the
relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken
after the year 2026 have been published, be construed, —
(i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a
reference to the 1971 census; and
(ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census.
82. Readjustment after each census.—Upon the completion of each census, the
allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into
territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as
Parliament may by law determine:
Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People
until the dissolution of the then existing House:
Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President
may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may
be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment:
Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026
have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust—
(i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on
the basis of the 1971 census; and
(ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted
on the basis of the 2001 census,
under this article.
8 3 . Dura ti on of Hous es of Pa rl ia m ent.—(1 ) Th e Cou n ci l of St at es
s h all n ot b e s u b j ect t o d is s olu t ion , b u t as n early as p os s i b le on e-t h i rd of
t h e memb ers th ereof s h all ret i r e as s oon as may b e on t h e exp i rati on of
ever y s econ d year i n accord an ce wi t h th e p rovi s i ons mad e i n th at b eh alf b y
Parli amen t b y law.
(2 ) Th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, u n les s s oon er d is s olved , s h all con t i nu e
for fi ve years from t h e d at e ap p oi n t ed for i t s fi rs t meet i n g and n o lon ger
an d t h e ex pi rat i on of t h e s aid p eri od of fi ve years s h all op erat e as a
d i ss olu t i on of t h e Hou s e:
Provi d ed th at t h e s aid p eri od may, wh i le a Proc lamat i on of E mergen cy
i s i n op erati on , b e ext end ed b y Par li amen t b y law for a p eri od n ot
ex ceed in g on e year at a t i me an d n ot ex t en di n g i n an y cas e b eyon d a p eri od
o f s i x mon th s aft er t h e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o op erat e.
8 4 . Qua lif i ca ti on f or m em bershi p of Pa rl iam ent.—A p ers on s h all n ot
b e qu ali fi ed t o b e ch os en t o fi ll a s eat in Parli ament un les s h e—
(a ) i s a cit i zen of In d i a, an d makes an d su b s cri b es b efore s ome
p ers on au th ori s ed in t h at b eh alf b y t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an oat h or
31 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n th e Th i rd


Sch ed u le;
(b ) i s , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , n ot les s t h an
t h i rt y yea rs o f age an d , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le,
n ot les s th an t wen t y- fi ve years o f age ; an d
(c) p os s es s es su ch ot h er qu ali fi cat i on s as may b e p res crib ed in t h at
b eh alf b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t .
8 5 . Sess i ons of Pa rl ia m ent, prorog a ti on a nd di s s ol uti on.—(1 ) Th e
Pres i d en t sh all from t i me t o t i me s u mmon each Hou s e of Par li amen t t o
meet at s u ch t i me and p lace as h e t h in ks fi t , b u t si x mon ths s h all n ot
i n t erven e b et ween i t s las t si t ti ng i n on e s es s i on an d th e d at e app oi n t ed for
i t s fi rs t s it t in g i n t h e n ex t s es si on .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent may fr om t i me t o t i me—
(a ) p rorogu e t h e Hou s es or ei t h er Hou s e;
(b ) d is s olve t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
8 6 . Rig ht of P res i dent to a ddres s a nd s end m es sa g es to Houses .—(1 )
Th e Pres i d ent may ad d res s ei th er Hou s e o f Parli amen t or b ot h Hou s es
as s emb led t oget h er, an d for t h at p u rp os e requ i re t h e at t en d ance of
memb ers .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent may s en d mes s ages t o ei th er Hou s e of Par li amen t ,
wh et h er wi th resp ect t o a Bi ll t h en p en d in g i n Parli amen t or ot h erwi s e, and
a Hou s e t o wh i ch an y mes s age i s s o s en t sh all wi t h al l c on ven i en t d esp at ch
con s i d er an y mat t er req ui red b y t h e mes s age t o b e t aken in t o cons i d erat i on .
8 7 . Speci al a ddres s by the P resi dent.—(1 ) At th e commen cemen t of t h e
fi rs t s ess i on aft er each gen eral elect i on t o th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d at
t h e commen cemen t of t h e fi rs t s es si on of each year t h e Presi d ent sh all
ad d ress b ot h Hou s es of Par l i amen t ass emb led t oget h er an d i n form
Parli amen t of t h e cau s es of i t s su mmon s .
(2 ) Provi s i on s h all b e mad e by t h e ru les regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re of
ei t h er Hou s e for t h e allot men t of t i me for d i s cu ss i on of t h e mat t ers
referred t o i n s u ch add ress .
8 8 . Ri g hts of Mi ni s ters a nd Attorney -Genera l a s res pects Hous es .—
Ever y Mi n i s t er an d t h e At t orn ey-G en eral o f In d i a s h all h ave th e ri gh t t o
s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art i n th e p roceed in gs of, ei t h er Hou s e,
an y j oi n t s i t ti n g of t h e Hou s es , an d an y commi t t ee o f Par li amen t of wh i ch
h e may b e n amed a memb er, b u t sh all n ot b y vi rt u e o f t h i s art i cle b e
en t it led t o vot e.
Of f i cers of Pa rl ia men t
8 9 . The Chai rm a n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n of the Counci l of Sta tes .—
(1 ) Th e Vi ce- Pres i d en t of In d i a sh all b e ex o f f i cio Ch ai rman of t h e
Cou n ci l of St at es .
32 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Th e Cou n ci l of St at es s h all, as s oon as may b e, ch oos e a memb er of


t h e Coun ci l t o b e Dep u t y Ch ai rman th ereof an d , s o oft en as t he offi ce o f
Dep u t y Ch ai rman b ecomes vacan t , th e Cou n ci l s h all ch oo s e an ot h er
memb er t o b e Dep u t y Ch ai rman t h ereof.
9 0 . Va ca ti on a nd res i g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the of fi ce of
Deputy Cha i rm a n.—A memb er h old i n g offi ce as Depu t y Ch ai rman of t h e
Cou n ci l of St at es —
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
Cou n ci l;
(b ) may at an y t i me, b y w ri t in g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Ch ai rman , resi gn hi s offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Cou n ci l
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Cou nci l:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ’ n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on .
9 1 . P ow er of the Deputy Chairm a n or other pers on to perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to act a s , Cha i rma n.—(1 )Wh i le the offi ce o f
Ch ai rman i s vacan t, or d u ri n g an y p eri od wh en t h e Vi ce-Pres i d en t is act in g
as , or d i s ch argin g t h e fu n ct i on s o f, Pres i d en t, t h e du ti es of t h e o ffi ce s h all
b e p erformed b y t h e Dep ut y Ch ai rman , or, i f t h e offi ce of Dep u t y
Ch ai rman i s als o vacan t , b y s u ch memb er of t h e Cou n ci l of S t at es as th e
Pres i d en t may ap p oi nt for t h e p urp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g th e abs en ce of t h e Ch ai rman from an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l
o f St at es t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman , or, i f h e is als o abs ent , s u ch p ers on as may
b e d et ermin ed b y t h e ru les o f p roced u re of t h e Cou n ci l, or, i f n o s u ch
p ers on is p res ent , su ch oth er p ers on as may b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Cou n ci l,
s h all act as Ch ai rman.
9 2 . The Cha i rma n or the De puty Cha i rma n not to pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or hi s rem ova l f rom off i ce i s under cons i dera ti on.— (1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal
o f t h e Vi ce-Pres i d en t from h i s offi ce i s un d er cons id erat i on, th e Ch ai rman ,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e remova l o f t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman from h i s
o ffi ce i s u nd er con s id erati on , t he Dep u t y Ch ai rman , sh all n ot , t h ou gh h e i s
p res ent , p resi d e, and t h e p rovi si on s of clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 9 1 s h all ap p ly
i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from
wh i ch t h e Ch ai rman , or, as t h e cas e ma y b e, t h e Dep u t y C h ai rman, i s
ab s ent .
(2 ) Th e Ch ai rman sh all h ave t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n, an d oth erwi se t o t ake
p art i n t h e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Cou n ci l of St at es wh i le an y res olu t i on for
t h e removal o f t h e Vi ce -Pres i d en t from h i s o ffi ce i s u n d er con sid erat i on in
t h e Coun ci l, bu t , n ot wi t hs t an din g an yt h i n g i n art i cle 10 0 , s hall n ot b e
33 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

en t it led t o vot e at all on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u rin g su ch


p roceed i n gs .
9 3 . The Spea ker a nd Deputy S pea ker of the H ous e of the P eopl e.—
Th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le s h all, as s oon as may b e, ch oos e t wo memb ers of
t h e Hou s e t o b e res p ecti vel y Sp eaker an d Dep u t y Sp eaker t h ereo f an d , s o
o ft en as th e offi ce of Sp eaker or Dep u t y Sp eaker b ecomes vacan t , th e
Hou s e s h all ch oos e an ot h er memb er t o b e Sp eaker or Dep ut y Sp eaker, as
t h e cas e may b e.
9 4 . Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker. — A memb er h old i n g o ffi ce as Sp eaker o r
Dep u t y Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le—
(a ) s h all vacat e hi s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e Hou s e
o f t h e Peop le;
(b ) may at an y t i me, b y wri t i ng u n d er hi s h an d add res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er is th e Sp eaker, t o t h e Dep u t y Sp eaker, an d i f s u ch memb er is
t h e Depu t y Sp eaker, t o t h e Sp eaker, res i gn h is offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Hou s e of
t h e Peop le p ass ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Hou s e:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ’ n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at , wh en ever t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le i s di s s olved ,
t h e Sp eaker sh all n ot vacat e h is offi ce u nt i l i mmed i at ely b e fo re t h e fi rs t
meet i n g of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le aft er t h e d is s olu t i on .
9 5 . P ow er of the Deputy Spea ker or other pers on t o perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s, Spea ker.—(1 ) Wh i le t he offi ce o f
Sp eaker i s vacan t , t h e d ut i es o f t h e offi ce s h all b e p erform ed b y t h e
Dep u t y Sp eaker or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Sp eaker i s als o vaca n t , b y s u ch
memb er of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Pe op le as t h e Pres i d en t may ap p oi n t for t h e
p u rp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g t h e ab s en ce of t h e Sp eaker from an y s i t t in g of t h e Hou s e o f
t h e Peop le t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker or, i f h e i s als o ab s en t , su ch p ers on as may
b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e ru les of p roced u re of t h e Hou s e, or, i f n o s u ch p ers on
i s p res ent , su ch oth er p ers on as may b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Hou se, s h all act
as Sp eaker.
9 6 . The Spea ker or the Dep uty Spea ker not t o pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or hi s rem ova l f rom off i ce i s under cons i dera ti on.— (1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e H ou s e of t h e Peop le, wh i le an y res o lu t i on for t h e
remova l o f t h e Sp eaker from h i s o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on , th e Sp eaker,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal o f t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker from h i s
o ffi ce i s un d er con s id erati on , th e Dep ut y Sp eaker, s h all n ot , th ou gh h e i s
p res ent , p resi d e, and t h e p rovi si on s of clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 9 5 s h all ap p ly
34 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from


wh i ch t h e Sp eaker, or, as t h e case may b e, t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker, i s ab s en t .
(2 ) Th e Sp eaker s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n , an d ot h erwis e t o t ake
p art in th e p roceed in gs of, t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le wh i le an y res olu t i on for
h i s removal from o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on in t h e Hou s e an d s h all,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g in article 1 0 0 , b e ent it led t o vot e on ly i n t h e fi rs t
i n st an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u ri n g su ch proceed i n gs
b u t n ot in th e cas e of an eq u ali ty o f v ot es .
9 7 . Sa la ri es a nd a ll ow a nces of the Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rm a n
a nd the Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker.— Th ere s h all b e p ai d t o t h e
Ch ai rman an d th e Dep u t y Ch airman of t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es , an d t o t h e
Sp eaker an d th e Dep u t y Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le, s u ch s alari es
an d allowan ces as ma y b e res p ect i vel y fi x ed b y Par li amen t by la w an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on i n th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es an d allowan ces as
are s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
9 8 . Secreta ria t of P a rli am ent.— (1 ) Each Hou s e of Parli ame n t sh all
h ave a s ep arat e s ecret ari al s t aff:
Provi d ed th at n ot h in g in th is clau s e s h all b e cons t ru ed as p revent i n g the
creat i on of p os t s common t o b oth Hou s es of Parli amen t .
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law regu lat e t h e recru it ment , and t h e con d it i ons
o f s ervi ce o f p ers on s ap p oi nt ed , t o t h e s ecret ari al s t aff o f ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t .
(3 ) Un t i l p rovi s i on is mad e b y P arli amen t u nd er clau s e (2 ), t h e Pres i d ent
may, a ft er con s u lt at i on wi t h th e Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e o f t h e Pe op le o r t h e
Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , as th e cas e may b e, make ru les
regu lat i n g t h e recru it ment , and th e con di ti on s of s ervi ce o f p ers on s
ap p oi nt ed , t o th e s ecret ari al s t aff o f t h e H ou s e o f t h e Peop le or t h e Cou n ci l
o f St at es , an d an y ru les s o mad e s h all h ave e ffect s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s
o f an y law mad e u n d er t h e s ai d clau s e.
Co nd u ct o f Bu s in ess
9 9 . Oa th or aff i rm a ti on by m em bers .— Ever y memb er o f ei t her Hou s e
o f Parli amen t s h all, b efore t aki n g h i s s eat , make and su b s cri b e b efore t h e
Pres i d en t , or s ome p ers on appoi n t ed i n th at b eh alf b y h i m, an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e in t h e Th i rd
Sch ed u le.
1 0 0. Voti ng i n Hous es , pow er of Hous es to a ct notw i ths ta ndi ng
va ca nci es a nd quorum .— (1) Save as ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed i n th is
Con s t it ut i on , all q u es ti on s at any s i t t in g of ei t h er Hou s e or j oi n t s i tt in g o f
t h e Hou s es sh all b e d et ermin ed b y a maj ori t y o f v ot es o f t h e memb ers
p res ent and vot i n g, ot h er th an th e Sp eaker or p ers on act in g as Ch ai rman or
Sp eaker.
35 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Th e Ch ai rman or Sp eaker, or p ers on act i n g as su ch, s h all n ot vo t e i n th e


fi rs t i n s t an ce, bu t sh all h ave an d ex erci s e a cast i n g vot e i n t h e cas e o f an
eq u ali t y o f v ot es .
(2 ) Ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t s h all h ave p ower t o act n ot wit hs t and in g
an y vacan c y i n t h e memb ers h ip t h ereof, an d an y p roceed in gs in Parli amen t
s h all b e va li d n ot wi t h st and in g t h at i t is d is covered s u b s eq u en t ly t h at s ome
p ers on wh o was n ot en t i t led s o to d o s at or v ot ed or ot h erwi s e too k p art i n
t h e p roceed i n gs .
(3 ) Un t i l Parli amen t b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e q u oru m t o con s t it u t e
a meet in g of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t sh all b e on e-t en t h o f t h e t ot al
n u mb er of memb ers of t h e Hou s e.
(4 ) If at an y t i me d u rin g a mee t i n g of a H ou s e t h ere i s n o q uoru m, i t
s h all b e t h e d u t y o f t h e Ch ai rman or Sp eaker, or p ers on act i n g as s u ch,
ei t h er t o ad j ou rn t h e Hou s e or t o s u sp end t h e meet in g u n ti l t h ere is a
q u oru m.
Di s q ua li f i ca ti on s o f Memb ers
1 0 1. Va ca ti on of s ea ts.— (1 ) No p ers on sh all b e a memb er of b ot h
Hou s es of Parli amen t and p rovi si on sh all b e mad e b y Parli amen t b y law for
t h e vacati on b y a p ers on wh o is ch os en a memb er of b ot h Hou s es of h i s
s eat in on e Hou s e or th e ot h er.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er b ot h of Par li amen t an d of a Hou s e o f
t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e, an d i f a p ers on i s ch os en a member b ot h o f
Parli amen t and of a H ou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e, th en , at t h e
ex p i rat i on of s u ch p eri od as may b e s p eci fi ed i n ru les mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t , th at p ers on ’s s eat in Parli amen t sh all b ecome vacan t , u n les s h e
h as p revi ou s ly res i gn ed h i s s eat i n th e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
(3 ) If a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parli amen t —
(a ) b ecomes su bj ect t o an y o f t h e di s qu ali fi cat i on s men ti on ed i n
clau s e (1 ) or clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 1 02 , or
(b ) res i gns hi s s eat b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d ad d res s ed t o t h e
Ch ai rman or t h e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e, an d h is res i gn at i on i s
accep t ed b y t h e Ch ai rman or th e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e,
h i s s eat s h all t h ereu p on b ecome vacan t :
Provi d ed t h at in th e cas e of an y res i gn ati on referred t o i n s u b -cl au s e (b ),
i f from i n format i on recei ved or ot h erwi s e and aft er maki n g s u ch i n qu i ry as
h e t hi n ks fi t , th e Ch ai rman or th e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e, i s s ati s fi ed
t h at s u ch res i gn ati on is n ot vol u n t ary or gen u i n e, h e s h all n ot accep t s u ch
res i gn ati on .
(4 ) If for a p eri od of s i xt y d a ys a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t
i s wi t h out p ermi s si on of t h e H ou s e ab s en t from a ll meet i n gs t h ereof, t h e
Hou s e may d eclare h i s s eat vacan t :
36 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at in comp ut i n g th e sai d p eri od of s i x t y d a ys n o acco u n t s h all


b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e i s p rorogu ed or i s ad j ou rn ed
for more t h an fou r con s ecu t i ve days .
1 0 2. Di s qua l ifi ca ti ons f or mem bers hi p.— (1 ) A p ers on sh all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ei n g ch os en as, an d for b ei n g, a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t —
(a ) i f h e h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u nd er t h e G overn men t of In d i a
or t h e G overn men t of an y St at e, ot h er t h an an offi ce d ecl ared b y
Parli amen t b y law n ot t o d i s qu ali fy i t s h old er;
(b ) i f h e i s of u n s ou n d min d and s t an ds s o d eclared b y a c omp et en t
cou rt ;
(c) i f h e i s an un di s ch arged i ns olven t ;
(d ) i f h e i s n ot a ci t i zen of In d i a, or h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red t h e
ci t i zen sh i p of a forei gn St at e, or i s u nd er an y ackn owled g men t of
alle gi an ce or ad h eren ce t o a fore i gn St at e;
(e) i f h e i s s o d i sq u ali fi ed b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t .
Exp l a na ti on .—For t h e pu rp os es of t h i s clau s e a p ers on s h all n ot be
d eemed t o h old an offi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e b y rea s on on l y t h at h e i s a Mi ni st er eit h er for t h e
Un i on or for s u ch St at e.
(2 ) A p ers on s h all b e d i s q u ali fi ed fo r b ei n g a memb er o f ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t i f h e is s o di sq u ali fi ed un d er t h e Tent h Sch edu le.
1 03 . Deci si on on ques ti ons as to di s qua lif i ca ti ons of m em bers .—
(1 ) If an y q u es t i on aris es as t o wh et h er a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t h as b ecome su bj ect to an y o f t h e d i sq u ali fi cat i ons men t i on ed in
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 0 2 , t h e q ues t i on s h all b e referred for t h e d eci si on of
t h e Presi d en t an d h is d eci si on shall b e fi n al.
(2 ) Before gi vi n g an y d eci s i on on an y s u ch q u es ti on , t h e Pres i d ent
s h all ob t ai n t h e opi n i on of t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an d s h all act
accord i n g t o s u ch op in i on .
1 04 . P ena l ty f or si tti ng and voti ng bef ore m a ki ng oa th or
a ffi rma ti on under a rti cl e 9 9 or w hen not qua li fi ed or w hen
di s qual if i ed.—If a p ers on s i t s or v ot es as a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t b efore h e h as comp l i ed wi t h th e req ui rement s of art i cle 9 9 , or
wh en h e kn ows t h at h e is n ot q u ali fi ed or t h at h e i s d is quali fi ed fo r
memb ersh ip th ereof, or t h at h e is p rohi bi t ed from s o d oi n g b y t h e
p rovi s i on s of an y la w mad e b y Parli amen t , h e sh all b e li ab le in res p ect of
each d ay on wh i ch h e s o s i t s or vot es t o a p en alt y o f fi ve h u n d red ru p ees t o
b e recovered as a d eb t d u e t o t he Un i on .
37 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Po wer s , Pri vi l eg es a nd Immu ni t ies o f Pa r li a ment


a n d i ts Memb ers
1 0 5. P ow ers , pri vi l eg es , etc., of the Hous es of Pa rl iam ent a nd of the
m em bers a nd comm i ttees thereof .— (1 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s ion s of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on an d t o t h e ru les and s t and in g ord ers regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re
o f Parli amen t , t h ere s h all b e freed om of s p eech i n Parli amen t .
(2 ) No memb er o f Parli amen t s h all b e li ab le t o an y p roceed i n gs i n an y
cou rt i n resp ect of an y t h i n g s aid or an y vot e gi ven b y h i m i n Parli amen t or
an y c ommi t t ee th ereof, an d n o p ers on sh all b e s o li ab le i n res p ect of t h e
p u b li cat i on b y or u n d er t h e au t hori t y o f ei t h er Hou s e of Par li amen t of an y
rep ort , p ap er, vot es or p roceed ings .
(3 ) In ot h er res p ects , th e p owers , p ri vi leges an d i mmu n it i es o f each
Hou s e of Par li amen t , an d of t h e memb ers an d th e commi tt ees of each
Hou s e, s h all b e s u ch as may fro m t i me t o t i me b e d efi n ed b y Pa rli amen t b y
law, an d , un t i l s o d efi n ed , s h all b e th os e of t h at Hou s e an d of i t s memb ers
an d commit t ees immedi at ely b efore t h e comin g i nt o force o f s e ct i on 1 5 of
t h e Con st it ut i on (Fort y-fou rt h Amen d men t ) Act , 1 97 8.
(4 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of clau s es (1 ), (2 ) and (3 ) sh all ap p ly i n relat i on t o
p ers on s wh o b y vi rt u e of t h i s Con s t it u ti on h ave t h e ri gh t t o speak i n , an d
ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art in th e p roceed i n gs of, a Hou s e o f Parli a men t or an y
commi t t ee th ereof as t h ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o memb ers of Parli amen t .
1 0 6. Sal a ries a nd a ll ow a nces of m em bers .— Memb ers of ei t h er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t sh all b e ent i t led t o recei ve s u ch s alari es an d all owan ces as
may fr om t i me t o t i me b e d etermi n ed b y Parli amen t b y la w an d , u nt i l
p rovi s i on in t h at resp ect i s s o mad e, allowan ces at s u ch rat es an d up on
s u ch cond it i on s as were i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on ap p li cab le in the cas e of memb ers of t h e Con s t it u en t
As s emb ly o f t h e Domi n i on of In d i a.
Leg i sl at i ve Pro cedu r e
1 0 7. P rovi si ons a s to i ntroducti on a nd pa ss i ng of B il ls .— (1) Su b j ect
t o t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 0 9 an d 1 17 wi th res p ect t o Mon ey Bi lls an d
ot h er fi n an ci al Bi lls , a Bi ll may ori gi n at e in ei th er Hou s e of Parl i amen t.
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 08 an d 10 9, a Bi ll s h al l n ot b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s es of Parli amen t u n les s it h as b een
agreed t o b y b ot h Hou s es , ei t h er wi th ou t amen dmen t or wi t h s u ch
amen d men ts on ly as are agreed t o b y b ot h Hou s es .
(3 ) A Bi ll p end in g i n Parli amen t s h all n ot lap s e b y reas on of t h e
p rorogat i on o f t h e Hou s es .
(4 ) A Bi ll p end in g i n th e Cou n cil o f St at es whi ch h as n ot b een pas s ed b y
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le s h all n o t lap s e on a d i s s olu t i on of t h e H ou s e of t h e
Peop le.
38 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5 ) A Bi l l wh i ch i s p en di n g i n th e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le, o r wh i ch h avi n g


b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le i s p en d in g i n t h e Coun cil o f St at es ,
s h all, s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f art i cle 1 0 8 , lap s e on a d i s s olu t i on of t h e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
1 0 8. J oi nt s i tti ng of both Houses i n certa i n cas es .— (1 ) If a ft er a Bi ll
h as b een p ass ed b y on e Hou s e an d t ran s mi tt ed t o t h e oth er Hou se—
(a ) t h e Bi ll i s rej ect ed b y t h e ot h er Hou s e; or
(b ) t h e Hou s es h ave fi n all y d i s agreed as t o t h e amen d men ts to b e
mad e in th e Bi ll; or
(c) more t h an s ix mon th s elap s e fr om t h e d at e of t h e recep t i on of t h e
Bi ll b y t h e ot h er Hou s e wi th ou t t h e Bi ll b ein g p ass ed b y i t ,
t h e Pres id ent may, u n les s t h e Bill h as elap s ed b y reas on o f a d i s s olu t i on of
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, n ot i fy t o t h e Hou s es b y mes s age i f t h e y are s i t ti n g
or b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on i f t h ey are n ot s i tt in g, hi s i nt ent i on t o s u mmon
t h em t o meet i n a j oin t si t ti n g fo r t h e p u rp os e of d e li b erat in g an d vot i n g on
t h e Bi ll:
Provi d ed t h at n oth in g i n t h is clau s e sh all ap p ly t o a Mon e y Bi l l.
(2 ) In reck on i n g an y s u ch p eri od o f s i x mon t h s as i s referred t o i n clau s e
(1 ), n o accou nt sh all b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e
referred t o i n s ub -clau s e (c) of t h at clau s e is p rorogu ed or ad jou rn ed for
more t h an fou r con s ecut i ve d ays .
(3 ) Wh ere t h e Pres id ent h as und er clau s e (1 ) n ot i fi ed h is i nt en t i on of
s u mmoni n g t h e Hou s es t o meet i n a j oi n t s it t in g, n eit h er Hou s e s h all
p roceed fu rt h er wi t h t h e Bi ll, bu t th e Pres id ent may at an y t i me aft er t h e
d at e of h i s n ot i fi cat i on s ummon th e Hou s es t o meet i n a j oin t s i tt in g for
t h e pu rp os e s p eci fi ed i n th e not i fi cat i on an d , i f h e d oes s o, t h e Hou s es
s h all meet accord i n gly.
(4 ) If at t h e j oi nt s i tt in g of t h e t wo Hou s es th e Bi ll, wi t h su ch
amen d men ts , i f an y, as are agreed t o i n j oi nt si tt i n g, i s pas s ed b y a
maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al n u mb er o f memb ers of b ot h Hou s es pres en t an d
vot i n g, i t s h all b e d eemed for t h e pu rp os es of t h i s Con s ti tu t ion t o h ave
b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es :
Provi d ed t h at at a j oi nt si t ti n g—
(a ) i f t h e Bi ll, h avi n g b een pas s ed b y on e Hou s e, h as n ot b een
p as s ed b y t h e ot h er Hou s e wit h amend ment s an d retu rn ed t o t he Hou s e
i n wh i ch i t ori gi n at ed , n o amen dmen t sh all b e p rop os ed t o t h e Bi ll ot h er
t h an su ch amen d men ts (i f an y) a s are mad e n eces s ary b y t h e d ela y i n t h e
p as s age of t h e Bi ll;
(b ) i f t h e Bi l l h as b een s o p as s ed and ret u rn ed , on ly s u ch
amen d men ts as afores ai d s h all b e p rop os ed t o t h e Bi ll an d s uch ot h er
amen d men ts as are relevan t t o t h e mat t ers wi th res p ect t o wh i ch t h e
Hou s es h ave n ot agreed ;
an d t h e d eci si on of t h e p ers on p res id in g as t o t h e amen d men t s wh i ch are
ad mi ss ib le u nd er th is clau s e s h all b e fi n al.
39 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5 ) A j oi n t s it t in g may b e h eld un d er th is arti cle an d a Bi ll p as s ed


t h ereat , n ot wi t hs t an di n g t h at a d i ss olu t i on of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le h as
i n t erven ed s in ce t h e Presi d en t not i fi ed h i s in t en t i on t o su mmon t h e Hou s es
t o meet th erei n .
1 0 9. Specia l procedure i n res pect of M oney Bi ll s .—(1 ) A Mon ey Bi l l
s h all n ot b e in t rodu ced i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es .
(2 ) Aft er a Mon e y Bi ll h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le i t
s h all b e t ran s mi t t ed t o t h e Coun ci l o f St at es for i t s recommend at i ons an d
t h e Coun ci l of St at es s h all wi t hi n a p eri od of fou rt een d ays fro m t h e d at e
o f i t s recei pt of t h e Bi ll ret u rn th e Bi ll t o th e Hou s e of t h e People wi t h its
recommen d at i ons an d t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le ma y t h ereu p on eit h er accep t
or rej ect all or an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of t h e Coun ci l of St at es .
(3 ) If t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le ac cep t s an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of t h e
Cou n ci l o f St at es , t h e Mon ey Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y
b ot h Hou s es wi t h th e amen d men t s recommend ed b y t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es
an d accep t ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(4 ) If t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le d oes n ot accept an y of t h e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , th e Mon ey Bi ll s h all b e d eemed
t o h ave b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es in th e form i n wh i ch it was p ass ed b y
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le wi th out an y of t h e amend ment s recommen d ed b y
t h e Coun ci l of St at es .
(5 ) If a Mon e y Bi l l p as s ed b y t he Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d t ransmi t t ed t o
t h e Cou n ci l of St at es for i t s recommen d ati on s i s n ot ret u rn ed t o t h e Hou s e
o f t h e Peop le wi th in th e s aid p eri od of fou rt een d ays , i t sh all b e d eemed t o
h ave b een p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es at t h e ex pi rati on of t h e s ai d p eri od i n t h e
form i n wh i ch it was p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
1 1 0. Defi ni ti on of "M oney Bi l ls ' ' .—(1 ) For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s
Ch ap t er, a Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o b e a Mon ey Bi ll i f i t con t ain s on ly
p rovi s i on s d eali n g wi t h all or an y o f t h e fo l lo wi n g mat t ers , n amel y:—
(a ) th e i mp os it i on , ab oli t i on , remi s si on , alt erati on or regu lat i on of
an y t ax ;
(b ) t h e regu lat i on of t h e b orrowi n g o f mon e y or t h e gi vi n g o f an y
gu aran t ee b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a, or t h e amend ment of t h e l aw wi t h
res p ect t o an y fi n an ci al ob li gat i on s u nd ert aken or t o b e u n d ertaken b y
t h e G overn men t of In d i a;
(c) t h e cus t od y o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d or th e Con t in gen cy Fu n d of
In d i a, t h e p aymen t of mon e ys i n t o or t h e wi t h d rawal o f mon eys from
an y s u ch Fu n d ;
(d ) th e ap p rop ri at i on of mon e ys ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of
In d i a;
40 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(e) t h e d eclari n g of an y ex p end i tu re t o b e ex p en di tu re ch arged on


t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a or t h e i n creas i n g of t h e amou n t o f an y
s u ch exp end i tu re;
(f ) t h e recei pt of mon e y on ac cou n t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of
In d i a or t h e p ub li c accou n t of In d i a or t h e cu s t od y or i s s u e o f s u ch
mon ey or t h e au di t of t h e accou nt s of t h e Un i on or of a St at e; or
(g ) an y mat t er i n cid ent al t o an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed i n s u b -
clau s es (a ) t o (f ).
(2 ) A Bi ll s h all n ot b e d eemed to b e a Mon ey Bi ll b y reas on on ly t h at i t
p rovi d es for t h e i mp os it i on of fi n es or ot h er p ecu n i ary p en alt i es , or for t h e
d emand or p a ymen t of fees for l i cen ces or fees for s ervi ces ren dered , or b y
reas on th at i t p rovi d es for t h e imp os i ti on , ab oli t i on , remis si on , alt erat i on
or regu lat i on o f an y t ax b y an y l ocal au t h ori t y or b od y for l ocal p u rp os es .
(3 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es wh eth er a Bi ll i s a Mon ey Bi l l or n ot , t h e
d eci si on of t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le t h ereon s h all b e fi n al.
(4 ) Th ere s h all b e en d ors ed on ever y Mon e y Bi ll wh en i t i s t ran s mit t ed
t o t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es un d er art i cle 1 09 , and wh en i t is p res en t ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t for as s en t un d er art i cle 1 1 1, t h e certi fi cat e of t h e Sp eaker o f t h e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le s i gn ed b y h i m th at it is a Mon ey Bi ll.
1 1 1. As s ent to B il ls .—Wh en a Bi ll h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s es of
Parli amen t , it sh all b e p res ent ed t o t h e Pres id en t, and t h e Presi d ent sh all
d eclare ei th er th at h e ass en ts t o t h e Bi ll, or t h at h e wit hh old s ass ent
t h erefrom:
Provi d ed th at t h e Presi d en t may, as s oon as p os si b le aft er t h e
p res ent ati on t o h i m of a Bi ll for as s ent , ret u rn th e Bi ll i f i t i s not a Mon e y
Bi ll t o t h e Hou s es wit h a mess age req u es ti n g th at t h ey wi ll rec on s i d er t h e
Bi ll or an y s p eci fi ed p rovi s i on s t h ereof an d , i n p arti cu lar, wi ll c on s i d er th e
d es i rab i li t y o f i n t rod u ci n g an y s u ch amend ment s as h e may rec ommen d in
h i s mes s age, an d wh en a Bi ll i s s o ret u rn ed, t h e Hou s es sh all recon s i d er
t h e Bi ll accord i n gl y, an d i f t h e Bi ll i s p as s ed agai n b y t h e Hou s es wi t h or
wi t h ou t amend ment and p res ent ed t o th e Presi d en t for as s ent , the Pres i d en t
s h all n ot wi t hh old as s en t th erefrom.
Pr o ced ur e in Fin an ci al Ma tt ers
1 1 2. Annua l fi na ncia l s ta tem ent.—(1 ) Th e Pres id ent sh all i n res p ect of
ever y fi n an ci al year cau s e t o b e lai d b efore b ot h t h e Hou s es of Parli amen t
a s t at emen t of t h e es t i mat ed recei p ts an d ex p en d it u re of t h e G overn men t of
In d i a for t h at year, i n t hi s Part referred t o as t h e "an n u al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t ''
.
(2 ) Th e es t imat es of ex p end i tu re emb od i ed in t h e an nu al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t s h all s h ow s ep arat el y—
41 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) th e su ms requ i red t o meet exp end i tu re d es crib ed b y t h is


Con s t it ut i on as exp end it u re charged u p on t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu n d of
In d i a; an d
(b ) t h e s ums req ui red t o meet ot h er ex p en d it u re p rop os ed t o b e mad e
fr om t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a,
an d s h all di s ti n gui sh ex p en di t u re on revenu e accoun t fr om ot h er
ex p en d it u re.
(3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of
India—
(a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to
his office;
(b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the
Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People;
(c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest,
sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising
of loans and the service and redemption of debt;
(d) (i) the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the
Supreme Court;
(ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court;
(iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which
exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at
any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation
to any area included in a Governor' s Province of the Dominion of India;
(e) the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and
Auditor-General of India;
(f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral
tribunal;
(g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be
so charged.
113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.—(1) So much of the estimates
as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted
to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the
discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates.
(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the
form of demands for grants to the House of the People, and the House of the People shall
have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand
subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President.
114. Appropriation Bills.— (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have
been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the
appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet—
(a) the grants so made by the House of t h e Peop le; an d
42 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in
any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament.
(2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which
will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or
of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the
decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause
shall be final.
(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from
the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance
with the provisions of this article.
115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.— (1) The President shall—
(a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of
article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to
be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current
financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not
contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or
(b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of
the amount granted for that service and for that year,
cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the
estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a
demand for such excess, as the case may be.
(2) The provisions of articles 112, 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such
statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the
appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or
the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial
statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be
made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India
to meet such expenditure or grant.
116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have
power—
(a) to make any grant in advance in resp ect of t h e es t i mat ed exp end i tu re for
a p art of an y fi n an ci al year p e n d in g th e comp let i on of t h e p roced u re
p res crib ed i n art i cle 1 13 for t h e vot i n g o f s u ch gran t an d t h e p as s in g of
t h e law i n accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i on s of art i cle 1 1 4 i n relat i on t o
t h at ex p en di tu re;
(b ) t o make a gran t for meet i n g an un exp ect ed d eman d up on th e
res ou rces of In d i a wh en on accou n t of t h e magn i tu d e or t h e ind efi n i t e
ch aract er of t h e s ervi ce t h e d eman d can n ot b e s t at ed wi th the d et ai ls
ord i n ari ly gi ven i n an ann u al fi nan ci al s t at ement ;
(c) t o make an ex cep ti on al gran t wh i ch forms n o p art of t h e cu rren t
s ervi ce of an y fi n an ci al year ;
43 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d Parli amen t sh all h ave p ower t o aut h ori s e b y law t h e wi th d rawal of


mon eys from t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a for t h e p u rp os es for wh i ch th e
s ai d grant s are mad e.
(2 ) Th e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 13 and 11 4 s h all h ave effect i n relat i on t o
t h e maki n g of an y g ran t u nd er clau s e (1 ) and t o an y la w t o b e mad e un d er
t h at claus e as th ey h ave e ffect i n relat i on t o th e maki n g of a gran t wi t h
regard t o an y ex p end i tu re men tion ed in th e an nu al fi n an ci al st at emen t and
t h e law t o b e mad e for t h e au thori s at i on of ap p rop ri ati on of mo n eys ou t o f
t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a to meet s u ch exp end it u re.
1 1 7. Specia l provi s i ons as to fina nci al B il l s .—(1 ) A Bi ll or am en d men t
maki n g p rovi s i on for an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed in su b -clau s es (a ) t o (f )
o f clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 10 s h all n ot b e i nt rod u ced or moved excep t on t h e
recommen d at i on of t h e Pres i d en t an d a Bi ll maki n g s u ch p rovi s i on s h all
n ot b e i n t rodu ced i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es :
Provi d ed t h at n o recommen d at i on s h all b e requ i red u nd er th is clau s e for
t h e movi n g of an amen d ment maki n g p rovi s i on for t h e red u cti on or
ab oli t i on of an y t ax .
(2 ) A Bi ll or amen d men t sh all n ot b e d eemed t o make p rovi s i on for an y
o f t h e mat t ers afores ai d b y reas on on l y t h at i t p rovi d es for t h e i mp os it i on
o f fi n es or ot h er p ecun i ary p en alt i es , or for t h e d emand or p aym en t of fees
for li cen ces or fees for s ervi ces ren d ered , or b y reas on t h at i t provi d es for
t h e i mp osi t i on , ab oli t i on , remiss i on , alt erati on or regu lat i on of an y t ax b y
an y l oca l au t h ori t y or b od y for l ocal p u rp os es .
(3 ) A Bi ll wh i ch , i f en act ed and b rou ght i nt o op erat i on , wou ld i n volve
ex p en d it u re from t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a sh all n ot b e p ass ed b y
ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t un les s t h e Pres id en t h as recommend ed t o t h at
Hou s e t h e cons i d erat i on of t h e Bi ll.
Pr o ced ur e Gen er a ll y
1 1 8. Rul es of procedure.— (1) Each Hou s e of Par li amen t may ma ke
ru les for regu lat i n g, s ub j ect to t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on , it s
p roced u re an d t h e cond u ct of i t s b us i n es s .
(2 ) Un t i l ru les are mad e u n d er clau s e (1 ), t h e ru les of p roce d u re and
s t and in g ord ers in force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on wi th resp ect t o t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e Domi n i on of In d i a s h all
h ave effect i n re lat i on t o Parl i amen t su bj ect t o s u ch mod i fi cat i on s and
ad ap t at i ons as may b e mad e therei n b y t h e Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l o f
St at es or th e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, as t h e cas e may b e.
(3 ) Th e Pres id ent , aft er con s u lt at i on wi th th e Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l of
St at es an d t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, ma y make ru les as t o
t h e p roced u re wit h res p ect to j oi n t si tt i n gs of, an d commu ni cat i ons
b et ween , t h e t wo Hou s es .
44 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) At a j oi nt s it ti n g of t h e t wo Hou s es t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e


Peop le, or i n h i s ab sen ce s u ch p ers on as may b e d et ermin ed b y ru les o f
p roced u re mad e un d er claus e (3 ), s h all p res id e.
119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.—
Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by
law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House of Parliament in relation to
any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated
Fund of India, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any
rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or
standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article, such
provision shall prevail.
120. Language to be used in Parliament.— (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII,
but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi
or in English:
Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People,
or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately
express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue.
(2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a
period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the
words “or in English” were omitted therefrom.
121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.— No discussion shall take place in
Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court
in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President
praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided.
122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.— (1) The validity of any
proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged
irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this
Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in
Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of
those powers.
CHAPTER III—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.—(1)
If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied
that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may
promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an
Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the
expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of
45 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the
second of those resolutions; and
(b ) may b e wi t h d rawn at an y t i me b y t h e Pres i den t.
Exp l a na ti on .—Wh ere th e Hou s es of Par li amen t are s u mmon ed t o
reas s emb le on d i fferen t d at es , th e p eri od of s i x weeks s h all b e reckon ed
fr om t h e lat er of t h os e d at es for t h e p u rp os es of t h i s claus e.
(3 ) If an d s o far as an Ordi n an ce u nd er th is art i cle makes an y p rovi s i on
wh i ch Parli amen t wou ld n ot un der t h is Cons t it ut i on b e comp et en t t o en act ,
i t sh all b e voi d .
* * * * *
C H AP T E R IV.—T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A R Y
1 2 4. Es ta bl is hm ent a nd cons tituti on of Suprem e Court.—(1) Th ere
s h all b e a Su p reme Cou rt of In d i a con si s ti n g of a Ch i ef J u s t i ce o f In d i a
an d , u nt i l Parli ament b y law p r es cri b es a larger nu mb er, of n ot more t h an
1
s even ot h er J ud ges .
(2 ) Ever y J u d ge o f t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all b e ap p oi nt ed b y t h e
Pres i d en t b y warran t un d er h is h an d and s eal aft er con s u lt ati on wi t h su ch
o f t h e J ud ges of t h e Su p reme Cou rt and of t h e Hi gh Cou rt s i n t he St at es as
t h e Presi d en t may d eem n ecessar y for t h e p u rp os e an d s h all h old offi ce
u n ti l h e att ain s th e age of s i x t y-fi ve years :
Provi d ed t h at in t h e cas e of ap p oi n t ment of a J u d ge ot h er t h an t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce, t h e Ch i ef J us ti ce of In d ia s h all alwa ys b e con s u lt ed :
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at —
(a ) a Ju d ge may, b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d ad d res s ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce;
(b ) a Ju d ge may b e removed from h i s offi ce i n t h e mann er p rovi d ed i n
clau s e (4 ).
(2 A) Th e age o f a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt sh all b e d et ermi n ed b y
s u ch au th ori t y an d in su ch manner as Parli amen t may b y la w p ro vi d e.
(3 ) A p ers on s h all n ot b e q u alifi ed for ap p oi n t men t as a J ud ge of t h e
Su p reme Cou rt un les s h e i s a citi zen of In d i a an d —
(a ) h as b een for at leas t fi ve yea rs a J u d ge of a Hi gh Cou rt o r o f t wo
or more s u ch Cou rts in su ccess ion ; or
(b ) h as b een for at leas t t en yea rs an ad vocat e o f a Hi gh Co u rt or o f
t wo or more s u ch Cou rt s i n s u cces s i on ; or
(c) i s , i n t h e op i ni on of t h e Pres i d en t , a d is ti n gu is h ed ju ris t .
Exp l a na ti on I.—In t h is clau s e "Hi gh Cou rt ''mean s a Hi gh Cou rt wh i ch
ex erci s es , or wh i ch at an y t i me b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on ex erci s ed , ju ris di cti on i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a.

_______________________________________________
1. Now “twenty-five”, vide Act 22 of 1986, s. 2
46 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp l a na ti on II.—In comp ut in g for t h e pu rp os e of t h i s claus e the p eri od


d u rin g wh i ch a p ers on h as b een an ad vocat e, an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch a
p ers on h as h eld ju d i ci al offi ce n ot in feri or t o t h at of a d is t ri ct j ud ge aft er
h e b ecame an ad vocat e s h all b e in clu d ed.
(4 ) A Ju d ge of t h e Sup reme Cou rt s h all n ot b e removed from hi s offi ce
ex cep t b y an ord er o f t h e Pres i den t p as s ed aft er an add res s b y e ach Hou s e
o f Parli amen t s u pp ort ed b y a maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al memb ersh i p of t h at
Hou s e an d b y a maj ori t y o f n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers of t h at
Hou s e p res en t and vot i n g h as been p res ent ed t o t h e Presi d en t in t h e s ame
s es si on for s u ch removal on t h e grou n d of p roved mi s b eh avi ou r or
i n cap aci t y.
(5 ) Parli amen t may b y law regu l at e th e p rocedu re for t h e p res entat i on of
an ad d res s an d for t h e i n vest igat i on an d p roof o f t h e mi s b eh avi ou r or
i n cap aci t y o f a J u d ge un d er claus e (4 ).
(6 ) Ever y p ers on ap p oi nt ed t o b e a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all,
b efore h e en t ers u p on hi s offi ce , make an d s u b s cri b e b efore t h e Pres i d ent ,
or s ome p ers on ap p oi n t ed in th at b ehalf b y h i m, an oat h or affi rmat i on
accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e i n t he Th i rd Sch ed ule.
(7 ) No p ers on wh o h as h eld o ffi ce as a J u d ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
p lead or act i n an y c ou rt or b e fore an y au t h ori t y wi t h i n t h e terri t ory o f
In d i a.
1 2 5. Sal a ri es , etc., of J udg es .—(1 ) Th ere s h all b e p aid t o th e J u d ges of
t h e Su p reme Cou rt su ch s alari es as may b e d et ermi n ed b y Par li amen t b y
law an d , un t i l p rovi si on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es as are
s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
(2 ) Ever y J u d ge sh all b e en ti t led t o su ch p ri vi leges and allowa n ces and
t o s u ch ri gh ts i n resp ect of leav e o f ab s en ce an d p ens i on as may fr om t i me
t o t i me b e d et ermi n ed b y or u nd er law mad e b y Parli amen t and , u n ti l s o
d et ermin ed , t o s u ch p ri vi leges , all owan ces an d ri ght s as are sp eci fi ed in
t h e Second Sch ed u le:
Provi d ed t h at n ei th er th e p ri vi leges n or t h e allowan ces of a J u d ge n or
h i s ri gh ts i n res p ect of leave o f ab s en ce or p en si on s h all b e vari ed t o h is
d i s ad van t age aft er h is app oi n tmen t .
1 2 6. Appoi ntm ent of a cti ng Chi ef J us ti ce.—Wh en t he offi ce o f Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a i s vacan t or wh en th e Chi ef J u s ti ce is , b y reas on of
ab s en ce or ot h erwi s e, un ab le t o p erform t h e du t i es of h i s offi ce, t h e du t i es
o f t h e o ffi ce s h all b e p erforme d b y s u ch on e o f t h e ot h er J u dges o f t h e
Cou rt as th e Presi d en t may ap p oi n t for t h e pu rp os e.
1 2 7. Appoi ntm ent of ad ho c Judg es .—(1 ) If at an y t i me t h ere s h ou ld
n ot b e a q u oru m of t h e J u d ges o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt avai lab le t o h o ld or
con t i nu e an y s es s i on of t h e Court , th e Chi ef J u st i ce of In d i a may, wi t h th e
p revi ou s con s ent of t h e Pres i d en t and aft er con s u lt at i on wi t h t h e
Ch i ef J u st i ce of t h e Hi gh Cou rt con cern ed , req u es t in wri t in g t h e
47 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

at t end an ce at th e s i tt in gs of t h e Cou rt , as an a d ho c J ud ge, for s u ch p eri od


as may b e n eces s ary, o f a J ud ge of a Hi gh Cou rt d u ly q u ali fi ed for
ap p oi nt ment as a J ud ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt t o b e d es i gn at ed by t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a.
(2 ) It s h al l b e t h e d u t y o f t h e J u d ge wh o h as b een s o d es i gn at ed, i n
p ri ori t y t o ot h er d ut i es of h i s offi ce, t o at t en d t h e s it ti n gs of t h e Sup reme
Cou rt at th e ti me an d for t h e peri od for wh i ch hi s at ten dan ce is requ i red ,
an d wh i le s o at ten di n g h e s hall h ave a ll t h e j u ri s di cti on , p owers an d
p ri vi leges , an d s h all d is ch arge th e du t i es , of a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt .
1 2 8. Attenda nce of reti red J udg es a t si tti ngs of the Suprem e
Court.—Not wi t h s t and i n g an yt hi n g i n th is Ch apt er, t h e Ch i ef J u st i ce of
In d i a may at an y t i me, wi t h t h e p revi ou s cons en t of t h e Pres id en t , req u es t
an y p ers on wh o h as h eld th e offi ce of a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt or of
t h e Fed eral C ou rt or wh o h as h eld t h e o ffi ce o f a J u d ge o f a Hi gh Cou rt
an d i s du ly q u ali fi ed for ap p oi nt men t as a J ud ge of t h e Sup reme Cou rt t o
s i t an d act as a J ud ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt , an d every s u ch p ers on s o
req u est ed sh all, wh i le s o s it t in g an d acti n g, b e ent it led t o su ch all owan ces
as t h e Pres id en t may b y ord er d et ermin e and h ave all t h e ju ri sd i ct i on ,
p owers an d p ri vi leges of, b u t s hall n ot ot h erwi s e b e d eemed t o b e, a J ud ge
o f t h at Cou rt :
Provi d ed t h at n oth in g i n t hi s arti cle s h all b e d eemed t o req u i re an y s u ch
p ers on as afores ai d t o s i t an d act as a J u d ge o f t h at Cou rt u n les s h e
con s en ts s o t o d o.
1 2 9. Suprem e Court to be a c o urt of record.—Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
b e a cou rt of record an d s h all h ave al l t h e p owers o f s u ch a cou rt i n clud in g
t h e p ower t o p u ni s h for con t emp t of i t s elf.
1 3 0. Sea t of Suprem e Court.—Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all s i t in Delh i or
i n su ch oth er p lace or p laces , as t h e Ch i ef J u st i ce of In d i a may, wi t h t h e
ap p roval o f t h e Pres i d en t , from t i me t o t ime, app oi nt .
1 3 1. Orig i na l juri s di cti on of the Suprem e Court.—Su b j ect t o t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu ti on , t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, t o t h e ex clu s i on
o f an y ot h er cou rt , h ave ori gi n al j u ris di ct i on i n an y d i s pu t e—
(a ) b et ween th e G overn ment of In d i a and on e or more St at es ; or
(b ) b et ween t h e G overn men t of In d i a an d an y St at e or St at es on on e
s i d e an d on e or more ot h er St at es on th e ot h er; or
(c) b et ween t wo or more St at es ,
i f an d i n s o far as t h e d i s pu t e i n volves an y q u es t i on (wh eth er o f law or
fact ) on wh i ch th e exi s t en ce or ex t ent of a le gal ri gh t d ep end s :
Provi d ed t h at t h e s aid j u ri sd i cti on s h all n ot ex t en d t o a di s pu te ari s in g
ou t of an y t reat y, agreemen t , co ven an t , en gagemen t , sa na d or ot h er s i mi lar
i n st ru men t whi ch , h avin g b een ent ered i nt o or ex ecu t ed b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu t i on , con t in u es in op erati on aft er s u ch
48 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

commen cemen t , or wh i ch p rov i d es t h at th e s aid ju ris di ct i on s h all n ot


ex t end t o su ch a di s pu t e.
1 3 1 A. [Exclu si ve ju ri sd i cti on o f t h e Su p r eme Cou r t in r eg a rd to
q u est io ns as to con st i tu ti on a l va l id it y of Cent ra l la ws.] Rep . b y t he
Co n st it ut i on (Fo rt y-th i rd Amen dmen t ) Act , 19 77 , s. 4 (w.e.f . 1 3 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
1 3 2. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n a ppea ls f rom Hig h
Courts i n certa i n ca s es .— (1 ) An ap p eal s h all li e t o t h e Su p reme Cou rt
fr om an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er of a Hi gh Cou rt in t h e t erri t ory o f
In d i a, wh eth er in a ci vi l, cri min al or ot h er p roceed i n g, i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt
cert i fi es un d er arti cle 1 34 A th at t h e cas e in volves a s u bs t an ti al q u est i on of
law as t o t h e in t erp ret at i on of t h i s Con st it u ti on .
* * * * *
(3 ) Wh ere su ch a cert i fi cat e is gi ven , an y p art y i n t h e cas e may ap p eal t o
t h e Su p reme Cou rt on th e groun d t h at an y s u ch q u es ti on as afores ai d h as
b een wron gl y d eci d ed .
Exp l a na ti on .— For t h e p u rp os es of t h i s art i cle, t h e ex p ress i on “fi n al
ord er” i n clud es an ord er d eci din g an i ss u e wh i ch , i f d ecid ed in favou r o f
t h e ap p ellan t , wou ld b e s u ffi ci en t for t h e fi n al d i sp os al of t h e cas e.
1 3 3. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n a ppea ls f rom Hig h
Courts i n reg a rd to ci vi l ma tters .— (1 ) An app eal s h all li e t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt from an y j u dgmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er i n a ci vi l
p roceed i n g of a Hi gh Cou rt i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt
cert i fi es un d er arti cle 1 34 A—
(a ) t h at th e cas e i n volves a s ub s t an ti al q u es t i on of law o f ge n eral
i mp ort an ce; and
(b ) th at i n th e op in i on of t h e High Cou rt th e s aid q u est i on n eeds t o
b e d eci d ed b y t h e Sup reme Cou rt .
(2 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h in g i n art i cle 1 32 , an y p art y ap p eali n g t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt u nd er clau s e (1) ma y u rge as on e o f t h e grou n d s i n su ch
ap p eal t h at a s ub st ant i al q u es tion o f la w as t o t h e i nt erp ret at ion o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on h as b een wron gl y d eci d ed.
(3 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in t hi s arti cle, n o ap p eal s h all, u n les s
Parli amen t b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , li e t o t h e Sup reme Court from t h e
j u d gmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er o f on e J u d ge of a Hi gh Cou rt .
1 3 4. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n rega rd to cri m i nal
m a tters.—(1 ) An ap p eal s h all li e t o th e Su p reme Cou rt from an y j ud gmen t ,
fi n al ord er or s en t en ce in a cri mi n al p roceed in g o f a Hi gh C ou rt i n t h e
t erri t ory o f In d i a i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt —
(a ) h as on app eal revers ed an ord er of acq u it t al of an accu s ed
p ers on and s en t en ced h im t o d eat h ; or
49 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) h as wit hd rawn for t ri al b efore i t s elf an y cas e from an y cou rt


s u b ordi n at e t o i ts aut h ori t y an d h as in su ch t ri al con vi ct ed t h e accu s ed
p ers on and s en t en ced h im t o d eat h ; or
(c) cert i fi es u n d er arti cle 1 3 4 A t h at th e cas e i s a fi t on e for ap p eal
t o t h e Sup reme Cou rt :
Provi d ed t h at an ap p eal un d er s u b -clau s e (c) sh all li e s u b j ect t o s u ch
p rovi s i on s as may b e mad e i n th at b eh alf u n d er clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 45
an d t o s u ch con di t i ons as t h e High Cou rt may es t ab li s h or req u i re.
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law c o n fer on t h e Sup reme Cou rt any fu rt h er
p owers t o en t ert ai n an d h ear ap p eals from an y j u d gmen t , fi nal ord er or
s en t en ce in a cri min al p roceed in g of a Hi gh Cou rt in th e t erritor y o f In d i a
s u bj ect t o s u ch con di ti on s an d limi t ati on s as may b e s p eci fi ed i n s u ch law.
1 3 4 A. Certifi ca te f or a ppeal to the Suprem e Court.—Ever y Hi gh
Cou rt , p as si n g or maki n g a j u d gmen t , d ecree, fi n al ord er, or s en t en ce,
referred t o i n claus e (1 ) of ar t i cle 13 2 or claus e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 3 , or
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 , —
(a ) may, i f i t d eems fi t s o t o d o, on i t s own mot i on ; an d
(b ) sh all, i f an oral ap p li cat i on is mad e, b y or on b eh alf o f t h e part y
aggri eved , i mmed i at ely a ft er t h e p as si n g or maki n g o f s u ch jud gmen t ,
d ecree, fi n al ord er or s en t en ce,
d et ermin e, as s oon as may b e a ft er s u ch p ass i n g or maki n g, t he q u est i on
wh et h er a cert i fi cat e of t h e n atu re referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 2,
or clau s e (1 ) of a rt i cle 1 3 3 or, as t h e cas e may b e, s u b -clau s e (c) o f clau s e
(1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 , may b e gi ven i n resp ect of t h at cas e.
1 3 5. J uri s di cti on a nd pow ers of the F edera l Court under e xi s ti ng law
to be e xerci s a bl e by the Suprem e Court.— Un t i l Parli amen t b y la w
ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e Sup reme Cou rt sh all als o h ave j u ri sd i cti on and
p owers wi t h resp ect t o an y mat t er t o wh i ch th e p rovi si on s of art i cle 1 3 3 or
art i cle 1 34 d o n ot ap p ly i f j u ri sdi ct i on an d p owers i n relat i on t o t h at mat t er
were ex erci s ab le b y t h e Fed eral Cou rt i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu ti on u nd er an y ex i s t in g law.
1 3 6. Specia l l ea ve to a ppea l by the Suprem e Court.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n t his Ch ap t er, t h e Sup reme Cou rt may, i n i t s
d i s cret i on , grant sp eci al leave t o ap p eal from an y j u d gmen t , d ecree,
d et ermin ati on , s en t en ce or ord er i n an y cau s e or mat t er p as s ed or mad e b y
an y cou rt or t ri b u n al in th e t errit or y o f In d i a.
(2 ) Not h in g i n clau s e (1 ) s h all ap p ly t o an y j u d gmen t, d et ermi n ati on ,
s en t en ce or ord er p as s ed or mad e b y an y c ou rt or t ri b u n al con s tit u t ed b y or
u n d er an y law re lat i n g t o t h e Armed Forces .
1 3 7. Revi ew of judgm ents or o rders by the Suprem e Court.— Su b j ect
t o t h e p rovi s i on s of an y law ma d e b y Par li amen t or an y ru les mad e u nd er
50 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

art i cle 1 4 5 , th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all h ave p ower t o re vi ew an y j u d gmen t


p ron ou n ced or ord er mad e b y i t .
1 3 8. Enla rg em ent of the juris di cti on of the Suprem e Court.— (1 ) Th e
Su p reme Cou rt sh all h ave s u ch fu rt h er j u ri s di cti on and p owers wi t h res p ect
t o an y o f t h e mat t ers in th e Uni on Li s t as Parli ament may b y law con fer.
(2 ) Th e Su p reme Cou rt sh all h ave s u ch fu rt h er ju ris d i ct i on an d p owers
wi t h res p ect t o an y mat t er as t he G overn men t of In d i a an d t h e G overn men t
o f an y St at e may b y s p eci al agreemen t con fer, i f Par li amen t b y law
p rovi d es for t h e ex erci s e of s u ch j u ris di ct i on and p owers b y t h e Su p reme
Cou rt .
1 3 9. Conf erm ent on the Suprem e Court of pow ers to i ss ue certa i n
w ri ts .— Parli amen t may b y la w con fer on t h e Su p reme Cou rt p ower t o
i s su e d i rect i on s , ord ers or wri t s , i n clu di n g wri t s i n th e n atu re o f h a b ea s
co r pu s , ma nd a mu s , p roh ib it i on , q uo wa rr an to and cer t io ra ri , or an y o f
t h em, for an y p u rp os es ot h er t han t h os e ment i on ed i n clau s e (2) o f art i cle
32.
1 3 9 A. Tra nsf er of certa i n ca s es .— (1 ) Wh ere cas es in volvi n g t h e s ame
or s u bs t ant i all y t h e s ame qu es tion s of la w are p en di n g b efore t h e Sup reme
Cou rt an d on e or more Hi gh Co u rt s or b efore t w o or more Hi gh Cou rt s an d
t h e Su p reme Cou rt is s at is fi ed on it s own mot i on or on an app li cat i on mad e
b y t h e At t orn ey-G en eral o f In d ia or b y a p art y t o an y s u ch case t h at su ch
q u est i ons are s u bs t ant i al q u es ti on s of gen eral i mp ort an ce, t he Su p reme
Cou rt may wi t h d raw th e cas e or cas es p end i n g b efore t h e Hi gh Cou rt or t h e
Hi gh Cou rt s an d d i sp os e of al l t h e cas es i ts elf:
Provi d ed t h at t h e Sup reme Cou rt may a ft er d et ermi n i n g th e s aid
q u est i ons of law ret u rn an y cas e s o wi th d rawn t oget h er wit h a cop y o f i t s
j u d gmen t on s u ch q u es t i ons t o t h e Hi gh Cou rt from wh i ch t he cas e h as
b een wit hd rawn , an d th e Hi gh Cou rt sh all on recei pt th ereof, p roceed t o
d i sp os e of t h e cas e in con formi t y wi t h su ch j ud gmen t .
(2 ) Th e Sup reme Cou rt may, i f i t d eems i t exp ed i en t s o t o d o for t h e
en d s of j u st i ce, t ran s fer an y c as e, app eal or ot h er p roceed i ngs p en di n g
b efore an y Hi gh Cou rt t o an y ot h er Hi gh Cou rt .
1 4 0. Anci ll a ry pow ers of Suprem e Court.— Parli ament may b y law
make p rovi s i on for con ferri n g u p on th e Sup reme Cou rt su ch sup p lemen t al
p owers n ot i n con s is t en t wi th any o f t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu t i on as
may ap p ear t o b e n eces s ary or d es i rab le fo r t h e p u rp os e of e n ab li n g th e
Cou rt more effect i ve l y t o ex ercis e th e j u ris di cti on con ferred upon i t b y or
u n d er t hi s Cons ti t ut i on .
1 4 1. Law decla red by Supreme Court t o be bi ndi ng on a l l courts .—
Th e law d eclared b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all b e b i n di n g on al l cou rt s
wi t h in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a.
1 4 2. Enf orcem ent of decrees and orders of Suprem e Court a nd orders
a s to di s covery , etc.— (1 ) T h e Su p reme Cou rt in t h e ex erci s e of i t s
51 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

j u ris di ct i on may p as s su ch d ecree or make s u ch ord er as i s n eces s ary for


d oi n g comp let e ju st i ce i n an y cau s e or mat t er p end in g b efore i t , and an y
d ecree s o p as s ed or ord er s o mad e sh all b e en forceab le t h rou gh ou t th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a in su ch mann er as may b e p res crib ed b y or u nd er an y law
mad e b y Par li amen t and , u nt i l provi s i on i n t h at b eh alf i s s o mad e, i n su ch
man n er as th e Presi d en t may b y ord er p res crib e.
(2 ) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f an y law mad e i n t h is beh alf b y
Parli amen t , t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, as resp ect s th e wh ole of t h e t erri t ory
o f In d i a, h ave all an d ever y p o wer t o make an y ord er for t h e p u rp os e of
s ecu rin g t h e at t en d an ce of an y p ers on , t h e d is cover y or p rod u ct i on of an y
d ocu ment s , or th e in ves t i gati on or p u n is h men t of an y con t emp t of i t s elf.
1 4 3. P ow er of P resi dent to cons ul t Suprem e Court.— (1 ) If at an y
t i me i t ap p ears t o t h e Pres id ent t h at a qu est i on of law or fact h as ari s en, or
i s li kel y t o ari s e, wh i ch is of s uch a n atu re an d of s u ch pu b li c imp ort an ce
t h at i t is exp edi ent t o ob t ain the op i n i on of t h e Sup reme Cou rt u p on it , h e
may re fer t h e q u es t i on t o t h at Cou rt for c on s i d erati on and t h e Cou rt may,
aft er s u ch h earin g as i t th in ks fi t , rep ort t o th e Pres id ent i t s op i ni on
t h ereon .
(2 ) Th e Pres i d en t may, n ot wi t h stan d in g an yt h i n g i n th e p rovi s o to art i cle
1 3 1, refer a d i sp ut e of t h e ki n d men ti on ed i n t h e s aid p rovi s o t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt for op i n i on an d th e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, aft er s u ch h eari n g
as i t t hi n ks fi t , rep ort t o t h e Pres i d en t i ts op in i on th ereon .
1 4 4. Ci vi l a nd judi ci a l a uthori ti es to a ct i n a i d of the S uprem e
Court.—A ll au t h ori t i es , ci vi l an d ju di ci al, i n th e t errit ory o f In d i a s h all
act i n ai d of t h e Su p reme Cou rt .
1 4 4 A. [S p eci a l p r o vi si on s as t o d i sp os al o f qu es ti on s r ela t in g to
co n st it u ti on al va li di t y o f l a ws.] Rep . b y t h e Con st i tu ti on (Fo r t y-th ir d
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 77 , s . 5 (w.e.f . 13 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
1 4 5. Rul es of Court, etc.— (1) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of an y la w
mad e b y Parli amen t , t h e Sup reme Cou rt may fr om t i me t o t i me, wi t h th e
ap p roval o f t h e Pres id ent , make ru les for regu lat i n g gen erall y t h e p ract i ce
an d p roced u re of t h e Cou rt i n clud i n g—
(a ) ru les as t o t h e p ers ons p ract is i n g b efore t h e Cou rt ;
(b ) ru les as t o t h e p roced u re fo r h earin g ap p eals and ot h er matt ers
p ert ain in g t o ap p eals i n clud in g t h e t i me wit hi n wh i ch app eals t o th e
Cou rt are t o b e en t ered ;
(c) ru les as t o t h e p roceed i n gs i n t h e Cou rt for t h e en forcemen t o f
an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y P art III;
(cc) ru les as t o th e p roceedi n gs in th e Cou rt u nd er art i cle 13 9 A;
(d ) ru les as t o t h e en t ert ai n ment of ap p eals u n d er s ub -clau s e (c) o f
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 ;
52 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(e) ru les as t o t h e con d i ti ons s ub j ect t o wh i ch an y j u d gmen t


p ron ou n ced or ord er mad e b y t h e Cou rt may b e revi ewed an d th e
p roced u re for s u ch revi ew in clud i n g th e t i me wit h in whi ch ap p li cat i ons
t o t h e Cou rt for s u ch revi ew are t o b e ent ered ;
(f ) ru les as t o th e cos ts of an d i n cid ent al t o an y p roceed i n gs i n t h e
Cou rt an d as t o t h e fees t o b e charged i n resp ect of p roceed i n gs th erei n ;
(g ) ru les as t o t h e grant in g of b a i l;
(h ) ru les as t o s t ay o f p roceed i ngs ;
(i ) ru les p rovi d i n g for t h e s u mmary d et ermi n at i on of an y a p p eal
wh i ch app ears t o th e Cou rt t o be fri v o lou s or vex at i ou s or b rou gh t for
t h e p u rp os e of d ela y;
(j ) ru les as t o t h e p roced u re for i n qu i ri es referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) o f
art i cle 3 17 .
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of clau s e (3 ), ru les mad e u nd er t his art i cle
may fi x t h e mi ni mu m nu mb er of J u d ges wh o are t o s i t for an y p u rp os e, and
may p ro vi d e for t h e p owers o f s i n gle J u d ges and Di vi si on Cou rts.
(3 ) Th e mi n imu m nu mb er of J u d ges wh o are t o s i t for t h e p u rp os e of
d eci di n g an y cas e i n volvi n g a s u bs t an t i al qu es ti on of law as t o t h e
i n t erp ret ati on of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on or for t h e p u rp os e of h eari n g an y
referen ce u n d er arti cle 1 43 sh all b e fi ve:
Provi d ed t h at , wh ere th e Cou rt h eari n g an app eal u n d er any o f t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Ch ap t er ot h er t h an art i cle 13 2 cons is t s of les s t h an fi ve
J u d ges and in th e cou rs e of t h e h eari n g of t h e ap p eal th e Cou rt i s s at is fi ed
t h at th e app eal in volves a s u bs t an t ial q u es t i on of law as t o t h e
i n t erp ret ati on of t h i s Con s ti tu t ion t h e d et ermi n at i on of wh i ch i s n ecess ary
for t h e d is p os al of t h e ap p eal, s u ch Cou rt s h all refer t h e q ues t i on for
op i n i on t o a Cou rt con s ti tu t ed as req ui red b y t h i s clau s e for t h e p u rp os e of
d eci di n g an y cas e i n vo lvi n g s u ch a q u es ti on an d sh all on rec ei p t of t h e
op i n i on d is p os e of t h e app eal i n con formi t y wi t h su ch opi ni on .
(4 ) No j u d gmen t sh all b e d eli v ered b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt s ave i n op en
Cou rt , an d n o rep ort sh all b e mad e un d er arti cle 1 43 s ave i n accord an ce
wi t h an op in i on als o d eli vered in op en Cou rt .
(5 ) No j u d gment and n o s u ch opi n i on s h all b e d eli vered b y t h e Su p reme
Cou rt s ave wi t h th e con cu rren ce o f a maj ori t y o f t h e J u d ges p res en t at th e
h eari n g of t h e cas e, b ut n ot h in g i n t hi s claus e s h all b e d eemed to p reven t a
J u d ge wh o d oes n ot con cu r from d eli veri n g a di ss ent i n g ju d gment or
op i n i on .
1 4 6. Offi cers a nd s erva nts a nd the e xpens es of the Suprem e Court.—
(1 ) Ap p oin t men ts of o ffi cers an d s ervan ts of t h e Sup reme Cou rt s h all b e
mad e b y t h e Ch i ef J us ti ce of In d i a or s u ch ot h er Ju d ge or offi cer of t h e
Cou rt as h e may d i rect :
53 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at t h e Presi d en t may b y ru le req u i re t h at in s u ch cas es as


may b e s p eci fi ed i n th e ru le, no p ers on n ot alread y at t ach ed to t h e Cou rt
s h all b e ap p oi nt ed t o an y o ffi ce con n ect ed wit h th e Cou rt , s ave aft er
con s u lt at i on wi t h t h e Un i on Pu bli c Servi ce Commi s s i on .
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons o f an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , th e
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce o f o ffi cer s an d s ervant s of t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
b e s u ch as may b e p res cri b ed by ru les mad e b y t h e Ch i ef J u s t ice o f In d i a
or b y s ome ot h er J ud ge or o ffi cer o f t h e Cou rt au t h oris ed b y t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a t o make ru les fo r t h e p u rp os e:
Provi d ed th at t h e ru les mad e u nd er th is clau s e sh all, s o far as t hey re lat e
t o s alari es , all owan ces , lea ve or p en s i on s , req u i re th e app roval o f t h e
Pres i d en t .
(3 ) Th e ad min i st rat i ve ex p en s es of t h e Sup reme Cou rt, in clud i n g all
s alari es , allo wan ces an d p ens i on s p ayab le t o or i n res p ect of t h e offi cers
an d s ervan t s of t h e Cou rt , s h all b e ch arged up on th e Con s oli d ated Fu n d of
In d i a, an d an y fees or ot h er mo n eys t aken b y t h e Cou rt s h all form p art o f
t h at Fu nd .
1 4 7. I nterpreta ti on.—In t h is Ch ap t er an d i n Ch apt er V o f Part VI,
referen ces t o an y s u b st ant i al ques t i on of law as t o t h e in t erp ret at i on of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on sh all b e con s t ru ed as i n clu di n g referen ces t o an y s u bs t an t i al
q u est i on of law as t o t h e i n t erp ret ati on of t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act ,
1 9 35 (in clu di n g an y en act men t amen di n g or s u pp lemen ti n g t h at Act ), or o f
an y Ord er i n Cou n ci l or or d er mad e t h ereu nd er, or o f t h e In d i an
In d ep en d en ce Act , 1 94 7 , or of a n y ord er mad e t h ereun d er.

C H A P T ER V.—C O M P TR O L LE R A N D A U D I TO R -G E N ER A L O F I N D I A
1 4 8. Com ptrol l er a nd Audi tor-Genera l of I ndia .—(1 ) Th ere sh all b e a
Comp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f In d i a wh o s h all b e ap p oi n t ed b y t h e
Pres i d en t b y warran t u n d er h is h an d and s eal an d s h all on l y b e removed
fr om o ffi ce i n li ke man n er and on t h e li ke grou n d s as a J ud ge o f t h e
Su p reme Cou rt .
(2 ) Ever y p ers on ap p oi nt ed t o b e t h e Compt roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f
In d i a sh all, b efore h e en t ers up on hi s offi ce, make an d s ub s cri b e b efore t h e
Pres i d en t , or s ome p ers on appoi n t ed i n th at b eh alf b y h i m, an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e in t h e Th i rd
Sch ed u le.
(3 ) Th e s alar y an d ot h er con d i ti on s of s ervi ce o f t h e Comp t ro ller an d
Au d i t or- G en eral s h all b e s u ch as may b e d et ermi n ed b y Par li amen t b y la w
an d , un t i l th ey are s o d et ermin ed , s h all b e as s p eci fi ed in th e Secon d
Sch ed u le:
Provi d ed t h at n eit h er th e s alary o f a C omp t rol ler an d Au d i t or-G en eral
n or h i s ri gh ts i n resp ect of lea v e o f ab s en ce, p ens i on or age o f ret i remen t
s h all b e vari ed t o hi s d is ad vant age aft er h i s ap p oin t men t .
54 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Th e Comp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral s h all n ot b e eli gi b le fo r fu rt h er


o ffi ce ei t h er un d er th e G overn men t of In d i a or u n d er t h e G overn men t of
an y St at e aft er h e h as ceas ed t o h old h i s offi ce.
(5 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Cons t it ut i on an d of an y la w mad e b y
Parli amen t , t h e cond i ti on s of s er vi ce o f p ers on s s ervi n g i n t h e In d i an Aud i t
an d Accou nt s Dep art men t an d t he ad min is t rati ve p owers of t h e Comp t roller
an d Aud it or-G en eral s h all b e s uch as may b e p res crib ed b y ru le s mad e b y
t h e Presi d en t aft er con su lt at i on wi t h th e Compt roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral.
(6 ) Th e ad min is t rati ve exp en s es of t h e offi ce of t h e Comp t roller an d
Au d i t or- G en eral, i n clu di n g all s alari es , allowan ces an d p ens i on s p ayab le
t o or i n res p ect of p ers on s s ervin g i n t h at offi ce, s h all b e ch arged up on t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a.
149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.—The Comptroller
and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the
accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be
prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so
made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the
Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India
immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the
Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively.
1 5 0. F orm of a ccounts of the Uni on a nd of the Sta tes .—Th e accou n ts
o f t h e Un i on and of t h e St at es sh all b e kep t i n su ch form as t h e Pres i d en t
may, on t h e ad vi ce o f t h e C omp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f In d i a,
p res crib e.
1 5 1. Audi t reports .—(1 ) Th e rep ort s of t h e Comp t rol ler an d Au d i t or-
G en eral of In d i a relat in g t o th e accou n t s of t h e Un i on s h all b e su b mi t t ed t o
t h e Presi d en t , wh o s h all cau s e t h em t o b e laid b efore each Hou s e of
Parli amen t .
(2 ) Th e rep ort s of t h e Comp t roll er an d Au di t or-G en eral o f In d i a relat i n g
t o t h e accou nt s of a St at e s h all b e su bmi tt ed t o th e G overn or of t h e St at e,
wh o s h all cau s e t hem t o b e laid b efore t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
55 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VI
THE STATES
C H A P T ER I.—G EN ER A L
1 5 2. Defi ni ti on.—In th is Part , un les s th e cont ex t ot h erwi s e requi res , t h e
ex p ress i on “St at e” d oes n ot i n clu d e t h e St at e of J ammu and Kash mi r.
C H AP T E R II.—T H E E X E C U T I V E
Th e Go vern or
1 5 3. Governors of Sta tes .—Th ere s h all b e a G overn or for each St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g i n th is art i cle s h all p re ven t t h e ap p oin t men t of t h e
s ame p ers on as G overn or for t w o or more St at es .
1 5 4. Executi ve pow er of Sta te.—(1 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower o f t h e St at e
s h all b e ves t ed in th e G overnor an d sh all b e ex ercis ed b y h i m ei t h er
d i rect ly or t h rou gh o ffi cers s u b ord i n at e t o h im i n accord an ce wi t h th is
Con s t it ut i on .
(2 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all—
(a ) b e d eemed t o t ran s fer t o t he G overn or an y fu n ct i on s con ferred
b y an y ex i s t in g law on an y ot h er au th ori t y; or
(b ) p reven t Parli amen t or t he Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e from
con ferri n g b y la w fu n ct i on s on an y au t h ori t y s u b ord i n at e t o t h e
G overn or.
1 5 5. Appoi ntm ent of Governor.—Th e G overn or o f a St at e s h all b e
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e Pres id ent b y w arran t un d er h is h an d an d s eal.
1 5 6. Term of of fi ce of Governor.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all h o ld o ffi ce
d u rin g t h e p leas u re of t h e Presi den t .
(2 ) Th e G overn or ma y, b y wr i t in g u n d er h i s h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce.
(3 ) Sub j ect t o th e foregoi n g p ro vi s i on s of t h is art i cle, a G overn or s h all
h old offi ce for a t erm o f fi ve ye ars from t h e d ate on whi ch h e en t ers up on
h i s offi ce:
Provi d ed t h at a G overn or s h all , n ot wi t h st and in g t h e ex pi rat i on of h i s
t erm, con t in u e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u cces s or ent ers u p on h i s o ffi ce.
1 5 7. Qual if i ca ti ons f or a ppoi ntm ent a s Governor.—N o p ers on s h all b e
eli gi b le for ap p oi n t men t as G overn or u n les s h e i s a ci t i zen of In d i a an d h as
comp let ed t h e age of t h i rt y-fi ve yea rs .
1 5 8. Condi ti ons of Governor' s of fi ce.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all n ot b e a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parl i amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of
an y St at e s p eci fi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le, an d i f a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e

55
56 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f Parli amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Legi s lat u re of an y s u ch St at e b e


ap p oi nt ed G overn or, h e s h all b e d eemed t o h ave vacat ed h i s seat i n th at
Hou s e on t h e d at e on wh i ch h e en t ers u p on h is offi ce as G overn or.
(2 ) Th e G overn or s h all n ot h old an y ot h er o ffi ce o f p ro fi t .
(3 ) Th e G overn or s h all b e en ti t led wi th ou t p aymen t of ren t t o t he u s e of
h i s offi ci al res i d en ces an d s hall b e als o en t i t led t o s u ch emolu men t s ,
all owan ces an d p ri vi leges as may b e d et ermin ed b y Parli amen t by law an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, su ch emolu ment s , allo wan ces and
p ri vi leges as are sp eci fi ed in th e Secon d Sch ed u le.
(3 A) Wh ere th e s ame p ers on is ap p oin t ed as G overn or of t wo or more
St at es , th e emolu men ts an d allowan ces p ayab le t o t h e G overn or s h all b e
all ocat ed amon g t h e St at es i n s u ch p rop ort i on as th e Presi d en t may b y
ord er d et ermin e.
(4 ) Th e emolu ment s an d allo wan ces of t h e G overn or sh all n ot b e
d i min is h ed du rin g h is t erm of o ffi ce.
1 5 9. Oa th or a ffi rma ti on by the Govern or.—Ever y G overn or a n d every
p ers on d is ch argin g t h e fu n ct i on s of t h e G overn or s h all, b efo re en t eri n g
u p on hi s offi ce, make an d s ub s cri b e i n th e p res en ce of t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of
t h e Hi gh Cou rt ex erci si n g ju ri sd i cti on i n relati on t o t h e Stat e, or, i n h is
ab s en ce, th e s eni or mos t J udge o f t h at Cou rt avai lab le, an oat h or
affi rmat i on i n t h e fol lowi n g for m, t h at is t o s ay—
“I, A. B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I wi ll
solemnly affirm
fai t h fu l l y ex ecu t e t h e offi ce o f G overn or (or d i s ch arge t h e fu n ct i on s of t h e
G overn or) o f .............(na me of th e St at e) and wi ll t o th e b est of
my ab i li t y p res erve, p rot ect an d d efen d t h e Con st i tu ti on an d th e
law an d t h at I wi ll d evot e m ys elf t o t h e s ervi ce an d well -b e i n g of t h e
p eop le o f ..………(n a me o f t h e St a t e) .”
1 6 0. Di s cha rg e of the f uncti ons of the Go vernor i n certa i n
conti ng enci es .—Th e Pres id ent may ma ke s u ch p rovi s i on as he t h in ks fi t
for t h e d i s ch arge of t h e fu n cti on s of t h e G overn or of a St at e in an y
con t i n gen cy n ot p rovi d ed for i n t h is Ch ap t er.
1 6 1. P ow er of Governor to g ra nt pa rdons , etc., a nd to s us pend, rem it
or com m ute s entences i n certa i n ca s es.—Th e G overn or o f a St at e s h all
h ave t h e p ower t o gran t p ardon s , rep ri eves , res p it es or remi s si on s of
p u ni sh ment or t o s us p en d , remit or commu t e th e s en t en ce of an y p ers on
con vi ct ed of an y o ffen ce a gai n st an y law relat i n g t o a mat t er t o wh i ch t h e
ex ecu ti ve p ower of t h e St at e ex ten d s.
1 6 2. Extent of e xecuti ve pow er of Sta te.—Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of
t h is Con s ti tu t i on, t h e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f a St at e s h all ex t en d t o t h e matt ers
wi t h resp ect t o wh i ch t h e Legi s l at u re of t h e St at e h as p ower t o make laws :
Provi d ed t h at in an y mat t er wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch t h e Legi s lat u re o f a
St at e an d Parli amen t h ave p ower t o make laws , t h e ex ecut i ve power o f t h e
57 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

St at e s h all b e s ub j ect t o, an d li mi t ed b y, t h e ex ecut i ve p ower ex p res s ly


con ferred b y t h i s Con s t i tu ti on or b y an y law mad e b y Parli amen t u p on t h e
Un i on or au th ori t i es th ereof.
Co un ci l o f Mi n is t er s
1 6 3. Counci l of M i ni s ters to a i d a nd a dvi s e Governor.—( 1 ) Th ere
s h all b e a Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers wi t h th e Ch i ef Mi ni s t er at th e head t o aid
an d ad vi s e th e G overn or i n t h e ex erci s e of h i s fu n ct i on s , ex cep t in s o far as
h e i s b y o r u n d er t h is Con s ti t ut ion req u i red t o ex ercis e h i s fu n cti on s or an y
o f t h em in hi s d i s cret i on .
(2 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es wh eth er an y mat t er i s or i s n ot a mat t er as
res p ects wh i ch th e G overn or i s b y or u n d er th is Con s ti tu t i on req u i red t o
act i n h is di s cret i on , t h e d eci si on of t h e G overn or i n hi s d i s cret ion s h all b e
fi n al, an d t h e vali d it y o f an yt h in g d on e b y t h e G overn or s h all n ot b e called
i n q u es t i on on th e grou nd th at h e ou gh t or ou gh t n ot t o h ave act ed i n h is
d i s cret i on .
(3 ) Th e qu est i on wh et h er an y, an d i f s o wh at , ad vi ce was t end ered b y
Mi n is t ers t o th e G overn or s h all n ot b e i nq u i red in t o in an y cou rt .
1 6 4. Other provi s i ons a s to M i ni s ters .—(1 ) Th e Ch i ef Mi n i st er s h all b e
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e G overn or an d t h e ot h er Mi ni s t ers sh all b e ap p oi nt ed b y
t h e G overn or on t h e ad vi ce of t h e Chi ef Mi ni s t er, and t h e Min is t ers s h all
h old o ffi ce d u rin g t h e p leas u re of t h e G overn or:
Provi d ed t h at in th e St at es of Bi h ar, Mad h ya Prad es h an d Oris sa, t h ere
s h all b e a Mi n i st er i n ch arge of t ri b al wel fare wh o ma y i n ad d it i on b e in
ch arge o f t h e wel fare o f t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es an d b ackward clas s es or an y
ot h er work.
(1 A) Th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n i sters , in clu d in g t h e Ch i ef Min is t er, i n t h e
Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers in a St at e sh all n ot ex ceed fi ft een p er cen t . of t h e
t ot al n u mb er of memb ers of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h at St at e:
Provi d ed t h at th e n u mb er of Mi n i st ers , in clu d in g t h e Ch i ef Mi n is t er i n a
St at e sh all n ot b e les s t h an t welve:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at wh ere th e t ot al n umb er of Mi ni st ers i n clud i n g t h e
Ch i ef Mi n is t er i n t h e Counci l o f Mi n i st ers in an y St at e at th e
commen cemen t of t h e Cons t it ut i on (Nin et y-fi rs t Amend ment ) Act , 2 00 3
ex ceed s t h e s aid fi ft een p er cen t . or t h e n u mb er sp eci fi ed in t h e fi rs t
p rovi s o, as t h e cas e may b e, t h en th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n i s ters i n th at
St at e s h all b e b rou gh t i n con formi t y wi t h t h e p rovi s i ons of t h is clau s e
wi t h in s ix mon th s from s u ch d at e* as t h e Pres i d en t may b y p u b li c
n ot i fi cat i on app oi nt .
(1 B) A memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e or ei t her Hou s e
o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e h avi n g Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l b el on g i n g t o an y
p oli t i cal p art y wh o i s d i s qu ali fi ed for b ei n g a memb er of t h at H ou s e u nd er
p aragrap h 2 of t h e Ten th Sch edu le s h all als o b e d is qu ali fi ed t o b e
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
*7.1.2004: vide Notification No. S.O. 21(E), dated 7.1.2004.
58 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ap p oi nt ed as a Mi ni st er u nd er clau s e (1 ) for d u rat i on of t h e p eri od


commen ci n g from t h e dat e of h is di sq u ali fi cat i on t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e
t erm of h i s offi ce as su ch memb er wou ld exp i re or wh ere h e con t es ts an y
elect i on t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e or ei t h er Ho u s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e h avi n g Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, as th e case may b e,
b efore t h e ex p i ry o f s u ch p eriod , t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch h e i s d eclared
elect ed , wh i ch ever i s earli er.
(2 ) Th e Coun ci l of Mi n i st ers s h all b e collect i vel y res p on s ib le t o t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St ate.
(3 ) Before a Mi n i st er ent ers u p on h is offi ce, t h e G overn or s h all
ad min i st er t o h i m t h e oat hs of o ffi ce an d of s ecrecy acc ord i n g to t h e forms
s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n t h e Thi rd Sch ed u le.
(4 ) A Mi n is t er wh o for an y p eri od of s i x con s ecut i ve mont hs i s n ot a
memb er of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e s h all at t h e ex p i rati on of t h at p eri od
ceas e t o b e a Mi ni st er.
(5 ) Th e s alari es an d allowan c es of Mi n i st ers sh all b e s u ch as t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e may fr o m t i me t o t i me b y law d et ermi ne an d, u n ti l
t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e s o d et ermin es , sh all b e as s p eci fi ed in t h e
Secon d Sch ed u le.
Th e Ad vo ca t e-Gen er a l f or th e S ta t e
1 6 5. Advoca te-Genera l f or the Sta te.—(1 ) Th e G overn or o f ea ch St ate
s h all ap p oin t a p ers on wh o i s qu ali fi ed t o b e app oi nt ed a J ud ge of a Hi gh
Cou rt t o b e Ad vocat e-G en eral fo r t h e St at e.
(2 ) It s h all b e t h e d ut y o f t h e Ad vocat e -G en eral t o gi ve ad vi c e t o t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e u p on s u ch legal mat t ers , an d t o p erform s u ch
ot h er d u ti es of a lega l ch aract er, as ma y fr om t i me t o t i me b e referred or
as s i gn ed t o h i m b y t h e G overn or, an d t o d is ch arge t h e fu n cti ons con ferred
on h i m b y or u n d er t hi s Cons ti tu t i on or an y ot h er law for t h e t ime b ein g i n
force.
(3 ) Th e Ad vocat e -G en eral s h all h old o ffi ce d u ri n g t h e p leasu re o f t h e
G overn or, an d sh all recei ve s u ch remu n erati on as t h e G overn or ma y
d et ermin e.
Co nd u ct o f Go vern men t Bus in es s
1 6 6. Conduct of bus i ness of the Governm ent of a Sta te.—(1 ) All
ex ecu ti ve act i on of t h e G overn men t of a St at e sh all b e expressed to be taken in
the name of the Governor.
(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be
authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and
the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question
on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor.
59 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of
the Government of the State, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so
far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution
required to act in his discretion.
* * * * *
167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor,
etc.—It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State—
(a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of
Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for
legislation;
(b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State
and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and
(c) if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of
Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not
been considered by the Council.
CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General
168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.—(1) For every State there shall be a
Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and—
(a) in the States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh, two Houses;
(b) in other States, one House.
(2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the
Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one
House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly.
169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative
Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State
having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that
effect by a majority of th e t ot al memb ers hi p of t h e As s emb ly an d b y a maj ori t y
o f n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers of t h e As s emb ly p res en t an d
vot i n g.
(2 ) An y law re ferred t o i n claus e (1 ) sh all con t ai n s u ch p rovi si on s for
t h e amen dmen t of t h i s Con st i tut i on as may b e n eces s ary t o gi ve effect t o
t h e p rovi s i ons of t h e law an d may a ls o c on t ai n su ch su pp lemen t al,
i n cid ent al an d cons equ ent i al p rovi s i on s as Parli ament may d eem n eces s ary.
(3 ) No s u ch law as afores ai d s h all b e d eemed t o b e an amend ment of t h is
Con s t it ut i on for t h e pu rp os es of art i cle 3 68 .
1 7 0. Com pos i ti on of the Leg is l a ti ve As s em bl i es .—(1 ) Sub j ect t o th e
p rovi s i on s of art i cle 3 33 , t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each St at e s h all
60 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

con s i st of n ot more t h an fi ve hu n d red , an d n ot less th an s ix t y, memb ers


ch os en b y d i rect elect i on from t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es i n t h e St at e.
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os es of clau s e (1 ), each St at e s h all b e d i vi d ed i nt o
t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es in su ch mann er t h at t h e rat i o bet ween t h e
p op u lat i on of each con s t i tu en cy an d th e n umb er of s eat s all ot t ed t o i t s h all,
s o far as p ract i cab le, b e t h e s ame t h rou gh ou t t h e St at e.
Exp l an a ti on .—In t hi s clau s e, t h e exp res si on “p op u lat i on ” mean s th e
p op u lat i on as as cert ai n ed at th e las t p reced in g cen su s of wh i ch th e relevan t
fi gu res h ave b een p ub li s h ed :
Provi d ed t h at th e referen ce i n t h is Exp la na ti on t o th e las t preced i n g
cen s us of wh i ch t h e relevan t fi gu res h ave b een p ub li sh ed sh all, u n t i l t h e
relevan t fi gu res for t h e fi rs t cen s us t aken aft er th e year 2 02 6 h ave b een
p u b lis h ed , b e con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o t h e 20 01 cens us .
(3 ) Up on t h e comp let i on of each cen s us , t h e t ot al n u mb er of s ea t s i n th e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each St at e an d th e di vi si on of each St at e in t o
t erri t ori al con st i tu en ci es s h all be read ju st ed b y s u ch aut h ori t y an d i n su ch
man n er as Parli amen t may b y la w d et ermin e:
Provi d ed t h at su ch readj us t men t s h all n ot affect rep res en t at ion i n t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly u n t i l t h e di s s olu t i on of t h e th en ex is ti n g As s emb ly:
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at s u ch read ju s t men t s h all t ake effect from s u ch d ate
as th e Pres i d en t may, b y ord er, s p eci fy an d u n ti l su ch read ju stmen t t akes
effect , an y e lect i on t o t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly ma y b e h eld o n t h e b as i s
o f t h e t errit ori al con s t it u en ci es ex i st in g b efore s u ch readj u st men t :
Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026
have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust—
(i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted
on the basis of the 1971 census; and
(ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on
the basis of the 2001 census,
under this clause.
171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.—(1) The total number of members in the
Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total
number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State:
Provi d ed t h at th e t ot al nu mb er o f memb ers in th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of
a St at e sh all i n n o cas e b e les s th an fort y.
(2 ) Un t i l Parli amen t b y la w ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e comp os i ti on of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e s hall b e as p rovi d ed in clau s e (3 ).
(3 ) Of t h e t ot al n u mb er of me mb ers of t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a
St at e—
61 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) as n early as ma y b e, on e-t h i rd s h all b e elect ed b y e lect o rat es


con s i st i n g of memb ers of mu n i ci p ali t i es , d i st ri ct b oards and such ot h er
loca l au t h ori t i es in th e St at e as Parli amen t may b y law s p eci fy;
(b ) as n early as ma y b e, on e-t wel ft h s h all b e elect ed b y elect or at es
con s i st i n g of p ers on s res id i n g in th e St at e wh o h ave b een for at leas t
t h ree years grad u at es of an y u n i vers i t y i n t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a or h ave
b een for at leas t t h ree years i n p os s es si on of q u ali fi cat i on s p res cri b ed
b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t as eq ui valen t t o th at of a
grad u at e of an y s u ch u ni vers i t y;
(c) as n early as ma y b e, on e -t w el ft h s h all b e elect ed b y elect or at es
con s i st i n g of p ers on s wh o h ave b een for at leas t t h ree years en g aged i n
t each in g i n su ch edu cati on al i ns t it u ti on s wi th in t h e St at e, n ot lo wer i n
s t and ard th an th at of a s econ d ar y s ch oo l, as ma y b e p res cri b ed b y or
u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t ;
(d ) as n early as may b e, on e-t h i rd s h all b e elect ed b y t h e memb ers
o f t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e from amon gs t p ers on s wh o are
n ot memb ers of t h e As s emb ly;
(e) t h e remain d er s h all b e n omin at ed b y t h e G overn or i n accordan ce
wi t h th e p rovi s i on s of clau s e (5 ).
(4 ) Th e memb ers t o b e elect ed u n d er s ub -clau s es (a ), (b ) and (c) o f
clau s e (3 ) s h all b e ch os en in s u ch t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es as may b e
p res crib ed b y or u n d er an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , an d t he elect i on s
u n d er t h e s ai d s ub -clau s es an d un d er su b -clau s e (d ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all
b e h eld i n accord an ce wi t h t h e s ys t em o f p rop ort i on al rep res e n t ati on b y
mean s of t h e si n gle t ran s ferab le vot e.
(5 ) Th e memb ers t o b e n omin ated b y t h e G overn or u n d er s ub -clau s e (e)
o f clau s e (3 ) sh all con s i s t of p ers on s h avi n g sp eci al kn owled ge o r p ract i cal
ex p eri en ce in resp ect of s u ch mat t ers as th e fol lo wi n g, n amel y:—
Li t erat u re, s ci en ce, art , co-op erat i ve movemen t and s oci al s ervi ce.
172. Duration of State Legislatures.—(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State,
unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first
meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a
dissolution of the Assembly:
Provi d ed t h at th e s aid p eri od may, wh i le a Proclamat i on o f E mergen cy
i s i n op erati on , b e ext end ed b y Par li amen t b y law for a p eri od n ot
ex ceed in g on e year at a t i me an d n ot ex t en di n g i n an y cas e b eyon d a p eri od
o f s i x mon th s aft er t h e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o op erat e.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e sh all n ot b e su b j ect t o di ss olu t i on ,
b u t as n early as p os s i b le on e-t hi rd of t h e memb ers t h ereof s h all ret i re as
s oon as may b e on th e exp i rat i on of ever y s econ d year i n accord an ce wit h
t h e p rovi s i on s mad e in th at b eh al f b y Parli amen t b y law.
62 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

1 7 3. Qua lif i ca ti on f or m em bers hi p of the Sta te Leg is l a ture.—A


p ers on sh all n ot b e qu ali fi ed t o b e ch os en t o fi ll a s eat i n th e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e un les s h e—
(a ) i s a cit i zen of In d i a, an d makes an d su b s cri b es b efore s ome
p ers on au th ori s ed in t h at b eh alf b y t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n th e Th i rd
Sch ed u le;
(b ) i s , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y, n ot les s
t h an t wen t y-fi ve years o f age an d , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n th e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, n ot les s th an th i rt y years o f age ; an d
(c) p os s es s es su ch ot h er qu ali fi cat i on s as may b e p res crib ed in t h at
b eh alf b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t .
1 7 4. Ses s i ons of the Sta te Leg is l a ture, prorog a ti on a nd di ss ol uti on.—
(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all fr om t i me t o t i me su mmon t h e Hou s e or each Hou s e
o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e to meet at s u ch ti me and p lace as h e t hi n ks
fi t , b u t s ix mont hs sh all n ot i n t erven e b et ween i ts las t s it t in g i n one
s es si on and th e d at e app oi nt ed for i t s fi rs t si tt in g i n t h e n ext s ess i on .
(2 ) Th e G overn or may fr om t i me t o t i me—
(a ) p rorogu e t h e Hou s e or ei th er Hou s e;
(b ) d is s olve t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
1 7 5. Ri g ht of Governor to a ddres s a nd s end m ess ag es to the Hous e or
Hous es .—(1 ) Th e G overn or may ad d res s th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or, i n
t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, ei t h er Hou s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, or b oth Hou s es as s emb led t oget h er, an d may for
t h at p u rp os e requ i re t h e at t en d an ce of memb ers .
(2 ) Th e G overn or may s en d mes s ages t o th e Hou s e or Hou s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, wh eth er wi t h res p ect t o a Bi ll t h en p end i n g i n t h e
Le gi s lat u re or ot h erwi s e, and a Hou s e t o wh i ch an y mes s age i s s o s en t
s h all wi t h all con ven i en t d es pat ch con si d er an y mat t er req u ired b y t h e
mes s age t o b e t aken in t o con s id erat i on .
1 7 6. Specia l a ddres s by the Govern or.—(1 ) At t h e commen cemen t of
t h e fi rs t s ess i on aft er each gen eral e lect i on t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly
an d at t h e commen cemen t of t he fi rs t s es si on of each year, t he G overn or
s h all ad d res s t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b ot h Hou s es as s emb led t oget h er an d i n form t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e cau s es of i t s su mmon s .
(2 ) Provi s i on s h all b e mad e b y t h e ru les regu lat i n g th e p rocedu re o f t h e
Hou s e or ei t h er Hou s e for t h e all ot men t of t i me for d i s cus si on of t h e
mat t ers referred t o in su ch ad d res s .
1 7 7. Ri g hts of Mi nis ters a nd Adv oca te-Genera l a s res pects the
Hous es .—Ever y Mi n i st er and the Ad vocat e-G en eral for a St at e s h all h ave
t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art i n th e p roceedi n gs of, t h e
63 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a


Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b ot h Hou s es , an d t o s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake
p art i n th e p roceed in gs of, an y commi t t ee of t h e Le gi s lat u re o f wh i ch h e
may b e n amed a memb er, b ut s hall n ot , b y vi rt u e o f t h i s art i cle, b e en t i t led
t o vot e.
Of f i cers of th e St at e Legi s la tu r e
1 7 8. The Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker of the Leg i sl a ti ve As sem bly .—
Ever y Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f a St at e s h all, as s oon as ma y b e, ch oos e t wo
memb ers of t h e As s emb ly t o b e res p ect i vel y Sp eaker an d Dep ut y Sp eaker
t h ereof an d , s o oft en as t h e offi ce of Sp eaker or Dep u t y Sp eaker b ecomes
vacan t , t h e Ass emb ly s h all ch o o s e an ot h er memb er t o b e Sp eaker or Dep u t y
Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e.
1 7 9. Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker. —A memb er h old in g offi ce as Sp eaker or
Dep u t y Sp eaker o f an As s emb ly—
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
As s emb ly;
(b ) may at an y t i me b y wri t i n g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er is th e Sp eaker, t o t h e Dep u t y Sp eaker, an d i f s u ch memb er is
t h e Depu t y Sp eaker, t o t h e Sp eaker, res i gn h is offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed from h i s offi ce b y a res o lu t i on of t h e As s emb ly
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e As s emb ly:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at, wh en ever t h e As s emb ly i s d i ss olved , t h e Sp eaker
s h all n ot vacat e h is offi ce u n t i l i mmedi at ely b efore t h e fi rs t meet i n g of t h e
As s emb ly a ft er t h e d is s olu t i on .
1 8 0. P ow er of the Deputy Spea ker or other pers on to perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s, Spea ker.—(1 ) Wh i le t he o ffi ce o f
Sp eaker i s vacan t , t h e d ut i es o f t h e offi ce s h all b e p erform ed b y t h e
Dep u t y Sp eaker or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Sp eaker i s als o vaca n t , b y s u ch
memb er of t h e As s emb ly as t h e G overn or ma y ap p oi n t for t h e purp os e.
(2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy
Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure
of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by
the Assembly, shall act as Speaker.
1 8 1. The Spea ker or the De puty Spea ker n ot to pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or his rem ova l f rom offi ce i s under cons i dera ti on.—(1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly, wh i le an y res o lu t i on for t h e
remova l o f t h e Sp eaker from h i s o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on , th e Sp eaker,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal o f t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker from h i s
64 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o ffi ce i s un d er con s id erati on , th e Dep ut y Sp eaker, s h all n ot , th ou gh h e i s


p res ent , p resi d e, and t he p rovi s ion s o f c lau s e (2 ) o f art i cle 1 8 0 s h all ap p l y
i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from
wh i ch t h e Sp eaker or, as t h e case may b e, t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker, i s ab s en t .
(2 ) Th e Sp eaker sh all h ave t h e ri gh t t o sp eak i n, and ot h erwis e t o t ake
p art in th e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly wh i le an y res olu t i on
for h i s removal fr om o ffi ce i s u n d er cons id erat i on i n t h e Ass emb ly an d
s h all, n ot wi t hs t an di n g an yt h in g i n art i cle 18 9, b e ent i t led t o vot e on l y i n
t h e fi rs t in s t an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er du ri n g s u ch
p roceed i n gs b ut n ot i n t h e cas e o f an eq u ali t y o f vot es .
1 8 2. The Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n of the Leg i sl a ti ve
Counci l .—Th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f e ver y St at e h avi n g s uch Cou n ci l
s h all, as s oon as ma y b e, ch oos e t w o memb ers o f t h e Co u n ci l t o b e
res p ecti vel y Ch ai rman and Depu t y Ch ai rman t h ereof an d , s o oft en as t h e
o ffi ce o f Ch ai rman or Dep u t y Ch ai rman b ecomes vacan t , t h e Cou n ci l sh all
ch oos e an ot h er memb er t o b e Ch ai rman or Dep ut y Ch ai rman , as th e cas e
may b e.
1 8 3. Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n.—A memb er h old i n g offi ce a s Ch ai rman
or Dep u t y Ch ai rman of a Legi s la t i ve Cou n ci l—
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
Cou n ci l;
(b ) may at an y t i me b y wri t i n g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er i s t h e Ch ai rman , t o t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman , and i f s u ch memb er i s
t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman , t o t h e Ch ai rman , res i gn h i s offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Cou n ci l
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Cou nci l:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on .
1 8 4. P ow er of the Deputy Chai rma n or other pers on to perform the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s , Cha i rm a n.—(1 ) Wh i le the o ffi ce o f
Ch ai rman is vacan t , th e du ti es of t h e offi ce s h all b e p erfor med b y t h e
Dep u t y Ch ai rman or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Ch ai rman i s als o vacan t , b y
s u ch memb er of t h e Cou nci l as th e G overn or may ap p oi n t for t h e p u rp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g th e abs en ce of t h e Ch ai rman from an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l
t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman or, i f he i s als o ab s en t , su ch p ers on as may b e
d et ermin ed b y t h e ru les o f p roc ed u re of t h e Cou n ci l, or, i f n o s u ch p ers on
i s p res en t , su ch ot h er p ers on as ma y b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Cou n ci l, s h all
act as Ch ai rman .
185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.—(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council,
while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration,
65 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office
is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the
provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they
apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Deputy
Chairman is absent.
(2 ) Th e Ch ai rman s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o sp eak i n, and ot h erwise t o t ake
p art i n t h e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l wh i le an y res olu t i on for
h i s removal from o ffi ce i s u nder con s i d erati on in t h e Coun ci l an d sh all,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g in article 1 8 9 , b e ent it led t o vot e on ly i n t h e fi rs t
i n st an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u ri n g su ch proceed i n gs
b u t n ot in th e cas e of an eq u ali ty o f v ot es .
1 8 6. Sa la ri es a nd al l ow a nces of the Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker a nd
the Cha i rm a n a nd Deputy Chai rma n.—Th ere sh all b e p ai d t o t h e Sp eaker
an d th e Dep ut y Sp eaker o f t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y, an d t o t he Ch ai rman
an d th e Dep ut y Ch ai rman of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, s u ch salari es an d
all owan ces as may b e resp ect i vel y fi x ed b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t he St at e b y
law an d , u nt i l p rovi s i on in that b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es an d
all owan ces as are s peci fi ed in the Secon d Sch ed u le.
1 8 7. Secreta ria t of Sta te Leg is la ture.—(1 ) Th e Hou s e or each Hou s e o f
t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e s h all h ave a s ep arat e s ecret ari al st aff:
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g in th is clau s e sh all, i n th e cas e of t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e h avi n g a Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b e cons t ru ed as p reven t in g th e
creat i on of p os t s common t o b oth Hou s es of s u ch Legi s lat u re.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may b y law re gu lat e t h e recru itmen t , an d
t h e con di t i ons of s ervi ce o f p er s on s app oi n ted , t o th e s ecret arial s t aff o f
t h e Hou s e or Hou s es of t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
(3 ) Un ti l p rovi s i on i s mad e b y th e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e un d er clau s e
(2 ), t h e G overn or may, a ft er con s u lt ati on wi t h t h e Sp eaker o f t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly or t h e Chai rman of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou nci l, as th e
cas e may b e, make ru les regu la t i n g t h e recrui t men t , an d th e con d it i ons of
s ervi ce of p ers on s ap p oin t ed , t o t h e s ecret ari al s t aff o f t h e As s emb ly o r t h e
Cou n ci l, and an y ru les s o mad e s h all h ave effect s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s
o f an y law mad e u n d er t h e s ai d clau s e.
Co nd u ct o f Bu s in ess
1 8 8. Oa th or a ffi rma ti on by m em bers .—Every memb er o f t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y or t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e s hall, b e fore
t aki n g h is s eat , make an d su bs cri b e b efore t h e G overn or, or s ome p ers on
ap p oi nt ed in th at b eh alf b y h im, an oat h or affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e
form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e in th e Th i rd Sch ed u le.
1 8 9. Voti ng i n Hous es , pow er of Hous es to a ct notw i thsta ndi ng
va ca nci es a nd quorum .—(1 ) Save as ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed in th i s
Con s t it ut i on , all q u es ti on s at any s i t t in g of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a
66 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

St at e sh all b e d et ermi n ed b y a maj ori t y o f vot es o f t h e members p res ent


an d vot i n g, oth er t h an th e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on acti n g as su ch .
Th e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on act i n g as su ch, s h all n ot vo t e i n th e
fi rs t i n s t an ce, bu t sh all h ave an d ex erci s e a cast i n g vot e i n t h e cas e o f an
eq u ali t y o f v ot es .
(2 ) A Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all h ave p ower t o act
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an y vacan c y i n t h e memb ers h ip t h ereof, an d an y
p roceed i n gs in t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all b e vali d n ot wi t h st and in g
t h at i t is d is covered s ub s eq u en t ly t h at s ome p ers on wh o was n ot en t it led s o
t o d o s at or vot ed or ot h erwi s e too k p art i n t h e p roceed in gs .
(3 ) Un ti l t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , t he
q u oru m t o con s ti t ut e a meet in g of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e
s h all b e t en memb ers or on e-t en t h of t h e t ot al nu mb er of memb ers of t h e
Hou s e, wh i ch ever is great er.
(4 ) If at an y t i me d u rin g a meet i n g of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e t h ere i s n o q u oru m, i t sh all b e t h e d u t y o f
t h e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on acti n g as su ch , ei th er t o ad j ou rn th e
Hou s e or t o s u sp end th e meeti n g u nt i l t h ere i s a q u oru m.
Di s q ua li f i ca ti on s o f Memb ers
1 9 0. Va ca ti on of s ea ts .—(1 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er of b ot h
Hou s es of t h e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e an d p rovi s i on s h all b e mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e b y la w for t h e vacat i on b y a p ers on wh o i s ch os en
a memb er of b ot h Hou s es of h i s s eat in on e h ou s e or th e ot h er.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er of t h e Legi s lat u res of t wo or more
St at es sp eci fi ed i n th e Fi rs t Sch ed u le and i f a p ers on i s ch os en a memb er
o f t h e Legi s lat u res of t wo or more s u ch St at es , th en , at t h e exp i rati on of
s u ch p eri od as may b e s p eci fied i n ru les mad e b y t h e Presi d ent , th at
p ers on ' s s eat in t h e Legi s lat u res of al l s u ch St at es s h all b ecome vacan t,
u n les s h e h as p revi ou s ly res i gn ed h is s eat in t he Legi s lat u res of all b u t on e
o f t h e St at es .
(3 ) If a memb er of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e—
(a ) b ecomes su bj ect t o an y o f t h e d is qu ali fi cat i on s ment i on ed in
clau s e (1 ) or clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 1 91 ; or
(b ) res i gns h is s eat b y wri t i ng u n d er hi s hand ad d res s ed t o t h e
s p eaker or t h e Ch ai rman , as t he cas e may b e, an d h is resi gnat i on is
accep t ed b y t h e Sp eaker or t h e Ch ai rman, as t h e cas e may b e,
h i s s eat s h all t h ereu p on b ecome vacan t :
Provi d ed t h at in th e cas e of an y res i gn ati on referred t o i n s u b -cl au s e (b ),
i f from i n format i on recei ved or ot h erwi s e and aft er maki n g s u ch i n qu i ry as
h e t hi n ks fi t , th e Sp eaker or t h e Ch ai rman, as th e cas e may b e, i s s at i s fi ed
t h at s u ch res i gn ati on is n ot vol u n t ary or gen u i n e, h e s h all n ot accep t s u ch
res i gn ati on .
67 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) If for a p eri od o f s i x t y d a ys a memb er o f a Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re


o f a St at e i s wi th ou t p ermi s si on of t h e Hou s e abs ent from al l meet i n gs
t h ereof, t h e Hou s e may d eclare h i s s eat vacant :
Provi d ed t h at in comp ut i n g th e sai d p eri od of s i x t y d a ys n o acco u n t s h all
b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e i s p rorogu ed or i s ad j ou rn ed
for more t h an fou r con s ecu t i ve days .
1 9 1. Di s qua lif i ca ti ons f or m em bers hi p.—(1 ) A p ers on s h all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ein g ch os en as , an d for b ei n g, a member of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly or Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e—
(a ) i f h e h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er th e G overn men t of In d i a or
t h e G overn men t of an y St at e s p eci fi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch edu le, ot h er t h an
an offi ce d eclared b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law n ot t o
d i sq u ali fy i t s h old er;
(b ) i f h e is of u n s ou nd mi nd and st and s s o d eclared b y a comp et ent
cou rt ;
(c) i f h e i s an un di s ch arged in sol ven t ;
(d ) i f h e i s n ot a ci t i zen of In d i a, or h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red t he
ci t i zen sh i p of a forei gn St at e, or i s u nd er an y ackn owled g men t of
alle gi an ce or ad h eren ce t o a fore i gn St at e;
(e) i f h e i s s o d i sq u ali fi ed b y or u nd er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t .
Exp l an a ti on .—For t h e p u rp os es of t h i s claus e, a p ers on s h all n ot b e
d eemed t o h old an offi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e s p ecifi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch edu le b y r eas on on l y
t h at h e is a Mi ni s t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for s u ch St at e.
(2 ) A p ers on sh all b e d i sq u ali fied for b ei n g a memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly or Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e i f h e i s s o d i s qu alifi ed u n d er
t h e Ten th Sch edu le.
1 92 . Deci s i on on ques ti ons a s to di s qua l if i ca ti ons of m em bers .—(1)
If an y q u es t i on ari s es as t o wh eth er a memb er of a Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e h as b ecome su bj ect to an y o f t h e di sq u ali fi cat i on s men t i on ed i n
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 9 1 , t h e q ues t i on s h all b e referred for t h e d eci si on of
t h e G overn or an d hi s d eci si on shall b e fi n al.
(2 ) Before gi vi n g an y d eci s i on on an y s u ch q u es ti on , t h e G overn or s h all
ob t ai n th e op i n i on of t h e E lect i on Commi s s i on an d sh all act ac cord i n g t o
s u ch op i ni on .
1 93 . P ena l ty f or s i tti ng and voti ng bef ore m a ki ng oa th or
a ffi rma ti on under a rti cl e 18 8 or w hen not qual ifi ed or w hen
di s qual if i ed.—If a p ers on s i ts or vot es as a memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly or t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e b efore h e h as comp li ed wi th
t h e requ i remen ts of art i cle 1 8 8 , or wh en h e kn ows t h at h e i s not q u ali fi ed
or t h at h e is d i sq u ali fi ed for memb ers hi p th ereof, or t h at h e i s p roh ib i t ed
fr om s o d oi n g b y t h e p rovi s i on s of an y law mad e b y Par li amen t or th e
68 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, h e s hall b e li ab le i n resp ect of each d ay on wh i ch


h e s o s i t s or vot es t o a p en alt y o f fi ve h u n d red rup ees t o b e recovered as a
d eb t du e t o th e St at e.
Po wer s , Pri vi l eg es a nd Immu ni t ies o f S ta t e Leg is la tu r es
a n d t hei r Memb er s
1 9 4. P ow ers , pri vi l eg es , etc., of the Hous es of Leg is la tures a nd of the
m em bers a nd comm i ttees thereof .—(1 ) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s ion s of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on an d t o t h e ru les and s t and in g ord ers regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re
o f t h e Legi s lat u re, th ere s h all be freed om o f s p eech i n th e Leg i s lat u re of
ever y St at e.
(2 ) No memb er of t h e Legi s l at u re of a St at e sh all b e li ab le t o an y
p roceed i n gs i n an y cou rt i n resp ect of an yt h i n g s aid or an y vo t e gi ven b y
h i m i n t h e Legi s lat u re or an y co mmi t t ee t h ereof, an d n o p ers on s h all b e s o
li ab le i n resp ect of t h e pu b li cation b y or u n d er th e au th ori t y o f a Hou s e of
s u ch a Legi s lat u re o f an y rep ort , p ap er, vot es or p roceedi n gs .
(3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature
of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be
such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined,
shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the
coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.
(4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by
virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the
proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply
in relation to members of that Legislature.
195. Salaries and allowances of members.—Members of the Legislative Assembly and
the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as
may from time to time be determined, by the Legislature of the State by law and, until
provision in that respect is so made, salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such
conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in
the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province.
Legislative Procedure
196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.—(1) Subject to the provisions of
articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may
originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council.
(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198, a Bill shall not be deemed to have
been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it
has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only
as are agreed to by both Houses.
(3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation
of the House or Houses thereof.
69 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the
Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly.
(5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been
passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a
dissolution of the Assembly.
197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money
Bills.—(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a
Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council—
(a) the Bill is rejected by the Council; or
(b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is laid before the
Council without the Bill being passed by it; or
(c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative
Assembly does not agree;
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly may, s u b j ect t o th e ru les regu lat i n g i t s
p roced u re, pas s t h e Bi ll agai n i n th e s ame or in an y s u bs equen t s es si on
wi t h or wi t h ou t s u ch amend ments , i f an y, as h ave b een mad e, s ugges t ed or
agreed t o b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d th en t rans mi t t h e Bi ll a s s o p as s ed
t o t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(2 ) If a ft er a Bi l l h as b een s o p as s ed for t h e s econ d t i me b y t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d t ran smi t t ed t o th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n cil—
(a ) th e Bi ll i s rej ect ed b y t h e Cou n ci l; or
(b ) more t h an on e mon t h elap ses fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e Bi ll
i s lai d b efore t h e Cou n ci l wi th ou t th e Bi ll b ein g p ass ed b y i t ; or
(c) t h e Bi ll i s p ass ed b y t h e Cou n ci l wi t h amend ment s t o which
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly d oes n ot agree;
t h e Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een p ass ed b y t h e Hou s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e i n t he form i n wh i ch i t was p as sed b y t he
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y for t h e s econ d t i me wi th s u ch amend men ts , i f an y, as
h ave b een mad e or su gges t ed by t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d agreed t o b y
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
(3 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all ap p ly t o a Mon e y Bi l l.
1 98 . Specia l procedure i n respect of M oney Bi l ls .—(1 ) A Mon e y Bi l l
s h all n ot b e in t rodu ced i n a Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(2 ) Aft er a Mon e y Bi l l h as b een p ass ed b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, i t s h all b e t ran s mit t ed t o t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l for i t s recommen d at i on s, and t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l
s h all wi t h in a p eri od of fou rt een d ays from t h e d at e of i t s recei p t of t h e
Bi ll ret u rn t h e Bi ll t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y wi t h i t s recommen d at i on s ,
an d th e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y m ay t h ereu p on ei th er accept or re j ect all or
an y o f t h e recommen d at i ons of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
70 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3 ) If t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y accep t s an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of


t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, t h e Mon e y Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een
p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es wi th t h e amend ment s recommen ded b y t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d accep t ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y.
(4 ) If t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly d oes n ot accep t an y of t h e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, t h e Mon ey Bi l l s h all b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es in th e form i n wh i ch i t was
p as s ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly wi t h ou t an y of t h e amen d men ts
recommen d ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(5 ) If a Mon e y Bi l l p as s ed b y th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d t ran s mit t ed
t o t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l for i t s recommend at i ons is n ot ret u rn ed t o t he
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y wi t h i n t he s ai d p eri od of fou rt een d ays , i t s h all b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es at t h e ex pi rat i on o f t h e s aid
p eri od in th e form i n wh i ch i t was p ass ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
199. Definition of “Money Bills”.—(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be
deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the
following matters, namely:—
(a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
(b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the
State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or
to be undertaken by the State;
(c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State, the
payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund;
(d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State;
(e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated
Fund of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;
(f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the
public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money; or
(g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f).
(2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the
imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for
licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition,
abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for
local purposes.
(3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has
a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative
Assembly of such State thereon shall be final.
(4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative
Council under article 198, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article
200, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a
Money Bill.
71 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

200. Assent to Bills.—When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State
or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the
Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare
either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the
Bill for the consideration of the President:
Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the
Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that
the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in
particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may
recommend in his message and, wh en a Bi ll i s s o ret u rn ed , t he Hou s e or H ou s es
s h all recon s i d er t h e Bi ll accord i n gl y, an d i f t h e Bi ll i s p as s ed agai n b y t h e
Hou s e or Hou s es wi t h or wi t h out amen d men t and p res ent ed t o t he G overn or
for as s en t , t h e G overn or s h all n ot wi t hh old as s en t t h erefrom:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at th e G overn or s h all n ot ass ent t o, b u t sh all res erve
for t h e con si d erat i on of t h e Presi d ent , an y Bi ll wh i ch i n th e op in i on of t h e
G overn or wou ld , i f i t b ecame law, s o d erogat e from t h e p owers o f t h e Hi gh
Cou rt as t o en d an ger t h e p osi t ion wh i ch t h at Cou rt i s b y t h i s Con s t it ut i on
d es i gn ed t o fi ll.
2 0 1. Bi l ls res erved f or cons i dera ti on.—Wh en a Bi ll i s res erved b y a
G overn or for t h e con si d erat i on o f t h e Presi d en t , th e Presi d en t sh all d eclare
ei t h er t h at h e as s en ts t o th e Bi ll or t h at h e wi t hh old s ass ent th erefr om:
Provi d ed t h at , wh ere th e Bi ll i s n ot a Mon ey Bi ll, t h e Pres i den t may
d i rect t h e G overn or t o ret u rn the Bi ll t o t h e Hou s e or, as th e cas e may b e,
t h e Hou s es of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e t oget h er wi t h s u ch a mes s age as
i s men ti on ed in t h e fi rs t p rovi s o t o art i cle 2 0 0 an d , wh en a Bi ll i s s o
ret u rn ed , th e Hou s e or Hou s es s h all recon s i d er i t accord in gly wi t h i n a
p eri od of s i x mon t hs from t h e d at e of recei p t o f s u ch mes s age an d , i f i t is
agai n p ass ed b y t h e Hou s e or H ou s es wi th or wi t h ou t amend men t , it s h all
b e p res en t ed agai n t o t h e Pres iden t for h i s con si d erat i on .
Pr o ced ur e in Fin an ci al Ma tt ers
2 0 2. Annua l f i na ncia l s ta tem ent.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all i n res p ect of
ever y fi n an ci al year cau s e t o b e lai d b efore t h e Hou s e or H o u s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e a s t at ement of t h e es t i mat ed recei p ts an d
ex p en d it u re of t h e St at e for t h at year, i n th is Part referred t o as th e
“an n u al fi n an ci al s t at emen t ".
(2 ) Th e es t imat es of ex p end i tu re emb od i ed in t h e an nu al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t s h all s h ow s ep arat el y—
(a ) t h e su ms req u i red t o meet ex p en di t u re d es crib ed b y t h i s
Con s t it ut i on as exp end i tu re ch arged u p on t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e
St at e; an d
(b ) t h e s u ms req ui red t o meet ot h er ex p en di tu re p rop os ed t o b e
mad e from t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e;
72 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d s h all di s ti n gui sh ex p en di t u re on revenu e accoun t fr om ot h er


ex p en d it u re.
(3 ) Th e fo ll owi n g ex p en di tu re s h all b e ex p en di tu re ch arged on t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of each St at e—
(a ) t h e emolu men t s and allo wan ces of t h e G overn or an d ot h er
ex p en d it u re relat in g t o h is offi ce;
(b ) t h e s alari es an d allowan c es of t h e Sp eaker an d t h e Dep u t y
Sp eaker o f t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d , i n th e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, als o o f t h e Ch ai rman and th e Dep ut y Ch ai rman of
t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l;
(c) d ebt ch arges for wh i ch t he St at e is li ab le i n clu di n g i nt eres t ,
s i n kin g fu n d ch arges and red emp t i on ch arges , and ot h er expen d it u re
relat i n g t o t h e rai s in g of loan s an d t h e s ervi ce and red emp t i on of d ebt ;
(d ) ex p en di tu re i n res p ect of t h e s alari es an d allowan ces of J u d ges
o f an y Hi gh Cou rt ;
(e) an y s u ms requ i red t o s at is fy an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or award of
an y cou rt or arb i t ral t ri b un al;
(f ) an y ot h er ex p end i tu re d eclared b y t h i s Con s t it ut i on , or b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law, t o b e s o ch arged .
2 0 3. P rocedure i n Leg i sl a ture w i th res pect to es ti ma tes .—(1 ) So mu ch
o f t h e es t i mat es as relat es t o ex p end it u re ch arged u p on t h e Con s oli d at ed
Fu n d of a St at e s h all n ot b e s u bmi tt ed t o t h e vot e of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly, b u t n ot h i n g i n th is clau s e s h all b e con s t ru ed as p reven t i n g t he
d i s cu ss i on i n t h e Legi s lat u re of an y o f t h os e es t i mat es .
(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the
form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall
have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand
subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor.
204. Appropriation Bills.—(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have
been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation
out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet—
(a) the grants so made by the Assembly; and
(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding
in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or
Houses.
(2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the
Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the
destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the
Consolidated Fund of the State, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an
amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final.
73 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206, no money shall be withdrawn from
the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in
accordance with the provisions of this article.
205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.—(1) The Governor shall—
(a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of
article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to
be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current
financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not
contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or
(b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of
the amount granted for that service and for that year,
cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another
statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the
Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess, as the case may be.
(2) The provisions of articles 202, 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such
statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the
appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure
or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial
statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be
made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the
State to meet such expenditure or grant.
206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall
have power—
(a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of
any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for
the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of
article 204 in relation to that expenditure;
(b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the
State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the
demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement;
(c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any
financial year;
and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of
moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are
made.
(2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any
grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in
relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual
financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys
out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure.
74 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.—(1) A Bill or amendment making provision


for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not
be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making
such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council:
Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an
amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.
(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters
aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary
penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or
by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of
any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.
(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from
the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State
unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.
Procedure Generally
208. Rules of procedure.—(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for
regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its
business.
(2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the rules of procedure and standing orders in
force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the
Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of
the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case
may be.
(3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make
rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses.
209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to
financial business. —The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely
completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of
business in, the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial
matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the
State, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule
made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article
208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State
under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail.
210. Language to be used in the Legislature.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part
XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall
be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English:
Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative
Council, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot
75 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his
mother-tongue.
(2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after
the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have
effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom:
Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur,
Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years
occurring therein, the words "twenty-five years" were substituted:
Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh,
Goa and Mizoram, this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring
therein, the words "forty years" were substituted.
211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. —No discussion shall take place in
the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of
a High Court in the discharge of his duties.
212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.—(1) The validity of
any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of
any alleged irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or
under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining
order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the
exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR


213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.—(1)
If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is
a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session,
the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take
immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to
require:
Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate
any such Ordinance if—
(a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required
the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or
(b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same
provisions for the consideration of the President; or
(c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under
this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of
the President, it had received the assent of the President.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an
Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a
Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the
76 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration
of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and
agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the
case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and
(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor.
Explanation.—Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council
are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned
from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause.
(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not
be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it
shall be void:
Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect
of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an
existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance
promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed
to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of
the President and assented to by him.
* * * * *

CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES


214. High Courts for States.—There shall be a High Court for each State.
* * * * *
215. High Courts to be courts of record.—Every High Court shall be a court of record
and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of
itself.
216. Constitution of High Courts.—Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and
such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint.
* * * * *
217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.—(1) Every
Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal
after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of
appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court, and
shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and
in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years:
Provided that—
(a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his
office;
(b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided
in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;
77 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to
be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other
High Court within the territory of India.
(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is
a citizen of India and—
(a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or
(b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such
Courts in succession.
* * * * *
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause—
(a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the
territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office,
during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a
member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge
of law;
(aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High
Court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or
the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring
special knowledge of law after he became an advocate;
(b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the
territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period
before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in
any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as
defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court
in any such area, as the case may be.
(3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be
decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of
the President shall be final.
218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.—
The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as
they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High
Court for references to the Supreme Court.
219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.—Every person appointed to be a
Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the
Governor of the State, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation
according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.
220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.—No person who, after the
commencement of this Constitution, has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court
shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and
the other High Courts.
78 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Explanation.—In this article, the expression “High Court” does not include a High Court
for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of
the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.
221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.—(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court
such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is
so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule.
(2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave
of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by
Parliament and, until so determined, to such allowances and rights as are specified in the
Second Schedule:
Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of
absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.—(1) The President may,
after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any
other High Court.
(2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred, he shall, during the period he serves, after
the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, as a Judge of the
other High Court, be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance
as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until so determined, such compensatory
allowance as the President may by order fix.
223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—When the office of Chief Justice of a High
Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable
to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of
the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose.
224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.—(1) If by reason of any temporary
increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to
the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being
increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the
Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify.
(2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence
or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act
temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a
Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties.
(3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office
after attaining the age of sixty-two years.
224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.—Notwithstanding
anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with
the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge
of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that
State, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such
allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and
privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that High Court:
79 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as
aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do.
225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution
and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers
conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law
administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in
relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of
Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in
Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this
Constitution:
Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the
High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered
or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this
Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction.
226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in
article 32 every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it
exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any
Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature
of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for
the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose.
(2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any
Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising
jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part,
arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or
authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories.
(3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay
or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause
(1), without—
(a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of
the plea for such interim order; and
(b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard,
makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of
such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such
party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the
date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so
furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period,
before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the
application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as
the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated.
(4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the
power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32.
80 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

226A. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under


article 226.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 8 (w.e.f. 13-4-
1978).
227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.—(1) Every High
Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in
relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may—
(a) call for returns from such courts;
(b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and
proceedings of such courts; and
(c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers
of any such courts.
(3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks
and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein:
Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause
(3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and
shall require the previous approval of the Governor.
(4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of
superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the
Armed Forces.
* * * * *
228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case
pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the
interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of
the case, it shall withdraw the case and may—
(a) either dispose of the case itself, or
(b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the
case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the
said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such
judgment.
228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of
State laws.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 10 (w.e.f. 13-4-
1978).
229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.—(1) Appointments of
officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such
other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct:
Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be
specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any
office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service
Commission.
81 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, the
conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be
prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer
of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose:
Provided that the rules made under this clause shall, so far as they relate to salaries,
allowances, leave or pensions, require the approval of the Governor of the State.
(3) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and
pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court, shall be charged
upon the Consolidated Fund of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court
shall form part of that Fund.
230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.—(1) Parliament
may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High
Court from, any Union territory.
(2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union
territory,—
(a ) n oth in g i n th is Cons t it ut i on s h all b e con s t ru ed as emp oweri n g
t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e t o i n creas e, rest ri ct or ab oli s h th at
j u ris di ct i on ; and
(b ) th e referen ce in arti cle 22 7 t o t h e G overn or s h all, in relat i on t o
an y ru les , forms or t ab les for s u b ordi n at e cou rts in th at t errit or y, b e
con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o t h e Pres i d en t .
231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.—(1)
Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament
may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States
and a Union territory.
(2) In relation to any such High Court,—
(a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a
reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises
jurisdiction;
(b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or
tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in
which the subordinate courts are situate; and
(c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference
to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat:
Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219
and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of
the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service
Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.
82 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS


233. Appointment of district judges.—(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the
posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the
State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State.
(2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to
be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a
pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment.
233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain
district judges. —Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court,—
(a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of
any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader, to be a
district judge in that State, and
(ii) no posting, promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge,
made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act,
1966, otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be
deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact
that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the
said provisions;
(b) no jurisdiction exercised, no judgment, decree, sentence or order passed or made,
and no other act or proceedings done or taken, before the commencement of the
Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966 by, or before, any person appointed,
posted, promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in
accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal
or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such
appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said
provisions.
234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.—
Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be
made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after
consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising
jurisdiction in relation to such State.
235. Control over subordinate courts.— The control over district courts and courts
subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons
belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district
judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking
away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating
the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than
in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law.
236. Interpretation.— In this Chapter—
(a) the expression “district judge” includes judge of a city civil court, additional
district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause
83 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge,
additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge;
(b) the expression “judicial service” means a service consisting exclusively of
persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to
the post of district judge.
237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of
magistrates.—The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions
of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be
fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State
as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to
such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification.
84 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VII.—[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the


Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

84
85 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VIII
THE UNION TERRITORIES
239. Administration of Union territories.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by
Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to
such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such
designation as he may specify.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President my appoint the Governor
of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so
appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council
of Ministers.
239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain
Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of
Pondicherry—
(a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a
Legislature for the Union territory, or
(b) a Council of Ministers,
or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the
law.
(2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of
this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision
which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution.
239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.—(1) As from the date of
commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory
of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred
to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239
shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor.
(2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the
seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial
constituencies in the National Capital Territory.
(b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for
Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies
(including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the
Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament.
(c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National
Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the
members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and
the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate
Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament.
(3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly shall have
power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to

85
86 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such
matter is applicable to Union territories except matters with respect to Entries 1, 2 and 18 of
the State List and Entries 64, 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries
1, 2 and 18.
(b) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this
Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof.
(c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter
is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter,
whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly, or of an earlier law,
other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly, then, in either case, the law made by
Parliament, or, as the case may be, such earlier law, shall prevail and the law made by the
Legislative Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void:
Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the
consideration of the President and has received his assent, such law shall prevail in the
National Capital Territory:
Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at
any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending,
varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly.
(4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. of the
total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to
aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters
with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as
he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion:
Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his
Ministers on any matter, the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision
and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it
shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter, in his opinion,
is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action, to take such action or to give
such direction in the matter as he deems necessary.
(5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be
appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold
office during the pleasure of the President.
(6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly.
(7) (a) Parliament may, by law, make provisions for giving effect to, or supplementing the
provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential
thereto.
(b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an
amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it
contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending, this Constitution.
(8) The provisions of article 239B shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the National
Capital Territory, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly, as they apply in
relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the administrator and its Legislature,
87 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

respectively; and any reference in that article to “clause (1) of article 239A” shall be deemed
to be a reference to this article or article 239AB, as the case may be.
239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.—If the President, on
receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise, is satisfied—
(a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital
Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of
any law made in pursuance of that article; or
(b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary
or expedient so to do,
the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all
or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and
subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and
consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering
the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article
239AA.
239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Legislature.—(1) If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of
Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which
render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as
the circumstances appear to him to require:
Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after
obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf:
Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved, or its functioning
remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in
clause (1) of article 239A, the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the
period of such dissolution or suspension.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the
President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has
been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such
law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to
operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if, before
the expiration of that period, a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature,
upon the passing of the resolution; and
(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions
from the President in that behalf.
(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not
be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying
with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of
article 239A, it shall be void.
* * * * *
88 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.— (1) The
President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union
territory of—
(a ) t h e An d aman and Ni cob ar Is lan d s ;
(b ) Laks h ad weep ;
(c) Dad ra an d Nagar Haveli ;
(d ) Daman and Di u ;
(e) Pon d i ch erry:
Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for
the Union territory of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace,
progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for
the first meeting of the Legislature:
Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved,
or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as
is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make
regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory.
(2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other
law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by
the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to
that territory.
241. High Courts for Union territories—(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High
Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all
or any of the purposes of this Constitution.
(2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court
referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214
subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the
appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under
this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the
commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, in relation to any Union
territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such
commencement.
(4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the
jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof.
242. [Coorg.] Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.