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The Grade of Rebar and the Strength of the Building

in the selected areas of the District 1 of Batangas:

A Basis of Reinforcing Steel to produce

an Earthquake Resistant Building

A Research Paper
Presented to the Faculty of
Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
Senior High School Department

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for


Practical Research 2 – Quantitative Research

Gumapac, Robert Jhon Mhar C.


Tamayo, Jobet Jr.
Vergara, Harold James L.
Vergara, Raven Ashley
March 2018
Chapter I

The Problem and Its Background

A. Introduction

Experiences in the past earthquakes have demonstrated that many

common buildings and typical methods of construction lack basic resistance to

earthquake forces. In most cases, this resistance can be achieved by following

simple, inexpensive principles of good building construction practice. Adherence

to these simple rules will not prevent all damage in moderate or large

earthquakes, but life-threatening collapses should be prevented, and the damage

limited to repairable proportions.

Building or construction materials are the major requirement in this

modern age of technology. There are many types of building materials used for

different construction works. For a material to be considered as a building

material, it should have required engineering properties suitable for construction

works. These properties of building materials are responsible for its quality and

capacity and help to decide applications of these materials.

Whenever engineers work on constructing a building, they can choose

what type of materials they will use. Materials are going to vary in cost, and this

will depend, in part, on the quality of the product. Those that are cheaper may be

lower in quality, and those that are more expensive are likely to last. To save

money, some people opt for the cheaper materials. While this may seem like a
good idea at the time, using poor-quality materials may result in a variety of

problems. Higher-quality materials will last much longer, and this increases the

durability of their output. For example, if they opt for a high-quality aggregate as

a base for their building project, that base will be more durable than the one

made with a low-quality product. They will not only be able to use the building for

a longer period of time, they will also know that it is safer than the building that

used a poor quality of materials.

In terms of earthquake safety risks, the most dangerous building

construction consists of unreinforced bricks or concrete blocks. This type of

construction can easily crumble with any lateral movement, resulting in

devastating damages and death. Effective earthquake-resistant steel structures

instead contain features either at the top or at the base of the building to protect

against unwanted movement. Earthquake-resistant building materials such as

shock absorbing ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders give taller

structures a buffer zone in the event of a ground shift, while heavy

counterweights placed at the top of the building can help to counteract any major

swaying. (The RPM Team, 2016)

Since the introduction of structural steel to building construction, in the late

19th and early 20th centuries, engineers have recognized that steel buildings and

structures have performed extremely well compared with structures of other

types of construction. Steel is known to have given a structure that no other can

when it comes to construction. The steel provide durability that cannot be

matched with wood nor concrete. It is getting more and more common for steel to
be used in construction, and people are preferring steel due to its various

advantages. Steel buildings are built using various frames as well. Due to the fact

that steel is very much easier and less time consuming when it comes to

construction, along with its numerous other factors that have proved

advantageous, steel, these days, has become the most sought after way of

constructing buildings.

Steel construction is gaining popularity all over the world and every region

has benefitted due to steel throughout the years. Many of the greatest

architectural wonders have been constructed through the use of steel, be it

structural, carbon or rebar- aside from all of the other types of steel that are

available for construction of buildings. Most importantly, the usage of steel

ensures more eco friendliness than other modes of construction, and due to this

factor alone it is given more preference. Taking into consideration the rate of

marvellous constructions, steel has proved rather favourable. With the usage of

steel increasing in construction, there is no doubt that it will take over the entire

construction field soon in the future.

The two most important variables affecting earthquake damage are (1) the

intensity of ground shaking caused by the quake coupled with (2) the quality of

the engineering of materials used and the strength of the building. The level of

shaking, in turn, is controlled by the proximity of the earthquake source to the

affected region and the types of rocks that seismic waves pass through an route

(particularly those at or near the ground surface). Generally, the bigger, closer,

and shallower the earthquake, the stronger the shaking. However, there have
been large earthquakes with very little damage either because they caused little

shaking in populated areas, or because the buildings were built to withstand that

kind of shaking and with the use of high quality materials. In other cases,

moderate earthquakes have caused significant damage either because the

shaking was locally amplified, or more likely because of the use of poor quality

materials and the structures were poorly engineered.

Steel can resist the power of earthquakes. Earthquakes in Guam, the

United States (Richter scale 8.1); Manila, the Philippines (Richter scale 7.2); and

Kobe, Japan (Richter scale 6.9) have subjected steel buildings to some of

nature’s deadliest forces. Steel framing systems have a proven capacity to

withstand these major earthquakes. Another pertinent example is the 1994

Northridge, CA, earthquake (Richter scale 6.8). It was one of the costliest natural

disasters in U.S. history, with total damages estimated at $20 billion. Most

engineered structures within the affected region performed well, including

structures with steel components. Built according to good practices, steel homes

and buildings can be among the safest and most durable types of structures

during an earthquake. Buildings and homes built with reinforced steel walls have

a record of surviving earthquakes intact, structurally sound and largely

unblemished. In reinforced steel construction, the combination of concrete and

steel provides the three most important properties for earthquake resistance:

stiffness, strength, and ductility.

For new buildings, anti-seismic technology is today considered quite

advanced and it is possible to build individual structures that can withstand the
vast majority of recorded earthquakes. Devices such as isolation systems and

dampers, which are designed to reduce the vibrations (and as a consequence

the damage) of structures induced by earthquakes, are successfully employed in

the design of new buildings. If the engineer is not cautious then a building will

end up collapsing because surely counterfeit cement can never guarantee a

building’s strength. It is the engineer’s responsibility to control quality of

construction materials as well as look out for all these counterfeit products and

not just leave the work to the relevant authorities. It is not wise to just assume

that the products are genuine. Instead they should be tested to find out if they are

of the best quality. Therefore, the study seeks to know the significant relationship

between the grade of rebar and the strength of building produced. The

researchers believe that the grade of rebar affect the strength of building

produced. The study compels to create an output of reinforcing steel in building

to sustain earthquake occurrence. Through this output, the researchers can help

the society as well as the engineers to make better decisions in choosing the

type of material with the right quality to be used in constructing a building.

Theoretical Framework

Maximum normal stress theory — This theory postulates that failure will

occur if the maximum normal stress in the part exceeds the ultimate tensile

stress of the material as determined from uniaxial testing. This theory deals with

brittle materials only. The maximum tensile stress should be less than or equal to

ultimate tensile stress divided by factor of safety. The magnitude of the maximum
compressive stress should be less than ultimate compressive stress divided by

factor of safety. (Beer & Johnston 2006).

Failure of materials can cause catastrophic events. It could cause minor to

major damages to a building or even cause a collapse. The material should be

tested to its limit properly in order to prevent failure.

Paradigm of the Study

GRADE OF STRENGTH
REBARS OF BUILDING

REINFORCED
STEEL BUILDING
MODEL

Figure 1.0
RESEARCH PARADIGM

Figure 1 shows the conceptual paradigm of the study. The box at the left

represents the grade of rebar used to reinforce the buildings and the strength of

buildings is represented at the box at the right in the chosen municipalities in the
District I of Batangas. The third box represents the product of the study which is

a model of a reinforced steel building that can withstand an earthquake.

Statement of the Problem

The study assessed the grade of rebar and the strength of buildings in the

vicinity of Taal, Batangas.

Specifically, the following questions are sought to be answered:

1. What are the different grades of rebar used by different establishment in

selected areas in Batangas?

2. What is the level of strength of the buildings?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the grade of rebar and the level

of strength of the buildings?

4. How can a reinforced steel building model be made to improve the

strength of the buildings?

Hypothesis

1. There is no significant relationship between the grade of rebar and the

level of strength of buildings


Significance of the Study

Nowadays, many contractors don’t choose the right kinds of materials to

be used for the construction of buildings. This could lead to the collapse of

buildings specially during calamities like earthquakes which could cause

accidents, injuries or even death. Through this study, we can help deliver the

right kinds of materials to the different people responsible for constructing a

building which can help prevent such things from happening. Moreover, this

study is valued significant to varied individuals or group.

Civil engineers and architect will benefit in this study by having the

background on how the grade of rebar can determine the strength of building to

produce an infrastructure that can withstand an earthquake. This can help them

to plan and construct a more durable building.

Steel producing companies can use the research to produce or create

new and better rebar that has greater qualities. The researchers believe that this

research will give them an idea to create a shock absorbing rebar capable to

endure earthquake not only for high rise building, but also for small Filipino

houses.

By means of the research, contractors will have further understanding that

the supply and use of substandard steel materials in constructing buildings could

bring risk for those who will occupy it. Therefore, the research will give them the

gist of what is the best quality of steel rebar they can use.
The study can be a guide for the hardware store owners to know the best

grade of rebar they can offer to their customers. Through this, they can ensure

that the rebar they offer has a good quality as well as provide good service for

their customers.

The result of this study will be a good material or reference for those who

are interested in the study and want to further investigate the relationship of the

grade of rebar and the strength of building. The study could be a basis of a new

research or they can continue the research in a greater perspective.

Scope, Delimitations and Limitations of the Study

The focus of this study is to determine the strength of the building

depending on the grade of the rebars in the chosen municipalities in the District I

of Batangas as a basis for a building model that can withstand an earthquake.

The study is limited to municipalities of Taal, San Nicolas, Lemery, San

Luis, Sta.Teresita, and Calaca. The subjects are composed of engineers,

hardware store owners, contractors and residents in each municipality.

The study will focus on the grade of rebars and strength of buildings

alone. It will only focus on the said municipalities and the strength of buildings will

not be tested by observation but through questionnaires to be given to the

respondents who have experience in this field. The study does not include other

municipalities in the Distrcit 1 of Batangas namely: Tuy, Agoncillo and Balayan.


Definition of Terms

For clearer understanding of the study, important terms are hereby

defined conceptually and operationally.

GRADE OF REBAR. The rebar grade identification, either 60 or 75, or metric 420

or 520. This grade indicates the rebar yield strength.

(https://www.thebalance.com/types-of-rebars-844455). In this study, it is used to

determine the quality of the reinforcing steel.

STRENGTH OF BUILDING. The quality or state of being strong building.

(https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/strength) In this study, it is used to

describe the capacity of a building to stand and withstand earthquakes

REINFORCING STEEL. Collective Rebars as reinforcing steel and reinforcement

steel of a building.(https://www.thebalance.com/types-of-rebars-844455) In this

study, it is used as the product to test its strength by exposing it to earthquake.

REBAR. A steel rod with ridges for use in reinforced

concrete(https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rebar) . Rebar in the study

is the main material to be used to test if there is a relationship between the

material’s qualities to the building’s strength.

EARTHQUAKE. a shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic or tectonic in

origin(https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/earthquake) Earthquake in

the study is the phenomenon that would be used to test the building’s strength.
STEEL. commercial iron that contains carbon in any amount up to about 1.7

percent as an essential alloying constituent, is malleable when under suitable

conditions, and is distinguished from cast iron by its malleability and lower carbon

content.( https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/steel) Steel In the study is

the best material that could be used to test if its qualities have a relationship with

withstanding earthquake and strength of an infrastructure.

CONSTRUCTION. the process, art, or manner of constructing something.

(https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/construction) Construction in the

study is the process to be used to construct a building product with variety of

material’s grades to test its strength.

MASONRY. something constructed of materials used by masons.

(https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/masonry) Masonry together with

Reinforcing steel could determine the relationship of materials quality and

building strength in the study.


Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents literature and studies which are relevant to study.

The study present some sources and some researchers who wrote their own

idea about strength of the building.

CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE

Since this study is concerned with the grade of materials and strength of

the buildings, the researchers had come up with the readings that are related to

the said study such readings include reinforcing steel, behavior and elements of

reinforced concrete, corrosion of reinforcing steel, strength of buildings and

earthquake resistant infrastructures.

As mentioned in the book of Chudley et. Al, reinforcing steel is a steel that

contains about 99% iron and also manganese, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus for

the remaining constituents. The quality and grade of the steel is determined

through the proportion of carbon. Mild steel has 0.25% carbon while a high yield

steel has 0.40%.

Reinforcing bar or rebar is a type of steel bar that is widely used in the

construction industry, especially for concrete reinforcement. Steel rebar is used

as a foundation by tensioning as a devise and reinforcing to concrete. Concrete

is a material that is very strong in compression, but also if it don’t have strength
in tension. So, without rebar to reinforced concrete it will easily collapse. To

explain it further, due to the imbalance of the concrete slab's behavior,

reinforcement bar is cast into it to carry the tensile loads. Common steel or

concrete reinforcement bar is supplied with heavy ridges to assist in binding the

reinforcement to the concrete mechanically - this is commonly referred to as

deformed bar. Rebar is used in concrete to provide additional strength, as

concrete is weak in tension, while steel is strong in both tension and

compression. (http://www.harrissupplysolutions.com/steel-rebar.html)

As mentioned in the book of Taranath (2009), a reinforced concrete has

tension and bending. Concrete alone has no tension strength but is strong in

compression. Mild steel is cast into the concrete to provide longitudinal tension

while the inclosing ties and stirrups provided for confinement and shear

resistance. Sufficient reinforcement can be applied to provide adequate

toughness for seismic resistance, enabling reinforced concrete to exhibit ductile

properties.

RELATED STUDIES

The study conducted by National Institute of Standards and technology

(NIST) (2014), stated that the mixed-grade reinforcement is the combination of

different grades of reinforcement in the same column, intended to improve the

ductility and post-yield strength gain of the member. Typically, mixed-grade

columns combine conventional strength reinforcement, 58 ksi to 73 ksi, with


ultra-high-strength reinforcement 135 ksi or greater. A number of research

projects have identified the benefits of using mixed grade reinforcement.

“The flexural ductility of reinforced concrete columns when undergoing plastic

hinge rotation can be improved by using mixed grades of normal strength and

ultra-high-strength longitudinal reinforcement. Yielding of such columns when

loaded into the inelastic range commences in the normal strength steel and then

at higher curvatures in the high strength steel, thus delaying the degradation of

the flexural strength of the column. A positive stiffness of the column is

maintained at higher inelastic displacements when mixed ultra-high-strength and

normal strength longitudinal steel is used” (Xiao, 2008).

Corrosion is one of the greatest enemies of steel. It greatly affects the

durability of the metal. In line with this, the rebar should be able to fight corrosion

in order for it to be really reliable for the building. With this, the researchers had

known that the different kinds of load can affect the rate of corrosion in

reinforcing steel beams. Determining the right grade of bars that could handle

different types of load in order to reduce the rate corrosion and the failure of the

reinforcing steel (Yoon, S. 2006).

The study conducted by National Institute of Standards and technology

(NIST) (2014), stated that the two 20-story high-rise buildings designed and built

in Los Angeles in the past five years were chosen as the basis of this study.

Each building underwent a reinforcement quantity survey that tabulated the

reinforcement quantities for the foundations, walls, columns, beams, and slabs. A

replacement analysis was performed for the substitution of Grade 80


reinforcement for Grade 60 reinforcement in the foundations, walls, columns, and

beams. This replacement analysis was based on a straight strength-to-strength

substitution, which provided the ratio of 0.75 when substituting Grade 60

reinforcement with Grade 80 reinforcement by weight. It was assumed that the

most economical arrangement of Grade 80 reinforcement could be obtained

without violating other applicable code provisions through bar sizing and 6-6 6:

Cost and Constructability GCR 14-917-30 placement. Horizontal slabs were not

included in this replacement analysis, since it was assumed that a more thorough

analysis would be needed to determine if a straight strength-to-strength

substitution could be implemented or if other design factors would govern the

potential substitution.

The study conducted by Amal et. Al (2001) in Bangladesh which stated

that due to financial problems, most families built their houses using low cost

local materials and technique which are not strong enough to resist the natural

hazards. Same with the data gathered, people would often choose lower grades

of rebar to reinforce their houses because of its low cost and avoid using higher

grades of rebar which explains the low frequency of grade 80 rebar in the data

gathered.

The study made by the IAEE (2004) which stated that theoretically, if

appropriate resources and building materials are made available, it may be

possible to construct buildings which can withstand the effects of earthquake but

isn’t practically feasible due to very high cost involve. Due to these costs,

different grades of rebar are used in houses which causes it to have variations in
the level of strength of the building. a structure’s seismic resistance is based on

the seismic resistance of its structural components.

According to the test conducted by the group of Restrepo et al. (2006), the

testing gives a positive indication that high-strength reinforcement can be

successfully used up to the drift levels to which Unit 2 was tested (3.9%).

Fracture of a fuse-welded hoop precluded the evaluation of the performance of

this unit at larger drift ratios and the subsequent observation of the mode of

failure that otherwise would have occurred.

According to the study of Anthony Nkem Ede et al. (2015), the process of

designing a building structure starts with the selection of materials based on their

properties and the type of stresses to be supported. For the design of reinforced

concrete structure, which is one of the most built structures around the world, the

choice will fall on concrete and steel reinforcing bars. The quality of concrete and

steel reinforcement bars chosen must have adequate strength to guarantee a

ductile behavior expected of reinforced concrete structure, so that the structure

will be safe and functional to fulfil the purpose for which it is built.

According to the study of Munikrishna (2008), 18 test was performed in 9

different beams reinforced with different grades of rebar which shear failure were

obtain. Cracks were present in 7 out of 9 beams and 2 has no cracks. The

beams that has no cracks was identified to have a ksi of 80000 and above. This

concluded that the grade of rebar used in those beams was grade 80 and higher.

The study conducted by National Institute of Standards and technology

(NIST) (2014), design requirements for earthquake resistance include provisions


for continuity of some reinforcing bars. Often, it is not practical to have a single

bar that traverses the entire required length. Instead, bars are made continuous

with lap splices, mechanical splices, or welds. Design requirements also require

some bars to be terminated in a manner that allows for development of the bars’

strength over a relatively short distance. These terminations are achieved with

standard hooks and deformed headed reinforcement. This section examines how

the use of high-strength reinforcement affects approaches to providing continuity

and termination

SYNTHESIS

Based on the study of the National Institute of Standards and technology

(NIST) in 2014, mixed-grade reinforcement is the combination of different grades

of reinforcement in the same column, intended to improve the ductility and post-

yield strength gain of the member. In contrast, the researcher will only focus on a

particular grade of rebar to improve a strength of a building.

The study of Xiao in 2008 showed how the different grades of rebar are

used to reinforce a column to increase its strength and ductility. This result to a

beneficial cost that many research was conducted that shows how good it is to

use mixed grade of rebar as reinforcement. Likewise, this research aims to find

how each grade of rebar can affect the strength of building. But the researcher

will not try to mix various grades of rebar; instead the researcher will focus in

each grade of rebar and will find the best one.


According to the study of Yoon in 2006, corrosion is the greatest enemy of

steel; it gradually decreases the strength of building as it corrodes. Yoon

concluded that each grade of rebar has its own corrosive rate. Like the study

being conducted, the researcher will find out which rebar is the fastest to corrode

to determine which of the different grade of rebar has the best quality.

The study conducted by National Institute of Standards and technology

(NIST) in 2014, stated that the two 20-story high-rise buildings designed and built

in Los Angeles in the past five years were chosen as the basis of this study. The

study replaced the grades of rebar one after another to find how the strength will

change. Like the study of NIST, the researchers will also find the strength of the

building, but in a way of only focusing on a particular grade of rebar.

The study conducted by Amal et. Al (2001) in Bangladesh which stated

that due to financial problems, most families built their houses using low cost

local materials and technique which are not strong enough to resist the natural

hazards. Due to this, the researchers plan to create a reinforced building model

that is capable of withstanding natural hazards and used a sufficient amount of

budget to prevent low cost building.

The study made by the IAEE (2004) which stated that theoretically,

buildings can be made to withstand an earthquake if there is an available amount

of resources. And due to this grade of rebar used in the building became variated

from one another. The researchers also find this a problem to create a

reinforced building model. But, the researchers will no prevail and will only focus
on the best grade of rebar.

To simplify the test of the group of Restrepo et al. in 2006, they gain a

data that there is a positive indication that the strength of a building will increase

if a high-strength reinforcement can be successfully used up to the drift levels.

Through this, the researchers are confidents that by reinforcing steel in a building

it will be capable of withstanding an earthquake due to the strength.

The study of Anthony Nkem Ede et al. (2015), the process of designing a

building structure starts with the selection of materials based on their properties

and the type of stresses to be supported. Due to the study presented, the

researchers plans to identify which grade of rebar is the best in withstanding an

earthquake occurrence.

According to the result of the study of Munikrishna in 2008, the only

building that recorded no cracks was those with a ksi of 80000 and above. Due to

this, the researchers gain an idea of using grade 80 rebar. Grade 80 rebar has a

yield strength of 80000 ksi and it should be enough if reinforced in a building to

sustain an earthquake.

The results of the Study of NIST in 2014 states that, there should be a

continuity in the usage of rebar. It is not practical to used one kind of rebar to be

used in the whole beam or column. Base on the results of NIST, the researchers

will used grade 80 rebar as the main rebar and will used grade 60 for splicing

together the grade 80 rebar to produce a much durable column and beam for the

building.
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter covers the methods and procedures utilized by the

researchers. This includes the research design, subjects of the study, instrument

used, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment.

Research Design

The researchers made use of correlational design to determine the grade

of rebars and strength of buildings in the vicinity surrounding Taal. According to

Kumar (1996), Correlational research is used to established or explore

relationships, associations, or interdependence between two or more aspects or

situation. Moreover, this type of research is appropriate for studies examining

associations to explain how changes in one variable correlate with the other

values of another.

On the other hand Torneo (2017), said that research projects that adopt a

correlational design also present and describe the data similar to a descriptive

design. However, it puts emphasis on investigating relationship between two or

more variables.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were taken from different municipalities

surrounding Taal. The researchers needs 10 (Engineers, contractors or store


owners) per municipality and 30 people living in the building built by the

engineers in each municipality with a total of 240 respondents.

Municipality Frequency Percentage (%)

San Luis 40 16.67%

Taal 40 16.67%

Lemery 40 16.67%

San Nicolas 40 16.67%

Calaca 40 16.67%

Santa Teresita 40 16.67%

Total 240 100.02 =100%

Data Gathering Instrument

The main instrument used in the study is a 10 item survey questionnaire.

The questions were made to focus in determining the best grade of rebar and the

strength of building. With relation to it, a 15 item survey questionnaire will also be

used to determine the variables that could contribute for the researchers planned

product. Doing so, the researchers will find the relationship between the grade of

rebar and the strength of building.

The best grade of rebar will be determined by analyzing the answers given

by the respondents in this field. The strength of building will be identified by

comparing each building that was built using different grades of rebar.

Data Gathering Procedure


For the grade of rebar and strength of building, the data will be gathered

through another survey to be conducted on the different municipalities. The

researchers used the method random sampling to gather the data for the grade

of rebar and strength of building. The result of the survey will be tallied, analyzed

and interpreted. After that, the questionnaires will be retrieved immediately after

they were answered.

The researchers sent a letter to the head of the different engineering office

of the chosen municipalities. The researchers will go to the different

municipalities to personally conduct the survey to the members of the

engineering office. Furthermore, the researchers will also conduct a survey to

contractors and hardware store owners. The data gathered will be used for the

findings of the study to further have a valuable variable for the product.
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data based on the

statistical procedure. The data used in the interpretation were gathered from the

6 municipalities near Taal.

1. Frequency of the Grade of Rebar

The frequency of the grade of rebar focuses on the different grade of rebar

used to strengthen a building.

Table 1

Frequency of the Grade of Rebar

Frequency f %

Grade 40 61 33.89

Grade 60 70 38.89

Grade 80 49 27.22

Total 180 100

As indicated in the table, out of 180 respondents from the selected

municipalities of Taal, San Nicolas, Sta. Teresita, San Luis, Lemery, and

Calaca, 61 or 33.89 percent indicated that they used Grade 40. On the other

hand, 70 or 38.89 percent of the respondents’ said that they used Grade 60,

while 49 or 27. 22 percent state that they used Grade 80. Based on the above

results, the frequency of the Grade of Rebar indicated that Grade 60 is the
widely used rebar in the six municipalities since it got the highest frequency. The

result implied that out of the three grades of rebar presented, Grade 60 is mostly

used.

This can be associated with the study conducted by Amal et. Al (2001) in

Bangladesh which stated that due to financial problems, most families built their

houses using low cost local materials and technique which are not strong enough

to resist the natural hazards. Same with the data gathered, people would often

choose lower grades of rebar to reinforce their houses because of its low cost

and avoid using higher grades of rebar which explains the low frequency of grade

80 rebar in the data gathered.

This correspond to the study of Anthony Nkem Ede et al. (2015), the

process of designing a building structure starts with the selection of materials

based on their properties and the type of stresses to be supported. This can be

evident in the data gathered that different grades of rebar were used in

commercial, living, business or such purposes of buildings. Due to According to

the study of Anthony Nkem Ede et al. (2015), the process of designing a building

structure starts with the selection of materials based on their properties and the

type of stresses to be supported. For the design of reinforced concrete structure,

which is one of the most built structures around the world, the choice will fall on

concrete and steel reinforcing bars. The quality of concrete and steel

reinforcement bars chosen must have adequate strength to guarantee a ductile

behavior expected of reinforced concrete structure, so that the structure will be

safe and functional to fulfil the purpose for which it is built.


the different purposes of buildings different grade of rebars were also

used.

This can be related to the study made by the IAEE (2004) which stated

that theoretically, if appropriate resources and building materials are made

available, it may be possible to construct buildings which can withstand the

effects of earthquake but isn’t practically feasible due to very high cost involve.

Due to these costs, different grades of rebar are used in houses which causes it

to have variations in the level of strength of the building. a structure’s seismic

resistance is based on the seismic resistance of its structural components.

2. Level of the Strength of Building

Table 2 presents the level of the strength of building.

Table 2

Level of the Strength of the Building

Level f %

Heavy-duty (40 – 50) 65 36.11

Strong (30 – 39) 99 55.00

Average (20 – 29) 16 8.89

Weak (10 – 19) 0 0

Total 180 100

It can be observed from the table above that most respondents said that
the strength of the building they are living is at the strong level with the number of

99 or 55.00 percent. It was followed by the heavy-duty level with 65 0r 36.11

percent. In the flip side of the coin, there are 16 or 8.89 percent saying that the

strength of building is at the average level, while no one said that the building

strength is at the weak level.

This can be related to the study made by the IAEE (2004) which stated

that theoretically, if appropriate resources and building materials are made

available, it may be possible to construct buildings which can withstand the

effects of earthquake but isn’t practically feasible due to very high cost involve.

Due to these costs, different grades of rebar are used in houses which causes it

to have variations in the level of strength of the building. a structure’s seismic

resistance is based on the seismic resistance of its structural components.

3. Relationship between the frequency of the grade of rebar and level of

the strength of the building

The relationship between the frequency of the grade of rebar and the level

of the strength of the building in the six municipalities near Taal can be gleaned

on Table 3.
Table 3

Relationship between the frequency of the grade of rebar and level of

the strength of the building

Mean of Mean Level r- Description p- Decision Verbal


Frequency of the value value (Ho) Interpretation
of the strength of
Grade of the Building
Rebar
Strong 1.98E- Very
58.67 37.63 0.74 Reject
Correlation 32 Significant

As shown on the table presented, the mean level of frequency of the

grade of rebar is 58.67. Meanwhile, the mean level of the strength of the building

is 37.63. the computed r-value is 0.74, verbally interpreted as positive strong

correlation in which both variables move in tandem. The computed p-value is

less than 0.001 level of significance that led to reject the null hypothesis or there

is a strong evidence that the null hypothesis does not hold. Thus, there is a very

significant relationship between frequency of the grade of rebar and the level of

the strength of the building. This means that the grade of rebar affects the

strength of the building and also strongly correlational to one another.

The study of Xiao in 2008 showed how the different grades of rebar are

used to reinforce a column to increase its strength and ductility. This result to a

beneficial cost that many research was conducted that shows how good it is to

use mixed grade of rebar as reinforcement. Likewise, this research aims to find

how each grade of rebar can affect the strength of building. But the researchers
will not try to mix various grades of rebar; instead the researchers will focus in

each grade of rebar and will find the best one.

This can also be associated with the study of the NIST (2014) which

states that concrete members reinforced with reduced amounts of high-strength

reinforcement (with yield strengths of 80 ksi or stronger) are capable of reaching

comparable strength to members reinforced with conventional strength

reinforcement. These high-strength reinforcements include grade 80 rebar with a

minimum yield strength of 80 ksi. On the other hand, grade 60 has a minimum

yield strength of 60 ksi and grade 40 rebar has 40 ksi.

4. Reinforcing Steel to produce an earthquake proof building model

The proposed model aims to create an earthquake proof building. The

researchers are planning to reinforce steel to strengthen the building from down

from the foundation up to the roof. The model is made of the best grade of rebar

determined through the surveys conducted. An earthquake simulator will also be

made to see if the model will able to withstand the artificial earthquake made by

the simulator. With the guidance of a licensed engineer, the researcher tried to

create a model that can be helpful through the society.


Rationale

Since the findings revealed that the grade of rebar affects the strength of

the building according to the data gathered from respondents in the selected

municipalities of Taal, San Nicolas, Sta. Teresita, San Luis, Lemery, and Calaca,

the researchers created a model by reinforcing steel to building to withstand an

earthquake. This proposed model focused on the capacity of the reinforced

building to withstand an earthquake made by the earthquake simulator.

The researchers believe that trough this proposed model of an earthquake

proof building, people will be able to learn that the grade of rebar they use can

greatly affect the strength of the building.

About the product

Since the findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between

the grade of rebars and the strength of the buildings, the researchers developed

a reinforced building model that is capable of withstanding an earthquake. The

model will focus on how a foundation, beams, and columns should be placed and

created. By reinforcing steel in the foundation, beams and columns the

researchers see the building capable of taking direct hit from an earthquake.

This is the proposed plan of the researchers for the reinforced building,

the plan focusses directly in the foundation, beams, and columns. This plan will

also be used to create the reinforced building model.


FOUNDATION PLAN
SCHEDULE OF
FOUNDATION
COLUMN DETAIL
ESTIMATED COST FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A 3 STOREY OFFICE

MATERIAL COST LABOR COST

I. EXCAVATION 250,000.00 55,000.00

II. CONCRETE WORKS 2,824,650.00 310,500.00

III. MASONRY WORKS 390,360.00 151,559.00

FORMS AND
IV. SCAFFOLDINGS 285,000.00 107,000.00

V. DOORS AND WINDOWS 278,654.00 24,698.00

ARCHITECTURAL
VI. FINISHES 97,287.00 40,782.00

VII. TRUSSES 107,643.43 52,628.57

VIII ROOF PANEL &


. ACCESSORIES 90,000.00 22,496.00

IX. CEILING 61,658.00 23,872.00

XI. PLUMBING 150,457.00 35,400.00

XII. ELECTRICAL 215,678.00 75,300.00

XIII
. PAINTING 83,210.00 30,560.00

XI
V. DEMOBILIZATION 36,600.00
MATERIAL COST 4,834,597.43

LABOR COST 859, 395.57

DIRECT COST 1,575,806.43

OCM 127,940.32

TOTAL 7,397,739.00
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study, the findings, the

conclusions based on the findings of the researchers.

This study aimed to identify the relationship of the grade of rebar and the

strength of the building in the municipalities near Taal.

Specifically, the following questions are sought to be answered:

1. What are the different grades of rebar used by different establishment in

selected areas in Batangas?

2. What is the level of strength of the buildings?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the grade of rebar and the level

of strength of the buildings?

4. How can a reinforced steel building model be made to improve the

strength of the buildings?

Hypothesis

The researchers posted the hypothesis:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the grade of rebar and the

level of strength of buildings


Descriptive type of research was used to describe the grade of rebar and

the strength of the building. The researchers used a survey questionnaire that

was administered to the selected municipalities near the Town of Taal. The

statistical tools utilized in this study were frequency, percentage and Pearson-r

Moment of Correlation.

Findings of the Study

Based on the data collected, the following findings were obtained:

1. 38.89 percent out of 100 percent, equivalent to 70 respondents indicated

that grade 60 is the rebar they used. While 33.89 percent out of 100

percent, equal to 61 respondents indicated that they used grade 40 rebar.

While, 27.22 percent out of 100 percent, equal to 49 respondents stated

that grade 80 is the kind of rebar they used.

2. Most of the respondents indicated that the building or houses they are

staying at, is in strong level which has a frequency of 99 respondents out

of 180 respondents or 55.00 percent out of 100 percent. It was followed by

the heavy-duty level which recorded an amount of 65 respondents out of

180 respondents or 36.11 percent out of 100 percent. The average level

gained an amount of 16 respondents out of 180 respondents or 8.89

percent out of 100 percent. Moreover, there was no respondents that

indicated that the house or building they are staying is at the weak level.

3. The grade of rebar and the level of the strength of the building obtained a

computed r-value of 0.74, respectively, verbally interpreted as a positive


strong correlation in which both variables move in tandem. Also, it

obtained a computed p-value of 1.98E-32 which is less than 0.001 level of

significance that led to reject the null hypothesis or there is a strong

evidence that the null hypothesis does not hold. Thus, there is a very

significant relationship between frequency of the grade of rebar and the

level of the strength of the building. This means that the grade of rebar

affects the strength of the building and is strongly correlational to one

another.

4. The proposed model, may be used to demonstrate the possible results

of a building against an earthquake once it is reinforced with higher

grades of rebar.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were

produced.

1. There are several grades of rebar but the researchers focuses on the three

most common type of rebars.

1.1. Grade 40 offers a minimum yield strength of 40,000 pounds per

square inch. It is the most affordable rebar among the three grades.

1.2. Grade 60 designation offers a minimum yield strength of 60,000

pounds per square inch. It is the mostly used rebar and offers a

longer-lasting building compared to buildings reinforced with grade

40 rebar.
1.3. Grade 80 offers a minimum yield strength of 80,000 pounds per

square inch. It has the greatest quality among the three grades of

rebars and offers the strongest reinforcement.

2. The strength of the building ranges from heavy-duty level to the weak level.

Heavy-duty levels are often reinforced with grade 80 rebar and is highly durable.

Strong level buildings are reinforced with grade 60 rebar and is durable. Average

level buildings are reinforced with grade 40 rebar and is fairly durable.

Furthermore, weak leveled buildings are results of low cost construction.

3. There is a significant relationship between the grade of rebar and the level of

strength of the buildings.

4. The proposed reinforced building model may be of help in improving the

strength of the building.

Recommendations

After the conclusions have been drawn, the following recommendations

may be considered:

1. Civil engineers and contractors may use the results of the study to

formulate a new structural designed.

2. The civil engineers and contractors may fully utilize the reinforced building

model as their basis to make a building reinforced with steel or may try to

improve it to another level.


3. The researchers are recommending not to buy nor use counterfeit rebars

and ensure if the rebar being bought is in genuine quality.

4. Use a high grade of rebar to ensure a buildings strength and to make sure

it will last longer.


Bibliography

Books

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Publication, p. 26-28, 2014.
Rummel, Dietra J. Luyang-Dilaw (Curcuma Longa). C & E Publication, Quezon
City, p. 290, 2009.
Corpus , Arlene May G. Turmeric for Health. Philippine Publishing, p.31, 2015
Funk, JL, et. al. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements: Turmeric, 2nd ed. New
York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010.

Menon, VP & Sudheer, AR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of


curcumin, U.S. National Library of Medicine: 8600 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda MD, 20894 USA

Published and Unpublished Materials

Pisey, Lim (2013) “Multi stage Microwave Assisted Solvent extraction of oil from
Turmeric” (Unpublished thesis of De La Salle University)

Electronic references

(https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11291)
(https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes prevention/risk/diet/antioxidants-
fact-sheet)
https://nootriment.com/much-turmeric-take-daily/ (Nootriment, 2017)
https://www.healthline.com/health/about-us#link-an_page (Carter et. al, 2017)
https://www.memory-improvement-tips.com/side-effects-of-turmeric.html (Axe,
2016)
https://www.turmericforhealth.com/turmeric-benefits/why-is-turmeric-a-great-
antioxidant (Turmeric for Health, 2016)
https://www.turmericforhealth.com/general-info/ideal-turmeric-dosage-how-much-
turmeric-can-you-take-in-a-day (Turmeric for Health, 2016)
(www.antioxidants-for-health-and-longevity.com, 2015)
(http://remedies.healthy.ph./turmeric/, 2012)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17569207/ (Menon, 2007)
Appendices
Appendix A
Survey Questionnaire

Name (optional):____________________________________
Years of living in the building: _____

What is the Grade of Rebar used in this building?

___ Grade 40 ___ Grade 60 ___ Grade 80

Please indicate your answer.


5 - Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 - Fair 2 – Disagree 1 - Strongly Disagree

5 4 3 2 1
1. I’m familiar to the grade of rebar used in the building.

2. The building is well constructed.

3. There are no damages (like cracks on the walls) to the


building after the previous earthquakes.
4. There are damages to the building after the previous
earthquakes.
5. The building stays still during the previous earthquake.

6. The foundation of the building is strong that it was able to


withstand an earthquake.
7. The building can still withstand another earthquake in the
future.
8. Knowing that earthquakes will happen again, I feel safe and
secure in this building.
9. The building is stronger compared to buildings that used
different kind of rebar.
10 Overall, the building is strong and durable.
Name(optional):___________________________________________________
Job: _________________________________ Position: __________________
Years in the industry: __________

Grade Grade Grade


40 60 80
1. What rebar is mostly used?
2. What is the best grade of rebar?
3. Which grade of rebar is usually used in
constructing an infrastructure?

4. Which is more affordable among the three grades


of rebar?
5. When reinforced to concrete which rebar produced
a much durable one?
6. Which grade of rebar can sustain extreme heat?
7. Which grade of rebar is the least to corrode from
chemicals?

3-7 8-12 13+


years years years
8. Approximately, how long will a building last if it is
reinforced with grade 40 rebar considering the
natural factors that could damage it?
9. Approximately, how long will a building last if it is
reinforced with grade 60 rebar considering the
natural factors that could damage it?
10. Approximately, how long will a building last if it is
reinforced with grade 80 rebar considering the
natural factors that could damage it?
Please indicate your answer.
5 - Strongly Agree 4 - Agree 3 - Fair 2 - Disagree 1-
Strongly Disagree

5 4 3 2 1
11. There are counterfeit rebars present in the market.

12. Counterfeit rebars affect the strength of the building.

13. The reinforced building can be sustained if a tremendous


earthquake occurs.
14. The grade of rebars affect the strength of the building.

15. The higher the grade of rebar being used, the durable the
building is.

Approved by:

Engr. Rege C. Comia Ms. Margarita M. Perez Mr. Eugene T. Punzalan


Licensed Engineer Research Teacher Senior High School Coordinator
APPENDIX B
Sample Letters of Request
OUR LADY OF CAYSASAY ACADEMY
High School Department
Taal, Batangas, Philippines 4208

January , 2018

Dear Sir/Madam:

We, the GRADE 12 students of Our Lady of Caysasay Academy under STEM
strand, are currently conducting a study entitled, “THE GRADE OF REBAR AND
THE STRENGTH OF THE BUILDING IN THE SELECTED AREAS OF THE
DISTRICT 1 OF BATANGAS: A BASIS OF REINFORCING STEEL TO
PRODUCE AN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDING” as a requirement in
Research in Daily Life 2 subject .In connection to this, we are requesting you to
lend some of your time to answer our questionnaire.

We hope this request will merit your kind and favorable consideration. Rest
assured that the gathered data will be treated confidentially.

Thank you very much.

Respectfully yours,

Robert Jhon Mhar C. Gumapac

Jobet Jr. Tamayo

Harold James Vergara

Raven Ashley Vergara

Noted: Approved:

MARGARITA M. PEREZ Mr. EUGENE T. PUNZALAN


Research 2 Teacher Senior High Coordinator
Appendix C

Statistical Treatment

Paired Sample Statistics

Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


Grade of Rebar 58.67 180 15.62 0.0180

Level of the Strength of 37.63 180 5.58 1.0931


Building

Paired Sample Correlations


N Correlation Sig.
Grade of Rebar 180 0.54 1.98E-32

Level of the Strength of 180 6.58 4.33E-48


Building
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

NAME : Robert John Mhar C. Gumapac


NICKNAME : Robert, Row
AGE : 18 y/o
ADDRESS : Cultihan, Taal, Batangas
SEX : Male
CIVIL STATUS : Single
CITIZENSHIP : Filipino
RELILGION : Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE : December 1, 1999
BIRTHPLACE : Polymedic, Taal, Batangas
FATHER’S NAME : Roberto Gumapac
MOTHER’S NAME : Sylvia Gumapac
B. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Cultihan-Bolbok Elementary School


A.Y. 2011 – 2012
SECONDARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2015 – 2016
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2017 – 2018
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

NAME : Harold James L. Vergara


NICKNAME : Harold
AGE : 18 y/o
ADDRESS : Cubamba, Taal, Batangas
SEX : Male
CIVIL STATUS : Single
CITIZENSHIP : Filipino
RELILGION : Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE : January 3, 2000
BIRTHPLACE : Lipa Medix Medical Center, Lipa, Batangas
FATHER’S NAME : Nomeriano C. Vergara
MOTHER’S NAME : Alicia L. Vergara
B. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy


A.Y. 2011 – 2012
SECONDARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2015 – 2016
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2017 – 2018
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

NAME : Raven Ashley N. Vergara


NICKNAME : Raven
AGE : 18 y/o
ADDRESS : Poblacion, San Luis, Batangas
SEX : Male
CIVIL STATUS : Single
CITIZENSHIP : Filipino
RELILGION : Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE : August 19, 1999
BIRTHPLACE : Polymedic, Taal, Batangas
FATHER’S NAME : Reynold Vergara
MOTHER’S NAME : Raquel Vergara
B. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy


A.Y. 2011 – 2012
SECONDARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2015 – 2016
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2017 – 2018
CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

NAME : Jobet Tamayo


NICKNAME : Jobet
AGE : 18 y/o
ADDRESS : Butong, Taal, Batangas
SEX : Male
CIVIL STATUS : Single
CITIZENSHIP : Filipino
RELILGION : Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE : December 15, 1998
BIRTHPLACE : Quezon City Medical Center
FATHER’S NAME : Lobelito Tamayo
MOTHER’S NAME : Maria Dolores Tamayo
B. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy


A.Y. 2011 – 2012
SECONDARY : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2015 – 2016
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL : Our Lady of Caysasay Academy
A.Y. 2017 – 2018