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TECHLIBRARYKAFB,NM

CIlJb7E!75

NATIONAL
ADVISORY
CWMTMXE FORAERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL
NCYI!E
4326

LIGHTNING
HAZARDS
T!OAIRCFWTFUELTANKS
By J. D. Robb,E. L. Hill,M. M. Newman,andJ. R. Stshmann

SUMMARY
Thehazsrdsof lightningstrokesto aircraft
fueltsmkshavebeen
investigated
in artificial-lightning-generation
facilities
specifically
q constructed
to duplicatecloselythenaturallightning
dischargesto ati-
craftdeterminedthroughflightresesrchprogrsms
sadansl.ys
is of
~ lightning-dsmaged
aircrsftovera periodofmanyyears.Explosion studies
weremadein sa entionmentalexplosionchsmber
usingsmallfueltanks
undervarioussimulatedflightconditions.
Theresultsshowedthatthereis a prtiaryhazardwhenever thereis
directpuncture of thefuel-tankwall,whereastheignition of fuelby
hot spotson tankwalh dueto lightning strikesis unlikely.Punctures
of fuel-tsmkwallsby artificial-lightnimg
dischargesprduc&iexplosions

of thefuelin themixturerangefromexcessively leauto richmixtures.
Noneof theahnninum alloys,
O.0S1inchthickor over,werepunctured by
thelaboratory dischargesrepresentative
of natural-lightning
discharges
= to aircraft;however, reliaceon thiswallthickness forcompletepro-
tectionwouldnotbe justified, becauseoccasionalstrokesareknownto
be of greatermagnitude @ becausestatisticsrevealvariations in the
dsmagepattern.
Datagathered by theLightningandTransients ResesmhJnstituteon
lightntigstrokes to aircraftshowthat90 percentof thestrokes recorded
haveoccurred in thetemperature raugeof -10°to +10°C, wheremuxny
of
thejetfuelsareflsmmable butwhereaviation gasolineis overrich.
Also,10 percentof thestrokes recorded
havebeento thew3ngs,which
aretheprincipal fuel-storageareasformcdernaircraft.Thus,there
is a hazard,particularlyforjetfuels. Certain protective
measuresare
indicatedby thestudies to date,sucha9 theuseof lightning diverter
rods,thickening of thewingsktiin sreasnearthemostprobable stroke
paths,sndtheuseof fuel-tsnk linersin criticalsreas.

INTRODUCTION
Aircraft
flyingin thunderstmregionsoccasionallyarestruckby
lightning,
andthestrikingof a fueltsmkmayresultin a fireor
m


2 NACATN 4326
.
explosion. A research
progrsm
hasbeenundertakento evaluate
thishazard
by studyingthebasicmechanisms
of fuel-tsmk
ignitionfromlightning ●

strokesin vsriousenvironmental
andflightconditions.Tbephasesfor
whichthereis limitedoperating
experience
areespeciallyemphasized;
forexsmple, theoperational
hazardsarisingfromtheuseof jetfuels
endof wingtipfueltanks. g
w
m
Thecharacteristics of natural-lightntig
disch=gesto aircraft have _.
beenstudied by theLightning andTransientsResearchTnstitute (LTRI)
throughflightresesrch progrsms, lightning-dsmsge
q,,stionnties, and —
theanalysis ofmanydsmagedaircraft partssulmittedforinspectionby
airlinesandby themilitary serVicesovera periodof years.Thedata
obtainedindicate thata substantial nmnberof strokesto aircraft involve
electricalchsrgetrsmsfers as lsrgeas 200coulombsbuthaverelatively
lowcurrent nmgnitudes endratesofriseof current.Thissuggests, as
mighthavebeenexpected, thatmsnystrokes to aircraftsz’eof a cloti-
to-cloudnature, but it doesnotpreclude thepossibility thata stroke
to groundmaybe intercepted by an aircrsft.Modernairliners usually
flyoveror through theupperregionsof thunderstorms ratherthsnunder
themwherestrokes to groundoccur,except, of course,duringthelandtig
ox takeoffperiods.
_ to thelow Pathlengths of natwal-lightning discharges,
which
may extendformanymiles,theresistance of anyshortlengthof thepath
has littleeffecton themagnituie of thecurrent, so thatthedischarge .4-
canbe consideredto originatefroma constant-current generator.There-
fore,theenergydeveloped in sm objectdepends mainlyon theresistance
(sincetheenergyreleaseis equalto$t2Rt,where I is thecurrent, *
R theresistance, and t thetimeof discharge). Thus,considerably
greaterenergiesme released in resistive materialstheninmetsls.
Forexsmple, strokesto radomesproduce dsmageoversreasseveral feet
in dismeter,
whereasstrokes to metalaircraft skinseldomprcduce holes
largerthanan inchin dismeter.
A.ircrsft
partsthathavebeendsmaged by lightningshowtwogeneral
typesof pitting.Strokesoccurringtowardthefrontpartsof aircrsft
sectionssresweptto therearby themotionof theplane;and,as the ,
aircrsftpassestherelativelystationaryionizedchannel, smallpit
ms.rksorholessreburnedalongthesurface or edge. The energyis re-
lessedovera relativelylargearea,so thatit prcduces onlya small
smountof pittingat anyonelocation.Strokesoccurring directlyto the
front,andparticularlythoseto therear,of a section tendto hangon
at a singlepointfora largefractionof thestrokeduration andthus
producelargerholesandmoreseverepitting.
Whenthelightningstrokes
aresweptto therearby therelative
motionof theaircraft
withrespectto thestrokechsnnel,
themetalair- —
craftskinis frequently
notpuncturedandthequestionnaturally
srises
*


MICATN 4326 3
•.

whethera strokethatdoesnotpuncture a fuel-tsmkwalltillcauseigni-


tionby heatingof thewall. Thiswas consideredtobe an important
questionconceningthedegreeof hazsrd,enda theoretical sndexperi-
mentalstudyof fuel-teak
walltemperatures dueto lightningcurrents
was
undertakenat thebeginning
of theinvestigation.
Otherfactors to be considered.
include
theevaluationof thetypes
smdmagnitudesof dischargesrequired
to puncture
vsriousfuel-tank
waUs,
theconditionsunderwhicha subsequentexplosion
or firecanoccur,snd
theeffectsof entionmental conditions,
fueltypes,andfuel-t- loca-
tionon explosionprobability.
Thisinvestigation
was c=riedoutat theLightning
smdTransients
Research~titute underthesponsorship
sndwfththefinsncial
assistance
of theNationalAdvisory
Committee
forAeronautics.

APPARATUS
ANDPROCEDURE
TheLighia&ng andTransients
Research hstitute(LTF@ hasdeveloped
artificial-lightning-generation
facilities thatareparticularlysuitable
forreproducing
lightning effectson aircraftas determined
by flight
resesrchprogrsmsmsdein cooperationwithcivilisn airlines
sndthetili-
tsryforces.Thephotograph andcrosssection of thelaboratory(fig.1)
showthelocation of thehigh-voltagefacilitiesandthelsrgedoorfor
. bringingvoltageoutsidethebuilding to testobjectssuchas theair-
crsftin theforeground.
a
LTRIfacilities forlightning studiesincludea 5-million-voltti-
pulsegenerator capableof producing a stsndsrdAIEE1.5X40-microsecond
voltage
wave(1.5microsec to crest,40microsec to hslfvoltage)anda
high-currentgeneratorproducing a 10x20-microsecondstsndardAJXEcur-
rentwaveof over100,000smperes peek. KtLxd.nn
thehigh-~ltsge W high-
currentgeneratorsmakesit possible to reproducescuneof theeffects
foundin thelightning-dsmaged aircrsf’tcomponentsstudied.However, a
comparisonof theseeffectsandthedatafromthef15ghtresesrch program
showsthatmostlightning strokes to aircraftinvolve muchlargercharge
trsnsfersthm sreproduced by thehigh-voltage sndhigh-c~entwaves
heretoforesdoptedas 13.ghtningteststsndsrds in thepowerindustry.
Forproducing thehighchargecomponentsof thenatursl-lightning
strokes,twoadditional generator
facilitiesareused. Oneof theseunits
consistsof a 3000-microfsrsd
bankof 10-kilovoltcapacitors
which,with
appropriatewave-shapinginductance
endresi.stsnce,
producesa 2,000
-
smperecurrent of 20-coulomb
chargetransfer.The secondtit consists
of a sourceof 200smperes d.c.thatcsnbe drawnat a sourcevoltsgeof
either400or 13,000volts,depending on thelengthof theuc it is
requiredto sustain.Thisunitreproduces thelow-current,
long-duration
componentsof Q@tning dischargesthathavecurrents of theorderof a
. fewhundredemperes.
4 NACATN 4326
.
A sch&matic circuitdiagrsmof allthegenerators withtheircom-
positelightning-dischargecurrentwaveform is shownin figure2; andthe .
effectsof theva–ious strokecomponents of thethreecurrent generators,
whicharethemosttiportant formetalfuel-tank dsmagestudies, sre
tabulatedin tableI. Theheatingeffects aregivenin termsof amulti-
plyingfactorfora givenresistance. It is interestingto notethat ;
boththehigh-current andthelong-duration low-currentgeneratorspro-
ducemuchlessheatingeffectthanthegenerator withintemnediate current
andchsrgetrausfer.!l%e threeunitstogether producethema~orcharac-
teristicsof lightningstrokes:largemechanical forcesfrcmthehigh
initialcurrent,a largesmountof short-duration heatingandblast .-
effectsfrmntheintermediate currents, anderosion sndpitting effects
frcmthelargecoulomb transfersof thelong-duration lowcurrent.The
high-voltagegeneratorcanbe usedin conjunction withthecurrent gen-
erators,but sinceit doesnotcontribute significantlyto thedamage,it
ismoreoftenusedseparately to determine themostlikelypointson air-
craftsections ormodelsthatthelightning dischargeswillstrike.
Formodelfuel-tank exg?losionstudiesa cylindricalsteeltank,9
feetin dismeterand15 feethigh,wasconstructed to contati explosions
audto permitevacuation foraltitude testing.A blowersupplied by the
NACAwas connectedto thetankforstudying windstresmeffects, snda
wind-tunnelsectionwasconstructed throughthetankinterior as illus-
tratedin figures3 and4. A 6-by 6-inchcrosssection at thetuunel
throatproducedthedestied windvelocity of 300mph. Thetankwas con- .4.
structedwithlsrge,thickwindowsforphoto@aphic Me sndspecial h@h-r .
voltagebushingsforintroducing high-voltage.dischsrge
at reduced air .+
pressurescorrespondingto highaltitudes. A shortplenumcheder,packed E
with2-inchfurnace pipeto straighten outtheairflow, was constructed _
to jointheexponential section thatreduced to thePlexiglasthroat.A
Pitot-statictubeandairspeed indicatorwereusedto calibrate thetun-
nel;a constsmtvelocity of about300mphwas indicated overmostof the
throatarea Onesection of thethroatwasleftopento receive the
fueltanks.
Measurement equipmentincluded an NACArecording mixtureszml.yzer,
a potentimneterforthermocouple temperaturemeasurement,an oscilloscope
formeasuring fuel-tsmkpressures as detem.ed titha piezoelectric gage, —
andothermiscellaneous equipment, alllocated outside thetankforpro-
tectionfromtheexplosions. Muchof thisequipnent waselectrically
groundedto thet@z; sad,sincethetipulse -ground-conduction
currents
raisedthetankitse~ to substantial voltage,an isolationtransformer
wasusedto feedallequipment requiring a 115-voltsource.A carbon
dioxidefireextinguisher was attached to theoutsideof thetankwitha
nozzleconnected throughthewall,aimedat thefuel-tank sample.Thus,
anyfiresfollowing fuel-tank explosionswereeasilyextinguished from .—
thecsmeraoperator’s position.Thescalefuel-temk explosiontestsgave
,

.
NACATN 4326 5
.

asmuchdifficultyas snyhigh-voltageexperiments
msdein thislaboratory
.- becauseof thelargeamountof equipnentinvolved
andthemanytest-run
failuresbeforethefirstsuccessfultestsweremade.
Theoperationsincludedenergizingthe13.8-kiluvolt
substationto
obtainsufficient
powerforthewind-tunnel blower,charging
thethree
artificial-lightning
generatorsusedto producethecomposite
dischsrge,
settingtheautomatictimingdevicesforlimitingthelong-durationlow
current,resetting
themsnyoverload circtitbreskers,
measuringfuel-air
ratioandtemperature,sd ad@ting csmeras andmiscel.lsneous
equipnent
suchas lights,andso forth. Althoughsuccessful
testrunsrequired
carefulsetupsforeachtestandgoodcoordination fromtheoperators, it
wasfeltthatfurtherconstructionto obtaincompletely
autcmaticopera-
tionwasnot justifiedforthenumberof testscontemplated.
Gasolineexplosions
of fueltsmks, evenpsrtially filled,constitute
a severefirehazard;snd,sinceexplosions of fuU-sizetsnkswerefelt
to be a necesssry
pertof thestudies, provisionsweremadeforreducing
thehazsrdto atiimnnnby confiningpossible explosions. A lsrgepit
withconcrete-blockwallswas constructedto confinetheexplosions to a
spacenextto thebuilding besidethedoorwherevoltages andcurrents
couldbe broughtoutwithrelatively shortlesds,as illustrated in fig-
ure5. The40-foot-sq.usredoorallowed maxhum voltages tobe brought
outto thepittestsrea The150-horsepower blowerinstalled in thepit
. behindsuitable asbestos
or blockbarricades protidedthenecessary flow
of airoverthetanksurface.
. A specialfosmfire-extinguisher systemforprotecting theareawas
instsUed,consisting of a l,OCO-gallontanklocated at thetopof the
laboratorybuilding; a centrifugalpump,adding100poundspressure to
the20-pound tsmkhead;foamsupplysndfoamproportioner; twolsrgefosm
nozzlesat eachendof thepit,ham capacities of,llogallons per
minuteeach;sndtherequired 2- to 3-inchconnecting pipes. ForexkLn-
guishing localizedfiressadprotecting thelaboratory building,a lClO-
footauxiliary hosethatcsnbe equipped witheithera fosmplayp@eor
a water-fognozzlewasprotided.Thecapacity was sufficientto cover
thefloorof thepitwithabout0.7footof fosm. Thissystemwas con-
sidered sdequateto extinguishpossiblefires,but thelocalccmmunity
firedepartment couldalsobe calledtiediatelyforadditional protection
in theeventthatthe13mited watersupplyprovedto be inadeq=te.
Thecontrol endobservationareain thebuildingis indicated
in
figure5. Allhigh-voltsgecontrolsas wellas fire-extinguishhg
con-
trolssndvoltageandcurrent waveshapemonitoringequipnent
srelocated
in thisarea. Twocsmeraswereusedin recording thetadsexplosions,
a
16-millimeter
motion-picture
c=era locatednearthepit emda Fastax
csmeralocatedon thebuildingroof. TheFastsxcsmerarecorded=Y
phenomenathatoccurredtoorapidlyforaccurate recording
by thestandard
.4 moviecamera

.
6 NACATN 4326

RESULTS
ANDDISCUSSION
.
Measurement
ofFuel-Tank
WallTemperature
A lightning
strokehittingtheoutersurface of a fuel-tsmkwall. or
of a structural
membercontatiingfuelvaporsmaypuncture thewallwith
a goodprobabilityof producing
explosion sndfire;if thewallthickness
is toolargeto puncture,thestrokeincreases thetemperature of the
innersurfaceof thewall. Thestrokewillusuallycausea smallcrater
ofmoltenmetslta formin theoutside of thewell,whichproduces pitting
of the surface.Partof themoltenmetalis displaced by theexplosive
forceof thesuddenheating, butpartsolidifies to addto theheatflow-
ingintothewall. Thetemperature of theinnersurface attains its
maximumvaluedirectly underthepointof strokecontact snddecreases
rapidlyat otherpointsalonga radiallinefrcmthispointon theinner
surface.Thepur~se of thissection is to determtie, boththeoretically
andexperimentally,possibletemperature-the curvesforpointson the
innersurfaceof a fuel-tsmkwallwhenlightning strikes theoutersu-
face. Thehazarddueto these“hotspots”is evaluated in a latersec-
tion. Symbolsusedaredefinedin appendix A.
Whena dischsrge hitsa plated doesnotp~ctw?eit,theheatiS —
conducted to theinnersurface, raisingthetemperature of thatsurface,
andis alsoccmducted radisllyfromthepetitof strdlse contact enddis-
sipated in theremainderof theplate. In thetheoretical studyof the .4
heatflowin a plate(appendix B), a blockon thesurface of theplateof
depth i3 andof squarecrosssection is assumedto be instantaneously
heatedto a uniforintemperaturewhich,fora lightning discharge, is taken A
to be about1,200°F, themeltingtemperature of aluminum Theheatflow
fromtheblockintotheplateis thencalculated fromtheheat-conduction
equation to obtainthetemperature at snypointin theplateas a function
of thetime. Thecalculations arestiplified by cmnputing onlythetem-
peratures on theinnersurfacesndby letting thebreadthof theplate
approach infinity,sincethesizeof theplatedoesnotmaterially affect
theheatflowto theinnersurface so lengas thethickness is smallccm-
paredwiththeotherdimensions of theplate,Graphicsl exsmples giving
thenmnericsl resultsobtained
by usingthesesolutions fora hotspot
directly underthedischsrge sndfora point: nearthisspotsrealso
presented in appendix
B.
Temperatures
weremeasured experhnentally
in thel=ge cylindrical
environmental
chsmber shownin figure6 so thattheeffectsof tempera- .
ture,airstrean,andaltitude couldslsobe sttiied.The simulateddis-
chargewasdirected to thetestplatethroughthehigh-voltsge bushing
in thetopof thetsmk. A blockdiagrsm of thethermocouple
systemis
shownin figure7. Thethermocouple wireshadto be carefullyshielded
in thevicinityof thetank. Twoshields, insulated
fromeachotherand
NACATN 4326 7
.

connectedonlyat onepoint,wereusedbetweenthethermocouplebox snd


,k thewallof thechsmber.Theoutershieldcarried theheavydischarge ●

currentsto thewall,whiletheinnershieldprovided additional


shielding
frcmelectric fieldssndfrcxn
snypossibleunsymmetricalcurrent
distri-
butionin theoutershield.Thethermocouple voltagesweretransmitted
% to themplifierssndrecording eqtipnent
in a multiconductor
shielded
3 cable.
Theinstrumentationforthesemeasureme ntswas setup to measure
pedktemperatures frcmabout503°l?,roughlythespontaneous-ignition
temperatureof JI?-4fuel,to about1,200°F, themeltingpointof aluminum.
Theoscillograph was considered thebestmethodof recordimg theriseand
decayof thetemperature-time curvesandthepeaktemperatures. Eon-
constsntanthermocoupleswithsize36 w5rewereselected forthispurpose
becauseof theirsiiequate sensitivity
y, availabiHt y, andsufficiently low
thermalinertia to permitaccurate measurement of temperaturevariations
at a point.A box about7 inchessqusreand2 inchesdeepshielded the
thermocouplesfromthelsrgesimulated-13@tning dischsrge current.Test
platesof vsrious representative wallthicknesses wereusedas topcovers
forthebox,andstiulated dischargesweredirected to thecenterof the
plate.Thethermocouples wereplacedat a pointdirectly beneaththe
centerof theplatesndon a rsdiallinefrcmthispoint.Thethermo-
couplevoltsges weresmplified by d-csimplifiershasdnga 9-megohm input
impedsnce. Theamplifier outputs droveBrushrecorders withen over-all
* sensitivityof about33°F permilltieter of pendeflection. Themaximum
chut speedof therecorder was 71 inchesperminute,or about34 mill3-
secondspermillimeter of chartmovement.A selector switchWLWprovided
. forviewingor recording waveforms on a single-chmnelcathode-ray
oscillo~aph.
Thetheoretical resultsof appendixB indicaterelati=lylowtem-
peraturepeeksat pointsotherthanthepointdirectly underthedis-
charge,andtheexplosion testresultsof thefollowing sectionindicate
thatwallpunctures causedexplosionsbutthattherewereno explosions
definitelyattributedto inner-wall
heating.For thisreasonmostmeas-
urementsweretakenat thepointdirectly underwe disch=ge. Thetheo-
reticaltemperature-the curvefortheinnersurf aceof a 1/8-inch slu-
minmnplatewitha block,uniformly sndinstantaneouslyheatedto the
meltingpointof almdnum,was cs3culeted frcmtheeqyations andcurves
developedin appendixB. Theblockwas assmned to be in theoutsidesur-
faceof the@ate, 0.5centimeter squareend0.159centimeter (1/16in.)
deep.
Fifteenhigh-current
disch=geswereusedin theexperimentalphase
of thewall-temperature
study.A crosssecticm throughthecenterof sn
actuslcraterobtained
by discharging
a laboratory
lightningstroketo a
l/8-inchslhniman
testplateis shgwnin figure8. Thiscrateris about
.

.
8 NACATN 4326
.
0.045inchdeepbecauseofmoltenmetalsthathavebeenspattered frczn
thepointof strokecontact.However, someof themetalbelowthecrater .
floorwas alsoheatedto themeltingpoint,perhapsto a depthof about
1/16inchor one-halfthewellthickness.
Thetheoretical temperature-thecurvefora l/8-inch aluminumplate
is shownin figure9(a),endthecorresponding experimentalcurveis
shownin figure9(b). Thetwocurvesagree.reasonably well. Therise
thnesof thetwocurvesareaboutthessme. Thesli.ghtly delayed,higher $“
andlongerpeekof theexperimental crmve?4s.s
probablydueto thelatent
heatof fusionof themoltenaluminum notdisplaced,whichwouldtendto E
storeheatat a constanttemperature,sndalsoto thefactthatthedis-
chargewssnot a~liedinstantaneously but supplied
heatto theplate
conttiuou51yforabout20milliseconds. Theslightlyhighertailon the
experimentalcurveat thelog&r timesmu me accounted forby therela-
tivelylargeratioof thesourcesizeto thesizeof thethermocouple box
usedin theexperimentalsetup,sinceen infiniteplatesizewas assumed
forthetheoretical calculations.An tiportsntexpertientalparameter —
thatcouldbe investigatedis theeffectof sn airstresmon theheatflow
to the tonersurface.Thisfactorshouldconsiderably reducethehot-
spottemperaturesmeasured.
In thecurvesshownin figure9 thereference temperature e may
be tekenes thetemperature of themolten@mnixnnn; thus,in theexperi-
mentalcase,th”e hot-spot temperaturerisesto about530°F in about30 -.*
milliseconds anddecaysto one-half valuein 0.4secondfrom t = O. As
thetankwallthickness decreases, theinner-surface pesktemperatures
willincrease untilthethickness atwhichpuncture occursis reached. .
Whiletheresultsof thessmplefuel-tsmk testsshowthatpuncture is the
mostimportent factorin caus~ fuelignition, it wouldhe of interest
to determine thetransient temperature-time
impulse curvesrequiredfor
ignition of ccmmonfuelsusedin aircraft, as discussedin thefollowing
section.

Fuel-Tank
Explosion
Studies
To determine
thespecificconditions
underwhichfuelscanbe
ignited,6-inch-cIibic
alminumtankspsrtlyfilledwithaviationgasoline
or ZP-4werestruckwith75high-current
dischargesovera temperature
rangefrcm32°to 90°F. h formulatingtheproblem, consideration
was
givenby NACAsndLTRIto thefollowing
possiblemechanismsforigniting
fuels:
(1)Thefuelis ignited
by a hotspoton thewallof an unpunctured
tank.
NACATN 4326 9

(2)Thedischsrge
penetrates
thetsmksd.appears
on thetisideto
produce
theequivalent
of sparkignition.
(3)An effluxof fuel-airmixtureoutof thepuncture
exposes
the
fuelto thelightningoutsidethetads. Thefirethenpropagates
through
thepunctureto theinsideof thetank.
(4)Incandescent
metalpsrticles
showerintothetankwhenthe
lightning
strikes
thewall.
Manyllghtn~ strokes to aircrtit
sresweptoverthesurface of the
aircraft,sndfrequently pittingoccurstithoutactualpuncture of the
skin. It is of considerableinterest,
therefore, to determine whether
hot spotson a fuel-tankwalldueto lightning thatdoesnotpuncture the
wsU couldcauseignition.Thetemperature-time parameters pertinent to
mechanism(1)wereconsidered h thepreceding section.Thetemperature-
ttiegraphsforsn aluminum tankwall1/8inchthick(fig.9(b))indi-
catethatfortheexpertientsl 20-coulomb
discharge theinner-wall
temperature
wiU.exceed480°F for onlyshout60milliseconds. Thisis
approximatelytheslowspontaneous-ignitiontemperature ofkerosene or
ZP-4endcorresponds to aboutfour-tenthsof theouteraluminum wall
meltingtemperatureof 1,216°F. Theinvestigations of reference 1
showthatignition of methane-airandhydrogen-air mixtures in 40
milliseconds
by hotwiresrequires temperaturesestimated to exceed
. 2,400°F andpossibly as highas 3,500°F, an increaseof 5 timesthe
slowspontaneous-ignitiontemperatures.
. Theexperimentaldischargeswere20 milliseconds in duration.
Strokesto thesidewallof sn exposedaircraft fueltsnkshouldnothsng
on to ay onepointon a smoothsurface forlongerthsn10millisecrmds
becauseof theaircraft motion.Pitmarksfromstrokes to aircraftthat
havebeensweptovera wbg or fuselage surfacearegeneraUyspacedfrom
a fewinchesto a fewfeetapart.Assuming an aircraft velocityof 140
mph or 205feetpersecond, thiswouldcorrespond to a~um the dur-
ationat anysinglepointof 2 feet/205 feetper second= 9.8millisec-
onds. Thusin tiewof theshortstrokedurations, windstreamcooling
effects, smdresultsntlowerexpected fuel-tsnkwalltemperatures, it
seemsimprobablethatstrokes thatdo notpuncture shouldigniteaircraft
fuels. It shouldbeemphasized, of course,
thatthisapplies onlyto
strokes thataresweptandnot,forexample, to strokes thathangon to
thetrailing edgeof a section andmay easilylastforperiodsapproa&-
ing1 second.Additional dataon theshort-theignition temperature
characteristics
of aircraft fuelsarerequired forgreater assursnceon
thispoint.
10 NACATN 4326

Fra thepreceding considerationsthequestionnaturallyarises


whether,forshort-duration strokeenergiesslightlybelowthelevelre-
quiredto puncture thetankwall,themetalwillhe nearlymoltenandthe
temperaturebe highenoughto ignitethefuel. It is conceivable that,
whilethetemperatures wouldgreatly exceedtheslowspontaneous-
ccmibustion
temperature of thefuel,thethe duration wouldbe tooshort
forignition.B orderto investigate thispossibility’,
a seriesof tests
wasmsfieon the6-inch-cubic tanksof 0.040-and0.064-inchthickness
usingstrokeenergies at approxtiatelythepunctureenergylevel,in
which53 discharges werefiredto theseriesof tanks.Thestrokes punc-
turedthetanks16 timesandfailedto puncture them37 times. ti every
casea puncture wasaccompanied by au explosion,
smdin everycasebut
onea failure to puncture producedno explosion.Theresultsof these
testswereverified in succeedingtestson otherphasesof theproblem.
Theoneexplosion thatoccurred withoutfuel-taukpuncturewaadueto a
dischsrgethataccidentally struckthetanka fewinchesfrcma venthole
endpossibly t~ew a sparkintoor neartheopening.
A photographicsequenceof fuel-tankignitionby
an artificial-
lightning dischargethatpuncturedthetamkwallis shownin figure10,
as recordedby a Fastsxcsmera.Thedischsrge contacted
therearof the
t@, burneda holethroughit, andignited themixturewithina fewmiUl-
seconds.A shnilar sequenceis shownin figureU fora 300-mphtid-
stresmandwiththeelectrcde on topof thetank. Although
a longertime
wasrequired forpuncture of thesecondtsgk,theexplosionflsmefront
velocity appesrsto be aboutthesameforeachcase,as doesthetime
required forthetanksto explode, whichis lessthen40milliseconds.
Themixtures in eachtsmkwerefairlycloseto optimum.
A sketchof thetestsrrsmgement forthesefuel-tank studiesis shown
in figure12. Thefuel-air ratioswereheldin theexplosive rmge during
thetestsasrecorded by theNACAfuel-air snalyzer.Temperaturesof the
fuelwerecontrolled EUIdrecorded.Thefuel-air ratioswerecontrolled
by bleeding ah slowlyintothetankuntilthepropermixture was ob-
tained.Owingto the4U-second delay-of themixtureszml~erin record-
ingthefuel-air mixture, themixtureratesof changewerekeptlowto
minhnize interpolationerrors.Thetankswerenormally fillednotmore
thsn1/4inchwithfuel. Examination of theareaswherethedischarges
occurredwithout puncture invariably
disclosed fineCracksj probablydue
to thelocalhe’sting ad cooling, thatextended throughthetankssnd
permitted fuelto leakout. Thesearenotconsidered to be serious,
sincetheyprobably occurredafterthemetalhad cooledandno external
firesoccurred.A photomicrograph of onepf theseereasis shownin i
figure13.
Next,a seriesof tsnkswaspunctured
by heavydischarges
whilethe
wasvaried.In nearlyeverycasethetaukexploded
mixture overa range

.
NACATN 4326 U.

ofmixtures frcnnO to 100and100to 160extmxpolated beyondthenomml


analyzerrangeof O to 100partsperthousand.Theamlyzerwas exsmined
to determinewhethertheindications wereincorrect,butpureairpro-
duceda resolingof zeroaudwarmfuelin thetsnkdrovetheanslyzer off
.scslepest100. Ih additicm, e@asion pressures weremeasured fora
rsngeofmixlm?es.Thepressures werehigherinsidethe60 to 80 rmge,
generallybursting thetanksandroughlyconfirming theaccuracy of the
mixlxresnalyzer.OnlyJP-4wasusedin tivestigating hot-spotignition
of fuels,sinceit was conveniently in theexplosiverangeat rocmtem-
peratureendalsohsd a lowspontaneous-ignition temperature;butboth
JP-4and100/130-grade atiationgasolinewereusedin thepressure meas-
urements.Explosion of thetsnksat extremelyleanmixtures was attrib-
utedto nonequilibrium conditions: a leanmixlxmein thespaceoverthe
fuelwhichtheanalyzer ssmpled,anda combustiblemixtureat thefuel-
@ boundary ignitedby sparkshowers fromthepuncture.Photographs of
sparkshowers frcmpunctured aluminum sheetsareshownin figure14.
To measureoverrichmixtures,
whichwerenotmeasured by themixture
snalyzer,specificmixbureswereobtained
by allowingpartiallyfilled
fueltsnksto cmueto equilibriaat particulartemperatures.Forexsm-
ple,tankswithgasoldne heldfor5 minutesat 80°F wereassmned to con-
tainen extremelyoverrichmixture.Functurimgdischarges
didnot cause
en e~losion,but a ftiewas stsrted
at thepuuctureholethatcontinued
for1 minuteuntilputoutby en extinguisher. Gasoline
heldat 32°F
didnotexplode; however,JT-4didexplodeat thistemperature. Dis-
chsrgesbelowtheliqyidlevelprcduced firesat thepuncturepointbut
no explosions.
.
b snalyzingthesequence of ex@osionexpertients,themechanisms
listedat thebeg3~n of thissection thatappesrthemostUkely are
thedirectpuncture of fuel-tankwsllsfollowedby (2)explosionend (3)
externalfires. Ignitionby (1)hot spotsseems,tiprobable
on thebasis
of theinvestigate
ionsof thepreceding section,and(4)theshowering of
spsrksintoa tankwithno puncture wouldbe evenmoreimprobable,since
thewallwouldprobably notbe hot enoughto sparkif itwouldnot ignite
thefuel.
Althoughhitialmeasurements indicatedthatldgMtig-discharge
currentsbecauseof theirgreatenergies werecapableof igniting
fuels
overa greaterrsngeofmixlmres thanwouldbe possible withsparkigni-
tion,particularly
withleanmixtures, basically
theinvestigations
showedgeneralagreementwithetisting y data Overri.ch
flsnunabilit mix-
tureswerenotexploded, but external firesoccurredat thepuncture
holes. Lesmmixtureswereignited, but ignition
of leaumixburesdueto
mists(e.g.,fromsgitation) hasbeengenerally recognized. Theexplo-
sionhazardis consideredto be moreserious thenthefirehazsrd.Ex-
ternalfirescsnoccurwhenever a fuel-tsnkwallis punctured,withany
.

.
12 NACATN 4326

fuel;but aircraftfires,thougha seriousmatter,cm oftenbe controlled.


Becauseof thelow flsme-propagat
ionratesunderanybut extremecondi- ,
tions,thesefiresaresometimes extinguishedby thewindstreem,
scme-
timesby specialmsneuversof theaircraft,orby carbondioxidesystems.
Explosionsof fuelteaks,on the otherhand,canresultin severestrut-
turaldamageor 10Ssof theaircraft.Forthisreason, themostsignifi- —
cantinformationregardingthedegreeof hazardis.probablytherelation
of theflammabilityrengesof variousfuelsto thetemperatures
at which
mostlightning strokes
to aircrsftoccur.
LTRIrecordsshowthat,for109lightning strokesto aircrafton
danesticflights,93 percentoccurredwithr@10°C of thefreezing tem- —

perature,or from14°F to 50°F. Thistemperature rangeinclties the -
flmmnabilityrsageof JP-4,isbelowtheleanlimitforJP-5,JP-1,or
kerosene,andincludes therichregionforJP-3sndtheextreme overrich
rsngeforaviation gasoline.Thus,thesafestfuelwithrespect to —
lightninghazsrdswouldbe aviationgasoline,withJP-4theworst. The
safetyof XP-1sndJP-5appesmto dependon howreadily theyformmists;
also,theprecise mechanismby whichLTRIobtainedexplosionsof lesm
mixtures
needsfurther cla?ificati.on.
Theexperimental resultshavebeenccinfirmed
by recentflight-damage
reportsof lightningstrokesto aircraftfueltadcs.Holesin tanksfrom
lightning,a gasolinefirein onetankthatburnedfor15minutes, as —
wellas w explosion of a jetaircraftw~ip fueltankjustafterit” 4.
hadbeenjettisonedhaveallbeenre~orted withinthelastninemonths.
Thus,no otherconclusion csnbe reached
but thatjetfuels,JP-4in
particular,presenta muchmoresevereexplosionhazardthsnaviation —. -.
gasoline
, whichhas showna goodsafetyrecordto date.

MetalErosionfrcmLightning
Discharges
Ih orderto determine theenergies endchargetransfers required
to
puncturevsriousthicbessesof aircraft alumirnnn
alloys,75high-current
laboratorydischargeswithandwithout windstream
werefiredto testsem- —
plesof threealloysccmmonly usedforfuel-tank walls. Thealloyswere
2024-T3,3003-H14,and6061-TS in 0.020-, 0.040-,0.064-,0.081-and
0.102-inchthicknesses. A tapereddoubl~-—-llconstructionwasusedwith
thetwothinnest samples to exsminetherelativemeritsof double-wallcon-
structionsgainstsinglewallsof equivalent thickness. Thewallswere
spaced1/8,1/4,1/2,and1 ormoreinches “apart.Thetitificial-li@tning
dischargesdiscussedin theAPPARATUS ANDPRO~~ sectionwereusedto-
getherto producea singlestsndard combineddischarge.As discussed
previously,thepredominant factorin punctureof sluminuntankwallsis
thechargetransfer of thelong-duration lowcurrentsendof theinter-
mediatecurrents;however, sincethemetalerosion fora given

.
NACATN 4326 13

chsrgetrsnsfer ismodified to someextentby thecurrent.


magnitude,
relatingmetaleroEion to chargetransferis of coursesn s.pproxtiation.
Holesburnedin theendsof wingtiptanktailcones by naturallightning
(fig.15(a))csnbe canpared withholdsprcduced tialmninumsheetby
laboratorydischarges(fig.15(b)).lh the30-coulomb laboratorydis-
charges,theholesizevariesconsiderably withthecurrent magnitude.
Thestsndard dischargethatL’ERIhas sdoptedas representative
of strokes
to aircraftwillduplicate mostof thedsmagedoneto aircrtit, but it
shouldbe notedthatoccasionally theretillbe strokes thatmay exceed
200coulombs by a considerableamount.
The combined artificial-lightning discharges firedto thevarious
alILoysproduced pumctures in allthicknesses through0.064inchbut h
noneof thealloys0.081inchor overwiththeexception of somein the
windstresm testsin whichthevibration causedthearcingelectrode actu-
aUy to contact thealminunsheet.Owingto difficulty inmaintaining
thearcwiththeairflow present, thewindstresm testswerenotconsidered
to be representative of natural-lightning dischargesunderwindstresm
conditions, sticethesrcwas confined to onepoint, but theydidprovide
vsluable information regsrding cooling smd.other secondaryeffects.Use
of higherpotential long-duration currentsources snda largerwfnd-
tunnelsection wouldpermitlongersrcsthatwouldbe morerepresentative
of natural-lightning discharges to aircraft; however,thiswouldnotpro-
duceconclnsiwinformation as to hazsrd, becansethevariation in
natural-lightning dischemges is so greatthatno reasonable valueof
strokem~ittie csnbe selected as a !tprobableexpectedmsxl.mum.”Dis-
coloration andheatdistortion of themetal,notedwhenno windstresm was
used,werealmosttota12yabsentwiththewindstresm, indicating a ex-
tensivecoo~g effect; themetalerosirm was cleanandslightly more
severe, apparently becauseof theplentiful supplyof oxygen.It iS
interesting to notethatflight-dsmsge reports havementioned similsr
effects; forexsmple, onereported that‘tburned spotson thetsnkre-
sembling mmnentary touches by a cutting torchclearlyindicate thatdsm-
agewsadoneby a lightning strike.” k testsof double-wall sections,
0.040-tich aluminum had to be sepsrated 1/4inchto be equivalent to one
0.081-tich wall,anddouble-wall sections of 0.020-inchaluminum were
punctured whenseparated over1* inches.Photographs of theeffectof
thedischarges on alradnwsheetsreshownin figure16.
Theknowledge of thesweeping effectof theaircraft motionin re-
ducingthelocslizedpitting by distributingthe strokeenergyovera
largeareahsdearlier permittedscxne
optimism regardingtheneedfor
lightning
protection of fuel-tanksidewall-s. As sn exsmple,theeffect
of aircraftmotionin sweepingnatural-lightn~ dischargesis illustrated
in figures17 andI-8.b thetiptanktailcone shownin figure17,two
smallpitmsrkssreshownon Khesidewall,but a mcderate-sized holemay
be seenat theresrwherethestrokecouldhangon forsa extended period.
14 NACATN 4326

Holesin O.020-inchaircraftskinareshownin figureM. Thestroke


appementlystrucka longwireearkenna
attachedto a VHFmsstlocatedat n

theleftandwas conducted alongthewire-d downthemastto thebase


whereitburneda lsrgeholeas theaircraft movedforwsrd.At thi.S
pointitprobably brokeawayfrcxnthemastto buz%theseriesof small
holesin thethina.luminmnsheet.
Althoughthestandard laboratory discharges
consideredto be repre-
sentativeforaircrsftstruckin flightdid.not puncture aluminumsheet
0.081inchthick,it is feltthatcomplete relianceon thiswallthickness
forprotectionfrcmnaturalstrokes to aircraft
wouldnotbe justified
becauseof theoccasionalstrokes thatme knownto contain considerably
greaterchargetransfersthsnthe200coulcifbs usedin thissequence of
tests.Although theprobability of sucha dischmgeto a fuel-trek side
wallis small,theconsequences sreso seriousthatadditional precau-
tionsme felttobe necessary.Such additional precautionscouldinclude
ribson tiptanks,location of tanksawayfromthemediate tipareawhere
lightningstrokessremostl~ely to occur,useof fuel-tank linersin
criticalareasneerthew3ngtip, or thickening
of thewingsaduseof
lightningdiverters
to divertstrokes fromcriticalereassuchas fuel
vents.

Lightning
StrikeDataPertinent
to Fuel-Tank
Hazards

Ih theprecedhgsections of thisreport, references
havebeenmade
to LTRIdataon lightning strokes to aircraft.Pertinentsectionsof
thesedataerepresented in figuresI-9to 21. Thedistribution of light- .
ningstrokes withtemperature fordcmestic airlineflightsis shownh
figure19. Over90 percentof thestrokes forwhichthetemperatures
havebeenrecorded occurredwithintherangeof +10°to -10°C, and65
percentof thestrokes occurred in thersmgeof 0° to +5°C. Thisis
not surprisingin vfewof themostwidelyaccepted theoryof thunderstorm
electricalchargeformationby separation acrossthefreezing level.
It hasbeensuggested thatthestrokes aregroupedaboutthefreezing
levelbecauseit happensto correspond to themostccmmonflightalti-
tudes.TheLTRIdataon thedistribution of strokeswithaltitude (fig.
20)disproves thistheory.Thesedata,whichshowthatthestrokes
occurred at no particular
altitudes,indicate thattheprobability that
an aircrsft willbe struckis relatedto itsproximity to thefreezing
level.Moststrokes occurredat sltitudesof 6,000feetor overwherethe
cloud-to-cloud discharges
of low-currentmagnitudesendhigh-charge trsxm-
ferseremoreccmmon.Thisis in agreement wititheenalysis of .-
lightning-dsmegedaircraftparts,whichshowsthata substantial propor-

tionof suchpsrtshavepassedhigh-charge .transfers.

.
NACATN 4326 M

Thesnslysis of thedistribution
of dsmagepresentedin figure21
showsthata mibstantialpercentage
of strokesoccurredto thewings,
whichinmcdernaircraft aretheprincipal fuel-storage
locations.Fig-
ure21 isbasedon 431incidents,whichis consider~ly morethenfor
figures19 and20 becausemoststrokereportsreceivedrecordthepart
struckbut somedo notrecordthetemperatureor altitude.

ModelStudiesofMostLikelyPointsof Lightning
Strike
Flight-demmgereportstatistics area greataidin evaluating hazards
becausetheyprovidegeneralinformation as to themostlikelypointsfor
lightningto strike.Modelstudies arealsoeffective forstudy5ng crit-
icalsreasof aircraft in somedetail.Although extensivemodelstudies
werenot contemplatedin thisinvestigation, preliminarystudies in en-
otherinvestigationindicatethat,forthewings,themostvulnerable
sreasarethetipareassndtheareasbehindthepropellers on propelJ_er-
drivenaircraft.Directstrokes to thewingtipendstrokes to thepro-
pellersthatcanbe sweptbackby theairstresm overeitherthetopor
bottomof thewingaremostprobable.Two-million-volt discharges to
mcdelaircraftareshownin figures22 to 24. Discharges to twomodel
aircraft(figs.22 and23)illustrate thehighprobability of vertical
strokesto thevertical fh Strokesto themodelfrmnvariousangles
permitevaluationof themostprobable pointsof lightning str~e; snd,
by useof intermediate-sized
modelsections, somewhatmoredet~ledin-
formationmaybe obtained.Thisinformation, as relatedto theairflow
direction,permitsfairestimates of protection in thesecritical areas.
The stresmer on thewingtipof theaircraft in figure23 illustrates
effectivelythemechanism of lightning-stroke
approachto an aircraft.
Whentheadvaucing stepleaderof a lightningstrokenearstheaircraft,
an intenseelectric fieldis setup andcoronastresmers prcduced by this
fieldleavetheaircraft fromhigh-gradientpointsto meetthestep
leader.Thesteplesdercontacts theaircraft throughoneormoreof the
stresmersendraisestheaircraft potentialto a valuesufficient to pro-
ducestresmers offtheopposite aficraft
extremities. Thesestresmers
formthestepleaders forfurtheradwce of thestrokepasttheaircraft.
Theformation of stresmersis determined
by theextentof thefielddis-
tortionabouttheaircraft.Theirformation neartheaircrsft is probably
affectedby thepressure variationscausedby localturbulence; however,
thishasnotbeendefinitely established.
Electrolytictankplotsof theelectric-field
configuration
about
theaircraft modelalsogivea clesrpictureof theextentof thefield
distortion,
whichis onlyindirectly illustrated
by photographs
of strokes
to a model. An electrolytic
tsnkplotof theelectricfieldaboutthe
modelof figure24 is shownin figure25 justbeforeandaftera light-
ningstrokecontacts theaircraft.Theextentandintensity of the
16 NACATN 4326

electricfieldaremaximumaboutthenoseandwingtipfueltanks,as in-
dicatedby the spacingendshapeof theequipotential lines.Thisi.sin .
agreementwiththehigh-voltagestudies, whichshowedaboutequelproba-
bilityforstrokes to theaircraftnose-or frontof thewingtipteds
(fig.24). Moreextensive studiesof thistypewouldbe valuable in gen- .
eraldevelopment of protective
measures, especiallyin studies
of partic-
ularsreasof specific aircraft.

CONCLUDING
REMARKS
Thisexperhnental investigation
of thevsz?iousmechanismsof fuel-
tankexplosiondueto lightning strokesreveals thatthereis a primary
hazsrdwheneverttiereis directpunctureof thefuel-tsmkwallbut that
theignitionof fuelby hot spotson tankwellswithout puncture is un-
Msely. Punctures of thefuel-tsmkwallsby artificial-lightningdis-
chargesundervariousenvironmentalconditions produced
explosions of
fuelmixturesvarying frczaexcessively
lesnto full-rich. Whena hole
wasnot actuallymadein theinnerfuel-tank- wti, temperaturesexceeded
one-helftheexterior molten-alumfium
temperaturesonlyforbriefperiods,
probablyinsufficientto causeexplosionof aircraftfuels.Additional
dataon theshort-time ignitiontemperaturecharacteristics
of aircraft
fuelsarerequired forcomplete assursnceon thispotnt.
LTRIdataon lightning
strikesto aircraftshowthat90 percentof *
thestrikes recorded
havebeenin thetemperature rangefrom-10°to
+10°C, wheremsnyof thejetfuelsareexplosive butwhereaviation
gasolineis overrich.Also,10 percentof thestrokes recorded
havebeen .
to thewingcress,whichformodernaircraft exetheprincipalfuel-
storageareas.Theseresultsindicate thatprotective measures
are
needed,particularly
forjetfuelsemdto a lesserextentforaviation
gasoline,which,although
notexplosive in thetemperaturerengesat
whichmostlightningstrokesoccur,canbe ignited to ~duce externel —
fties.
Fuel-teakalminmnalloys0.081inchor thicker werenotpunctured
by discharges
representativeof natural-lightning
discharges
to aircraft.
However,relisnceforprotection frcmaircraft lightning
strokes solely
on increasing
tenkthicknessesto 0.081inchis notnecessarily a solu-
tion,sinceoccasionalstrokes srekmownto contain considerablygreater
chargetrsnsfersthsnthe200coulcmbs usedin theexperimental studies.
Althoughtheprobabilityof suchstrokes to criticalareasis small,the
consequences
- possiblefiresor explosions - areso serious
thataddi-
tionalprecautionssrefeltto be necessery.
Whileprotection-system
developmentisbeyondthescopeof this
s~gestionscenbe madefordevelopment
report,thefollowing .— of protec-
tivemeamres: —

.
NACATN 4326 17

(1)Somethickeningof specific
tazik
areasor useof externalfins
or ribsto be located
on thebssisof theprobability paths
y of dischsrge
may considerably
reducethehazard.
(2)Several linersmaybe usedadjscentto the
typesof fuel-tads
mostprobable
discharge
path.
(3)Lightning-diverter maybe usedto divertstrokes
rcfis from
critical
areassuchas fuelvents.
(4)Blowoutpsnelsmaybe usedin ts&s nesrthewingtipto reduce
thestresson themainwingstructure
dueto a tsnkexplosionnesrthe
tip.
(5)Plastic
wingtiptsnks,thoughconsidered
qtitehazardous
without
specific
protective
design,mightbe madesaferthsnconventional
metal
tanks.

Lightning
andTransients
Resesrch
Tnstitute,
Minneapolis,
Mimn.
, Februsry
1, 1957.
18 NACATN 4326
.

APPENDIX
A —
.

SYMBOI.S
A coefficient
h Fourierseries
a lengthof sideof plate
b thickness
of plate
c capacity
c specific
heat
E voltage
I current -.

k thermal
conductivity
n,p non-negative
Z,,m, integers
Q qusntity
ofheat

R resistance
T temperature .

t time
t’ timeconstsntt’ = ?l/scx2
u temperature
at t = O
x>YJz rectangular
coordinates
a lengthof sideof heatedblock .—
P depthofheatedblock

%,0 Kronecker
symbol(defined
in eq.(14)) —
e reference
temperature
rise(initial
temperature
ofheatedblock) .—
X2 thermal
diffusivity
NACATN 4326
19‘

. P density

V2 differentiti
( )
operatorV2 . ~ + & ; 32
ax2 ayz az2

.
20 NACATN 4326

APPENDIX
B
.

13ZATFLOW
INAPIATEDUE TO LIGHTNING
STROKE

Intro?luct
ion $
M
Whena lightningstrokehitsa metalplate,suchas a structural G.
memberof an airplsne,
itmayburnthrough theplateor itmayburnout
onlya smallpoolofmetal,causing a pittingof theplate. Of course,
theworstdsmsgeis causedwhena holeisburnedthrough theplate.The — .-
materialon thebadrsideis thenopento dsmageby theUC; and,if a
membersuchas a gkstankis involved,explosimmay result.
Evenif theplateis notknrrnedthrough,theremaybe a sufficiently
greatreleaseof heatenergyin theplateto lesdto severedamage.The
questioniswhethera lwrgeenoughtemperaturerisemay occuron the
innersurfaceof thewallof a gastankto initiatean explosionin the
tsnk. Thisprobleminheatconductimis theoretically snalyzet.herein.

l%eory
Considera metalplatein theformof a squareof side a andof .
thicknessb, tith a >>b. Tekea rectangular setof coordinateaxes
withoriginat thecenterpointof onesideof theplate,referred to as .—
theinsidesurface.Orientthex,y-axes p*all@lto thesidesof the .
plate,andthez-axisnormalto theinsidesurface.Theoutside surface
of theplatethencorresponds to thesurfacez = b. Thelightning stroke .— —
willbe supposed to striketheoutside surfaceof theplateat thepoint
(O,O,b),directly oppositetheoriginof coordinates O of the.coordinate
system,andto reles.8etherea quantity ofheat Q at the t . 0. The
problemis to evaluatethetemperatedistribution on tietier surface
of theplateas a function of time;in p.@?ticu&o?,
thetemperatureat .— -i
thepointO, whichwillbe thehottest pointon theinnersurface.
Sincethisis a dsmageproblem,
it isbestto settheconditionson
theanalysisso thatthetemperature
riseon thetier surface
tillbe
overesttiated Therefore,
ratherthanunderesttiated. thesmalysisis
simplified
by supposing
thatno heatis lostfrcin
theplateeitherby
radiation
orby conductionto theair.
Theheat-conduction
equation
(1)
NACATN 4326 21

is to be solve~h theregion

S<X<E
2 --2

$SY5: (2)

o~z~h 1
withthebomdaryconditions

S’” at ‘=%
m=~ at (3)
~ ‘=9

%=0 at Z’”’b 1
Thefollowing
functions
ares~ecialsolutions
of theheat-conduction
equation
(1}thatsatisfy
theboundaryconditions
(3):

co.
Cos[(%)(x+;)]cos[(:)
[y+;)]
[(y)z]ew(-.,mt)
(.1
where Z,m, and n arenon-negative
titegers
and

(5)

Nefi,theseparticular srecombined
solutions in sucha msnnerthat
theinitialconditions
representing
theheatsourceproduced on theout-
sideof theplateby thelightning
strokearesatisfied. Forthispur-
posethegeneralsolutionforthetemperature
at snypointin theplate
is formed:

T(x,y,z,t)
=
,~/o’’~F””[@)k+
J
Letthetemperature
distribution
at t = O be known,so that
= U(X)Y)Z)
T(x,Y,z,O) (7)
22 NACATN 4326

is a lnmwnfunction
of thecoordinates z in the@ate. Combining
x,y,
equations(6)and(7)gives

U(x,
y)z)=
)-
,>oA2~ {Cos [Y+x+$lcos
[twdC“s
[Ml
(8)
In orderto express
thecoefficients
in thisFourierseriesin terms
of thefunctionu(x, y,z),thesymbolM~F(x~Y~z)]is defined
as the
mesmvalueof thefunctionF(x,y,z)overtievolme of theplate. That
is,

(9)

where azb is thevoluneof theplate.


Usingequaticm (8)sadtheusualmethodsof calculating
thecoeffi-
cientsin a Fourierseriesgives

%mn =
U(x,
y,z) Cos Cos ~ y+;
K )(
Cos
[()1}
2[w?’31 c
S2 [(y;]; ,,0) .

Theevaluation of theinitial
temperaturedistributionU(x,y,z) .
requiressimulatingtheheatingeffectof thelightningstrokein some
fashion.Suppose
suitable thatat t = ,0_g amountof heat Q is lib-
eratedin a smallblockof theplatedefinedby theconditions

(11)

Theheatis thus13beratedin thesmallblockof dimensionsa,a,P sit-


uatedon theoutersurfaceof tieplate>justoPPosite thePointO on the
plate.Thematerial in thisblockwillbe raisedto theuniform
temperature


NACATN 4326 23

e =— Q (12)
Cpuz$
where c is thespecificheatand p is thedensityof themetal. The
functionU(X,y,z)willbe equalto 9 in thisblockandeqyalto zero
outsideit.
Thecoefficients
AZW fromequation
(10)csnnowbe evaluated
as
fOllows
:

For convenience
of notation
thefionecker
symbols
sreused:
lifz=o
5Z,0= (14)
{
OH Z+o
Csrrying
outtheintegrations
indicated
in equation
(13)yields

oif2 is odd
f

I 2a
(15]
24 NACATN 4326

.(+ ‘h (%’)‘“”[m (%91

(16)
b
Thisyieldsthegeneral
formula .—

Here Z and m haveonlyevenvalues,sinceby equation


(15)thecoef
-
ficientAZW willvsnlshif Z or m is odd. .
Thefinalsolution of eqpation
(6)forthetemperature
distribution
in theplatefor t ~ O cm be mitten as .
t)= — Q Q(a,
T(x, y,z,
Cpaz$
t)Q(a,
a;x, a;y,
t) lf(~)~;zjt) (18)

where

t(b,~; Z,t)= y, Q&y


n=o,l,2, ● . .
n,
(20)
NACATN 4326 25

H Z is even,
.
(21)

so thatthenewsumnation
index,p = 2/2,canbe introduced,
whichtakes
all.non-negative
integral
values,sndformti (19)canbe replaced
by

W(a,a;x,t)
=
z
p=ojl,’,
w

. . ●
[k)]
e- - ‘Pltx
a
Zt

(22)
The formulasgivenrepresent theexactsolution
of theproposed
problem.However, in viewof thenatureof theapplications
to be made
of them,tt is feasibleto allowscmesimplifications.
;
The sizeof theplateis notverymateriel
to theflowof theheat
to theinsideof theplateso longas thethichessis smellcompared
withthebreadthof theplate. It is therefore
convenient
to tdzethe
limit a+=. ~ thiscase,
(p(a;x,t)
= al$=~(a,a;x,t) (23)
The seriesin equation
(22)goesoverintoan integral,
sndonworking
. outtheprocess thefolJ_owing
solution
is found:

where e = pq!a.
Thisfunction formfornumerical
canbe reducedto a moreconvenient
Introduce
computations. thefo~owingnotation (whichis vslidfor
t>()):

(25)
26 NACATN 4326

Substitution
intoequation
(24)yields
.

Q(a; 2/”-*cos(*)
x,t)= ; -w (-.2)@
o

Nowdeftiethefunction —


(27)

Mskinguseof thisabbreviation
givesfrcmequation
(26), .-

(28)
.

Fromequation
(27),
.

onmakinguseof formula 508of’Peirce’s


tableof integrals
(ref.2).
It is obvious
fromequation(27)alsothat g(0)= O. Equation(29)is
integrateddirectly
as a differential
equation:

(30]

Thisshowsthatthefunctiong(q)defined
in equation(27)is justthe
ordinsry
probability
integral
sndthuscenbe foundtabulatedin nuneri- — -
Calform.

.
NACATN 4326 27

Thefollowing
formulaforthetemperature distribution
fromtheheat
source(strictly
speaking,
in a plateof infinite
breadth)
is finslly
obtained:

T(x,
y,z,
t) = ~ ~(a;x,
t)~(a;
y,t)~(b,
~;z,
t)
cpCL*
$
withthefunctionCP(G; x,t) definedby equation
(28)sndthefunction
y(b,B;z,t)deftiedby equation (20).

Discussion
ofFormula(31)
Formula(31)givesthetemperature
distribution
throughouttheplate
resultingfromtheheatsourceintroduce~by theMghtningstroke.b
applyingtheresult,onlythetemperaturedistribution
overtheinnersur-
faceneedsto be known. Thisis obtained
by settingz = O in eqmtion
(31). For simplicity
of notation,
thistemperature
functionismitten
as follows:
To(x,
y;t)= T(x,
y,O;
t) (32)
The following
formula
results:

To(x, y;t)= — Q T(~;x,t) Q(~;y,t)V(b, P;o,t) (33)


cpa2f3
where,fromequation
(20),
m
(-)nsin(q)
V(b,P;O,
t) =: exp[-&’)2j (3.)
x $(1+ bn,o)
(*)
Il=o,l,
.. .
Sincethetemperature
distribution To(x,
y;t) is expressedin equa-
tion(33)as theproductof twotypesof functions,it is convenientto
exsmine
thenatureof eachof thesefunctionsseparately.
At theinitialinst=t t . 0, conditions
requirethatthewholeof
theinnersurfaceof theplatebe at theuniformtemperature
takento be
T+O. Therefore, thefollowtngmut be obtainedfromequation(34):

(35)
28 NACATN 4326

Thisis em alternatingseriesof a typesomewhat


difficult
to hsmdle, —
sincethetermsdo notdiminish veryrapidlyinmegnitude.Therewillbe .
no attemptto proverigorouslythatthesm of theseriesis actually
zeroas is indicatedin equation(35).
It is apparent
by inspection
of equation
(34)thatas t+= the
seriesconvergesrapidly
to thevalue

*(I),13;0,=) =: (36)

- to the eXJ?OIIeI.Itid~atUre of thesummandsin theseriesin their


dependenceon thetimevari~le,thedominating termwillbe theone
havingthesmsllest exponent; thatis,thesecondmem%erof theseries,
sincethefirstone (n= O) doesnotdependon thetimeat all. There-
fore,thefuuction givenby equation (32)willstartfromzeroat t = O
andwillrisequickly to thefinalvalue P/b practically lfieau expo-
nentialfunction withthetimeconstsnt
2
t’=b (37)
u7X
Expressedunphysical
terms,thisfunctiondeterminestheflowofheat
fromtheinitialheatsourcedirectlythroughthethicknessof theplate.
Thetimeconstant(37)canthereforebe emectedto be quitesmallfor .
platesof ordinsry
thickness
suchas ereusedin theconstructionof
aircr=t. .- —
.
Foran aluminum
plate,
k = 0.504cK1/(cm)(sec)(°C)
Thermalconductivity=
Specific
heat= c = 0.217cal/(g)(°C)
Density=p = 2.70g/cm3
the thermal
Fromthisinformation, diffusivity
is
k
X2 =—= 0.086cm2/sec
Cp
x= ~’= 0.93cm/@c
b . 1#3inch= 0.318 centimeter,
‘Taking thetimeconstant
is

t’=— 0.31-8
0.933
2 = 0.0119”
sec (38)
()
.

.
NACATN 4326 29
.

Therisetimeof thetemperature
on theinnersurfaceof theplate,di-
rectlyopposite
theheatsource,shouldthusbe of theorderof 12 milli-
seconds.Thisresultwillnotbe particularly
sensitiveto thesizeof
theinitialheatsource;
thatis,it doesnotdependgreatlYon thev~ue
of B, sincetheexpression
(37}for t’ doesnot involve thispaaeter.
Thetemperature
at thepointO shouldhavea maxtiunvslue,which
is about

TO,max=‘=Q $ (39)
Cpa?ll ‘F

The initialriseof thetemperature


at thepointO is determined
by
theflowofheatthroughthethickness of theplate,but itsUlttiate
declineis governed flowofheatalongtheplate. This
by thetransverse
is expressed
by thefunctions9(~;x~t)~ ~(m;Y,t),
which,of course,
havethesanefunctional form.
Fromthe initial
conditions,
thefollowing
is expected
at t = O:
= o if lx!>42
(p(a;x,o) (40)
{1 if ~xl<a/2
It is easyto showfromequation
(28)thatthisis theCxe, if it is
.
notedfrcmequation (30)that

Thefunctionq(a;x,t)
g(-q)= -g(~)
g(=)= 1 I
is roughlye~onenti~ ~ fo~ ad deca-
(41)

comparatively
slowlyin relationto theinitial
rapidriseof temperature
at thepointO. It is bestshownin theformof graphsdrawnforspecial
cases.
Theauslysis has assmnedthattheinitial heatsourcehas a square
crosssection anda depth P. ~ practice onewillhavelittleor no
controlovertheexactshapeof theregioninwhicha lightning stroke
developsheatin theplate;ad on thewholeone~~ probably f~ a
circulsr spot. Forpointsnearthecenterof the
or roughlyeld.iptical
spotsmdpointsawayfromthespotby distances lsrge-
compsredwiththe
radiusof thesnot.theexactshapeof thespotwillbe
— immaterial. For
an exactlycircula$spottheanal--is canbe msdein polarcoordinates.
This=alysisis discussed in a latersectionforcompleteness,but its
usewouldrequire numericalworkwithBesselfunctions, whichwasnot
consideredjustifi~lein viewof the uncertainties
in thedata.

.
30 NACATN 4326

Graphical
Exsmple .
Tn orderto showthenatureof theheatflowin theplate,a partic-
ularcaseis presentedin gramicalform. Consider
an aluminwn
platewith
thefolhwing-dtiensions:- - —

Thickness
=b = 0.318cm (1/8”)
a= 0.5 cm :?!
Sourcesize= :
{P = 0.159 cm (1/16”)
The sourceis thenassumed
to be O.5 centimeter
squareendextends
half-
waythrough theplate.Fromthe datagivenin thepreceding sectionfor
aluninum,thetemperature
of the source,fora givenheatinput Q, is
initially
e =1O.3Q (42)

in joules,
where Q is expressed and 9 istnetemperature
rise
in degreescentigrade.
aboveroomtemperature
Temperatureat pointO. - Thetemperature
at thepoint0, whichis
on theinsideof theplatejustopposite thecenterof theso~ce~is –
first.Makinguseof equation
considered (33)gives .

To = To(O,
O;t)
.
= elo(a;o,t)l%r(b,;;o)t) (43)
ThefunctionW(b,b/2;0,t), whichdeterminestheflowof heatthroughthe
thicknessof theplate,is plottedin figure26. It startsfrcmzeroend
risesto 0.5,sincetheflowof heatdirectly throughtheplatewould
doubletheamountof heatedmetalandsowo-uld lowerthetemperature
by a factor0.5. 9?his
functionis plottedon a universal
timescale
as a functionof t/t’,where t’ is defined by equation
(37).
ThefunctionW(0.5jO}t)J
whichdeterminestheflowof heatawayfrom
thepointO alongtheplate,is plottedin figure27. Thisgraphstarts
at ~ity at t =-0 anddtihishescomparativelyslowlyto zero.
Thecomposite result,givingthetemperature at thepoint0, is
plottedas curveA in figure28,tiichshowsthatthetemperature at O
risesto about 9/4 as itsmaximum valuein about20 millisecondsand
thenfallsrathersteeply; in 1/10secondit is downto @/10. This
pointwillobviouslybe thehotteston theinsideof theplate,so that
therapiditywithwhichit coolsoffwillbe”animportant criterion
governingthefiringof an explosivegasmixture thatcontactsthesur-
facehere. +=

.
NACATN 4326 31

Tmnperatureat a neighboring
pOint. - As sn indication
of thetem-
uraturesreachedon theinsideof theplatenearthesourcepoint,the
~emperature-time
curvehasbeenplottedfora point0.5centimeter-from
thepointO. Thecurveis givenas curveB of figure28. Thetempera-
tureat thispointrisesslowlyto onlyabout 25 percentof themaximum
at O andthenfallsslowly.Theflowof heatalongthe
temperature
aluminumplateis so rapidthatonlythepointsquiteneartheinitial
sourceareheatedto anygreatextent.

Effectof Continuous
Source
It hasbeenassumedin thepreviouscalculationsthattheheatsource
is established at the t = O andthatonlythetempera-
instantaneously
turedistributionfrcmthisoriginis significant. b practice, the
applicationof theheatwillnotbe so tist=taeous~but theso~ce maY
be appliedforsanetimeandmayvsryfrcminstant to instsntinmagni-
tude. Oncetheproblemof finding thetemperature
distribution fransn
instantaneoussourcehasbeensolved,it is possibleto writethemethcd
of findingit froma variablesource,takingalvsntageof theIinesrity
of thedifferentialequationofheatconductionandof theboundsry
conditions.
Firstthenotationinwhichtheresulthasbeenexpressed willbe
revised.Ihsteaiof usingtheparticular instat t = O as tietimeof
application
of thesource,thisinstant is Wicated as tl. Also,
suppose
thattheheatis supplied in sm infiniteshnal
the intervaldtl,
suchthat Q = q(tl]dt~ Then,fromequation (31)thetemperaturedis-
tribution
followingfrcmthissourceat t5mes t ztl wouldbe givenby
theformula

Clearly,to findthetemperature
distributionfroma setof sources
operating
in thepastit is necessary
onlyto sum (integrate)
expression
(44)overaIlthesources thathaVebeenpresent.Thisyieldsthefinal
foriula:
t
T(x,y,z,t)
= 1

I
Cpazs -a
dtl)dw+-+(% y,t-tl)V(b)
P;z>t-tl)dtl
(45)
It is not practicable
to evaluate
thisexpression
by actualinte-
grationif the sourcefunctionq(tl)is veryc~lex@ Thebestmethod
32 NACATN 4326
.—

of hsndling
it isprobably
by numerical
andgraphical
means,approximating
thesourcefunction
by a setof discrete
sources. .

Treatment
of Infinite
Platein Cylindrical
Coordinates
Themathematicalsnalysisof theheatflowh a platehasbeencar-
riedoutentirely in termsof Cartesiancoordinatesin theearliersec-
tionsof’thisreport.Thishasledto theuseof a heatsourcein the
formof a smallrectangularparalleleplped.
_The readermay considerthat
it wouldbe moresensibleto usea heatsourcein theformof a small
cylinder.Thisis certainly correctin principle,andtheproce@reused
hasbeenoneof convenience only. b thissection theanalysisis carried
throughforcylindricalpolarcoordinates witha cylintiicalshapeforthe
sourceandsolvedin termsof Besselfunctions.
Usingtheususlcylindrical
polarcoordinates,
withoriginat the
pointO, theheat-conduction
equationtakestheform

(46)

Onlycylindrically
symmetricsolutions
needbe considered,
so thatthe
temperaturedepends
onlyon thedistancefromthe“center
of theplate
andnot on thesagul.ar
positionaroundthe.source.
First,ps.rticular
solutionsof thedifferential equation(46)sre
soughtwhichobeytheboundsry conditions of theproblem.Herean in-
finitelylargeplateis tskenat thestart,so thattheboundary condi-
tionsreduceto therequirementthatthesolution be finiteeverywhere,
andbe single-valued,Thereis to be no flowofheatfrcmthesurfaces
of theplate,so that &@z = O at z = O,b.
Psrticulsr
solutions
satisfying
theseconditions
areof theform

F(r)cos
[wzle+Fa2ie=
‘-x2t’ (47)

where k is sm arbitrary
realpositive and F(r)is a solu-
constsnt,
tionof thedifferential
equation

(48)

Theonlysolution
of equation
(48)thatremains
finiteat r = O (for
X+o)is
.

.
NACATN 4326 33

F(r)= const=txJO(Ar) (49)


where JO is theBesselfunction
of firstkindof orderzero.
To satisfy
theinitialconditionstheseparticular
solutionsare
cambinedlinearly.Themembersin thevsriablez mustbe summedover
integern = 0,1,2. . .,whiletheradialsolutions
thenon-negative
mustbe integrated
overtheparsmeterk. H theinitial heatsourceis
a smallcylinder
of radius a anddepth P, intowhichen smountof heat
Q is deposited
at t = O, theresultis

T(r,z,t)
= ‘2 Q(a;r,t)~(b,B;
z,t) (50)
c~xaB
with

whichis identicalwiththefunction
definedin equation
(20).Thefunc-
tion Q(a;r,t)is of theform
.
~(a;
r,t)= g(k)Jo(kr)exp(-k2t)X
dk (52)
fo
where g(k)mustbe determined
fkmntheinitial Herethe
conditions.
following
is required:
(Oifr>a
q(a;
r,O)= (53)
1lifr-=a
If
Q(a;r,O)= u(r) (54)
Then,frmnequation
(52),

u(r)= = g(l)Jo(Xr)k
dk (55)
Jo

Theinversionof thisintegral
equation
for g(X)whentheleftsideis
a lmownfunctiongives
.

.
34 NACATN 4326
.

g(x) =
f’
o
u(r)Jo(kr)r
dr (56) .

Makinguseof thetiitial.
conditions
(53)whichdefinethefunction
u(r),ti thepresentproblem

J
e.
g(k) = Jo(Xr]r
dr (57)
o

Thisleadsto theformula

J[J 1
m a
Q(a;r,t)
= Jo(kR)RdRJO(Xr)exp(-A2t)h
dk
00

1
am
= Jo(~R)Jo&r) exp(-X2t)k
dAR dR (5s)
100[J
Itwouldbe possibleto makeuseof theseformulas forthecalcula- —
tionof thetemperature in the plate,but theworkwouldbe
distribution
greaterthsnby theear~ermethod,withoutsignificant increase
in
accuracyof theresult. — .

REFERENCES
1. Stout,H. P.,andJones,~.: The Igniticmof Gaseous
Explosive
Media
by HotWires. ThirdSymposimon Combustion sndFlamePhenomena,
TheWillisms& WilkinsCo., 1949,pp.329-336.
2. Peirce,B. O.: A ShortTableof Ihtegrsb.Thirded., Gimnsnd
Company,1929.
, d CR-5 back 4955 . *

TABLE I. - cmmRmoIl OF PEAK CURRENT,MECHANICALFORCES, REATHG EFFK!T,AND

CRARGETRANSFEROF TKREETYPE90F SUIW CURRENTGENERATORS TTrA.1’

REPFKKWCEETIZECIW
W NATURALLIGRTNINGON AIFK!RAFT

High-current Secondary
strokekng-auatiOn
generator, generator, mxrentgenerator,
3.3@ at 150kv 3,~ @ at 10kv 200empatl.2kv
Peakcurrent,
dmationloo,ooo-anlp 5,coo-mw 2m-amp
md waveform = 10
dura~mn= 10-5secduxation -2~ec duratiion
- 1 sec
to 1/2valuecri~i-
to 1/2valuecriti-‘ectm@r ‘w
cauy daupea Cm.Y ampea
Relativemechanical 1oo.o 0.25 0.0004
force,proportionalto
mymre of peak current
(WJX1O”*)

Relativeheating = 69,000R = 40,0+30


R
effembjproportional
to ener~ released

R 12 dt, joulee
(r )
Relativeerosionand (C)X(E) (C)x(E) (I)x(t)
pittingeffect, -6 2mxl
3.3X1O-6 x 15xm4 3,000xlo x 10,OCO
prowmtional to charge = 200 coulouibe
= 0.5 Coulolm = 30 couloIlitlB
transfer
36 NACA‘TN4326 .

i!

(8)Laboratory
builalng
andnetwork. .

Lightning
generator
6 million
vol
1.5millionv
(b)Crosssection
of laboratory
shoving
testfacilities.
Figure1. - Lightning
andTransients
Researchtistitute
laboratory
forproducing
simulatedlightning
channel.
.

.
NACATN 4326 37

5,000,000 volts
I _.—

1A
‘%,s= m-: ‘+
n— 100,000

n .m
-. -innll
*.. p. sec
---

&---
If fl

3 ~‘
h
110’? 1.50,000
volts
60 Cps
=

o 10,000j.LSec
11OV 8,000Volts
60 C~S 3 p~ =

100,000
-

10,000
-
g
1,000 -
-
;
100 -
B
u
1o’- , t , ,
0 20,000 40,00060,000 So,ooo 100,000
Time,microsec
Figure2. - Composite
waveform
generators
andresulting
waveform.
38 NACATN 4326
.

Figure3. - Environmental
explosion
chamberwithintegral
windtunnel.
NACATN 4326 39
.

Measuring
equipment
\

Wind-tunnel
blower,

Figure4. - Schematic
diagramof environmental
explosion
chambershowing of integral
location windtunnel,camera,
.
andmeaeuringequipment.
40 NACATN 4326

5. - Concrete-block
Figure pitforfull-scale
experimental
setupstocontrol
possibleexplosion fromiwited fuelsduring
and firehazards laboratory
testsinvolving
6i0charges
tofull-size
fueltanks.
NACATN 4326
.

Environmental
explosion
tank .(@\

Fastax

Z Z ~1,1 \ Transpar&t
insulating
T section

1L-7’ \ Thermocouple
conduit

Figure6. - Environmental
explosion
tankfortestsetupswithdischarge
to smallfuelcellsundercliff
erentconditions
of temperature,
ah
velocity, andpressqre.
42 NACATN 4326
.

i
-.

Figure7. - Blockdiagram
ofthermocouple
system.

Figure8.- Crosssection
through
centerof crater
produced
by laboratory
discharge
to l/8-inch-
thickaluminum
plate.
NACA‘TN4326 43
.

.5

.4

.3

.2

.1

0
(a) Theoretical aurve.

.5
.

.4

.2

0
.001 .01 .1 1 10
Time,
t,eec
(b.)
-perl.mental
curve.
Figure
9. - Temperature-time
aurvesfor l/8-inoh-thick
aluminumplate.
44 NACATN 4326

1+
E
m

0 Sec 0.038Sec

0.004 Sec 0.040Sec

.
0.010 Sec 0.2334
Sec

Figure10.- Photo~aphLc
Bequenoe
of semplefuel-tenk
ignition
by
artificial-lightning
discharge. “
NACATN 4326 45
.

o Sec 0.061Sec

0.055Sec 0.081Sec
.

0.058Sec 0.110 Sec

0.080Sec 0.12S) Sec


Figure
11.- Fuel-tank
explosion
byertificiel-lightning
dischsrge
with300-qph
windstxesm.
NACATN 4326
46 .

IP
Temperature E

n
indicator

Tohigh-
current
/
} generator witi-tunnel
/“ n—-l’ol
I Mixture

o
4 indicator

\/
Camera
and .
observer
window

o
.

\
Cathode
follower
and
oscilloscope
for
pressure
measurement

Figure12.- Testarrangement
forscalefuel-tank
explosion
studies.
NACATN 4326
47

FigureI-3. - Photomicrograph
of cracksin fuel-tank
wallwhereno dfiectpunotureor explosion
occurred.
48 NACATN 4326

(a)Without
vindstream.

(b)Withwlndstraam.
FigureU. - Sparkshowers
frompunctured —
aluminum
sheetwithandwithout
windstream. .

.
NACATN 4326 49

(a)Holesburnedinendsofwingtip tank cones


bynatualllghtningi

200-coulomb Z&coulon.ib 30-coulomb 30 coulombs


long-duration long-duration long-duration withshortpulse
ZOO-amp
peak EOO-amp
pals 4000-amp
peak 150,000amp

(b)Holesburnedin ZO-milaluminum
by laboratory-generated
&tiflcLaldischarges.
of holesburnedby natural
Figure15.- Comparison andartil’icial
lightning.

.
50 NACATN 4326

(a)Puncture
of O.064-inch
sheet (b)Er@ionbutnopuncture
in
by standard
230-coulomb
discharge. 0.081-inch
sheet
by standard
discharge.

(c)Puncture
of double-wall
0.040- (d)Puncture
of O.040-inch
sheet
inohsheet~paoed1/8inch. by Z&coulombdischarge.
. —._.— .-. —.—... .-1.
.:. *

-. —
---- .-

(e)Pumtureof 0.081-inch
sheet (f)Erosionof0.081-inch
sheet
withwindstreamandfaultydisoharge. withwindstream
andstandarddischarge.
Figure16.- Erosionor puncture
of fuel-tank
aluminum
alloys
(shown
helfsize)by artificial-lightning
discharges. .

.
NACATN 4326 51
.

---.—-. . .

.____

. .
-. -

.
.-==—
——.

.
17.- Holeandpitnvxcks
F3.gwe on a wingtipfuel-tank
tailcone
causedby naturallightning.

-C-47613
Figure18.- Successivein-linedisplacements
of holes
burnedby naturallightning
in 20-milaluminumati-
craftskinas aircraftmovedthroughdischarge.

.
.

30
25

20

15
.
10
+ -1
5 I-1
0 n rHlrlnll n m.
KP c
- Zo”c -10-8 -6-4 -200P2 4 6 8 10 —
14° F 32°F 50°l?.

Figure19.- Variationof percentage


of lightning with
strokesto aircraft
temperature
in U.S.flights.
.
20

15 —

10 — — —

0
0 468
— —
10 12
— — —
14 3.6.18 ~
n
22
I-i i-l
24 26x1O’

Figure20.- Variationof lightningstrokesto aircraftwithalt~tude


flights;123 incidents.

.
NACATN 4326 53 -
*

Fuselage
nose

Fuselage
misc.

wing

Aileron

Elevator
( I
Rudder I

9 Propeller I

Antenna 1
. I

Inspection
doors
opened
compass
off

Miscellaneous [
I
o 5 10 15 m 25 30
Percent
of dkge

of damagein 275lightning
Figure21.- Distribution toaticraft.
discharges
54 NACATN 4326 ●

Figure22.- Two-million-volt
Msclzergeentering
model”airoraft
vertlcel
finand leaving
antenna ●
mastbelowfuselage.

Figure23.- Two-million-volt
discharge
entering
modelaircraft
vertioal
finanaleaving po-
. A streamer
peller maybe notedoffwingtip.
1

.
NACATN 4326 55

Figure
24.- Laboratory
discharges
to scalemdel —
. .-
of jetaticraft
dmwing Strokes
to noseand
wingtiptank.
.
56 NACATN 4326

‘7
Figure25.- Plotof eguipotentials
aboutjetaircraft
in crossfieldbeforeandafterlightning
stroke
contactstailof aircraft.
NACATN 4326

——. —
.

.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


Figure26. - Funotlon # (b,b/2;O, t). whl
1.C .

.
.9 .

w .6
0“
..

~
.4

.2

0 ■

.001 .01 .1 1
The, t, eec
Figure27. - Function* (1/2;CS,t), which
dete~lnes
the
rlou
ofh-talong
theplate.
a
a

.:

.4

.3

.2

.1

0
.031 .01 .1 1
Tim, t, seo

m 28. - ‘leqxmaturc-timecmves; b . 0.31E centimeter(1./Bin.); f3-0.159 cent~t,er


(L/16 in.); and a.= 0.5 Cantlmeter.

1 . ● . S’267 , ,
,,1 ,,, ,,,