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FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULICS

Keang Sè POUV, Ph.D., Eng.

Phnom Penh
Falls, 2017 (Third Edition)
OUTLINE

- General Introduction

- Hydrostatics

- Kinematics of Fluids

- Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

- Dynamics of Real Fluids

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 2


General Introduction

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 3


General Introduction

Fluid Definition
In contrast to a solid, a fluid does not have a well defined form as it
takes the form of the container that it stays inside. Thus, the fluid is
deformable.

Fluids are continuum materials. The difficulty in the study of fluid


motions is that it is composed of a great number of molecules that
interacts with each other and that we are unable to know their precise
locations and velocities. So we must have an approach on its global
motion at a mesoscopic scale which is at the intermediate between
macroscopic and microscopic scales. A quantity of fluid at this scale is
called “fluid particle” which is small compared to macroscopic
dimensions.

Fluids have a flowing property due to the fact that its particles are
weakly linked to each others and thus can easily move around each
others.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 4


General Introduction

Fluid Definition
Liquids and gas are fluids. A liquid does not have a proper form but
possess a proper volume. A gas neither has a proper form nor a proper
volume, i.e., it always occupies all the available space.

A vapor is a gas whose temperature and pressure are such that it is


very near the liquid phase.

A gas may be defined as a highly superheated vapor; that is, its state is
far removed from the liquid phase. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 5
General Introduction

Fluid Definition
The molecules of a gas are much farther apart than those of a liquid.

Liquid Gas

There are many materials that are not easily categorized into solid,
liquid, or gas. Gels (cross-linked networks of polymer molecules) and
colloids (suspensions of macromolecules or microscopic particles) are
materials, many of which are important biomaterials, that can exhibit
both liquid-like and solid-like properties depending on the conditions.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 6


General Introduction

Fluid Definition
Ideal Fluid

Fluid in which there is no friction between fluid particles (no viscosity).

Real Fluid

Tangential or shearing forces always develop whenever there is motion


relative to a body, thus creating fluid friction. Their motion is known as
viscous flow.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 7


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Density

The density of a substance is defined by the ratio between its mass M


and its volume V:
M
 (1.1)
V
For water: ρw = 1000 kg/m3
For mercury: ρHg = 13546 kg/m3
For air: ρair = 1.225 kg/m3

Specific unit weight:   g (1.2)


Specific gravity (relative density):

SG  (1.3)
w
1
Specific volume: v (1.4)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 8
General Introduction

Physical Properties
Density

The specific weights g of some common liquids at 68°F (20°C) and


standard sea level atmospheric pressure (1013 mb abs) with g = 9.81
m/s2 are given in the table below.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 9


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Density

The specific gravities of some substances are given below:

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 10


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Exercise 1

1. The specific weight of water is 9.81 kN/m3. The specific gravity of mercury is
13.56. Compute the density of water and the specific weight of mercury.

2. A fluid that occupies a volume of 24L weighs 225N. Determine its density if g
= 9.80 m/s2.

3. The mass of an empty cleaned pycnometer is 125 g. A fluid is filled in the


pycnometer until a volume of 50 cm3. The mass of the pycnometer containing
the fluid is 186 g. What are the density in kg/m3, the specific gravity and the
specific weight of the fluid?

Exercise 2

A plastic cylinder tank has a radius of 25.23 cm, a height of 1 m, and a mass of
3 kg. Determine the weight of the combined system for the two cases below:
1. The tank is filled with water.
2. The tank is filled with water until the 2/3 of the tank’s height and with olive
oil (density = 800 kg/m3) for the remaining 1/3 height. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 11
General Introduction

Physical Properties
Exercise 3

A vessel contains 85 L of water at 10°C and at atmospheric pressure. If the


water is heated to 70°C, what will be the percentage change in its volume? What
weight of water must be removed to maintain the volume at its original value?

Given:

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 12


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

The viscosity is the result of the friction forces between molecules of a


fluid which presents a resistance to strain.

Less viscous fluid More viscous fluid

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 13


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 14


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

The relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain rate is:
d du
   (1.5)
dt dy

 is the shear stress


d / dt is the shear strain rate
 is the dynamic viscosity

The equation (5) is known as the law of Newtonian fluid.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 15


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

Dynamic viscosity:

 (1.6)
d / dt

For water:   1.14 mPa.s 1.14 10 3 kg.m 1.s 1


For mercury:   1.552 Pa.s  1.552 kg .m 1.s 1


Kinematic viscosity:   (1.7)

The fluid viscosity depends strongly on the temperature.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 16


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

Fluid flow behaviours:

(shear thickening)

(shear thinning)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 17


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Viscosity

The devices used to measure the viscosity are commonly called,


viscosimeters.

Since viscosity varies considerably with temperature, it is essential that


the fluid be at a constant temperature when a measurement is being
made.

Rotational viscosimeter:

Two concentric cylinders that are rotated with respect


to one another. The narrow space between them is
filled with the liquid whose viscosity is to be measured.
The rate of rotation under the influence of a given
torque is indicative of the viscosity of the liquid.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 18


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Exercise 4

A 1-in-wide space between two horizontal plane surfaces is filled with


SAE 30 Western lubricating oil at 80°F (viscosity μ = 0.0063 lb.sec/ft2).
What force is required to drag a very thin plate of 4-ft2 area through the
oil at a velocity of 20 ft/min if the plate is 0.33 in from one surface?

Note: Before calculation, convert the units of all the given parameters
into SI (International Standard) units. (1in = 2.54cm, (°F-32)x5/9 = °C, 1ft =
30.48 cm, 1lb = 0.4535kg = 4.448N)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 19


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Compressibility

A gas is very compressible, and when all external pressure is removed,


it tends to expand indefinitely.

A liquid is relatively incompressible, and if all pressure, except that of


its own vapour pressure, is removed, the cohesion between molecules
holds them together, so that the liquid does not expand indefinitely.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 20


General Introduction

Physical Properties
Compressibility

The compressibility of a fluid is inversely proportional to its volume


modulus of elasticity (bulk modulus), which is defined as:

dp
Ev  v (1.8)
dv
Where v = specific volume, and p = pressure.

As an approximation, we can write for the case of fixed mass of liquid at


a constant temperature:

Where Ev is the mean value of the modulus for the pressure range.
21
General Introduction

Physical Properties
Exercise 5

At a depth of 8 km in the ocean the pressure is 81.8 MPa. Assume that


the specific weight of seawater at the surface is 10.05 kN/m3 and that
the average volume modulus is 2.34x109N/m2 for that pressure range.

(a) What will be the change in specific volume between that at the
surface and at that depth?
(b) What will be the specific volume at that depth?
(c) What will be the specific weight at that depth?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 22


Hydrostatics

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 23


Hydrostatics

General Conditions
Hydrostatics is concerned with the behaviour of fluids at rest.

It means that the fluid velocity is zero:



u0

There are no stresses due to fluid particles frictions.

The present force between adjacent surfaces is normal to the surface.

The force per unit area is equal in all directions.

Fluids rise to the


same height
regardless of the
shape of the
container.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 24
Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure
The magnitude of the force per unit area in a static fluid is called the
pressure:
F
p (2.1)
S

Sometimes the ordinary pressure is called the absolute pressure p.

The relative pressure is defined as:

1. p  pa gage pressure : prel ( gage)  p  pa (2.2)


2. p  pa vacuum pressure : prel (vacuum)  pa  p (2.3)

The atmospheric pressure: Pa = 1.013 bar = 101.3 kPa.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 25


Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure
Illustration of absolute, gage and vacuum pressure readings:

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 26


Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure
Considering a small wedge of fluid at rest as shown below.

F x
 0  p x bz  pn bs sin  (2.4)

F
1
z
 0  p z bx  pn bs cos  bxz (2.5)
2 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 27
Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure
Since: s sin   z and s cos  x

Then: p x  pn (2.6)
1
p z  pn  z (2.7)
2
These relationships indicate that:

- There is no pressure change in the horizontal direction


- There is a vertical change in pressure proportional to the density,
gravity, and depth change.

As the fluid wedge shrinks to a “point”, i.e., z  0 we obtain:


p x  p z  pn  p

The pressure p at a point in a static fluid is independent of orientation.


Dr. Keang Sè POUV 28
Hydrostatics

Pascal’s Principle
If a fluid is confined in a closed container and an external force is
applied to a region of the surface bounding the fluid, there is an
external pressure being applied. The external pressure applied does not
remain localized near the surface where the pressure is applied, but the
external pressure on a confined fluid increases the pressure uniformly
throughout the fluid by the same amount. This is known as Pascal’s
principle.

Hydraulic devices make use of Pascal’s principle to amplify forces. As a


first example of such a device consider the schematic diagram of a
hydraulic lift shown in figure below.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 29


Hydrostatics

Pascal’s Principle
A smaller force Fin acting over a smaller area Ain determines the applied
pressure P=Fin/Ain. The output end of the lift has a much larger area,
Aout, and because the pressure within the fluid is essentially constant
(exactly so if the heights are the same), the output force Fout is
determined from P=Fin/Ain=Fout/Aout, so that the output force is
amplified to be:

Aout
Fout  Fin
Ain

where the ratio Aout/Ain is the amplification, also known as the


mechanical advantage.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 30


Hydrostatics

Fundamental Equation of Hydrostatics

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 31


Hydrostatics

Fundamental Equation of Hydrostatics


- Force due to P1: F1 = P1.A
- Force due to P2: F2 = P2.A
- Force due to the weight of liquid column:

W = mg = ρgV = ρgA(z2 – z1)

In the equilibrium state: F1  F2  W  0


p1 A  p2 A  gAz 2  z1   0

p1  p2   g z1  z 2  (2.8)
p2 p1
z1  z 2   ( 2.9 )
g g

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 32


Hydrostatics

Fundamental Equation of Hydrostatics


We can also write:

p
z  const (2.10)
g

- z: geometric height
- p/ρg: pressure head (hauteur piézométrique) of the fluid
- z + p/ρg: total height or head

In a general manner, we write:


 
 grad p  f  0 (2.11)

 dp / dx  f 
    x
grad p   dp / dy  ; f   fy  force density
 dp / dz  f 
   z Dr. Keang Sè POUV 33
Hydrostatics

Fundamental Equation of Hydrostatics


For lakes and oceans, the coordinate system is usually chosen as:

When we introduce the reference value (p1, z1)=(pa,0), we obtain the


pressure p at any (negative) depth z (i.e., z < 0):

p  pa  gz
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 34
Hydrostatics

Fundamental Equation of Hydrostatics


Exercise 6

1. The gage pressure in a liquid at a depth of 3m is 28 kPa. What is the


gage pressure in the same liquid at a depth of 12 m?
2. What is the depth of petrol oil (density 0.75) that creates a relative
pressure of 2.75 bars? What is the depth of water that produces the
same pressure?
3. Convert the pressure unit from Pa to mmH20 and to mmHg.

Exercise 7

If the blood hydrostatic pressure of the heart is 100mmHg and the


blood density is 1060 kg/m3, calculate the blood pressure in mmHg:
1. At the foot situated at 1.2m below the heart.
2. At the cerebral artery situated at 0.6 m above the heart
3. How do these pressures change when we lay down?
4. How do they change again if we are on the moon (g’=1.62N/kg)?
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 35
Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Mercury Barometer

It is used to measure atmospheric


pressure.

A tube is filled with mercury and inverted


while submerged in a reservoir. This causes
a near vacuum in the closed upper end
because mercury has an extremely small
vapour pressure at room temperature (0.16
Pa at 20oC).

Since atmospheric pressure forces a


mercury column to rise a distance h into
the tube, the upper mercury surface is at
The height of a mercury column
zero pressure. is proportional to pa.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 36


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Mercury Barometer

If we apply eq. (2.8) with p1 = 0 at z1 = h and p2 = pa at z2 = 0:

0  pa    Hg g h  0 
pa   Hg gh
pa
h
 Hg g
101.3  103
h  0.762m  762mm
13546  9.81

Mercury is used because it is the heaviest common liquid.


A water barometer would be 10.326m. You can try to prove it!

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 37


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Manometer

A static column of one or more liquids can be used to measure pressure


differences between 2 points. Such a device is called manometer.
Example: a column of multiple fluids

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 38


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Manometer

According to Prof. John Foss of Michigan State University:

pdown  p up  g z (2.12)

Without worrying too much about which point is “z1” and which is “z2”,
the formula simply increases or decreases the pressure according to
whether one is moving down or up.

Using the previous example, we can write:

p5  p1   0 g z1  z 2   w g z 2  z3   G g z3  z 4   M g z 4  z5

That is, keep adding on pressure increments as you move down through
the layered fluid.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 39


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Manometer

The figure shows a simple open manometer for measuring pA in a closed


chamber relative to atmospheric pressure pa.
p A  p1   1 g ( z A  z1 )
pa  p1    2 g ( z 2  z1 )
 p A  1 g ( z A  z1 )   2 g ( z 2  z1 )  pa

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 40


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 8

1. Relate the reading of the inclined


manometer with the pressure at O.

2. Derive a formula for the pressure


difference p1 – p2 from the reading of the
U-tube manometer.

3. The pressure in a pressurized water tank


is measured by a multi-fluid manometer.
The gage pressure of air P1,gage in the
tank is to be determined if ρHg=13600
kg/m3, ρw=1000 kg/m3, ρoil=850 kg/m3,
h1 = 0.2m, h2 = 0.3m, h3=0.46m. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 41
Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 9

Siphon can be described as an inversed J-tube


that allows liquid to flow from the higher level to
the lower level without pump. Liquids flow down
the tube under the pull of gravity.

Supposing that the tap situated at the bottom


extremity of the tube is closed at first.

Determine the pressure at point B’ just above the


tap in function of the pressure at the point B” just
below the tap.

What happens if the tap is opened?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 42


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 10

A manometer connects an oil pipeline and a water pipeline as shown in


the figure. Determine the difference in pressure between the two
pipelines using readings on the manometer. Given: SGoil=0.86 and
SGHg=13.6, SGair << SGoil.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 43


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 11

A U-tube contain 3 different fluids: water (density ρ1), mercury (density


ρ2) and gasoline (density ρ3).

1. At the equilibrium state, find the relationship between different


heights z0, z1, z2 and z3.
2. Determine z0, z1, z2 and z3 if: ρ1=1000kg/m3 , ρ2=13600kg/m3,
ρ3=700kg/m3, z0-z1=0.2m, z3-z2=0.1m and z1+z2=0.2m.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 44


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 12

Two non miscible liquids are filled in an opened tank equipped with two
piezometric tubes. Given: Patm = 1 bar. ρoil = 850kg/m3, ρwater =
1000kg/m3, h1 = 6m and h2 = 5m. Determine ZE, and ZD.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 45


Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 13

Determine x if h = 20 m, d = 0.5 m and PD = 9 104 Pa (density of


mercury = 13.6 103 kg/m3, density of water = 103 kg/m3).

Water Manometer

Mercury
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 46
Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
Exercise 14

A differential manometer is composed of two cylindrical recipients with


a sections S1 and S2. Both recipients are connected via a tube with an
interior section s. The system has two immiscible liquids with densities
ρ1 and ρ2.

1. Initially, the pressure above both


liquids are the same and equal to po.
The interface position is defined by
H1 and H2. Find the relationship
between ρ1, ρ2, H1 and H2.
2. If we produce a high pressure Δp
above the liquid 1, the interface
position moves by Δh. Determine the
sensibility Δh/Δp.
Take: ρ1=998 kg/m3, ρ2=1024 kg/m3,
S1=S2=100s. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 47
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


If h is the depth to any element area dA of the plate, then the total
hydrostatic force on one side of the plate is given by:


F  pdA  p a  h dA  pa A   hdA
 (2.13)

Since, h   sin 
1
 CG 
AdA


 F  pa A   sin  dA
 pa A   sin  CG A
 ( pa  hCG ) A
F  pCG A (2.14)

It can be seen as the resultant of a linear


stress distribution over the plate area. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 48
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


However, the resultant force F does not act through the centroid but the
center of pressure CP. To find the coordinates (xCP, yCP), we sum
moments of the elemental force pdA about the centroid and equate to
the moment of the resultant F.

To compute yCP, we equate:

FyCP  ypdA  y  pa   sin  dA   sin  ydA


   (2.15)

 
FyCP   sin  y ( CG  y )dA    sin  y 2 dA (2.16)
1 I
yCP  
F 
 sin  y 2 dA   sin  xx
pCG A
(2.17)


The term ydA  0 by definition of centroidal axes.
The negative sign in eq. (2.17) shows that ycp is below the centroid at a
deeper level.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 49
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


The determination of xCP is exactly similar:
FxCP  xpdA  x pa   sin   CG  y dA
 

FxCP   sin  xydA   sin  I xy (2.18)
I xy
 xCP   sin  (2.19)
pCG A

For positive Ixy, xcp is negative because the dominant pressure force
acts in the third or lower left, quadrant of the panel.

In most cases the ambient pressure pa is neglected because it acts on


both sides of the plate, e.g., the other side of the plate is inside a ship
or on the dry side of a gate or dam. In this case, pCG = γhCG, and the
center of pressure becomes independent of specific weight:
I sin  I xy sin 
F  hCG A yCP   xx xCP   (2.20)
hCG A hCG A Dr. Keang Sè POUV 50
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Centroidal moments of inertia for various cross sections:

Area:

Centroid:

Moment of inertia

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 51


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Exercise 15

Calculate the resultant force due to water acting on a rectangular gate


of 6 m height and 2 m length. Also determine its position.

Exercise 16

A cement dam of 20 m wide


contains the water of 14 m
height.

Draw the diagrams of water


pressure acting on the dam
and determine the components
of resultant forces.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 52


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Exercise 17

A gate of 2 m wide is shown as in the figure. The water height is h =


1.2 m. Determine the amplitude and the position of the resultant force
acting on the gate due to the hydrostatic pressure. Find the force P
needed to hold the gate.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 53


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Exercise 18

The gate is 1.5 m wide, is hinged at


point B, and rests against a smooth
wall at point A.
1025 kg/m3
Compute:
4.5m
1. the force on the gate due to sea
water pressure,
2. the horizontal force P exerted by
the wall at point A, 1.8m
3. the reactions at the hinge B.

2.4m

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 54


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Exercise 19

We desire to build a rigid reinforced concrete dam of small height H and


of width L. The self weight of the dam is neglected.

If the height H = 4 m, calculate the width L in the case that:


1. The base pressure below the section AB is absence
2. The base pressure varies linearly between the maximal pressure at B
and zero pressure at A.

water

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 55


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces


Exercise 20

The figure below presents a gravity dam with the length in y-direction
taken as a unit. The dam is made of a material of a density of ρ0d, (d is
the density of the material in relation to the density of water ρ0).

The vertical component of the force exerted by the soil on the dam is
defined by:
dFz
 ax  b
dx
By expressing the equilibrium conditions
of the dam, calculate the values of a and
b in function of ρ0, d, e, h and g
water
(atmospheric air penetrate between the
soil and the dam, but there is no water
seepage).
soil
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 56
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


The easiest way to determine the resultant hydrostatic force FR acting
on a two-dimensional curved surface is to determine the horizontal and
vertical components FH and FV separately.

This is done by considering the free-body diagram of the liquid block


enclosed by the curved surface and the two plane surfaces (one
horizontal and one vertical) passing through the two ends of the curved
surface, as shown in the figure.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 57


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


Note that the vertical surface of the liquid block considered is simply the
projection of the curved surface on a vertical plane, and the horizontal
surface is the projection of the curved surface on a horizontal plane.

The resultant force acting on the curved solid surface is equal and
opposite to the force acting on the curved liquid surface (Newton’s third
law).

Noting that the fluid block is in static equilibrium, the force balances in
the horizontal and vertical directions give:

FH  Fx (2.21a )
FV  Fy  W (2.21b)
W is the weight of the enclosed liquid block. The summation (Fy + W) is
a vector addition (i.e. add magnitudes if both act in the same direction
and subtract if they act in opposite directions).
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 58
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


Thus, we conclude that:

1. The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved


surface is equal (in both magnitude and the line of action) to the
hydrostatic force acting on the vertical projection of the curved
surface.
2. The vertical component of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved
surface is equal to the hydrostatic force acting on the horizontal
projection of the curved surface, plus (minus, if acting in the
opposite direction) the weight of the fluid block.

The exact location of the line of action of the resultant force (e.g., its
distance from one of the end points of the curved surface) can be
determined by taking a moment about an appropriate point. These
discussions are valid for all curved surfaces regardless of whether they
are above or below the liquid.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 59


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


Note that in the case of a curved surface above a liquid,
the weight of the liquid is subtracted from the vertical
component of the hydrostatic force since they act in
opposite directions.

When the curved surface is a circular arc,


the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the
surface always passes through the center of
the circle. This is because the pressure
forces are normal to the surface, and all
lines normal to the surface of a circle pass
through the center of the circle. Thus, the
pressure forces form a concurrent force
system at the center, which can be reduced
to a single equivalent force at that point.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 60
Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


Exercise 21

A dam has a parabolic shape z/z0=(x/x0)2 with x0=3m and z0=7.5m.


The width of the dam is 15m. The fluid is water. The atmospheric
pressure may be omitted. Compute the forces FH and FV on the dam and
the position CP where they act. Also calculate the resultant force and its
direction.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 61


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces


Exercise 22

Compute the components of water pressure force per meter length


acting on the a curved surface AB (R = 2 m).

Also, determine the coordinates of the center of pressure.

FH

FV

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 62


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids


The total force is the sum of the force exerted on each plate portion
with different fluid layer:

F F   p
i CGi Ai (2.22)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 63


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids


The centroid of the plate portion in each layer can be used to locate the
center of pressure on that portion:

 i g sin  i I xxi
yCP i   (2.23)
pCGi Ai
 i g sin  i I xyi
xCP i   (2.24)
pCGi Ai

The center of pressure of the total force F   Fi can be found by


summing moments about some convenient point such as the surface.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 64


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids


Exercise 23

Find the hydrostatic pressure at the centroid of each portion, the


pressure forces on each portion, and the center of pressure of the total
resultant force. Also, draw the pressure diagrams. (ρoil = 880kg/m3,
ρwater = 1000kg/m3, ρHg = 13552kg/m3)

2m
1.25 m

3.4 m

4.9 m

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 65


Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids


Exercise 24

A floodgate of length L contains the water of density ρ. The height of


water in the upstream is H, and that in the downstream is h. Calculate
the resultant force and moment (at the point O at the middle of the
gate base) of the pressure acting on the gate. Consider that this torsor
of moment is equivalent to the force F applied at a particular point C
called “center of pressure”, determine the coordinate of this point C.

N.A.: H=6m, h=2m, L=4m, ρ=1000kg/m3.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 66


Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Archimedes’ laws of buoyancy:

1. A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force


equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
2. A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it
floats.

(b) Summation
of elemental
(a) Forces on vertical-
upper and pressure forces
lower curved
surfaces Dr. Keang Sè POUV 67
Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
The body in the previous figure experiences a net upward force:

From figure (a):

FB  FV (2)  FV (1) (2.25)


FB  weight of fluid equivalent to body volume
FV (2)  fluid weight above surface 2
FV (1)  fluid weight above surface 1

Alternatively, from figure (b):

FB   p
body
2  p1 dAH    z 2  z1 dAH  V (2.26)

V  body volume

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 68


Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Floating bodies are a special case, only a portion of the body is
submerged, with the remainder poking up out of the free surface. The
eq. (2.26) is modified to apply to this smaller volume:

FB    displaced volume  floating body weight (2.27)

Static equilibrium of a floating body


Dr. Keang Sè POUV 69
Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Exercise 25

A block of concrete weighs 45 kg in air and weigh only


27 kg when immersed in fresh water (1000 kg/m3). 27 kg

Calculate the volume of the block and its specific


weight.

Exercise 26 W = 45 kg

An ice cube floats in a glass of full of water. When the


ice melts, does the water in the glass overflow?

What is the percentage of the total volume of an


iceberg which represents the immersed part, knowing
that ρice = 900 kg/m3 and that ρsea = 1025 kg/m3?
What do you think about the increase of water in the
oceans due to the melt of icebergs? Dr. Keang Sè POUV 70
Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Exercise 27

1. Determine the weight of a wooden sphere with a radius of 20 cm,


the weight of a hollow steel sphere with an outer radius of 20 cm
and a thickness of 8 mm. The densities of water is 1000 kg/m3,
wood 700 kg/m3 and steel 7800 kg/m3.
2. Compute the Archimedes force acting on each of both spheres if they
are totally immersed in water.
3. Can these spheres float on water surface? If yes, what are the
percentages of the immersed volume?

Exercise 28

A rectangle parallelepiped debris (base of 50 dm2, height of 4 dm, mass


of 800 kg) lies at the bottom of the sea at 25 m depth. What is the
intensity of the vertical force necessary to lift the debris from the
bottom? And what is the intensity of the force needed to maintain the
debris in suspension after it is lifted from the bottom. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 71
Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Exercise 29

We consider a structure composed of a plan plate and three wooden


cylindrical beams floating at the surface of the sea.

- Beam dimensions: diameter 0.5


m, length 4 m.
- Density of the wood: 700 kg/m3
- Density of the sea: 1027 kg/m3
- Mass of the plate: 350 kg
- Earth gravity: 9.81 m/s2

1. Calculate the fraction (%) of the immerged volume of the beams.


2. Calculate the maximal mass that can be placed on the plate
without the total immersion of the beams.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 72


Hydrostatics

Buoyancy
Exercise 30

A ship that the sides are vertical to the height of water surface line
weighs 4000 tons and has a draft (tirant d’eau) of 6.7 m in sale water
(density 1025 kg/m3). When it is unloaded by 200 tons from the ballast,
the draft is reduced to 6.4 m. What should be the draft of the ship in
fresh water?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 73


Kinematics of Fluid

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 74


Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


A fluid can be modelled as a numerous set of small fluid particles that
translate, rotate and deform.

There exist two ways to describe the motion of a fluid: Lagrangian and
Eulerian descriptions.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 75
Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


Lagrangian description

It consists of following every fluid particle, for instance, in the form of


an equation for the path of each fluid particle.

This description is suited for multiphase flows, where bubble and solid
particles can be easily tracked using the Lagrangian formulation.
This can be
visualized as
sitting in a plane
and watching
vehicles flow.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 76


Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


Lagrangian description

The Lagrangian description provides the position of each fluid particle x


at every time instant t.

Since a fluid contains an infinite number of particles, each particle is


selected by specifying its position x0 at time t = 0.

x  xt , x0 
dxt , x0 
vt , x0  
dt
dvt , x0  d 2 xt , x0 
a (t , x0 )  
dt dt 2

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 77


Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


Lagrangian description

In the case of a uniform flow (2D) parallel to the x axis, the velocity
is:
V 
v 
0 
The position of the particle at instant t is:
 x1 t , x0   x01  Vt 
xt , x0     
 2
x t , x 
0   02 
x
 x01 
where x0    is the position of the particle at time t  0
 x02 
dvt , x0  0
The acceleration is: at , x0    
dt 0
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 78
Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


Eulerian description

In Eulerian description, we record the evolution of the flow properties at


every point in space as time varies. It is a field description. A probe
fixed in space is an example of an Eulerian measuring device.

The region of interest is referred to as a flow field and the velocity in


that flow field is often referred to as the velocity field.

Looking at a
fixed location Dr. Keang Sè POUV 79
Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows


Eulerian description

It consists of giving the velocity field v at every spatial point x and


instant of time t (i.e., the flow properties at a specified location depend
on the location and on time),

v  v  x, t 

It represents the velocity of many different particles as they travel


through the same point x.

To calculate the acceleration of the fluid particle, the substantial or


material derivative is introduced, D  / Dt

Dvx, t 
a  x, t  
Dt
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 80
Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative
In the Eulerian description, the fluid field is given as fluid properties at
fixed or arbitrary points. Therefore, if evolution of the particle properties
is desired, we need specific mathematical transformations to recover
the derivative following the fluid particle.

Let r(t) denotes the position of a particle in a fluid field,

rx t 
 
r t   ry t 
 r t 
z 
 drx t  
 dt 
 x 
v t   
  dr t   dry t  
vt   v y t    
v t  dt  dt 
 z  dr
 z  t 
 dt  Dr. Keang Sè POUV 81
Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative
Let a scalar Eulerian field, such as a velocity component, be given by
c(x,y,z,t) where x, y, z are spatial coordinates.

If we follow a fluid particle, the spatial coordinates are given by the


position that the fluid particle is occupying, that is, the particle
trajectory r(t) :


c  c rx t , ry t , rz t , t  Fluid field

In this case,

Dc c c drx c dry c drz


   
Dt t x dt y dt z dt
Dc c c c c
  vx  vy  vz
Dt t x y z
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 82
Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative
The derivative can also be expressed in tensor notation as:

 c 
 
v x   x 
Dc c    c 
  v y    
Dt t    y 
v z   c 
 c 
 z   
 xc 
c  
 v   c
Dc
 where c   
Dt t  y 
 c 
 z 

The derivative is made from the temporal term and the convective
term. The latter represents the transport of a property in the fluid due
to its macroscopic motion.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 83
Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative
If the velocity is expressed in components vi and the Cartesian
coordinates as xi where i = 1, 2, 3.

Dc c 3
c

Dt t
 
j 1
vj
x j

This is called the material derivative and represents the variation of c in


time following a fluid particle.

The acceleration of the fluid particle:

 Dv x 
 Dt 
 
Dv  Dv y 
a  
Dt  Dt 
 Dv z 
 Dt 
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 84
Kinematics of Fluid

Mechanisms of Transport Phenomena


There are two classes of transport phenomena:

- The convective transport is due to the macroscopic fluid velocity. The


fluid, with its motion, drags the fluid particles and its properties.
Mathematically, the net flux is modelled by the convective term of the
substantial derivative:
c c c
v1  v2  v3
x1 x2 x3
- The diffusion transport or molecular transport is due to the random
motion of molecules at the microscopic level, which tends to make
the properties uniform. Mathematically, the net local balance of
transport by diffusion around a fluid particle is proportional to the
diffusion coefficient α and the Laplacian:

  2c  2c  2c 
c    2  2  2 
 x1 x2 x3  Dr. Keang Sè POUV 85
Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Stationary or steady flow

A fluid flow is stationary when in the Eulerian description none of the


variables depends on time, i.e.,


0
t

Transient or unsteady flow

A fluid flow is said to be transient when it is not stationary.

Some flows, though unsteady, become steady under certain frames of


reference. These are called pseudosteady flows.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 86


Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows

The flow that depends on three space coordinates is a three-


dimensional flow. The flow in a washing machine would be an unsteady,
three dimensional flow.

Certain flows can be approximated as two-dimensional flows that


depend on only two space variables (plane flow).

One-dimensional flows are flows in which the velocity depends on only


one space variable. For flow in a long pipe, the velocity depends on the
radius r, and in a wide channel (parallel plates) it depends on y an
shown below.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 87


Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Uniform Flow

For the uniform flow, as sketched in the figure below; the velocity
profile and other properties such as pressure, is uniform across the
section of pipe.

Viscous and Inviscid Flows

In an inviscid flow, the effects of viscosity can be completely neglected.


All fluids have viscosity and if the viscosity effects cannot be neglected,
it is viscous flow. Viscous effects are very important in pipe flows and
many other kinds of flows inside conduits; they lead to losses and
required pumps in long pipe lines.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 88
Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Isothermal and adiabatic flows

In an isothermal flow, the temperature is constant. The opposite is a


non-isothermal flow.

Adiabatic means that the system is thermally isolated and there is no


heat transport between itself and its surroundings.

Rotational and irrotational flows

A flow is said to be irrotational if the fluid particles along their path


translate without rotation about the particle center.

If along their path the fluid particles translate and rotate about the
particle center, the flow is rotational.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 89


Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Laminar and Turbulent Flows

In a turbulent flow there is mixing of fluid particles so that the motion


of a given particle is random and highly irregular. In turbulent flow the
velocity at any point changes chaotically in magnitude and direction
(unsteady flow).

In a laminar flow there is negligible mixing of fluid particles; the motion


is smooth and noiseless. The flow is steady.

Steady to turbulent flow.


Photo taken at the top of
Horseshoe Falls near Niagara
Falls.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 90


Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Steady and Unsteady Turbulent Flows

Steady and Unsteady Laminar Flows Dr. Keang Sè POUV 91


Kinematics of Fluid

Classification of Fluid Flows


Incompressible Flow

Equation of mass conservation or equation of continuity (i.e., it requires


that the density and velocity are continuum functions):


   V   0
t
A special case which affords great simplification is incompressible flow,
where the density changes are negligible (i.e.,  / t  0 regardless of
whether the flow is steady or unsteady).

This condition yield:   V  0 valid for steady or unsteady


incompressible flow. The Cartesian form is:

v x v y v z
  0
x y z
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 92
Kinematics of Fluid

Angular Velocity & Vorticity


Visualize a fluid flow as the motion of a collection of fluid particles that
deform and rotate as they travel along.

If the particles simply deform and do not rotate, we refer to the flow, or
a region of the flow, as an irrotational flow. If the particles do rotate,
they possess vorticity.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 93


Kinematics of Fluid

Angular Velocity & Vorticity


The angular velocity represents the rate at which a fluid particle rotates
about each of the coordinate axes:

1  v z v y 
 x    
2  y z 
1  v v 
y   x  z 
2  z x 
1  v y v x 
 z    
2  x y 

The vorticity vector ω is defined as: ω=2Ω.

The vorticity and angular velocity components are 0 for an irrotational


flow.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 94


Kinematics of Fluid

Streamlines, Trajectories & Streaklines


Streamline (ligne de courant)

The streamline is the line tangent at every point to the velocity vector.
It indicates the velocity direction.

Since dl and velocity vector are parallel, then:

 dx   v x 
    
dl  v   dy    v y   0
 dz   v 
   z
vx v y vz
 
dx dy dz Dr. Keang Sè POUV 95
Kinematics of Fluid

Streamlines, Trajectories & Streaklines


Trajectory

The trajectory or path is the track followed by a fluid particle as times


evolves (e.g., the braking marks on a road).

Since the particle velocity is known at each spatial point, the trajectory
coordinates can be obtained by integrating the equation of motion:

dx dy dz
 vx  vy  vz
dt dt dt
(x,y,z) is the position of the particle as a function of time.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 96


Kinematics of Fluid

Streamlines, Trajectories & Streaklines


Streakline

The streakline is the geometric place occupied by fluid particles that


have passed by the same point at previous times.

Streaklines are the easiest element to be seen in nature or an


experimental rig. Examples include a plume in the sky (see the figure)
or the spilled coloured contaminant in a river.

Streakline (solid line) and


trajectories (dashed lines)
of the smoke particles
(dots) from a chimney at
successive time instants.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 97


Kinematics of Fluid

Streamlines, Trajectories & Streaklines


Streakline

To calculate the streaklines of a flow field, it is first necessary to


compute the trajectories. The process is very similar to the one
presented above, differing only in the way the boundary conditions are
imposed. Assume that a tracer is injected into the flow field at the point
(x0,y0), then proceed in three steps:

1. Integrate the equation of motion

2. Calculate the integration constants, such that at time ξ<t the fluid particle
was at (x0,y0). Here ξ is the parameter that designates the particle, by the
time it passed through the injection point. What we have done is to obtain all
the trajectories of the particles that were injected in the flow field before the
present time t.

3. Eliminate ξ.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 98


Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises
Exercise 31
  
Given the Eulerian fluid field: v x, y , z , t   3ti  xzj  ty k
2

Determine the flow acceleration.

Exercise 32

An incompressible velocity field is given by:



u  a x2  y2  v unknown w  b
a and b are constants. What must the form of the component v be?

Exercise 33
 
A velocity field in a plane flow is given by: vx, y, t   2 yti  xj
Find the equation of the streamline passing through (4,2) at t = 2.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 99


Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises
Exercise 34

For the unsteady, two-dimensional flow field given by:


u  2 xt  1
v  2 y t  1
1. Particularize for the case in which the streamline passes through the
point (x0,y0) at all times. Calculate the streamlines.
2. Determine the trajectory of the fluid particle that passes through the
point (x0,y0) at t = 0.
3. Determine the streakline that passes by (x0,y0).

Exercise 35

For the velocity field below: v x  2 xy v y  4t z v z   yz


2

Find the acceleration (Eulerian description), the angular velocity and the
vorticity at the point (2,-1,1) at t = 2.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 100
Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises
Exercise 36
   
The velocity field of a fluid is given by: V    (α, β, k constants)
   kt 
1. What is the nature of the flow (i.e., steady, rotational, and/or
compressible flow)? Justify it.
2. Give the equation of streamline and the equation of particle
trajectory. Are they similar? Why?

Exercise 37

We consider the flow defined by the velocity field below:


vx  2 x  3 y v y  3x  2 y vz  0
1. Show that the flow is incompressible.
2. Determine the field of flow acceleration using Eulerian description.
3. Determine the equation of streamlines.
4. Determine the field of flow vortex vectors. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 101
Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises
Exercise 38

We study the compressible flow of an ideal fluid. The velocity field is:

  
V  k  xi  yj 
1. Determine the equation and the nature of the streamlines.
2. Calculate the acceleration vector of the flow using Eulerian
description.
3. Determine the equation of particle trajectories. Show that they are
the same as the streamline equation. Justify it.
4. Recalculate the acceleration vector using Lagrangian description.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 102


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 103


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Motivation
In analysing fluid motion, we might take one of two paths: (1) seeking
to describe the detailed flow pattern at every point (x, y, z) in the field
or (2) working with a finite region, making a balance of flow in versus
flow out, and determining gross flow effects such as the force or torque
on a body or the total energy exchange. The second is the control-
volume method and is the subject of this chapter. This analysis is the
most valuable tool to the engineer for flow analysis.

Properties of an Ideal Fluid


It is incompressible: no fluid element can change in volume as it moves.

It has constant density: the density is the same for all fluid elements
and for all time (a consequence of incompressibility).

It is inviscid (frictionless).
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 104
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Volume and Mass Rate of Flow


Suppose that the surface S in figure (a) is a sort of (imaginary) wire
mesh through which the fluid passes without resistance. The velocity v
can vary with position and it may pass through dA at an angle θ off the
outward unit vector normal n to dA.

Volume rate of flow


through an arbitrary
surface: (a) an elemental
area dA on the surface;
(b) the incremental
volume swept through dA
equals V dt dA cosθ

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 105


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Volume and Mass Rate of Flow


The amount of fluid swept through dA in time dt is the volume of the
slanted parallelepiped in figure (b):

dV  v dt dA cos  v  n  dA dt
dV
Qv  
s dt  
 (v  n)dA  Vn dA
s s

Qv is the total volume rate of flow through the surface S. Vn is the


component of V normal to dA. By convention, v  n denotes outflow if it
is positive and inflow if negative.

Volume flow can be multiplied by density to obtain the mass flow m. If


density varies over the surface, it must be part of the surface integral:

 
Qm   (v  n)dA  vn dA
s s

If density is constant, then: Qm  Qv


Dr. Keang Sè POUV 106
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


There are two important conservation laws that we apply to the steady
flow of ideal fluids in the absence of vortices.

Conservation of Mass

For an ideal fluid, the velocity is constant over the cross-sectional area.
For a real viscous fluid, the velocity profile varies over the cross-
sectional area because of the drag forces slowing the fluid flow.

If the fluid of density ρ has a velocity v1 in the portion of the tube with a
constant cross-sectional area A1, then in a time Δt, the mass of fluid
that passes a given point in this section of the tube is given by:
m  A1V1t

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 107


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


The volume flow rate passing through that same point is: Qv = A1V1.
Since the fluid is incompressible, and no fluid escapes through the walls
of the pipe, if we examine the fluid flow in the narrow region of the
pipe, we must find the same mass of fluid flowing past a given point in
this section of the tube in the same time Δt (mass conservation).

Given that the fluid is incompressible (ρ is a constant), we find that:

A1V1  A2V2
or Qv  AV  cte
This is known as the continuity equation.

If the cross section is not one-dimensional, we have to integrate:

Qv  
cs
(V  n)dA

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 108


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


The equation above allows us to define an average velocity Vav:

Vav 
Qv 1
 V  n dA

A A
If the density varies across the section, we define an average density in
the same manner:
1
 av 
AdA

But the mass flow would contain the product of density and velocity,
and the average product (ρV)av would in general have a different value
from the product of the averages:

V av  1   V  n dA   avVav


A
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 109
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Three primary assumptions are required: negligible viscous effects,


constant density, steady flow.
Consider an ideal fluid flowing
through a tube with varying cross-
section.

We note z1, z2, and z the heights of


the center of gravity of the masses
dm1, dm2 and M, respectively.

We assign F1 and F2 the resulting


pressure forces of the fluid acting
at the cross-sections S1 and S2,
respectively.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 110


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

At the instant t, the fluid of mass (dm1 + M) is taken between S1 and


S2. The mechanical energy is:

1 
Em  E p  Ec  dm1 gz1  Mgz    dm1V12 
S2 1

2 S1 ' 2
V 2 dm 

At the instant t’ = t + dt, the fluid of mass (M + dm2) is taken between
S1’ and S2’. The mechanical energy is:

 
E 'm  E ' p  E 'c  Mgz  dm2 gz 2   
S2 1 1
 
S1 ' 2
V 2 dm 
2
dm2V22 

The potential energy equals the work required to move the system of mass m from the
origin to a position vector (r=xi+yj+zk) against a gravity field. The kinetic energy equals the
work required to change the speed of the mass from zero to velocity v.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 111


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Using the work-energy theorem (the variation of mechanical energy is


equal to the sum of the works of external forces) between t and t’, we
can write:

Wexternal  Em  Ec  E p

 1   1 
We have: Em   dm2 gz 2  dm2V22    dm1 gz1  dm1V12 
 2   2 
since dm1  dm2  dm (mass conservation), we obtain :
 V22  V12 
Em  dm  g z 2  z1   
 2 

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 112


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Work done by the pressure forces in the fluid can be found from the
following argument. First because the walls of the tube only exert
normal forces on our ideal fluid and the fluid flows along the walls,
there is no work done by the pressure supplied by the walls. The fluid
column to the left exerts a pressure on our system by supplying a force
F1 = P1S1 toward the right in order for the fluid to flow toward the right.
Similarly, the fluid to the right of our system exerts a pressure to the
left resulting in a force F2 = P2S2 that must be less than that acting
toward the right in order for the fluid to flow to the right. Each of these
forces does work on the system fluid.

At the left end, positive work is done on the fluid in the amount:
dm1
W1  F1dx1  P1S1dx1  P1dV1  P1
1
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 113
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Similarly, the (negative) work done on the fluid by F2 is:


dm2
W2  F2 dx2  P2
2
The net work done by the fluid pressure is:

 P1  P2 
dm1 dm2 dm
Wnet  P1  P2
1 2 

ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ because the fluid is incompressible.

To write the change in mechanical energy as equal to the net work done
by the external pressure forces, we find:
 P1  P2   V22  V12 
dm   dm  g z 2  z1   
    2  Dr. Keang Sè POUV 114
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

We obtain then an expression for the conservation of energy for an ideal


fluid known as Bernoulli’s equation:
1 1
P1  V12  gz1  P2  V22  gz 2
2 2
1
P  V 2  gz  constant (in pressure)
Or 2
P V2
  z  constant (in liquid head)
g 2 g
hV=V2/2g is the velocity or dynamique head (energy grade line EGL),
hP=P/ρg is the pressure head, hz=z is the elevation head, (hP+hz) is the
piezometer head, and H=hP+hz+hv is the total head of the flow
(hydraulic grade line HGL = hauteur manométrique). P is
hydromechanical pressure or pressure, ρgz gravity pressure, 1/2ρV2
dynamical pressure. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 115
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Bernoulli’s equation is used in numerous fluid flows. It can be used in


an internal flow in short reaches if the viscous effects can be neglected;
such as in the case in the well-rounded entrance to a pipe (figure
below) or in a rather sudden contraction of a pipe. The velocity for such
entrance is approximated by Bernoulli’s equation to be:

v2 
2
 p1  p2 

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 116


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

Using the previous figure, but we suppose there is a hydraulic machine


placed between the sections S1 and S2. The hydraulic machine is
characterized by a net power Pnet exchanged with the fluid (i.e., power
required by the ideal machine), a shaft power Pa (i.e., actual power
delivered by the machine) and an efficiency η. This machine can be a
turbine or a pump.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 117


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

Basic difference between turbine and pump: The turbine is


one which convert the kinetic energy of the wind into the
electrical energy while pump is a device which convert the
rotational energy of its impeller into the pressure energy of the
fluid (i.e., it increase flow rate of liquid). In turbine, flow takes
place from the high pressure side to low pressure side which is
in contrast for the flow in pump.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 118
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

In the case of a pump, the efficiency is given by:

Pnet

Pa
In the case of a turbine, the efficiency is given by:

Pa

Pnet

Between the instant t and t’=(t+dt), the fluid exchanged a net work
Wnet = Pnetdt with the hydraulic machine. Wnet is supposed to be positive
for a pump and negative for a turbine.

The unit of the work is Joul (J) and the unit of the power is Watt (W) or
J/s. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 119
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

Using the work-energy theorem by considering this time the work done
by the hydraulic machine (Wnet), we can write:

E 'm  Em  F1dx1  F2 dx2  Pnet dt


1 1 P P
dm2 gz 2  dm2V22  dm1 gz1  dm1V12  1 dm1  2 dm2  Pnet dt
2 2 1 2
Since dm1 = dm2 = dm and ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ, we obtain:

V22  V12 P2  P1
 g z 2  z1   Pnet
dt

2  dm
V22  V12 P2  P1
 g z 2  z1   net
P

2  qm

The unit of each term in this equation is J/kg. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 120
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Euler Theorem

The Euler theorem results from the application of the theorem of


movement quantity to fluid flow:

  

dP
Fext  ; where P  mVG is the movement quantity
dt
This theorem allows to determine the forces exerted by the moving fluid
on the surrounding objects.

The resulting force  Fext of external mechanical actions exerting on an
isolated fluid (fluid contained in a section limited by S1 and S2) is equal
to the variation
 of movement quantity of fluid
 that enters at S1 with a
velocity V1 and exits at S2 with a velocity V2 .



 
Fext  qm V2  V1  Dr. Keang Sè POUV 121
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation Laws of Fluid Dynamics


Euler Theorem

As an example, let consider an obstacle symmetric compared  to Z axis.
The jet of a flow with a mass flow rate qm and a velocity V1 hits the 
obstacle diverting an angle β. The fluid quits the obstacle at a velocity V2
with an angle β compared to Z axis.
The movement quantities of fluid at
the entrance and at
 the exit are 
respectively: qmV1Z and qmV2 cos  Z .

The force opposing the jet is equal to


the variation of movement quantity:
R  qmV2 cos   qmV1
The force exerting on the obstacle is:
F   R  qm V1  V2 cos  
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 122
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 39

1. Kerosen (0OC) flows under the action of gravity in the pipe shown.
Determine the rate of flow in the pipe in l/s.

2. We wish to accelerate the circulation of an ideal fluid in a duct so that


its velocity is four times faster. For this, the duct has a convergence
characterized by an angle α. Determine the ratio of radius R1/R2, the
length L in function of R1 and α. Applications: R1 = 50mm and α = 15o.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 123


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 40

Let consider that a cylindrical tank of interior diameter D = 2m filled


with water until a height H = 3 m. The bottom of the tank contain an
orifice of diameter d = 10 mm allowing to drain away the water. If we
let the time passes very shortly, say dt, the water level H is reduced by
dH. We note V1=dH/dt the velocity of the descent of water level, and V2
the flow velocity in the orifice.

1. Supposing that the fluid is ideal and


incompressible, find the expression of
V2 in function of g, H, D, d. What does
it become if d is negligible in front of
D?
2. Determine the volume flow rate qv.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 124


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 41

Let consider that we wish to measure the water flow rate in a horizontal
pipe of diameter D = 9 cm. We insert a Venturi tube (D = 9 cm, d = 3
cm). The difference in level h of the mercury in a U-tube can be
measured precisely. (ρwater = 1000 kg/m3, ρmercury = 13600 kg/m3)

Determine the volume flow rate QV in function of D, ρwater, ρmercury, g and


h. Determine its numerical value of h = 4 mm.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 125


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 42

1. A pump P supplies a water tank from a well through a duct of


diameter d = 150 mm. Given: Z1 = -5 m, Z2 = 26 m, P1 = P2 =1.013
bar, V = 0.4 m/s. All the head losses are neglected.

a. Determine the volume flow rate


Qv of the pump in l/s.

b. Calculate the output power Pu of


the pump.

c. Determine the input power of


the pump if the efficiency is 80
%.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 126


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 42

2. A cylindrical pipe carries the water from a dam via a turbine. The level ZA is
kept constant. The level ZB is supposed to be constant. The mass flow rate
passing through the turbine is Qm = 175 kg/s. Given H = ZA-ZB = 35 m.

a. Determine the power Pu produced within the turbine.


b. Calculate the power retrieved on the shaft of the turbine if the efficiency
is 70 %.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 127


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 43

1. A horizontal water jet hits an obstacle


at a mass flow rate qm = 2 kg/s. The
obstacle makes a deflection with an
angle β = 120o from X axis. Given: V1
= V2 = 3 m/s. Give the vector
expression of the force F exerted by
the liquid on the obstacle in function of
qm, vectors V1 and V2. Calculate its
component Fx and Fy., and the angle α.

2. Water flows in a 90o-elbow of radius of


300 mm at a rate of 25 l/s. The
effective pressure at the points 1 and 2
is 8 bars. Determine the resulting
action of water on the elbow.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 128
Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 44

1. Water discharges to the atmosphere from


the orifice at the bottom of a pressurized
tank. Assuming frictionless flow,
determine the discharge rate of water
from the tank.
6 mm
2. The drinking water needs of an office are
met by large water bottles with a plastic
hose inserted in it. The minimum filling 400 mm
time of a 230ml glass is to be determined
when the bottle is full and when it is near
empty. For this problem, the water is 600 mm
supposed to be an ideal fluid.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 129


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 45

A pipe ABCD of constant diameter D is finished by a short convergence of final


diameter D/2. The water, supposed as an incompressible ideal fluid, circulates in
this pipe in permanent flow. The pressure in the horizontal part AB is measured
by connecting a manometer in the axial zone of the pipe and by observing a
barometer placed nearby the former. Different levels in these probes are noted:
h0 = 72.5 cm, h1 = 17.5 cm, h2 = 10 cm.

1. Give the value of the absolute pressure


prevailing in the axial zone AB.
2. Determine the water velocity VE at the exit of
the pipe.
3. What is the difference in height Δh of the
mercury given in the Pitot tube connected in
the section CD of the pipe.
4. Draw the lines of piezometer head and total
head along this pipe.

Given: ρmercury = 13600 kg/m3 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 130


Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 46

The exhibition in 2027 is already in preparation. An architect is invited to do a


creation in order to fill a space displayed with water. He has made a drawing of a
fountain supplied by a big tank linked by a siphon. The exist of the siphon is free,
forming a water jet against a concave deflector. The trajectory of the jet is
deviated towards a small lake. The architect thinks up a pathway for pedestrian
above the jet. You are engineer responsible for verifying whether the desired
effect is achievable.
Determine:
1. The volume flow rate of the siphon.
2. The force vector at the connection
point between the concave
structure and the base (point F).
3. The minimal height zB for the
pedestrian pathway above the jet.
Suppose that the water movement
in time is defined by:
1
x  (v cos  )t ; z   gt 2  (v sin  )t Dr. Keang Sè POUV 131
2
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 132


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Introduction
For real fluids, the flow is more complex than that of ideal fluids. In
fact, there exists friction forces due to fluid viscosity acting between the
fluid particles as well as between the particles and the wall of the
container.

In order to solve a flow problem of a real fluid, we make use of


experimental results, especially those by Britain engineer and physician
Osborne Reynolds.

A fluid is called real if during its motion, the contact forces are not
perpendicular to the surface elements to which they are acting; i.e.,
they possess tangential components opposing to the sliding between
fluid layers. Such resistance is characterized by the viscosity.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 133


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Flow Regime – Reynolds Number


In order to determine if a flow is laminar or turbulent, we calculate the
Reynolds Number which is defined as:
VL
Re 

where V is a characteristic velocity (the average velocity in a pipe or the
speed of an airfoil), L is a characteristic length (the diameter of a pipe
or the distance from the leading edge of a flat plate), and ν is the
kinematic viscosity. If the Reynolds number is larger than a critical
Reynolds number (Rec), the flow is turbulent; otherwise, it is laminar.

For flow in a usual rough pipe: Rec = 2000.


For flow in a smooth wall and free of vibration pipe: Rec = 40000.
For flow between parallel plates: Rec = 1500 (L distance between both
plate, V average velocity).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 134


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Let us consider a flow of a real fluid between the points (1) and (2) in a
duct as shown in the figure.

The hypotheses below are given:

- The fluid is real and


incompressible: it supposes
the existence of elementary
forces of viscous friction dτ
that contributes in the balance
equation by a negative work
and gives rise to head losses.
- The flow is permanent.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 135


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Like in the previous chapter of dynamics of ideal fluids, we use the
theorem of mechanical energy for fluid between the instants t and t’,
but by considering the work of viscous forces dτ. So we can write:

E 'm  Em  F1dx1  F2 dx2  W dt

W
1 1 P1 P2
dm2 gz 2  dm2V2  dm1 gz1  dm1V1  dm1 
2 2
dm2 
1 2
dt
2 2

Using mass conservation and incompressible fluid hypotheses, we have:


dm1 = dm2 = dm and ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ. So the equation above can be
simplified to:

V22  V12 P2  P1
  g z 2  z1  
W dt

2  dm

This is known as the equation of Bernoulli applied for real fluids.


Dr. Keang Sè POUV 136
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
We define the head loss between the points (1) and (2) by:

J12 
W dt

dm

which is the energy loss by viscous friction by unit of passing mass.

V22  V12 P2  P1
  g z 2  z1   J12
2 

The unit of each term in the equation above is J/kg. By dividing this
expression by g, we obtain:

V22 P2 V12 P1 J
  z2    z1  12
2 g g 2 g g g

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 137


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
The equation above can be graphically interpreted as below:

If the head loss is not present,


the total head of the flow (ligne
de charge) between the points (1)
and (2) is constant (i.e., the case
of ideal fluid.

The head loss between the points


G1 and G2 of the flow is the
difference between the levels of
the total head at those points.

The head loss can be due to a


linear head loss and a singular
head loss:

J12 = Js + JL

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 138


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
For example, in the pipe system presented below, the section BC, DE,
FG, HI and JK are the bents with different angles, so they present
singular head losses. The sections AB, CD, EF, GH, IJ and KL are
straight pipes, so they present linear head losses.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 139


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

When a duct has an abrupt variation of section or direction, it gives rise


to head losses called singular head losses. They are generally
measurable and are part of installation characteristics.

Singular head loss is expressed by:

V2
J s  K s
2
s is the index of the type of the duct singularity. Ks is the coefficient of
head loss that depends on the nature and the geometry of the duct
singularity. Generally, the values of Ks are given by the constructors in
their products catalogues.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 140


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss
2
 A 
For brutal section enlargement, we have: K s  1  1 
 A2 

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 141


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

For an exit toward a tank, we have: Ks  1

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 142


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

For brutal section convergence, we have:

A1/A2 0.1 0.5 0.7


Ks 0.41 0.24 0.14

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 143


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

For brutal section convergence from a tank, we have: K s  0.5

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 144


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

For an angle, we have:

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 145


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Singular or local head loss

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 146


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss

The linear head losses are the losses which are distributed regularly
along the pipes. At each point of permanent flow, the characteristics of
flow are well defined and independent on time. The graphical
representation of flow can be seen below.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 147


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss

If the velocity is constant, the piezometer head and the total head are
parallel. The variation of piezometer head, evaluated in liquid level is
equal to the linear head loss between the two measuring points.

The linear head loss is defined as (Darcy-Weisbach, 1857):

V2  L 
J L    
2 D

V is the average velocity of the flow in the pipe (m/s)


L is the length of the pipe (m)
D is the diameter of the pipe (m)
λ is the coefficient of linear head loss that depends on the flow regime
(Reynolds Number).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 148


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss

In a laminar regime (Re < 2000):


64
 ( Poiseuille )
Re
In a transitory or smooth turbulent regime (2000 < Re < 105):

  0.316 Re0.25 ( Blasius )


In a (rough) turbulent regime (Re > 105):

  0.79 ( Blench )
D
ε is the roughness of inner surface of the pipe (mm)
D is the inner diameter of the pipe (mm)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 149


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Moody diagram

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 150


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss
Recommended roughness values for commercial ducts

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 151


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss

How to reduce drag (friction loss)?

Acting on the contact surface

Additive

Acting on the fluid

At the same flow rate, the pressure loss can be reduced by more than 2/3.
At the same pumping pressure, the flow rate can be increased by 30 to 40%.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 152
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses
Linear head loss

How to reduce drag (friction loss)?

Water Water with additive (CTAC)

Instantaneous velocity (CTAC 75 ppm, Re21000, T=20°C et D=17mm) [F. Hadri 2009]
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 153
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Bernoulli Theorem Applied to Real Fluids


Let us consider a flow between two points (1) and (2) of a real fluid in a
pipe. We suppose that there is a hydraulic machine between these two
points.

The general form of Bernoulli theorem is defined as follows:

V22  V12 P2  P1
 g z 2  z1   J12 
Pn

2  qm

J12 is the sum of all the head losses between the points (1) and (2).
Pn is the mechanical power exchanged between the fluid and the
machines existing between the points (1) and (2).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 154


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Multiple Pipe System


When systems contain two or more pipe, certain basic rules make the
calculations very smooth. Any resemblance between these rules and the
rules for handling electric circuits is not coincidental.

Pipes in series

The flow rate in all pipes is the same:

Q1  Q2  Q3  constant

The total head loss through the system equals the sum of the head loss
in each pipe:
H A B  H1  H 2  H 3
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 155
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Multiple Pipe System


Pipes in parallel

The total flow is the sum of the


individual flows while the loss is
the same in each pipe:

Q  Q1  Q2  Q3
H A B  H1  H 2  H 3

For calculation of linear head loss, we can begin by guessing values of λ


(fully rough values are recommended) and calculating a first estimate of
the head loss. Then each pipe yields a flow-rate estimate and hence a
new Reynolds number and a better estimate of λ. Then repeat the
calculation to convergence.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 156


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Multiple Pipe System


Pipes in junction

If all flows are considered positive toward the junction, then:

Q1  Q2  Q3  0 (a )

This implies that one or two of the flows must be away from the
junction. The pressure must change through each pipe so as to give the
same static pressure PJ at the junction.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 157


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Multiple Pipe System


Pipes in junction

In other words, let the Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) at the junction have
the elevation: p
hJ  z J  J
g
where pJ is in gage pressure for simplicity. Then the head loss through
each, assuming p1 = p2 = p3 = 0 (gage) at each reservoir surface, must
be such that:
V12 L1 We guess the position hJ and solve Eq. (b)
h1  1  z1  hJ
2 g d1 for V1, V2 and V3 and hence Q1, Q2 and Q3,
iterating until the flow rates balance at the
V22 L2 junction according to Eq. (a). If we guess
h2  2  z 2  hJ (b) hJ too high, the sum Q1 + Q2 + Q3 will be
2g d2
negative and the remedy is to reduce hJ,
V32 L3 and vice versa.
h3  3  z 3  hJ
2g d3 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 158
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 47

1. Determine the critical velocity for fuel oil (νfuel = 4.47 10-6 m2/s) and
for water (νwater = 10-6 m2/s) flowing each in a pipe of 150 mm of
diameter.

2. Water at 15oC (νwater = 1.14 10-6 m2/s) is transported in a 6-cm-


diameter wrought iron pipe at a flow rate of 0.004 m3/s. Estimate
the pressure drop over 300 m of horizontal pipe using the Moody
diagram.

3. Neglecting the friction losses in air, determine the height h of the


water jet if the initial diameter of the pipe is 107 mm and the flow
rate is 0.5 m3/s.

h?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 159


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 48

A hydraulic system is composed of a duct in cast iron (ε = 0.5) of 250


mm of diameter and of 1825 m of length. We consider that the head
losses are linear and the flow is roughly turbulent.

1. Determine the flow rate of the system.


2. Draw the piezometer head and the total head.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 160


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 49

A pipeline of diameter d = 25 cm and length L is used to carry petroleum from a


station A to a station B with a mass flow rate Qm = 18 kg/s. The physical
characteristics of the petroleum are: ρ = 900 kg/m3 and μ = 0.261 Pa.s. We
suppose that the pipeline is horizontal.

Determine:
1. The volume flow rate of the petroleum.
2. The flow regime of the petroleum using Reynolds number.
3. The linear head loss coefficient.
4. The minimal length L after which the pressure drop between the stations A
and B exceeds 3 bar.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 161


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 50

An oil with a viscosity of μ = 0.7 Pa.s and a density ρ = 0.896 is pumped in a


pipe of diameter d = 100 mm from the point A to the point L. The volume flow
rate is 2.5 l/s. The pressure at the entry is PA = 3 bars. The pipe has six straight
sections: AB = 6 m, CD = 12 m, EF = 5 m, GH = 4 m, IJ = 7 m, KL = 8 m.
The pipe is equipped with:
- Two angles at 45o: BC and DE. Each
has a head loss K45o = 0.2.
- Two angles at 90o: FG and JK. Each
has a head loss K90o = 0.3.
- An angle at 180o: HI. It has a head
loss K180o = 0.4.
Questions:
1. Is the flow laminar and turbulent?
2. Determine the linear head loss Δplin.
3. Determine the singular head loss Δpsing.
4. Determine the pressure at the exit PL.
5. What will the exiting pressure PL’ become if the flow rate reach 5 l/s?
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 162
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 51

A hydraulic installation used in a amusement park is studied. It is composed of:


- An aspiration pipe AB of diameter d = 15 cm and length of L1 = AB = 10 m.
- A centrifugal pump having an efficiency η = 0.8 that sucks up water at a
volume flow rate Qv = 10.6 l/s from a pool and push it back at D to a water
slide.
- A pushing back pipe CD of a diameter d = 15 cm and a length L2 = CD = 8 m.
- A water slide forming a descendant canal allowing to carry the water back to
the pool (the water stays in a closed circuit).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 163


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 51 (continue)

Hypotheses: water density ρ = 1000 kg/m3, water dynamic viscosity μ = 10-3


Pa.s, gravity acceleration g = 9.81 m/s2, pressure P0 = PD = Patm = 1 bar, Z0 =
1.5 m (O is a point of the water free surface in the pool), ZA = ZB = 0, ZC = 0.3
m, and ZD = 8.3 m. We suppose that all the singular head losses are neglected
and the water level in the pool is constant (VO = 0).

1. Determine the water flow V in the pipe.


2. Calculate the pressure PA.
3. What is the flow regime (laminar or turbulent flow) in the pipe?
4. Calculate the linear head loss coefficient λ.
5. Determine the linear head loss JL between A and D.
6. Determine the net power Pnet developed by the pump.
7. Determine the power Pa absorbed by the pump.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 164


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 52

A pump with a volume flow rate of Qv = 2.8 l/s is used to carry the water from a
pool to a tank through a pipe of diameter d = 135 mm. Hypotheses: Z1 = 0, Z2 =
35 m, P1 = P2 = 1013 mbar, dynamic viscosity of water μ = 10-3 Pa.s, length of
the pipe L = 65 m. All the singular head losses are neglected.

1. Calculate the flow velocity V of


water in the pipe.
2. Is the flow laminar or turbulent?
3. Determine the coefficient of linear
head loss, then the head loss J12 all
along the pipe.
4. Determine the net power Pnet of the
pump.
5. If the efficiency η = 80 %,
determine the power Pa required by
the pump.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 165


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 53

In a water supply system, we use an electric pump of hydraulic power Ph (or Pnet)
to be determined. The pump sucks the water from the point G up to the air at
the point O. The diameter of the duct of the system is d = 120 mm and the flow
velocity is V = 0.5 m/s. The absolute pressure of the water at G is: pG = 1.5 105
Pa.

For connecting
different ducts, we
use 4 bends at 90o
and of curved radius
of R0 = 100 mm.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 166


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 53 (continue)

Given:
Lt=68.6m, total length of the linear ducts between the points O and G.
Kv=0.24, coefficient of head loss at the butterfly valve V.
KG=0.15, coefficient of head loss at the point of water sucking up G.
Kc=Kc’=0.45, coefficients of head loss at the connections at the entry and the
exit of the pump.

1. Calculate the volume flow rate and mass flow rate of the pump.
2. Calculate the Reynolds number Re and determine the nature of the flow.
3. Calculate the total linear head loss.
4. Calculate the total singular head loss.
5. Calculate the total head loss between the points O and G, ∆pGO.
6. Calculate the mechanical power Pm (or Pa) supplied to the pump by the
electrical motor knowing that its efficiency is 85%.

Use: g=10m/s2, ρ=1000kg/m3, and ν=10-6 m2/s.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 167


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 54

Let consider a hydraulic installation connected to a very big free surface tank
under a pressure of 1.4patm. The installation consists of circular pipes, a pump
and a convergent tube opened to free air. The water in the tank is pumped in
order to supply a jet. Given: h1 = 2 m, h2 + h3 = 1.5 m, h4 = 8 m, D = 0.15 m,
d = 0.08 m, patm = 1.013 105 N/m2, ρw = 1000 kg/m3, g = 9.81 m/s2. All the
head losses are neglected.
1. Calculate the velocity of the jet U4
and deduce the volume flow rate Q.
2. Determine the hydraulic power P of
the pump necessary for maintaining
the jet.
3. Calculate the dynamic heads
between the section 3 and 4.
4. Represent graphically the piezometer
head and the total head as well as
indicate their values on the drawing.
Dr. Keang Sè POUV 168
Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 55

Given the installation below. The total pressure


drop is pA – pB = 150 000 Pa. The elevation
drop is zA – zB = 5 m. The fluid is water, ρ =
1000 kg/m3 and υ = 1.02 10-6 m2/s. The pipe
data are:

Minor (singular) head losses are neglected.


Calculate the flow rate Q in m3/h through the
system.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 169


Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises
Exercise 56

Derive the expression of the total volume flow rate QV in the pipe below.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 170