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Phnom Penh

Falls, 2017 (Third Edition)

OUTLINE

- General Introduction

- Hydrostatics

- Kinematics of Fluids

General Introduction

General Introduction

Fluid Definition

In contrast to a solid, a fluid does not have a well defined form as it

takes the form of the container that it stays inside. Thus, the fluid is

deformable.

motions is that it is composed of a great number of molecules that

interacts with each other and that we are unable to know their precise

locations and velocities. So we must have an approach on its global

motion at a mesoscopic scale which is at the intermediate between

macroscopic and microscopic scales. A quantity of fluid at this scale is

called “fluid particle” which is small compared to macroscopic

dimensions.

Fluids have a flowing property due to the fact that its particles are

weakly linked to each others and thus can easily move around each

others.

General Introduction

Fluid Definition

Liquids and gas are fluids. A liquid does not have a proper form but

possess a proper volume. A gas neither has a proper form nor a proper

volume, i.e., it always occupies all the available space.

very near the liquid phase.

A gas may be defined as a highly superheated vapor; that is, its state is

far removed from the liquid phase. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 5

General Introduction

Fluid Definition

The molecules of a gas are much farther apart than those of a liquid.

Liquid Gas

There are many materials that are not easily categorized into solid,

liquid, or gas. Gels (cross-linked networks of polymer molecules) and

colloids (suspensions of macromolecules or microscopic particles) are

materials, many of which are important biomaterials, that can exhibit

both liquid-like and solid-like properties depending on the conditions.

General Introduction

Fluid Definition

Ideal Fluid

Real Fluid

relative to a body, thus creating fluid friction. Their motion is known as

viscous flow.

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Density

and its volume V:

M

(1.1)

V

For water: ρw = 1000 kg/m3

For mercury: ρHg = 13546 kg/m3

For air: ρair = 1.225 kg/m3

Specific gravity (relative density):

SG (1.3)

w

1

Specific volume: v (1.4)

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 8

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Density

standard sea level atmospheric pressure (1013 mb abs) with g = 9.81

m/s2 are given in the table below.

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Density

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Exercise 1

1. The specific weight of water is 9.81 kN/m3. The specific gravity of mercury is

13.56. Compute the density of water and the specific weight of mercury.

2. A fluid that occupies a volume of 24L weighs 225N. Determine its density if g

= 9.80 m/s2.

pycnometer until a volume of 50 cm3. The mass of the pycnometer containing

the fluid is 186 g. What are the density in kg/m3, the specific gravity and the

specific weight of the fluid?

Exercise 2

A plastic cylinder tank has a radius of 25.23 cm, a height of 1 m, and a mass of

3 kg. Determine the weight of the combined system for the two cases below:

1. The tank is filled with water.

2. The tank is filled with water until the 2/3 of the tank’s height and with olive

oil (density = 800 kg/m3) for the remaining 1/3 height. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 11

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Exercise 3

water is heated to 70°C, what will be the percentage change in its volume? What

weight of water must be removed to maintain the volume at its original value?

Given:

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

fluid which presents a resistance to strain.

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

The relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain rate is:

d du

(1.5)

dt dy

d / dt is the shear strain rate

is the dynamic viscosity

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

Dynamic viscosity:

(1.6)

d / dt

For mercury: 1.552 Pa.s 1.552 kg .m 1.s 1

Kinematic viscosity: (1.7)

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

(shear thickening)

(shear thinning)

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Viscosity

viscosimeters.

the fluid be at a constant temperature when a measurement is being

made.

Rotational viscosimeter:

to one another. The narrow space between them is

filled with the liquid whose viscosity is to be measured.

The rate of rotation under the influence of a given

torque is indicative of the viscosity of the liquid.

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Exercise 4

SAE 30 Western lubricating oil at 80°F (viscosity μ = 0.0063 lb.sec/ft2).

What force is required to drag a very thin plate of 4-ft2 area through the

oil at a velocity of 20 ft/min if the plate is 0.33 in from one surface?

Note: Before calculation, convert the units of all the given parameters

into SI (International Standard) units. (1in = 2.54cm, (°F-32)x5/9 = °C, 1ft =

30.48 cm, 1lb = 0.4535kg = 4.448N)

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Compressibility

it tends to expand indefinitely.

its own vapour pressure, is removed, the cohesion between molecules

holds them together, so that the liquid does not expand indefinitely.

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Compressibility

modulus of elasticity (bulk modulus), which is defined as:

dp

Ev v (1.8)

dv

Where v = specific volume, and p = pressure.

a constant temperature:

Where Ev is the mean value of the modulus for the pressure range.

21

General Introduction

Physical Properties

Exercise 5

the specific weight of seawater at the surface is 10.05 kN/m3 and that

the average volume modulus is 2.34x109N/m2 for that pressure range.

(a) What will be the change in specific volume between that at the

surface and at that depth?

(b) What will be the specific volume at that depth?

(c) What will be the specific weight at that depth?

Hydrostatics

Hydrostatics

General Conditions

Hydrostatics is concerned with the behaviour of fluids at rest.

u0

same height

regardless of the

shape of the

container.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 24

Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure

The magnitude of the force per unit area in a static fluid is called the

pressure:

F

p (2.1)

S

2. p pa vacuum pressure : prel (vacuum) pa p (2.3)

Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure

Illustration of absolute, gage and vacuum pressure readings:

Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure

Considering a small wedge of fluid at rest as shown below.

F x

0 p x bz pn bs sin (2.4)

F

1

z

0 p z bx pn bs cos bxz (2.5)

2 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 27

Hydrostatics

Notions of Pressure

Since: s sin z and s cos x

Then: p x pn (2.6)

1

p z pn z (2.7)

2

These relationships indicate that:

- There is a vertical change in pressure proportional to the density,

gravity, and depth change.

p x p z pn p

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 28

Hydrostatics

Pascal’s Principle

If a fluid is confined in a closed container and an external force is

applied to a region of the surface bounding the fluid, there is an

external pressure being applied. The external pressure applied does not

remain localized near the surface where the pressure is applied, but the

external pressure on a confined fluid increases the pressure uniformly

throughout the fluid by the same amount. This is known as Pascal’s

principle.

first example of such a device consider the schematic diagram of a

hydraulic lift shown in figure below.

Hydrostatics

Pascal’s Principle

A smaller force Fin acting over a smaller area Ain determines the applied

pressure P=Fin/Ain. The output end of the lift has a much larger area,

Aout, and because the pressure within the fluid is essentially constant

(exactly so if the heights are the same), the output force Fout is

determined from P=Fin/Ain=Fout/Aout, so that the output force is

amplified to be:

Aout

Fout Fin

Ain

mechanical advantage.

Hydrostatics

Hydrostatics

- Force due to P1: F1 = P1.A

- Force due to P2: F2 = P2.A

- Force due to the weight of liquid column:

p1 A p2 A gAz 2 z1 0

p1 p2 g z1 z 2 (2.8)

p2 p1

z1 z 2 ( 2.9 )

g g

Hydrostatics

We can also write:

p

z const (2.10)

g

- z: geometric height

- p/ρg: pressure head (hauteur piézométrique) of the fluid

- z + p/ρg: total height or head

grad p f 0 (2.11)

dp / dx f

x

grad p dp / dy ; f fy force density

dp / dz f

z Dr. Keang Sè POUV 33

Hydrostatics

For lakes and oceans, the coordinate system is usually chosen as:

pressure p at any (negative) depth z (i.e., z < 0):

p pa gz

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 34

Hydrostatics

Exercise 6

gage pressure in the same liquid at a depth of 12 m?

2. What is the depth of petrol oil (density 0.75) that creates a relative

pressure of 2.75 bars? What is the depth of water that produces the

same pressure?

3. Convert the pressure unit from Pa to mmH20 and to mmHg.

Exercise 7

blood density is 1060 kg/m3, calculate the blood pressure in mmHg:

1. At the foot situated at 1.2m below the heart.

2. At the cerebral artery situated at 0.6 m above the heart

3. How do these pressures change when we lay down?

4. How do they change again if we are on the moon (g’=1.62N/kg)?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 35

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Mercury Barometer

pressure.

while submerged in a reservoir. This causes

a near vacuum in the closed upper end

because mercury has an extremely small

vapour pressure at room temperature (0.16

Pa at 20oC).

mercury column to rise a distance h into

the tube, the upper mercury surface is at

The height of a mercury column

zero pressure. is proportional to pa.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Mercury Barometer

0 pa Hg g h 0

pa Hg gh

pa

h

Hg g

101.3 103

h 0.762m 762mm

13546 9.81

A water barometer would be 10.326m. You can try to prove it!

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Manometer

differences between 2 points. Such a device is called manometer.

Example: a column of multiple fluids

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Manometer

pdown p up g z (2.12)

Without worrying too much about which point is “z1” and which is “z2”,

the formula simply increases or decreases the pressure according to

whether one is moving down or up.

p5 p1 0 g z1 z 2 w g z 2 z3 G g z3 z 4 M g z 4 z5

That is, keep adding on pressure increments as you move down through

the layered fluid.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Manometer

chamber relative to atmospheric pressure pa.

p A p1 1 g ( z A z1 )

pa p1 2 g ( z 2 z1 )

p A 1 g ( z A z1 ) 2 g ( z 2 z1 ) pa

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 8

manometer with the pressure at O.

difference p1 – p2 from the reading of the

U-tube manometer.

is measured by a multi-fluid manometer.

The gage pressure of air P1,gage in the

tank is to be determined if ρHg=13600

kg/m3, ρw=1000 kg/m3, ρoil=850 kg/m3,

h1 = 0.2m, h2 = 0.3m, h3=0.46m. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 41

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 9

that allows liquid to flow from the higher level to

the lower level without pump. Liquids flow down

the tube under the pull of gravity.

extremity of the tube is closed at first.

tap in function of the pressure at the point B” just

below the tap.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 10

the figure. Determine the difference in pressure between the two

pipelines using readings on the manometer. Given: SGoil=0.86 and

SGHg=13.6, SGair << SGoil.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 11

ρ2) and gasoline (density ρ3).

heights z0, z1, z2 and z3.

2. Determine z0, z1, z2 and z3 if: ρ1=1000kg/m3 , ρ2=13600kg/m3,

ρ3=700kg/m3, z0-z1=0.2m, z3-z2=0.1m and z1+z2=0.2m.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 12

Two non miscible liquids are filled in an opened tank equipped with two

piezometric tubes. Given: Patm = 1 bar. ρoil = 850kg/m3, ρwater =

1000kg/m3, h1 = 6m and h2 = 5m. Determine ZE, and ZD.

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 13

mercury = 13.6 103 kg/m3, density of water = 103 kg/m3).

Water Manometer

Mercury

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 46

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

Exercise 14

a sections S1 and S2. Both recipients are connected via a tube with an

interior section s. The system has two immiscible liquids with densities

ρ1 and ρ2.

liquids are the same and equal to po.

The interface position is defined by

H1 and H2. Find the relationship

between ρ1, ρ2, H1 and H2.

2. If we produce a high pressure Δp

above the liquid 1, the interface

position moves by Δh. Determine the

sensibility Δh/Δp.

Take: ρ1=998 kg/m3, ρ2=1024 kg/m3,

S1=S2=100s. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 47

Hydrostatics

If h is the depth to any element area dA of the plate, then the total

hydrostatic force on one side of the plate is given by:

F pdA p a h dA pa A hdA

(2.13)

Since, h sin

1

CG

AdA

F pa A sin dA

pa A sin CG A

( pa hCG ) A

F pCG A (2.14)

stress distribution over the plate area. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 48

Hydrostatics

However, the resultant force F does not act through the centroid but the

center of pressure CP. To find the coordinates (xCP, yCP), we sum

moments of the elemental force pdA about the centroid and equate to

the moment of the resultant F.

(2.15)

FyCP sin y ( CG y )dA sin y 2 dA (2.16)

1 I

yCP

F

sin y 2 dA sin xx

pCG A

(2.17)

The term ydA 0 by definition of centroidal axes.

The negative sign in eq. (2.17) shows that ycp is below the centroid at a

deeper level.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 49

Hydrostatics

The determination of xCP is exactly similar:

FxCP xpdA x pa sin CG y dA

FxCP sin xydA sin I xy (2.18)

I xy

xCP sin (2.19)

pCG A

For positive Ixy, xcp is negative because the dominant pressure force

acts in the third or lower left, quadrant of the panel.

both sides of the plate, e.g., the other side of the plate is inside a ship

or on the dry side of a gate or dam. In this case, pCG = γhCG, and the

center of pressure becomes independent of specific weight:

I sin I xy sin

F hCG A yCP xx xCP (2.20)

hCG A hCG A Dr. Keang Sè POUV 50

Hydrostatics

Centroidal moments of inertia for various cross sections:

Area:

Centroid:

Moment of inertia

Hydrostatics

Exercise 15

of 6 m height and 2 m length. Also determine its position.

Exercise 16

contains the water of 14 m

height.

pressure acting on the dam

and determine the components

of resultant forces.

Hydrostatics

Exercise 17

1.2 m. Determine the amplitude and the position of the resultant force

acting on the gate due to the hydrostatic pressure. Find the force P

needed to hold the gate.

Hydrostatics

Exercise 18

point B, and rests against a smooth

wall at point A.

1025 kg/m3

Compute:

4.5m

1. the force on the gate due to sea

water pressure,

2. the horizontal force P exerted by

the wall at point A, 1.8m

3. the reactions at the hinge B.

2.4m

Hydrostatics

Exercise 19

of width L. The self weight of the dam is neglected.

1. The base pressure below the section AB is absence

2. The base pressure varies linearly between the maximal pressure at B

and zero pressure at A.

water

Hydrostatics

Exercise 20

The figure below presents a gravity dam with the length in y-direction

taken as a unit. The dam is made of a material of a density of ρ0d, (d is

the density of the material in relation to the density of water ρ0).

The vertical component of the force exerted by the soil on the dam is

defined by:

dFz

ax b

dx

By expressing the equilibrium conditions

of the dam, calculate the values of a and

b in function of ρ0, d, e, h and g

water

(atmospheric air penetrate between the

soil and the dam, but there is no water

seepage).

soil

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 56

Hydrostatics

The easiest way to determine the resultant hydrostatic force FR acting

on a two-dimensional curved surface is to determine the horizontal and

vertical components FH and FV separately.

enclosed by the curved surface and the two plane surfaces (one

horizontal and one vertical) passing through the two ends of the curved

surface, as shown in the figure.

Hydrostatics

Note that the vertical surface of the liquid block considered is simply the

projection of the curved surface on a vertical plane, and the horizontal

surface is the projection of the curved surface on a horizontal plane.

The resultant force acting on the curved solid surface is equal and

opposite to the force acting on the curved liquid surface (Newton’s third

law).

Noting that the fluid block is in static equilibrium, the force balances in

the horizontal and vertical directions give:

FH Fx (2.21a )

FV Fy W (2.21b)

W is the weight of the enclosed liquid block. The summation (Fy + W) is

a vector addition (i.e. add magnitudes if both act in the same direction

and subtract if they act in opposite directions).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 58

Hydrostatics

Thus, we conclude that:

surface is equal (in both magnitude and the line of action) to the

hydrostatic force acting on the vertical projection of the curved

surface.

2. The vertical component of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved

surface is equal to the hydrostatic force acting on the horizontal

projection of the curved surface, plus (minus, if acting in the

opposite direction) the weight of the fluid block.

The exact location of the line of action of the resultant force (e.g., its

distance from one of the end points of the curved surface) can be

determined by taking a moment about an appropriate point. These

discussions are valid for all curved surfaces regardless of whether they

are above or below the liquid.

Hydrostatics

Note that in the case of a curved surface above a liquid,

the weight of the liquid is subtracted from the vertical

component of the hydrostatic force since they act in

opposite directions.

the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the

surface always passes through the center of

the circle. This is because the pressure

forces are normal to the surface, and all

lines normal to the surface of a circle pass

through the center of the circle. Thus, the

pressure forces form a concurrent force

system at the center, which can be reduced

to a single equivalent force at that point.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 60

Hydrostatics

Exercise 21

The width of the dam is 15m. The fluid is water. The atmospheric

pressure may be omitted. Compute the forces FH and FV on the dam and

the position CP where they act. Also calculate the resultant force and its

direction.

Hydrostatics

Exercise 22

acting on the a curved surface AB (R = 2 m).

FH

FV

Hydrostatics

The total force is the sum of the force exerted on each plate portion

with different fluid layer:

F F p

i CGi Ai (2.22)

Hydrostatics

The centroid of the plate portion in each layer can be used to locate the

center of pressure on that portion:

i g sin i I xxi

yCP i (2.23)

pCGi Ai

i g sin i I xyi

xCP i (2.24)

pCGi Ai

summing moments about some convenient point such as the surface.

Hydrostatics

Exercise 23

pressure forces on each portion, and the center of pressure of the total

resultant force. Also, draw the pressure diagrams. (ρoil = 880kg/m3,

ρwater = 1000kg/m3, ρHg = 13552kg/m3)

2m

1.25 m

3.4 m

4.9 m

Hydrostatics

Exercise 24

water in the upstream is H, and that in the downstream is h. Calculate

the resultant force and moment (at the point O at the middle of the

gate base) of the pressure acting on the gate. Consider that this torsor

of moment is equivalent to the force F applied at a particular point C

called “center of pressure”, determine the coordinate of this point C.

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Archimedes’ laws of buoyancy:

equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

2. A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it

floats.

(b) Summation

of elemental

(a) Forces on vertical-

upper and pressure forces

lower curved

surfaces Dr. Keang Sè POUV 67

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

The body in the previous figure experiences a net upward force:

FB weight of fluid equivalent to body volume

FV (2) fluid weight above surface 2

FV (1) fluid weight above surface 1

FB p

body

2 p1 dAH z 2 z1 dAH V (2.26)

V body volume

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Floating bodies are a special case, only a portion of the body is

submerged, with the remainder poking up out of the free surface. The

eq. (2.26) is modified to apply to this smaller volume:

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 69

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Exercise 25

27 kg when immersed in fresh water (1000 kg/m3). 27 kg

weight.

Exercise 26 W = 45 kg

ice melts, does the water in the glass overflow?

iceberg which represents the immersed part, knowing

that ρice = 900 kg/m3 and that ρsea = 1025 kg/m3?

What do you think about the increase of water in the

oceans due to the melt of icebergs? Dr. Keang Sè POUV 70

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Exercise 27

the weight of a hollow steel sphere with an outer radius of 20 cm

and a thickness of 8 mm. The densities of water is 1000 kg/m3,

wood 700 kg/m3 and steel 7800 kg/m3.

2. Compute the Archimedes force acting on each of both spheres if they

are totally immersed in water.

3. Can these spheres float on water surface? If yes, what are the

percentages of the immersed volume?

Exercise 28

of 800 kg) lies at the bottom of the sea at 25 m depth. What is the

intensity of the vertical force necessary to lift the debris from the

bottom? And what is the intensity of the force needed to maintain the

debris in suspension after it is lifted from the bottom. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 71

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Exercise 29

cylindrical beams floating at the surface of the sea.

m, length 4 m.

- Density of the wood: 700 kg/m3

- Density of the sea: 1027 kg/m3

- Mass of the plate: 350 kg

- Earth gravity: 9.81 m/s2

2. Calculate the maximal mass that can be placed on the plate

without the total immersion of the beams.

Hydrostatics

Buoyancy

Exercise 30

A ship that the sides are vertical to the height of water surface line

weighs 4000 tons and has a draft (tirant d’eau) of 6.7 m in sale water

(density 1025 kg/m3). When it is unloaded by 200 tons from the ballast,

the draft is reduced to 6.4 m. What should be the draft of the ship in

fresh water?

Kinematics of Fluid

Kinematics of Fluid

A fluid can be modelled as a numerous set of small fluid particles that

translate, rotate and deform.

There exist two ways to describe the motion of a fluid: Lagrangian and

Eulerian descriptions.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 75

Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian description

an equation for the path of each fluid particle.

This description is suited for multiphase flows, where bubble and solid

particles can be easily tracked using the Lagrangian formulation.

This can be

visualized as

sitting in a plane

and watching

vehicles flow.

Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian description

at every time instant t.

selected by specifying its position x0 at time t = 0.

x xt , x0

dxt , x0

vt , x0

dt

dvt , x0 d 2 xt , x0

a (t , x0 )

dt dt 2

Kinematics of Fluid

Lagrangian description

In the case of a uniform flow (2D) parallel to the x axis, the velocity

is:

V

v

0

The position of the particle at instant t is:

x1 t , x0 x01 Vt

xt , x0

2

x t , x

0 02

x

x01

where x0 is the position of the particle at time t 0

x02

dvt , x0 0

The acceleration is: at , x0

dt 0

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 78

Kinematics of Fluid

Eulerian description

every point in space as time varies. It is a field description. A probe

fixed in space is an example of an Eulerian measuring device.

that flow field is often referred to as the velocity field.

Looking at a

fixed location Dr. Keang Sè POUV 79

Kinematics of Fluid

Eulerian description

instant of time t (i.e., the flow properties at a specified location depend

on the location and on time),

v v x, t

through the same point x.

material derivative is introduced, D / Dt

Dvx, t

a x, t

Dt

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 80

Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative

In the Eulerian description, the fluid field is given as fluid properties at

fixed or arbitrary points. Therefore, if evolution of the particle properties

is desired, we need specific mathematical transformations to recover

the derivative following the fluid particle.

rx t

r t ry t

r t

z

drx t

dt

x

v t

dr t dry t

vt v y t

v t dt dt

z dr

z t

dt Dr. Keang Sè POUV 81

Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative

Let a scalar Eulerian field, such as a velocity component, be given by

c(x,y,z,t) where x, y, z are spatial coordinates.

position that the fluid particle is occupying, that is, the particle

trajectory r(t) :

c c rx t , ry t , rz t , t Fluid field

In this case,

Dt t x dt y dt z dt

Dc c c c c

vx vy vz

Dt t x y z

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 82

Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative

The derivative can also be expressed in tensor notation as:

c

v x x

Dc c c

v y

Dt t y

v z c

c

z

xc

c

v c

Dc

where c

Dt t y

c

z

The derivative is made from the temporal term and the convective

term. The latter represents the transport of a property in the fluid due

to its macroscopic motion.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 83

Kinematics of Fluid

Material Derivative

If the velocity is expressed in components vi and the Cartesian

coordinates as xi where i = 1, 2, 3.

Dc c 3

c

Dt t

j 1

vj

x j

time following a fluid particle.

Dv x

Dt

Dv Dv y

a

Dt Dt

Dv z

Dt

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 84

Kinematics of Fluid

There are two classes of transport phenomena:

fluid, with its motion, drags the fluid particles and its properties.

Mathematically, the net flux is modelled by the convective term of the

substantial derivative:

c c c

v1 v2 v3

x1 x2 x3

- The diffusion transport or molecular transport is due to the random

motion of molecules at the microscopic level, which tends to make

the properties uniform. Mathematically, the net local balance of

transport by diffusion around a fluid particle is proportional to the

diffusion coefficient α and the Laplacian:

2c 2c 2c

c 2 2 2

x1 x2 x3 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 85

Kinematics of Fluid

Stationary or steady flow

variables depends on time, i.e.,

0

t

reference. These are called pseudosteady flows.

Kinematics of Fluid

One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows

dimensional flow. The flow in a washing machine would be an unsteady,

three dimensional flow.

depend on only two space variables (plane flow).

one space variable. For flow in a long pipe, the velocity depends on the

radius r, and in a wide channel (parallel plates) it depends on y an

shown below.

Kinematics of Fluid

Uniform Flow

For the uniform flow, as sketched in the figure below; the velocity

profile and other properties such as pressure, is uniform across the

section of pipe.

All fluids have viscosity and if the viscosity effects cannot be neglected,

it is viscous flow. Viscous effects are very important in pipe flows and

many other kinds of flows inside conduits; they lead to losses and

required pumps in long pipe lines.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 88

Kinematics of Fluid

Isothermal and adiabatic flows

non-isothermal flow.

heat transport between itself and its surroundings.

translate without rotation about the particle center.

If along their path the fluid particles translate and rotate about the

particle center, the flow is rotational.

Kinematics of Fluid

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

of a given particle is random and highly irregular. In turbulent flow the

velocity at any point changes chaotically in magnitude and direction

(unsteady flow).

is smooth and noiseless. The flow is steady.

Photo taken at the top of

Horseshoe Falls near Niagara

Falls.

Kinematics of Fluid

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Kinematics of Fluid

Incompressible Flow

that the density and velocity are continuum functions):

V 0

t

A special case which affords great simplification is incompressible flow,

where the density changes are negligible (i.e., / t 0 regardless of

whether the flow is steady or unsteady).

incompressible flow. The Cartesian form is:

v x v y v z

0

x y z

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 92

Kinematics of Fluid

Visualize a fluid flow as the motion of a collection of fluid particles that

deform and rotate as they travel along.

If the particles simply deform and do not rotate, we refer to the flow, or

a region of the flow, as an irrotational flow. If the particles do rotate,

they possess vorticity.

Kinematics of Fluid

The angular velocity represents the rate at which a fluid particle rotates

about each of the coordinate axes:

1 v z v y

x

2 y z

1 v v

y x z

2 z x

1 v y v x

z

2 x y

flow.

Kinematics of Fluid

Streamline (ligne de courant)

The streamline is the line tangent at every point to the velocity vector.

It indicates the velocity direction.

dx v x

dl v dy v y 0

dz v

z

vx v y vz

dx dy dz Dr. Keang Sè POUV 95

Kinematics of Fluid

Trajectory

evolves (e.g., the braking marks on a road).

Since the particle velocity is known at each spatial point, the trajectory

coordinates can be obtained by integrating the equation of motion:

dx dy dz

vx vy vz

dt dt dt

(x,y,z) is the position of the particle as a function of time.

Kinematics of Fluid

Streakline

have passed by the same point at previous times.

experimental rig. Examples include a plume in the sky (see the figure)

or the spilled coloured contaminant in a river.

trajectories (dashed lines)

of the smoke particles

(dots) from a chimney at

successive time instants.

Kinematics of Fluid

Streakline

compute the trajectories. The process is very similar to the one

presented above, differing only in the way the boundary conditions are

imposed. Assume that a tracer is injected into the flow field at the point

(x0,y0), then proceed in three steps:

2. Calculate the integration constants, such that at time ξ<t the fluid particle

was at (x0,y0). Here ξ is the parameter that designates the particle, by the

time it passed through the injection point. What we have done is to obtain all

the trajectories of the particles that were injected in the flow field before the

present time t.

3. Eliminate ξ.

Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises

Exercise 31

Given the Eulerian fluid field: v x, y , z , t 3ti xzj ty k

2

Exercise 32

u a x2 y2 v unknown w b

a and b are constants. What must the form of the component v be?

Exercise 33

A velocity field in a plane flow is given by: vx, y, t 2 yti xj

Find the equation of the streamline passing through (4,2) at t = 2.

Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises

Exercise 34

u 2 xt 1

v 2 y t 1

1. Particularize for the case in which the streamline passes through the

point (x0,y0) at all times. Calculate the streamlines.

2. Determine the trajectory of the fluid particle that passes through the

point (x0,y0) at t = 0.

3. Determine the streakline that passes by (x0,y0).

Exercise 35

2

Find the acceleration (Eulerian description), the angular velocity and the

vorticity at the point (2,-1,1) at t = 2.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 100

Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises

Exercise 36

The velocity field of a fluid is given by: V (α, β, k constants)

kt

1. What is the nature of the flow (i.e., steady, rotational, and/or

compressible flow)? Justify it.

2. Give the equation of streamline and the equation of particle

trajectory. Are they similar? Why?

Exercise 37

vx 2 x 3 y v y 3x 2 y vz 0

1. Show that the flow is incompressible.

2. Determine the field of flow acceleration using Eulerian description.

3. Determine the equation of streamlines.

4. Determine the field of flow vortex vectors. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 101

Kinematics of Fluid

Exercises

Exercise 38

We study the compressible flow of an ideal fluid. The velocity field is:

V k xi yj

1. Determine the equation and the nature of the streamlines.

2. Calculate the acceleration vector of the flow using Eulerian

description.

3. Determine the equation of particle trajectories. Show that they are

the same as the streamline equation. Justify it.

4. Recalculate the acceleration vector using Lagrangian description.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Motivation

In analysing fluid motion, we might take one of two paths: (1) seeking

to describe the detailed flow pattern at every point (x, y, z) in the field

or (2) working with a finite region, making a balance of flow in versus

flow out, and determining gross flow effects such as the force or torque

on a body or the total energy exchange. The second is the control-

volume method and is the subject of this chapter. This analysis is the

most valuable tool to the engineer for flow analysis.

It is incompressible: no fluid element can change in volume as it moves.

It has constant density: the density is the same for all fluid elements

and for all time (a consequence of incompressibility).

It is inviscid (frictionless).

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 104

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Suppose that the surface S in figure (a) is a sort of (imaginary) wire

mesh through which the fluid passes without resistance. The velocity v

can vary with position and it may pass through dA at an angle θ off the

outward unit vector normal n to dA.

through an arbitrary

surface: (a) an elemental

area dA on the surface;

(b) the incremental

volume swept through dA

equals V dt dA cosθ

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

The amount of fluid swept through dA in time dt is the volume of the

slanted parallelepiped in figure (b):

dV v dt dA cos v n dA dt

dV

Qv

s dt

(v n)dA Vn dA

s s

component of V normal to dA. By convention, v n denotes outflow if it

is positive and inflow if negative.

density varies over the surface, it must be part of the surface integral:

Qm (v n)dA vn dA

s s

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 106

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

There are two important conservation laws that we apply to the steady

flow of ideal fluids in the absence of vortices.

Conservation of Mass

For an ideal fluid, the velocity is constant over the cross-sectional area.

For a real viscous fluid, the velocity profile varies over the cross-

sectional area because of the drag forces slowing the fluid flow.

If the fluid of density ρ has a velocity v1 in the portion of the tube with a

constant cross-sectional area A1, then in a time Δt, the mass of fluid

that passes a given point in this section of the tube is given by:

m A1V1t

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

The volume flow rate passing through that same point is: Qv = A1V1.

Since the fluid is incompressible, and no fluid escapes through the walls

of the pipe, if we examine the fluid flow in the narrow region of the

pipe, we must find the same mass of fluid flowing past a given point in

this section of the tube in the same time Δt (mass conservation).

A1V1 A2V2

or Qv AV cte

This is known as the continuity equation.

Qv

cs

(V n)dA

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

The equation above allows us to define an average velocity Vav:

Vav

Qv 1

V n dA

A A

If the density varies across the section, we define an average density in

the same manner:

1

av

AdA

But the mass flow would contain the product of density and velocity,

and the average product (ρV)av would in general have a different value

from the product of the averages:

A

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 109

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

constant density, steady flow.

Consider an ideal fluid flowing

through a tube with varying cross-

section.

the center of gravity of the masses

dm1, dm2 and M, respectively.

pressure forces of the fluid acting

at the cross-sections S1 and S2,

respectively.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

S2. The mechanical energy is:

1

Em E p Ec dm1 gz1 Mgz dm1V12

S2 1

2 S1 ' 2

V 2 dm

At the instant t’ = t + dt, the fluid of mass (M + dm2) is taken between

S1’ and S2’. The mechanical energy is:

E 'm E ' p E 'c Mgz dm2 gz 2

S2 1 1

S1 ' 2

V 2 dm

2

dm2V22

The potential energy equals the work required to move the system of mass m from the

origin to a position vector (r=xi+yj+zk) against a gravity field. The kinetic energy equals the

work required to change the speed of the mass from zero to velocity v.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

equal to the sum of the works of external forces) between t and t’, we

can write:

1 1

We have: Em dm2 gz 2 dm2V22 dm1 gz1 dm1V12

2 2

since dm1 dm2 dm (mass conservation), we obtain :

V22 V12

Em dm g z 2 z1

2

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

Work done by the pressure forces in the fluid can be found from the

following argument. First because the walls of the tube only exert

normal forces on our ideal fluid and the fluid flows along the walls,

there is no work done by the pressure supplied by the walls. The fluid

column to the left exerts a pressure on our system by supplying a force

F1 = P1S1 toward the right in order for the fluid to flow toward the right.

Similarly, the fluid to the right of our system exerts a pressure to the

left resulting in a force F2 = P2S2 that must be less than that acting

toward the right in order for the fluid to flow to the right. Each of these

forces does work on the system fluid.

At the left end, positive work is done on the fluid in the amount:

dm1

W1 F1dx1 P1S1dx1 P1dV1 P1

1

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 113

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

dm2

W2 F2 dx2 P2

2

The net work done by the fluid pressure is:

P1 P2

dm1 dm2 dm

Wnet P1 P2

1 2

To write the change in mechanical energy as equal to the net work done

by the external pressure forces, we find:

P1 P2 V22 V12

dm dm g z 2 z1

2 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 114

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

fluid known as Bernoulli’s equation:

1 1

P1 V12 gz1 P2 V22 gz 2

2 2

1

P V 2 gz constant (in pressure)

Or 2

P V2

z constant (in liquid head)

g 2 g

hV=V2/2g is the velocity or dynamique head (energy grade line EGL),

hP=P/ρg is the pressure head, hz=z is the elevation head, (hP+hz) is the

piezometer head, and H=hP+hz+hv is the total head of the flow

(hydraulic grade line HGL = hauteur manométrique). P is

hydromechanical pressure or pressure, ρgz gravity pressure, 1/2ρV2

dynamical pressure. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 115

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem Without Work Exchange)

an internal flow in short reaches if the viscous effects can be neglected;

such as in the case in the well-rounded entrance to a pipe (figure

below) or in a rather sudden contraction of a pipe. The velocity for such

entrance is approximated by Bernoulli’s equation to be:

v2

2

p1 p2

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

placed between the sections S1 and S2. The hydraulic machine is

characterized by a net power Pnet exchanged with the fluid (i.e., power

required by the ideal machine), a shaft power Pa (i.e., actual power

delivered by the machine) and an efficiency η. This machine can be a

turbine or a pump.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

one which convert the kinetic energy of the wind into the

electrical energy while pump is a device which convert the

rotational energy of its impeller into the pressure energy of the

fluid (i.e., it increase flow rate of liquid). In turbine, flow takes

place from the high pressure side to low pressure side which is

in contrast for the flow in pump.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 118

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

Pnet

Pa

In the case of a turbine, the efficiency is given by:

Pa

Pnet

Between the instant t and t’=(t+dt), the fluid exchanged a net work

Wnet = Pnetdt with the hydraulic machine. Wnet is supposed to be positive

for a pump and negative for a turbine.

The unit of the work is Joul (J) and the unit of the power is Watt (W) or

J/s. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 119

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Conservation of Energy (Bernoulli’s Theorem With Work Exchange)

Using the work-energy theorem by considering this time the work done

by the hydraulic machine (Wnet), we can write:

1 1 P P

dm2 gz 2 dm2V22 dm1 gz1 dm1V12 1 dm1 2 dm2 Pnet dt

2 2 1 2

Since dm1 = dm2 = dm and ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ, we obtain:

V22 V12 P2 P1

g z 2 z1 Pnet

dt

2 dm

V22 V12 P2 P1

g z 2 z1 net

P

2 qm

The unit of each term in this equation is J/kg. Dr. Keang Sè POUV 120

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Euler Theorem

movement quantity to fluid flow:

dP

Fext ; where P mVG is the movement quantity

dt

This theorem allows to determine the forces exerted by the moving fluid

on the surrounding objects.

The resulting force Fext of external mechanical actions exerting on an

isolated fluid (fluid contained in a section limited by S1 and S2) is equal

to the variation

of movement quantity of fluid

that enters at S1 with a

velocity V1 and exits at S2 with a velocity V2 .

Fext qm V2 V1 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 121

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Euler Theorem

As an example, let consider an obstacle symmetric compared to Z axis.

The jet of a flow with a mass flow rate qm and a velocity V1 hits the

obstacle diverting an angle β. The fluid quits the obstacle at a velocity V2

with an angle β compared to Z axis.

The movement quantities of fluid at

the entrance and at

the exit are

respectively: qmV1Z and qmV2 cos Z .

the variation of movement quantity:

R qmV2 cos qmV1

The force exerting on the obstacle is:

F R qm V1 V2 cos

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 122

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 39

1. Kerosen (0OC) flows under the action of gravity in the pipe shown.

Determine the rate of flow in the pipe in l/s.

its velocity is four times faster. For this, the duct has a convergence

characterized by an angle α. Determine the ratio of radius R1/R2, the

length L in function of R1 and α. Applications: R1 = 50mm and α = 15o.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 40

with water until a height H = 3 m. The bottom of the tank contain an

orifice of diameter d = 10 mm allowing to drain away the water. If we

let the time passes very shortly, say dt, the water level H is reduced by

dH. We note V1=dH/dt the velocity of the descent of water level, and V2

the flow velocity in the orifice.

incompressible, find the expression of

V2 in function of g, H, D, d. What does

it become if d is negligible in front of

D?

2. Determine the volume flow rate qv.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 41

Let consider that we wish to measure the water flow rate in a horizontal

pipe of diameter D = 9 cm. We insert a Venturi tube (D = 9 cm, d = 3

cm). The difference in level h of the mercury in a U-tube can be

measured precisely. (ρwater = 1000 kg/m3, ρmercury = 13600 kg/m3)

h. Determine its numerical value of h = 4 mm.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 42

diameter d = 150 mm. Given: Z1 = -5 m, Z2 = 26 m, P1 = P2 =1.013

bar, V = 0.4 m/s. All the head losses are neglected.

Qv of the pump in l/s.

the pump.

the pump if the efficiency is 80

%.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 42

2. A cylindrical pipe carries the water from a dam via a turbine. The level ZA is

kept constant. The level ZB is supposed to be constant. The mass flow rate

passing through the turbine is Qm = 175 kg/s. Given H = ZA-ZB = 35 m.

b. Calculate the power retrieved on the shaft of the turbine if the efficiency

is 70 %.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 43

at a mass flow rate qm = 2 kg/s. The

obstacle makes a deflection with an

angle β = 120o from X axis. Given: V1

= V2 = 3 m/s. Give the vector

expression of the force F exerted by

the liquid on the obstacle in function of

qm, vectors V1 and V2. Calculate its

component Fx and Fy., and the angle α.

300 mm at a rate of 25 l/s. The

effective pressure at the points 1 and 2

is 8 bars. Determine the resulting

action of water on the elbow.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 128

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 44

the orifice at the bottom of a pressurized

tank. Assuming frictionless flow,

determine the discharge rate of water

from the tank.

6 mm

2. The drinking water needs of an office are

met by large water bottles with a plastic

hose inserted in it. The minimum filling 400 mm

time of a 230ml glass is to be determined

when the bottle is full and when it is near

empty. For this problem, the water is 600 mm

supposed to be an ideal fluid.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 45

diameter D/2. The water, supposed as an incompressible ideal fluid, circulates in

this pipe in permanent flow. The pressure in the horizontal part AB is measured

by connecting a manometer in the axial zone of the pipe and by observing a

barometer placed nearby the former. Different levels in these probes are noted:

h0 = 72.5 cm, h1 = 17.5 cm, h2 = 10 cm.

prevailing in the axial zone AB.

2. Determine the water velocity VE at the exit of

the pipe.

3. What is the difference in height Δh of the

mercury given in the Pitot tube connected in

the section CD of the pipe.

4. Draw the lines of piezometer head and total

head along this pipe.

Dynamics of Ideal Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 46

creation in order to fill a space displayed with water. He has made a drawing of a

fountain supplied by a big tank linked by a siphon. The exist of the siphon is free,

forming a water jet against a concave deflector. The trajectory of the jet is

deviated towards a small lake. The architect thinks up a pathway for pedestrian

above the jet. You are engineer responsible for verifying whether the desired

effect is achievable.

Determine:

1. The volume flow rate of the siphon.

2. The force vector at the connection

point between the concave

structure and the base (point F).

3. The minimal height zB for the

pedestrian pathway above the jet.

Suppose that the water movement

in time is defined by:

1

x (v cos )t ; z gt 2 (v sin )t Dr. Keang Sè POUV 131

2

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Introduction

For real fluids, the flow is more complex than that of ideal fluids. In

fact, there exists friction forces due to fluid viscosity acting between the

fluid particles as well as between the particles and the wall of the

container.

experimental results, especially those by Britain engineer and physician

Osborne Reynolds.

A fluid is called real if during its motion, the contact forces are not

perpendicular to the surface elements to which they are acting; i.e.,

they possess tangential components opposing to the sliding between

fluid layers. Such resistance is characterized by the viscosity.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

In order to determine if a flow is laminar or turbulent, we calculate the

Reynolds Number which is defined as:

VL

Re

where V is a characteristic velocity (the average velocity in a pipe or the

speed of an airfoil), L is a characteristic length (the diameter of a pipe

or the distance from the leading edge of a flat plate), and ν is the

kinematic viscosity. If the Reynolds number is larger than a critical

Reynolds number (Rec), the flow is turbulent; otherwise, it is laminar.

For flow in a smooth wall and free of vibration pipe: Rec = 40000.

For flow between parallel plates: Rec = 1500 (L distance between both

plate, V average velocity).

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Let us consider a flow of a real fluid between the points (1) and (2) in a

duct as shown in the figure.

incompressible: it supposes

the existence of elementary

forces of viscous friction dτ

that contributes in the balance

equation by a negative work

and gives rise to head losses.

- The flow is permanent.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Like in the previous chapter of dynamics of ideal fluids, we use the

theorem of mechanical energy for fluid between the instants t and t’,

but by considering the work of viscous forces dτ. So we can write:

W

1 1 P1 P2

dm2 gz 2 dm2V2 dm1 gz1 dm1V1 dm1

2 2

dm2

1 2

dt

2 2

dm1 = dm2 = dm and ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ. So the equation above can be

simplified to:

V22 V12 P2 P1

g z 2 z1

W dt

2 dm

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 136

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

We define the head loss between the points (1) and (2) by:

J12

W dt

dm

V22 V12 P2 P1

g z 2 z1 J12

2

The unit of each term in the equation above is J/kg. By dividing this

expression by g, we obtain:

V22 P2 V12 P1 J

z2 z1 12

2 g g 2 g g g

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

The equation above can be graphically interpreted as below:

the total head of the flow (ligne

de charge) between the points (1)

and (2) is constant (i.e., the case

of ideal fluid.

G1 and G2 of the flow is the

difference between the levels of

the total head at those points.

linear head loss and a singular

head loss:

J12 = Js + JL

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

For example, in the pipe system presented below, the section BC, DE,

FG, HI and JK are the bents with different angles, so they present

singular head losses. The sections AB, CD, EF, GH, IJ and KL are

straight pipes, so they present linear head losses.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

to head losses called singular head losses. They are generally

measurable and are part of installation characteristics.

V2

J s K s

2

s is the index of the type of the duct singularity. Ks is the coefficient of

head loss that depends on the nature and the geometry of the duct

singularity. Generally, the values of Ks are given by the constructors in

their products catalogues.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

2

A

For brutal section enlargement, we have: K s 1 1

A2

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

Ks 0.41 0.24 0.14

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Singular or local head loss

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

The linear head losses are the losses which are distributed regularly

along the pipes. At each point of permanent flow, the characteristics of

flow are well defined and independent on time. The graphical

representation of flow can be seen below.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

If the velocity is constant, the piezometer head and the total head are

parallel. The variation of piezometer head, evaluated in liquid level is

equal to the linear head loss between the two measuring points.

V2 L

J L

2 D

L is the length of the pipe (m)

D is the diameter of the pipe (m)

λ is the coefficient of linear head loss that depends on the flow regime

(Reynolds Number).

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

64

( Poiseuille )

Re

In a transitory or smooth turbulent regime (2000 < Re < 105):

In a (rough) turbulent regime (Re > 105):

0.79 ( Blench )

D

ε is the roughness of inner surface of the pipe (mm)

D is the inner diameter of the pipe (mm)

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Moody diagram

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

Recommended roughness values for commercial ducts

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

Additive

At the same flow rate, the pressure loss can be reduced by more than 2/3.

At the same pumping pressure, the flow rate can be increased by 30 to 40%.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 152

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Head Losses

Linear head loss

Instantaneous velocity (CTAC 75 ppm, Re21000, T=20°C et D=17mm) [F. Hadri 2009]

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 153

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Let us consider a flow between two points (1) and (2) of a real fluid in a

pipe. We suppose that there is a hydraulic machine between these two

points.

V22 V12 P2 P1

g z 2 z1 J12

Pn

2 qm

J12 is the sum of all the head losses between the points (1) and (2).

Pn is the mechanical power exchanged between the fluid and the

machines existing between the points (1) and (2).

Dynamics of Real Fluids

When systems contain two or more pipe, certain basic rules make the

calculations very smooth. Any resemblance between these rules and the

rules for handling electric circuits is not coincidental.

Pipes in series

Q1 Q2 Q3 constant

The total head loss through the system equals the sum of the head loss

in each pipe:

H A B H1 H 2 H 3

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 155

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Pipes in parallel

individual flows while the loss is

the same in each pipe:

Q Q1 Q2 Q3

H A B H1 H 2 H 3

(fully rough values are recommended) and calculating a first estimate of

the head loss. Then each pipe yields a flow-rate estimate and hence a

new Reynolds number and a better estimate of λ. Then repeat the

calculation to convergence.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Pipes in junction

Q1 Q2 Q3 0 (a )

This implies that one or two of the flows must be away from the

junction. The pressure must change through each pipe so as to give the

same static pressure PJ at the junction.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Pipes in junction

In other words, let the Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) at the junction have

the elevation: p

hJ z J J

g

where pJ is in gage pressure for simplicity. Then the head loss through

each, assuming p1 = p2 = p3 = 0 (gage) at each reservoir surface, must

be such that:

V12 L1 We guess the position hJ and solve Eq. (b)

h1 1 z1 hJ

2 g d1 for V1, V2 and V3 and hence Q1, Q2 and Q3,

iterating until the flow rates balance at the

V22 L2 junction according to Eq. (a). If we guess

h2 2 z 2 hJ (b) hJ too high, the sum Q1 + Q2 + Q3 will be

2g d2

negative and the remedy is to reduce hJ,

V32 L3 and vice versa.

h3 3 z 3 hJ

2g d3 Dr. Keang Sè POUV 158

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 47

1. Determine the critical velocity for fuel oil (νfuel = 4.47 10-6 m2/s) and

for water (νwater = 10-6 m2/s) flowing each in a pipe of 150 mm of

diameter.

diameter wrought iron pipe at a flow rate of 0.004 m3/s. Estimate

the pressure drop over 300 m of horizontal pipe using the Moody

diagram.

water jet if the initial diameter of the pipe is 107 mm and the flow

rate is 0.5 m3/s.

h?

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 48

mm of diameter and of 1825 m of length. We consider that the head

losses are linear and the flow is roughly turbulent.

2. Draw the piezometer head and the total head.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 49

station A to a station B with a mass flow rate Qm = 18 kg/s. The physical

characteristics of the petroleum are: ρ = 900 kg/m3 and μ = 0.261 Pa.s. We

suppose that the pipeline is horizontal.

Determine:

1. The volume flow rate of the petroleum.

2. The flow regime of the petroleum using Reynolds number.

3. The linear head loss coefficient.

4. The minimal length L after which the pressure drop between the stations A

and B exceeds 3 bar.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 50

pipe of diameter d = 100 mm from the point A to the point L. The volume flow

rate is 2.5 l/s. The pressure at the entry is PA = 3 bars. The pipe has six straight

sections: AB = 6 m, CD = 12 m, EF = 5 m, GH = 4 m, IJ = 7 m, KL = 8 m.

The pipe is equipped with:

- Two angles at 45o: BC and DE. Each

has a head loss K45o = 0.2.

- Two angles at 90o: FG and JK. Each

has a head loss K90o = 0.3.

- An angle at 180o: HI. It has a head

loss K180o = 0.4.

Questions:

1. Is the flow laminar and turbulent?

2. Determine the linear head loss Δplin.

3. Determine the singular head loss Δpsing.

4. Determine the pressure at the exit PL.

5. What will the exiting pressure PL’ become if the flow rate reach 5 l/s?

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 162

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 51

- An aspiration pipe AB of diameter d = 15 cm and length of L1 = AB = 10 m.

- A centrifugal pump having an efficiency η = 0.8 that sucks up water at a

volume flow rate Qv = 10.6 l/s from a pool and push it back at D to a water

slide.

- A pushing back pipe CD of a diameter d = 15 cm and a length L2 = CD = 8 m.

- A water slide forming a descendant canal allowing to carry the water back to

the pool (the water stays in a closed circuit).

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 51 (continue)

Pa.s, gravity acceleration g = 9.81 m/s2, pressure P0 = PD = Patm = 1 bar, Z0 =

1.5 m (O is a point of the water free surface in the pool), ZA = ZB = 0, ZC = 0.3

m, and ZD = 8.3 m. We suppose that all the singular head losses are neglected

and the water level in the pool is constant (VO = 0).

2. Calculate the pressure PA.

3. What is the flow regime (laminar or turbulent flow) in the pipe?

4. Calculate the linear head loss coefficient λ.

5. Determine the linear head loss JL between A and D.

6. Determine the net power Pnet developed by the pump.

7. Determine the power Pa absorbed by the pump.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 52

A pump with a volume flow rate of Qv = 2.8 l/s is used to carry the water from a

pool to a tank through a pipe of diameter d = 135 mm. Hypotheses: Z1 = 0, Z2 =

35 m, P1 = P2 = 1013 mbar, dynamic viscosity of water μ = 10-3 Pa.s, length of

the pipe L = 65 m. All the singular head losses are neglected.

water in the pipe.

2. Is the flow laminar or turbulent?

3. Determine the coefficient of linear

head loss, then the head loss J12 all

along the pipe.

4. Determine the net power Pnet of the

pump.

5. If the efficiency η = 80 %,

determine the power Pa required by

the pump.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 53

In a water supply system, we use an electric pump of hydraulic power Ph (or Pnet)

to be determined. The pump sucks the water from the point G up to the air at

the point O. The diameter of the duct of the system is d = 120 mm and the flow

velocity is V = 0.5 m/s. The absolute pressure of the water at G is: pG = 1.5 105

Pa.

For connecting

different ducts, we

use 4 bends at 90o

and of curved radius

of R0 = 100 mm.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 53 (continue)

Given:

Lt=68.6m, total length of the linear ducts between the points O and G.

Kv=0.24, coefficient of head loss at the butterfly valve V.

KG=0.15, coefficient of head loss at the point of water sucking up G.

Kc=Kc’=0.45, coefficients of head loss at the connections at the entry and the

exit of the pump.

1. Calculate the volume flow rate and mass flow rate of the pump.

2. Calculate the Reynolds number Re and determine the nature of the flow.

3. Calculate the total linear head loss.

4. Calculate the total singular head loss.

5. Calculate the total head loss between the points O and G, ∆pGO.

6. Calculate the mechanical power Pm (or Pa) supplied to the pump by the

electrical motor knowing that its efficiency is 85%.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 54

Let consider a hydraulic installation connected to a very big free surface tank

under a pressure of 1.4patm. The installation consists of circular pipes, a pump

and a convergent tube opened to free air. The water in the tank is pumped in

order to supply a jet. Given: h1 = 2 m, h2 + h3 = 1.5 m, h4 = 8 m, D = 0.15 m,

d = 0.08 m, patm = 1.013 105 N/m2, ρw = 1000 kg/m3, g = 9.81 m/s2. All the

head losses are neglected.

1. Calculate the velocity of the jet U4

and deduce the volume flow rate Q.

2. Determine the hydraulic power P of

the pump necessary for maintaining

the jet.

3. Calculate the dynamic heads

between the section 3 and 4.

4. Represent graphically the piezometer

head and the total head as well as

indicate their values on the drawing.

Dr. Keang Sè POUV 168

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 55

drop is pA – pB = 150 000 Pa. The elevation

drop is zA – zB = 5 m. The fluid is water, ρ =

1000 kg/m3 and υ = 1.02 10-6 m2/s. The pipe

data are:

Calculate the flow rate Q in m3/h through the

system.

Dynamics of Real Fluids

Exercises

Exercise 56

Derive the expression of the total volume flow rate QV in the pipe below.

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