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ME2058/ME3051- Heat Transfer

1 a What differences you could notify between Thermodynamics and Heat 5

Transfer course. List the same. You may use some practical situations to
b A steel ball of mass 1kg and specific heat 0.4kJ/kg is at a temperature of 60°C. 5
It is dropped into 1kg water at 20°C. What will be the final steady state
temperature of water?
2 a A 100W electric bulb was switched on in a 2.5m×3m×3m size thermally 5
insulated room having a temperature of 20cC. What will be the room
temperature at the end of 24 hours?
b Give similarities and differences between conduction, convection and radiation 5
modes of heat transfer.
3 a A wall of thickness 0.6 m has width has a normal area 1.5 m2 and is made up 5
of material of thermal conductivity 0.4 W/mK. The temperatures on the two
sides are 800°C. What is the thermal resistance of the wall?
b A copper block and an air mass block having similar dimensions are subjected 5
to symmetrical heat transfer from one face of each block. The other face of the
block will be reaching to the same temperature at a rate:
(a) Faster in air block
(b) Faster in copper block
(c) Equal in air as well as copper block
(d) Cannot be predicted with the given information
4 a A plane wall is 25cm thick with an area of 1m2, and has a thermal conductivity 5
of 0.5W/mK. If a temperature difference of 60°C is imposed across it, what is
the heat flow?
b A large concrete slab 1 m thick has one dimensional temperature distribution: 5
T = 4–10x+20x2+10x3. Where, T is temperature and x is distance from one face
towards other face of wall. If the slab material has thermal diffusivity of 2×10-3
m2/hr, what is the rate of change of temperature at the other face of the wall?
5 a A furnace is made of a red brick wall of thickness 0.5m and conductivity 5
0.7W/mK. For the same heat loss and temperature drop, this can be replaced
by a layer of another substance of conductivity 0.14W/mK. What should be the
thickness of new substance?
b In which one of the following materials, is the heat energy propagation 5
minimum due to conduction heat transfer? Why?
(a) Lead (b) Copper (c) Water (d) Air
6 a The outer surface of a long cylinder is maintained at constant temperature. The 5
cylinder does not have any heat source. The temperature in the cylinder will:
b A steel plate of thickness 5 cm and thermal conductivity 20W/mK is subjected 5
to a uniform heat flux of 800 W/m2 on one surface 'A' and transfers heat by
convection with a heat transfer coefficient of 80W/m2K from the other surface
'B' into ambient air at 25°C. Then estimate the temperature of the surface 'B'
transferring heat by convection.
7 a A composite slab has two layers of different materials having internal 5
conductivities k1 and k2. If each layer has the same thickness, then what will
be the equivalent thermal conductivity of the slab with series and parallel
arrangement of layers?
b A flat plate has thickness 5cm, thermal conductivity 1W/mK, and convective 5
heat transfer coefficients on its two flat faces of 10W/m2K and 20W/m2K.
Estimate the overall heat transfer co-efficient for the flat plate.
8 a Two insulating materials of thermal conductivity K and 2K are available for 5
lagging a pipe carrying a hot fluid. If the radial thickness of each material is
the same.
(a) Material with higher thermal conductivity should be used for the inner
layer and one with lower thermal conductivity for the outer.
(b) Material with lower thermal conductivity should be used for the inner layer
and one with higher thermal conductivity for the outer.
(c) It is immaterial in which sequence the insulating materials are used.
(d) It is not possible to judge unless numerical values of dimensions are given.
b A composite wall is made of two layers of thickness t1 and t2 having thermal 5
conductivities K and 2K and equal surface areas normal to the direction of heat
flow. The outer surfaces of the composite wall are at 100°C and 200°C
respectively. The heat transfer takes place only by conduction and the required
surface temperature at the junction is 150°C. What will be the ratio of their
thicknesses, t1: t2?
9 a For conduction through a spherical wall with constant thermal conductivity 5
and with inner side temperature greater than outer wall temperature, what is
the type of temperature distribution for 1-D heat transfer?
(a) Linear (b) Parabolic (c) Hyperbolic (d) None of the above. Justify your
b A composite hollow sphere with steady internal heating is made of 2 layers of 5
materials of equal thickness with thermal conductivities in the ratio of 1:2 for
inner to outer layers. Ratio of inside to outside diameter is 0.8. What is ratio of
temperature drop across the inner and outer layers?
10 a A solid sphere and a hollow sphere of the same material and size are heated to 5
the same temperature and allowed to cool in the same surroundings. If the
temperature difference between the body and that of the surroundings is T,
then
(a) Both spheres will cool at the same rate for small values of T
(b) Both spheres will cool at the same reactor small values of T
(c) The hollow sphere will cool at a faster rate for all the values of T
(d) The solid sphere will cool a faster rate for all the values of T.
b A hollow sphere has inner and outer surface areas of 2m2 and 8m2 5
respectively. For a given temperature difference across the surfaces, the heat
flow is to be calculated considering the material of the sphere as a plane wall
of the same thickness. What is the equivalent mean area normal to the
direction of heat flow?
11 a Consider the following statements: 5
1. Under certain conditions, an increase in thickness of insulation may increase
the heat loss from a heated pipe.
2. The heat loss from an insulated pipe reaches a maximum when the outside
radius of insulation is equal to the ratio of thermal conductivity to the surface
coefficient. 3. Small diameter tubes are invariably insulated.
4. Economic insulation is based on minimum heat loss from pipe.
Of these statements
(a) 1 and 3 are correct (b) 2 and 4 are correct
(c) 1 and 2 are correct (d) 3 and 4 are correct. Justify your answer.
b An electric cable of aluminum conductor (k = 240W/mK) is to be insulated 5
with rubber (k = 0.15W/mK). The cable is to be located in air (h = 6W/m2).
Estimate the critical thickness of insulation.
12 a It is desired to increase the heat dissipation rate over the surface of an 5
electronic device of spherical shape of 5 mm radius exposed to convection
with h = 10 W/m2K by encasing it in a spherical sheath of conductivity 0.04
W/mK. For maximum heat flow, what should be the diameter of the sheath?
b In current carrying conductors, if the radius of the conductor is less than the 5
(a) It reduces the heat loss from the conductor and thereby enables the
conductor to carry a higher current.
(b) It increases the heat loss from the conductor and thereby enables the
conductor to carry a higher current.
(c) It increases the thermal resistance of the insulation and thereby enables the
conductor to carry a higher current.
(d) It reduces the thermal resistance of the insulation and thereby enables the
13 a A copper wire of radius 0.5mm is insulated with a sheathing of thickness 1 5
mm having a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK. The outside surface
convective heat transfer coefficient is 10 W/m2K. If the thickness of insulation
sheathing is raised by 10mm, then the electrical current-carrying capacity of
the wire will:
(a) Increase, (b) Decrease, (c) Remain the same (d) Vary depending upon the
b A metal rod of 2cm diameter has a conductivity of 40W/mK, which is to be 5
insulated with an insulating material of conductivity of 0.1W/mK. If the
convective heat transfer coefficient with the ambient atmosphere is 5W/m2K,
then what will be the critical thickness of insulation?
14 a In order to substantially reduce leakage of heat from atmosphere into cold 5
refrigerant flowing in small diameter copper tubes in a refrigerant system, the
radial thickness of insulation, cylindrically wrapped around the tubes, must be:
(a) Higher than critical radius of insulation
(b) Slightly lower than critical radius of insulation
(c) Equal to the critical radius of insulation
b A copper pipe carrying refrigerant at -200C is covered by cylindrical insulation 5
of thermal conductivity 0.5 W/m K. The surface heat transfer coefficient over
the insulation is 50W/m2K. Estimate the requirement of critical thickness of
the insulation.
15 a A plane wall of thickness 2L has a uniform volumetric heat source q* (W/m3). 5
It is exposed to local ambient temperature T∞ at both the ends (x = ± L). Obtain
an expression for surface temperature of the wall under steady state condition.
b A steam pipe is to be lined with two layers of insulating materials of different 5
thermal conductivities. For minimum heat transfer
(a) The better insulation must be put inside (b) The better insulation must be
put outside. (c) One could place either insulation on either side
(d) One should take into account the steam temperature before deciding as to
which insulation is put where. Provide detailed justification.
16 a Usually fins are provided to increase the rate of heat transfer. But fins also act 5
as insulation. Which one of the following non-dimensional numbers decides
this factor?
(a) Eckert number, (b) Biot number, (c) Fourier number (d) Peclet number.
Provide justification.
b From a metallic wall at 100°C, a metallic rod protrudes to the ambient air. The 5
temperatures at the tip will be minimum when the rod is made of:
17 a In order to achieve maximum heat dissipation, the fin should be designed in 5
such a way that:
(a) It should have maximum lateral surface at the root side of the fin
(b) It should have maximum lateral surface towards the tip side of the fin
(c) It should have maximum lateral surface near the centre of the fin
(d) It should have minimum lateral surface near the centre of the fin.
b A fin has 5mm diameter and 100mm length. The thermal conductivity of fin 5
material is 400Wm-1K-1. One end of the fin is maintained at 130ºC and its
remaining surface is exposed to ambient air at 30ºC. If the convective heat
transfer coefficient is 40 Wm-2K-1, estimate the heat loss (in W) from the fin.
18 a Consider the following statements pertaining to large heat transfer rate using 5
fins:
1. Fins should be used on the side where heat transfer coefficient is small
2. Long and thick fins should be used
3. Short and thin fins should be used
4. Thermal conductivity of fin material should be large
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4. Justify your answer.
b The temperature distribution in a stainless fin (thermal conductivity 5
0.17W/cm°C) of constant cross -sectional area of 2cm2 and length of 1cm,
exposed to ambient of 40°C (with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 0.0025
W/cm20C) is given by (T – T∞ ) = 3x2 – 5x + 6, where T is in °C and x is in
cm. If the base temperature is 100°C, then what will be the heat dissipated by
the fin surface?
19 a Extended surfaces are used to increase the rate of heat transfer. When the 5
convective heat transfer coefficient h = mk, the addition of extended surface
will:
(a) Increase the rate of heat transfer
(b) Decrease the rate of heat transfer
(c) Not increase the rate of heat transfer
(d) Increase the rate of heat transfer when the length of the fin is very large.
b A finned surface consists of root or base area of 1 m2 and fin surface area of 5
2m2. The average heat transfer coefficient for finned surface is 20W/m2K.
Effectiveness of fins provided is 0.75. If finned surface with root or base
temperature of 50°C is transferring heat to a fluid at 30°C, then estimate the
rate of heat transfer.
20 a Addition of fin to the surface increases the heat transfer if hA / KP is: 5
(a) Equal to one, (b) Greater than one, (c) Less than one (d) Greater than one
b A metallic rod of uniform diameter and length L connects two heat sources 5
each at 500°C. The atmospheric temperature is 30°C. Then what will be the
temperature gradient (dT/dL) at the centre of the bar? Show with sketch.
21 a A spherical steel ball of 12mm diameter is initially at 1000 K. It is slowly 5
cooled in surrounding of 300 K. The heat transfer coefficient between the steel
ball and the surrounding is 5W/m2K. The thermal conductivity of steel is
20W/mK. The temperature difference between the centre and the surface of the
steel ball is;
(a) Large as conduction resistance is far higher than the convective resistance.
(b) Large as conduction resistance is far less than the convective resistance.
(c) Small as conduction resistance is far higher than the convective resistance.
(d) Small as conduction resistance is far less than the convective resistance.
b The Biot number is used when considering a solid body subject to convection 5
in a surrounding fluid. It is a comparison of
(a) Convection to conduction in the surrounding fluid
(b) Conduction in the surrounding fluid to conduction in the solid
(c) Convection at the solid surface to conduction within the solid
(d) The thermal diffusivity in the solid to the kinematic viscosity in the fluid.
Explain.
22 a Consider a sphere and a cylinder of equal volume and made of copper. Both 5
are heated to the same temperature and then kept in air for cooling. Which one
b Consider a hot boiled potato kept on a plate and cooled by natural convection 5
in air. During the first minute, the temperature drops by 10ºC. During the
second minute, will the temperature drop be more than, less than or same as
23 a A small copper ball of 5mm diameter at 500K is dropped into an oil bath 5
whose temperature is 30 K. The thermal conductivity of copper is 400W/mK,
its density 9000kg/m3 and its specific heat 385J/kg.K.1f the heat transfer
coefficient is 250W/m2K and lumped analysis is assumed to be valid, what
will be the rate of fall of the temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling
will be, in K/s.
b The value of Biot number is very small (less than 0.01) when 5
(a) The convective resistance of the fluid is negligible
(b) The conductive resistance of the fluid is negligible
(c) The conductive resistance of the solid is negligible
24 a A spherical thermocouple junction of diameter 0.706mm is to be used for the 5
measurement of temperature of a gas stream. The convective heat transfer co-
efficient on the bead surface is 400W/m2K.
Thermo-physical properties of thermocouple material are k = 20W/mK, C
=400 J/kg, K and ρ = 8500 kg/m3. If the thermocouple initially at 30°C is
placed in a hot stream of 300°C, then how much time will be taken by the bead
to reach 298°C?
b Which one of the following statements is correct? 5
The curve for unsteady state cooling or heating of bodies
(a) Parabolic curve asymptotic to time axis
(b) Exponential curve asymptotic to time axis
(c) Exponential curve asymptotic both to time and temperature axis
(d) Hyperbolic curve asymptotic both to time and temperature axis.
After selection show it graphically.
25 a A solid copper ball of mass 500grams, when quenched in a water bath at 30°C, 5
cools from 530°C to 430°C in 10seconds. What will be the temperature of the
ball after the next 10seconds?
b A thermocouple in a thermo-well measures the temperature of hot gas flowing 5
through the pipe. For the most accurate measurement of temperature, the
Assignment Questions (Section II), AY2018-19

Q. No Question Statement Marks

1 a With a neat sketch and practical examples explain the phenomenon of free and 5
forced convection.
b A coolant fluid at 30°C flows over a heated flat plate maintained at a constant 5
temperature of 100°C. The boundary layer temperature distribution at a given
location on the plate may be approximated as T = 30 + 70×e–y where y (in m) is
the distance normal to the plate and T is in °C. If thermal conductivity of the
fluid is 1.0 W/mK, then what will be local convective heat transfer coefficient
(in W/m2K) at that location?
2 a Using Prandtl number discuss the relation between hydrodynamic and the 5
thermal boundary layer over a flat plate.
b Air at 20°C blows over a hot plate of 50 × 60 cm made of carbon steel 5
maintained at 220°C. The convective heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2K.
What will be the heat loss from the plate?
3 a Explain the physical significance of the following; 5
i)Nusselt number,
ii)Reynolds number,
iii)Prandtl number,
iv)Grashoff number,
v) Stanton number.
b Heat is lost from a 100 mm diameter steam pipe placed horizontally in ambient 5
at 30°C. If the Nusselt number is 25 and thermal conductivity of air is 0.03
W/mK, then what will be the heat transfer co-efficient?
4 a Which non-dimensional numbers are used to analyze the problem of forced 5
convection? Using Buckingham 𝜋 theorem derives the relation between the
non-dimensional numbers for forced convection.
b A 320 cm high vertical pipe at 150°C wall temperature is in a room with still 5
air at 10°C. This pipe supplies heat at the rate of 8 kW into the room air by
natural convection. Assuming laminar flow, what will be the height of the pipe
needed to supply 1 kW only?
5 a Which non-dimensional numbers are used to analyze the problem of free 5
convection? Using Buckingham 𝜋 theorem derive the relation between the
b Water at 27°C flows over an isothermal, 1-m-long, flat plate with a velocity of 5
2m/s. Plot the variation of the local heat transfer coefficient with distance
along the plate. What is the value of the average coefficient?
Use below given water properties at 300K; ρ = 997kg/m3, = 855×10-6N.s/m2,
= 0.858×10-6m2/s, k = 0.613W/m. K, Pr = 5.83
Use following correlations for estimating the local heat transfer coefficient;
Nux = 0.332Rex1/2Pr1/3 (over the region 0 ≤ x ≤ xcr)
Nux = 0.0296Rex4/5Pr1/3 (over the region xcr < x ≤ L)
6 a Is it possible to calculate the value of heat transfer coefficient without 5
measurement of temperatures in laminar flow? If yes then explain the analogy
for the same.
b The back side of a metallic plate is perfectly insulated while the front side 5
absorbs a solar radiant flux of 800W/m2. The convection coefficient between
the plate and the ambient air is 112W /m2. K.
(a) Neglecting radiation exchange with the surroundings, calculate the
temperature of the plate under steady-state conditions if the ambient air
temperature is 20°C.
(b) For the same ambient air temperature, calculate the temperature of the plate
if its surface emissivity is 0.8 and the temperature of the surroundings is also
20°C
7 a What is the effect on velocity profile for the following cases in free 5
convection;
i) Flat plate with top surface hot
ii) Flat plate with bottom surface hot
iii) Inclined flat plate with top surface hot
iv) Inclined flat plate with bottom surface hot
Discuss the examples where the above situation occurs which affect the heat
transfer.
b In a heat exchanger water flows through the tube of 2.2 cm in diameter with a 5
velocity of 2 m/s. The water is heated from 15oC by condensing the steam at
150oC on the outer surface of the tube, using the Dittus Bolter equation find
the heat transfer coefficient and length of the tube required for transferring the
above amount of heat. Neglect the tube resistance as well as outer surface film
resistance.
8 a What are the different correlations used to analyze the forced convection heat 5
transfer problems for different situations?
b In a long annulus (3.125cm ID and 5 cm OD) the air is heated by maintaining 5
the temperature of outer surface of the inner tube at 50oC. The air enters at
16oC and leaves at 32oC and its flow rate is 30m/s. Estimate the heat transfer
coefficient between the air and the inner tube by using equation Nu = 0.023
Re0.8 Pr0.4.
9 a What are the different correlations used to analyze the free convection heat 5
transfer problems for different situations?
b An electrical transmission line made of a 2m mm annealed copper wire carries 5
200 A and has a resistance of 0.4 x 10-4 Ohm/cm length. If the surface
temperature is 200oC and the ambient temperature is 10oC, determine the heat
transfer coefficient between the wire surface and the ambient air and the
maximum temperature in the wire. Assume k = 150 W/mK.
10 a For the same inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluids, the Log 5
Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) is:
(a) Greater for parallel flow than for counter flow heat exchanger.
(b) Greater for counter flow than for parallel flow heat exchanger.
(c) Same for both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers.
(d) Depends on the properties of the fluids.
b In a condenser, water enters at 30°C and flows at the rate 1500 kg/hr. The 5
condensing steam is at a temperature of 120°C and cooling water leaves the
condenser at 80°C. If the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2000 W/m2K, then
what will be the heat transfer area requirement in this heat exchanger? Use Cp
of water = 4.187 kJ/kg K
11 a Which one of the following heat exchangers gives parallel straight line pattern 5
of temperature distribution for both cold and hot fluid?
(a) Parallel-flow with unequal heat capacities
(b) Counter-flow with equal heat capacities
(c) Parallel-flow with equal heat capacities
(d) Counter-flow with unequal heat capacities.
Show temperature profile for your choice.
b In a heat exchanger, the hot liquid enters with a temperature of 180ºC and 5
leaves at 160ºC. The cooling fluid enters at 30ºC and leaves at 110ºC. What is
the capacity ratio of the heat exchanger?
12 a Consider the following statements: The flow configuration in a heat 5
exchanger, whether counter flow or otherwise, will NOT matter if:
1. A liquid is evaporating
2. A vapour is condensing
3. Mass flow rate of one of the fluids is far greater
Of these statements:
(a) 1 and 2 are correct (b) 1 and 3 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
b In a counter flow heat exchanger, cold fluid enters at 30°C and leaves at 50°C, 5
whereas the enters at 150°C and leaves at l30°C. Then what will be the mean
temperature difference for this case?
13 a Consider the following statements: In a shell and tube heat exchanger, baffles 5
are provided on the shell side to:
1. Prevent the stagnation of shell side fluid
2. Improve heat transfer
3. Provide support for tubes
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 2 (d) 2 and 3.
b A designer chooses the values of fluid flow ranges and specific heats in such a 5
manner that the heat capacities of the two fluids are equal. A hot fluid enters
the counter flow heat exchanger at 100°C and leaves at 60°C. The cold fluid
enters the heat exchanger at 40°C. Then what will be the mean temperature
difference between the two fluids?
14 a For evaporators and condensers, for the given conditions, the logarithmic mean 5
temperature difference (LMTD) for parallel flow is:
(a) Equal to that for counter flow
(b) Greater than that for counter flow
(c) Smaller than that for counter flow
(d) Very much smaller than that for counter flow.
b Given the following data, 5
Inside heat transfer coefficient = 25 W/m2K
Outside heat transfer coefficient = 25 W/m2K
Thermal conductivity of bricks (15 cm thick) = 0.15 W/mK,
The overall heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2K) will be closer to the
(a) Inverse of heat transfer coefficient
(b) Heat transfer coefficient
(c) Thermal conductivity of bricks
(d) Heat transfer coefficient based on the thermal conductivity of the bricks
alone.
15 a In a heat exchanger with one fluid evaporating or condensing the surface area 5
required is least in;
(a) Parallel flow (b) Counter flow (c) Cross flow (d) Same in all above.
b After expansion from a gas turbine, the hot exhaust gases are used to heat the 5
compressed air from a compressor with the help of a cross flow compact heat
exchanger having effectiveness of 0.8. What is the number of transfer units of
the heat exchanger required?
16 a The equation of effectiveness ε = 1 − e−NTU for a heat exchanger is valid in 5
the case of:
(a) Boiler and condenser for parallel now
(b) Boiler and condenser for counter flow
(c) Boiler and condenser for both parallel flow and counter flow
(d) Gas turbine for both parallel now and counter flow.
Give justification.
b In a counter flow heat exchanger, the product of specific heat and mass flow 5
rate is same for the hot and cold fluids. If NTU is equal to 0.5, then what will
be the effectiveness of the heat exchanger?
17 a ε -NTU method is particularly useful in thermal design of heat exchangers 5
when;
(a) The outlet temperature of the fluid streams is not known as a priori
(b) Outlet temperature of the fluid streams is known as a priori
(c) The outlet temperature of the hot fluid streams is known but that of the cold
fluid streams is not known as a priori
(d) Inlet temperatures of the fluid streams are known as a priori.
Why?
b A counter flow shell - and - tube exchanger is used to heat water with hot 5
exhaust gases. The water (Cp = 4180 J/kg°C) flows at a rate of 2 kg/s while the
exhaust gas (1030 J/kg°C) flows at the rate of 5.25 kg/s. If the heat transfer
surface area is 32.5 m2 and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 200 W/m2°C,
what is the NTU for the heat exchanger?
18 a What is transmissivity of an opaque solid material? Radiant energy with an 5
intensity of 800 W/m2 strikes a flat plate normally. The absorptivity of material
is twice transmissivity and thrice the reflectivity. Determine the rate of
absorption, transmission and reflection of energy.
b On clear nights there is radiation from earth’s surface to space on such night, 5
the water particles on the leaves of plant radiate to the sky whose temperature
may be taken as 200K. The water particles receive heat by convection from the
surrounding air; the convective heat transfer coefficient has a value of 30
W/m2-degree. If the water should not freeze, do the calculations for air
temperature.
19 a A furnace emits radiation at 2000K. Treating it as a black body radiation 5
calculate the;
i. Monochromatic radiant flux density at 1micro meter wavelength.
ii. Wavelength at which emission is maximum and the corresponding
iii. Total emissive power.
b A black body of total area 0.045m2 is completely enclose in space bounded by 5
5cm thick walls. The walls have a surface area of 0.5m2 and thermal
conductivity of 1.07 W/m2K. If the inner surface of the enveloping wall is to
be maintained at 215oC and the outer wall surface is at 30oC, calculate the
temperature of the black body. Neglect the difference between inner and outer
surface areas of enveloping material.
20 a A polished metal pipe 5cm outside diameter and 370K temperature at the outer 5
surface is exposed to atmospheric conditions at 295K temperature. The
emissivity of the surface is 0.2 and the convection coefficient of heat transfer
is 11.35 W/m2-K. Calculate the heat transfer by radiation and natural
convection per meter length of the pipe. What would be the overall coefficient
of heat transfer by the combined mode of convection and radiation?
b A grey surface has an emissivity of 0.35 at a temperature of 550K source if the 5
surface is opaque,
A) Calculate its reflectivity for a black body radiation coming from a 500K
source.
B) A small 25mm hole square hole is made in the thin wall door of furnace
whose inside walls are at 920K. If the emissivity of the walls is 0.72, calculate
the rate at which radiant energy leaves from the furnace through the hole to the
room.
21 a A black body of 0.2 m2 area has an effective temperature of 800K. Calculate 5
the following
A) the total rate of energy emission
B) the intensity of normal radiation
C) the intensity of radiation along a direction 60 degree to the normal and
D) the wavelength of maximum monochromatic emissive power.
b The sun is nearly spherical radiation source that is approximately 1.385×109m 5
diameter and located at 1.50×1011m from earth. On a clear day, the energy flux
associated with solar radiation incident on the outer surface of earth has been
accurately measured and known to be 1135W/m2 with an additional 285W/m2
absorbed by the earth atmosphere. Assume that the sun emits as black body,
estimate its surface temperature.
22 a A truncated cone of height 10cm has top and bottom diameters surface is 5
stated to intercept 15 % of radiation leaving from the top surface. Determine
the shape factor between the 1) top surface and the conical side surface, and 2)
the side surface and itself.
b A ring has emissivity 0.85 of 8cm inner and 16cm outer diameter is placed in a 5
horizontal plane. A small element has emissivity 0.7 of 1 cm2 is placed
concentrically 8cm vertically below the centre of the ring. The temperature of
the ring is 800K and that of small area is 400K. Make calculations for the
radiant heat gain by the small ring.
23 a A conical cavity of base diameter 15cm and height 20cm has inside surface 5
temperature 650K. If emissivity of each surface is having value of 0.85,
determine the net radiative heat transfer from the cavity. How this heat transfer
would be affected if this conical cavity is replaced by a cylindrical cavity of
15cm and 20cm height?
b A thermos flask has double walled bottle and the space between the walls is 5
evacuated so as to reduce the heat flow from it. The bottle surfaces are silver
plated and the emissivity of each surface is 0.025. if the contents of the bottle
are at 375K, find the rate of heat loss from the thermos bottle to the ambient
air at 300K. What thickness of quark (k= 0.03W/m-degree) would be required
if the same insulating effect is to be achieved by the use of cork?
24 a A floor of a hemispherical furnace is at 800K and has an emissivity of 0.5. The 5
corresponding values for the hemispherical roof are 1200K and 0.25.
Determine the net radiation heat transfer from the roof to floor.
b A steel tube, 5cm outside diameter and 2m long, is at 500K temperature. This 5
tube is located centrally in 1) a large brick room having wall temperature 300K
and 2) a square brick conduit of 20cm side and at 300K. If the emissivity’s of
steel and brick are 0.8 and 0.95 respectively, do calculations for the rate of
heat loss by radiation from the tube in each case and comment on the results.
25 a Determine the net radiant heat exchange per m2 area for two infinite parallel 5
plates held at temperature of 800K and 500K respectively. Take emissivity as
0.6 for the hot plate and 0.4 for the cold plate. What should be the emissivity
of a polished aluminium shield placed between them if heat flow is to be
reduced to 40 % of its original value? Calculate the equilibrium temperature
of the shield.
b Two black discs each of diameter 50cm are placed parallel to each other 5
concentrically at a distance of 1m. The discs are maintained at temperature of
1000K and 500K respectively. Calculate the heat flow between the discs.
i. When no other surface is present,
ii. When the disks are connected by a cylindrical black no-flux surface.

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