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# Waves and

Thermodynamics UNIT 3
Section - A : Straight Objective Type

## fR 124.5 124.5  ( 402  273 )R

Cv   
2 n 4.2  10 5  80  10 3

 f=5
When P = constant, V  T
V T 5
  
V T 298
5
% increase =  100  1.68 %
298

## 2a. Answer (2) [JEE (Main)-2017]

n1 = initial number of moles;

5
PV
1 1 10  30 3
n1 =   1.24  10
RT1 8.3  290

5
P2V2 10  30 3
=   1.20  10
RT2 8.3  300

## Change of number of molecules

nf – ni = (n2 – n1) × 6.023 × 1023
 – 2.5 × 1025

When V = constant
PT

P T P 1
   T  T    250 K
P T P 0.4 / 100

T2 60  273
 1
T1  0.38  1  T1
 T1  537 K = 264°C

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4
P 2
⎛V ⎞
1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2⎠

4
When V = 4 m3, P = N/m2
5

4
3 4 3 300
3PV 5
vrms =     150  5 6 m/s
m 2  32  10 3 20  10 3 2

m
PV  RT
M

V RT
   constant
m PM

V1 V
  2 2V1 = V2
m/2 m

V1 V1 1
Fraction = V  V  V  2V  3 rd
1 2 1 1

As the temperature is constant
Patm V1 = (Patm + 20)V2
 Patm (V1 – V2) = 20V2

## 20V2 20  180 20  180

 Patm     72 cm of Hg
V1  V2 230  180 50

Air is diatomic

7
Q = nCPT = nRT
2

5
U = nCVT = nRT
2

U 5

Q 7

For no phase change, final temperature reaches zero before melting
Qice = Qwater
(1 kg) (0.5 × 103 cal/kg/°C) × [0 – (–30)] = (m) (1 × 103 cal/kg/°C) (30)
 m = 0.5 kg

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+ +
Ice Water Steam

## 0°C 100°C 100°C

First of all, we convert all ice water and steam into water at 0°C. In this process, net heat taken
Q = –(1 × 80) + (1 × 1 × 100) + (1 × 540 + 1 × 1 × 100)
= (–80 + 100 + 640) kcal
Q = 660 kcal
Total mass = 3 kg

Water
Water + Steam

## Q=0 Q = 3 × 1 × 100 Q = 300 + 3 × 540

m = 3 kg = 300 kcal = 300 + 1620
= 1920 kcal
360 2
Final composition will have water + steam at 100°C. Amount of steam ms  kg = kg
540 3

7
Amount of water mw  kg
3

## 10a. Answer (4) [JEE (Main)-2017]

100 × 0.1 × (t – 75) = 100 × 0.1 × 45 + 170 × 1 × 45
10t – 750 = 450 + 7650
10t = 1200 + 7650
10t = 8850
t = 885°C

## 11. Answer (1)

V
Let the two temperatures are T1 and T2
C B
Heat rejected in BC is Q = –nCVT
Q = nCV(T2 – T1)
A
5
= nR (T2  T1 ) T
2 T1 T2
Work done in AB is w = PV = nRT = nR(T2 – T1)

Q 5
 
w 2

P
T2

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RT 
 2 [for one mole]
V T
V T2

RT 
R 3
V  T

R
dv   3T 2 dT

R 
PdV   3T 2 dT  2
 T
PdV  3RdT
For n mole PdV = 3nRdT

W 2T0

∫ PdV ∫  3RndT
0 T0

W  3RnT0
By conservation of energy,

5 3 f
P0V  P0V  P (V  V )
2 2 2

nHe  3  nH2  5 4  3  3  5 27
Here f = average degrees of freedom = = 
nHe  nH2 43 7

## 14. Answer (1)

Total mass = 6.0 grams

1 R T
MV 2  5  n1  n2 
2 2
where n1 and n2 are no. of moles of oxygen and nitrogen.

1 ⎛ 3.2 2.8 ⎞ R T
 6  103  100  5 ⎜
2

2 ⎝ 32 28 ⎟⎠ 2

5  0.2  8.31  T
30 
2
6 o
T  C  7.23 o C
0.831

## 14a. Answer (1) (AIEEE 2011)

1 n  RT
Mv 2 
2 (   1)

Mv 2 (   1)
 T 
2R

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L = L
 l = L

Q Q
Now,   
mC ALC

Q AlC
l  L  ⇒Q 
ALC 

F = nmvcos × 2

F 2.nmv cos 
P 
A A

 4
N/m2
2  2  10

## 16. Answer (1)

5
For monoatomic gas at constant pressure, Q = nCPT = 1 × RT
2

1 5
For diatomic gas at constant volume Q  nCV T   R ( 2 T )  Q
2 2
U = 2 + 3 PV
U = 2 + 3nRT

U 1 U
⇒  3nR   3R
T n T

⇒ Cv  3R

## 18. Answer (2)

l = (l11 + l22)t = (50 × 2.0 × 10–5 + 50 × 1.2 × 10–5)200

## 18a. Answer (1) [JEE (Main)-2016]

t
l0
t0 = 2 = 2
g
S=
l0 (1  T )
t = 2 = 2 (1+T)1/2 = 2 + T 
g
T
t – t0 = T  t = T

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## 18b. Answer (3) [JEE (Main)-2017]

P
K=
⎛ V ⎞
⎜– V ⎟
⎝ ⎠
V P
=
V K  = 3

 V = V0 (1 + t)
V
V0 = t

P P P
 = t  t = =
K K 3 K

## 19. Answer (2)

1
Initial K.E = × m × (400)2 = 80000 m joule
2
m = mass of bullet
increase in P.E. = m × 10 × 500 = 5000 m
remaining K.E = 75000 m joule = 7.5 m × 104 joule
Heat required to increase the temperature of bullet from 27°C to 327°C.
= m × 125 × 300
= m × (3.75 × 104) joule
= 3.75 m × 104 joule
Remaining heat = 0.6 × 7.5m × 104 – 3.75m × 104 joule
= 4.5 m × 104 – 3.75 m × 104
= 0.75 m × 104 joule
Suppose m0 kg of bullet converts into liquid
0.75 m × 104 = m0 × 2.5 × 104
m0 = 0.3 m kg
0.3m
% mass converted into liquid =  100  30%
m
Power required = Rate of heat loss = eA (T4 – T04), where A = 4r2
V2
⎛ V 3  V13 ⎞

w  PdV 
V1

kV 2 dV  k ⎜ 2

⎝ 3
⎟  300 J

5 5 5
U  nRT  P2V2  P1V1    k (V23  V13 )  2250 J
2 2 2
T 2V  constant
PV
T 
R
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P 2V 2
 V  constant
R2
P 2V 3  constant
3
PV 2
 constant
2
PV x  constant
3
x
2
R R
C 
r  1 1 x
R R R ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1  2r  2 ⎞ ⎛ 3  2r ⎞
C    2R  R ⎜  2⎟  R ⎜ ⎟  R⎜ r 1 ⎟
r 1 3 r  1 ⎝ r  1 ⎠ ⎝ r  1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
1
2

2l 8l
Thermal resistance R1  
(k / 4)A kA

l R R T  R2T1 16T2  T1
R2   1;T  1 2 =
2kA 16 R1  R2 17

⎛ 5 ⎞
For adiabatic process, TV – 1 = k ⎜   , for monoatomic gas ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠
So, T2V2 – 1 = T1V1 – 1
 T2V22/3 = T1V12/3

2/3 2/3
⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ T1
T2  T1⎜ 12 ⎟  T1⎜ ⎟ 
⎝v ⎠ ⎝8⎠ 4

## 25. Answer (2)

 PV  nRT  nR
P

3
⇒ P 2V C

1 3
3 dP
⇒ VP 2  P2  0
2 dV

3 dP
⇒ V  P
2 dV

dP 2
⇒ V  P
dV 3

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## 26. Answer (3)

According to Wien’s displacement law
1

T
 T  0 .1
  ⇒ 
 T  100
 = 0.13 mm
Specific heat capacity = Molar mass × Molar heat capacity
 CP – CV  Molar mass

## 27a. Answer (1) [JEE (Main)-2017]

Let molar heat capacity at constant pressure = Xp
and molar heat capacity at constant volume = Xv
Xp – Xv = R
MCp – MCv = R

R
Cp – Cv =
M
R
For hydrogen; a =
2
R
For N2; b =
28
a
= 14
b
a = 14b

## 28. Answer (2)

Q = Q1 + Q2 ...(1)

T Q1 A
Also, Q  kA  Q A   1 ...(2)
x Q2 A2
From (1) & (2)

⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛ A2 ⎞
Q1  ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟Q; Q2  ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟Q
⎝ A1  A2 ⎠ ⎝ A1  A2 ⎠

## 28a. Answer (3) [JEE (Main)-2014]

Q = Q1 + Q2 100°C
0.92  4(100  T ) 0.26  4  (T  0) 0.12  4  T
  Cu
46 13 12
 200 – 2T = 2T + T T
 T = 40°C B Brass
Steel
0°C
0.92  4  60 0°C
 Q= = 4.8 cal/s
46

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F = 1.8C + 32
F 126
 F = 1.8C, So, C    70
1.8 1.8
3 5 nRT
Min. Q = U = (2n )RT  nRT 
2 2 2

## For cyclic process Q  W  ∫ Pdv

∵ PV = nRT
 PdV + vdP = nR dT

 ∫ PdV  nR ∫ dT  ∫ VdP
B C D A

 nR 0  VdP

A
∫VdP  ∫VdP  ∫VdP
B C D

1 2

∫ ∫
dp dp
 0  nR 400  0  nR 300
p p
2 1

1
 nR 400Ln  300nRLn 2
2

 nR100Ln 2

## 31a. Answer (2) [JEE (Main)-2013]

Heat is extracted from source in AB & DA
In AB, Q = nCPT
p
5R
Q  n  ( T ) 2p0 A B
2

5 p0
 (4 p0v 0  2 p0v 0 )  5 p0v 0 D C
2
In DA, Q = nCVT v0 2v0 v
3R 3
n  ( T )  ( p0v 0 )
2 2

13
Total = p0v 0
2

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## 32. Answer (2)

n 5 n 7
Q  R(2T  T )   R(2T  T )
2 2 2 2
= 3nRT
For steady state, (T14 – T4) = (T4 – T24)

T14  T24
 T  4
2

## 34. Answer (2)

Suppose mass of body be m and specific heat capacity s. Maximum heat, that the body can lose
Qmax = ms(40 – 27).
Suppose after loosing 50% of maximum heat, the temperature of body becomes .

50
ms  40     ms  40  27
100
(40 – ) = 0.5(40 – 27) ...(i)

d
 0.0002    27
dt

 t t
d
∫40   27
 0.0002

t 0
dt

40  27
ln  0.0002t ...(ii)
  27
From (i) & (ii)
ln 2 = 0.0002t

2.303 log10 2
t s  57.7 minutes
0.0002
For A, Q = U + w = 0
For B, w is less as area enclosed is less.
Also, U is more negative. So, Q < 0

## ⇒ dQ  nCv dT  3anT 2dT

⇒ dQ  dU  3anT 2dT

3an dv 3a
⇒ Pdv  RT .TdT ⇒  TdT
R v R

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v T
dv 3a T
v 3a ⎡T 2 ⎤

v0
v

R ∫T0
T dT ⇒ Ln
v0
 ⎢ ⎥
R ⎣ 2 ⎦T0

3a
v 3a ⎡ 2 2 v
⇒ Ln  ⎣T  T0 ⎦⎤ ⇒  e 2R ⎡⎣T 2  T02 ⎤⎦
v 0 2R v0

v
3a
T T0 
3a 2 2
 e 2R T 2  T02 

⇒ ⇒ ve 2R  v0
v0

3a 2 3a
 T T02
⇒ ve 2R  v 0 e 2R  constant

v2

w  ∫ PdV
v1

V
 
V2 V2
K ⎛V 1  n ⎞ 2 K
V21  n  V11  n
∫V ∫ dv = K ⎜⎜ ⎟ =
n
= dV = K V ⎟
n
⎝ 1 n ⎠V1 1  n
V1 V1

## K ⎡ V2 V1 ⎤  1 ⎡ P2V2n .V2 P1V1n .V1 ⎤ 1

= ⎢ n  n⎥ = ⎢  ⎥ = [P2V2  P1V1 ]
1  n ⎢⎣V2 V1 ⎥⎦ n  1 ⎣⎢ V2
n n
V1 ⎦⎥ n 1

⎛ P1V1  P2V2 ⎞
= ⎜⎜ n 1
⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠

## 39. Answer (3)

R1 = radius of circle along x-axis (V-axis)
R1sin 60° = V0 P
3P0 B
2V0 2
R1 
3 A
P0 C
3P0
R2 = radius of circle along y-axis (P-axis) = 60° 120°
2
work done by gas = area under curve V
V0 2V0 3V0
1 ⎛1 ⎞
 R1R2  ⎜  P0  V0 ⎟ 2
3 ⎝2 ⎠

1 ⎛ 2V0 ⎞ ⎛ 3P0 ⎞
  ⎜ ⎟  P0V0
3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

P0V0
  P0V0
3

⎛  ⎞
 P0V0 ⎜  1⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠

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## 40. Answer (1)

P  P2 ⎞
For linear variation of pressure with volume, w  ⎛⎜ 1 ⎟V  5  10 5  2  10  10 5 J
⎝ 2 ⎠
27  273
0 .4  1   T1 = 500 K
T1

27  273
0 .5  1   T1 = 600 K
T1
 T = 100 K = 100°C

1 T T2 5
 1 2 ⇒ 
6 T1 T1 6

T2  62 2
Also, 
T1 3

T2 5

T1 6

T2  62 4
 
T2 5
or T2 = 62 × 5
or T2 = 310 K
 T1 = 372 K

## 41b. Answer (1) [JEE (Main)-2016]

Heat required to freeze 5 kg water
= 5 × 336 × 103
= 1680 × 103 J Water
at 0 °C
 Q1 = 1680 kJ
for Carnot’s cycle
W
Q2 T2

Q1 T1

Q2 300 Room
 at 27 °C
1680 273

200
Q2 = 1680 × kJ
273
W = Q2 – Q1

⎛ 300 ⎞
= 1680 ⎜  1⎟
⎝ 273 ⎠
= 1.66 × 105 kJ

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l = l = 2 × 1.1 × 10–5 × 50 = 1.1 mm
Work done by wire on load = –mgh = –5 × 10 × (1.1 × 10–3) = –55 mJ

R 1  R11  R21

1 1 1
⎛ l ⎞ ⎛ l ⎞ ⎛ l ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ kA ⎠ ⎝ 2A ⎠ ⎝ 3A ⎠
k = 5 unit

T2 ⎛ T ⎞
1  3⎜⎜1  2 ⎟⎟
2T1 ⎝ T1 ⎠

T2 3T
1 3 2
2T1 T1

3T2 T
 2 2
T1 2T1

5T2 T2 4
2  
2T1 T1 5

T2 2
  1  1   0 .6
2T1 5

## 45. Answer (1)

As mercury is poured slowly, the situation will be like the one shown by following set of figures.

10 – h 80 cm
h

So, the volume of air that has been trapped, at atmospheric pressure, is A ×(10). Here, A is area of cross-section.
Final volume of trapped air is A (10 – h). As temperature is constants, so we can write
P1V1 = P2V2
(75 cm) (A × 10) = (75 + 80 – h) [A × (10 – h)]
750 = 1550 – 155h – 10h + h2
h2 – 165h + 800 = 0
 h = 160 cm
or h = 5 cm
On heating, both solid and liquid expand. The thrust is
Th = Vsl g
Now VS increase while l decreases

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## 47. Answer (1)

l = l11 + l22

l l   l 2 2
  1 1
l l1  l 2

RS = R1 + R2

## dRS dR1 dR2

  ; R  s  R11  R2  2
dT dT dT
As R1 = R2  R = R1 + R2 = 2R1

1   2
 
2

1 1 1
 
RP R1 R2

2 dT
 2  2 d
RP R1 dT R2 dT

P 1  2
 
RP R1 R2

1  2
⇒ P 
2

C0 40  10
  C = 37.5°C
100  0 90  10

## 49. Answer (2)

Final temperature is zero, as only melting is required
mice × 80 + mice × 1 × (100 – 0)  msteam × 540

Yt  Y0 t 0

Y90  Y0 90  0

25  0.5 t
 
50  5 90

or t = 40°C

1 m  T 1
m    ⇒ T   2T
T m T 2

P
P T4 ⇒  2 4  16
P
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At constant pressure, V  T

dV dT
 
V T

dV 1
 
VdT T

1
or 
T

## Q : U : W  nCp dT : nCv dT : n Cp  Cv  dT

 Cp : Cv : Cp  Cv

7R 5R
 : :R
2 2
=7:5:2
Q
∵ Q  nCdT , Q  nCv dT
4

4 4 R 4 R  5 10R
⇒ ∵ C Cv   
3 3 r 1 3 2 3

T TH2 TO 2 2
V     TH 2  320   20 K   253C
M M H2 M O2 32

## 57. Answer (4)

At constant volume, U = Q

3 2
Also the internal energy is transational and rotational
5 5

2Q
So, is energy in rotation
5
W = WAB + WBC + WCD + WDA
= 2000 nR + 0 + (–1000 nR) + 0 = 1000 nR

3 5
Q = QDA + QAB = nR (1000 )  nR (2000 )  6500nR
2 2

1500R 15
 
6500R 65

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## 59. Answer (3)

From state A to B, dU = 0, T is constant
2v 0

dv
 W  nRT  3RT ln2 ...(i)
v
v0

5 4
2U0 = 3  RT , RT =  U0 ...(ii)
2 15
From (i) & (ii)
4
W  U0 ln2
5
When ice melts, volume decreases so, work is done by the surrounding on the ice-water system.
For AB, P  T
 V = constant
For BC, P = P0 + kT
PV = nRT

nRT
V 
P0  kT

P
B
2P0 M(P, V)

P0 C
A

V
V0 2V0

## In process A to B, heat supplied by external agent

5 5P V
QAB 
2
 2P0V0  P0V0   0 0
2
In process C to A, heat is rejected. In process B to C, heat is supplied by external agent from state B to the state
M. At state M, slope of BC = slope of adiabatic

P
 tan    . ,
V

P0 P
 . ...(i)
V0 V

Equation of process B to C,

P0
P V  3P0 ...(ii)
V0

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From (i) and (ii)

P0V PV 2 7
  0  3P0 ,   1 
V0  V0 f 5

P0V  5  PV
  0  3P0
V0  7  V0

12 P0V 7V
⇒  3P0 ⇒ V  0
7V0 4

## 62a. Answer (4) [JEE (Main)-2014]

5R
U  nCV T  1  T
2
For BC, T = –200 K
 U = –500R

## 62b. Answer (4) [JEE (Main)-2016]

P0
P V  3P0
V0

P0v 2 3P0v
T   …(1)
V0 nR nR

For Tmax

dT
0
dv

3
 v v …(2)
2 0
Using (1) & (2)

9 P0V0
Tmax 
4 nR
62c. Answer (3) [JEE (Main)-2018]
TV  – 1 = Constant
5
–1
⎛ V ⎞3
Tf  300 ⎜ ⎟  189 K
⎝ 2V ⎠
3R
U  nCv T  2   [189 – 300]
2
= –2.7 kJ

## 63. Answer (1)

∫ Pdv  ∫ nRT ∫ T ∫
dv nRT
W   2
. T dT  nR dT  nR T 2T0  nRT0
v T0

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## 64. Answer (3)

k  273 F  32

100 180
Put k = F = x
x  273 x  32
 
100 180
80x = 180 × 273 – 3200
x = 574.25
dN
1
∫u d N 2 du
vr m s 
NT

∫ u d N  ∫ u N  4u  2u  du
2 2
T
2
u=0 u=2
u

 N  4u  2u  du
∫ T
3 4

2
⎡ 2u 5 ⎤
 NT ⎢u 4  ⎥
⎣ 5 ⎦0
⎡ 64 ⎤ ⎛ 16 ⎞
 NT ⎢16  ⎥  NT ⎜ ⎟
⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎝ 5⎠

16 4
v rms   m/s
5 5

3PV
v rms 
m

2
mv rms 5  103  16 8 80
P  6
  10 N/m2  N/m2
3V 5  3  200  10 3 3

## 65a. Answer (2) [JEE (Main)-2018]

x

Kx = ma  a = (K/m)x

m
T  2
K

1 1 K
f    1012
T 2 m

1 K
   1024
42 m

4  10  108  103
K  42 m  1024   1024 = 7.1 N/m
6.02  1023

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Factual
Factual
Factual
Factual
At the angular extremes, the Doppler shift of the light is

⎛ v⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 3.0  10 4 ⎞⎤
f   f ⎜1  ⎟  f ⎢1  ⎜ ⎟⎥ = (1 ± 10–4)f
⎝ c⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎜ 3.0  10 8 ⎟⎥
⎝ ⎠⎦
Hence, the extrema are
f = 1.0001f and f = 0.9999f
when emitted simultaneously, the two light sources can have a maximum beat frequency of
fbeat = fmax – fmin = 1.0001f – 0.9999f = 0.0002f
The distance R from source to observer is given by using

R
v 
t

##  R = vt (340 m/s) (4.0 s) = 1360 m

⎛ I ⎞
Now, L = 92 dB = 10 log ⎜⎜ I ⎟⎟
⎝ 0⎠

I
 10 9.2
I0

 I = 109.2(10–12)
= 1.58 × 10–3 W/m2

P
Now, I 
4R 2

E
and P 
t

 E = Pt = I(4R2)t
 E = (1.58 × 10–3 W/m2) (413602 m2) (0.200 s)
 E = 7.4 × 103 J
At the centre of the circle, the ambulance is moving neither towards nor away from the observer, so the wavelength
doesn’t change.

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## 73. Answer (3)

For a “loud sound” or resonance, the piston must be at the position of a node. Therefore the distance through

which the piston is moved between 2 adjacent resonances is .
2

⎛⎞
So, (36.4 cm – 5.2 cm) = 3 × ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
 = 20.8 cm
v = f

## or If = (340 m/s) / 0.208 m = 1634.6 ~ 1635

Y = 5 × 10–3(cos2t) (sin16x)
2
k = 16 =

 
8
 
Shortest string will contain 1 loop i.e. length l    0 .2 m
2 16
The tension in the wire is just equal to the weight, as can be seen by considering a free body diagram at one of the
blocks.
T

W
1/ 2 1/ 2
⎛T ⎞ ⎛ 50 ⎞
The speed of a transverse wave in this wire is then v = v  ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟  50 m/s
⎝⎠ ⎝ 0.02 ⎠
Tapping the wire induces a standing wave, whose maximum wavelength is  = 2L = 2 × 0.2 = 0.4 m. Lastly, the
v 50
frequency corresponding to this wavelength can be obtained from v = f  or f    125 Hz
 0.4

## 75a. Answer (2) [JEE (Main)-2013]

1 T 1 Stress 1   strain
f   
2l  2l Density 2l Density

1
2.2  1011 
 1 100
f  
2  1.5 7.7  103

1 2
=  106
3 7

1000 2
=   178.2 Hz
3 7

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Factual
300
In first case, fundamental frequency =  100 Hz
3
1 T
100  ...(i)
2 l1 

450
In second case, fundamental frequency   225 Hz
2
1 T
225  ...(ii)
2l 2 
From (i) and (ii)
100 × l1 = 225 × l2
100 4 4  40 160
l2   120   120   cm  53.3 cm
225 9 3 3

f T 0.81T
f  T     0 .9
f T T
ff
  100   10% decrease in frequency = 10%
f
i = 60°

sin i v 330 1
Snell law gives  1  
sin r v 2 1320 4
1
 sinr = 4sini = 4 × =2
2
As sinr can not be greater than 1, refraction does not occur.
y1 = 0.1sin(3t + x)
at t = 0, y1 = 0.1sin4x
at x = 4.5, y1 = 0.1sin(4) (4.5) = 0.1sin9(2) = 0
y2 = 0.2sin(3t – 5x)

⎡ ⎛5⎞ ⎤
at t = 0, y2 = 0.2sin(–5x) = 0.2sin ⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2x ⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

⎡ ⎛5⎞ ⎤
at x = 4.5, y2 = 0sin ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ (2)( 4.5)⎥ = 0.2sin[–11.25(2)]
⎣ ⎝2⎠ ⎦

⎛ ⎞
= 0.2sin[–0.25(2)] = 0.2sin ⎜  ⎟ = 0.2sin(–45) = –0.14
⎝ 4⎠
y = y1 + y2 = 0 – 0.14 = –0.14

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## 81. Answer (2)

The power of a wave is proportional to the amplitude squared, all other things being equal.
2
⎛ 0 .5 ⎞
Thus, Pwindy/Pcalm = ⎜ ⎟  25
⎝ 0 .1 ⎠

By increasing tension, frequency of sonometer wire increases (as f  T ) and the difference between sonometer
frequency and tuning fork frequency decreases. This means, sonometer frequency is less than that of tuning fork.
 340 – 5 = 335 Hz is the required frequency

I  I1  I2  2 I1I2 cos 

 
2
Imax  I1  I2 [ = 0]

Imin  I1  I2  2 I1I2 [ = ]

 
2
Imin  I1  I2

 
2
Imax I1  I2
 
 I2 
2
Imin I1 

## 84. Answer (3)

Imax  (2A)2
I  A2
 Imax = 4I

⎛I ⎞
 L2 – L1 = 10log ⎜ max ⎟ = 10 log4 = 6 dB
⎝ I ⎠
From the equation for the sound intensity level

⎛ I ⎞
 = 10 log10 ⎜⎜ I ⎟

⎝ 0 ⎠
The intensity of the dog’s bark is
I = I010 0.1
The rock concert is 104 times as loud, which is therefore 109I0. Thus, the sound intensity level is

⎛ 10 9 I 0 ⎞
  10 log⎜ ⎟
⎜ I ⎟
⎝ 0 ⎠
= 90 dB
If block - 1 decreases intensity by 10%, block-2 will further cause it to decrease by 10%
Let I be the initial intensity I1 = I × 0.9 = 0.9I0
I2 = 0.9 × I1 = 0.81I

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1
For a point source I 
x2

1
 A  A = A0x–1
x

⎛ 1⎞
y = sin  ⎜ x  2t  ⎟
⎝ 6 ⎠

y = sin [at t = 0, x = 0]
6

1
y
2

dy ⎛ 1⎞
Slope  cos  ⎜ x  2t  ⎟
dx ⎝ 6 ⎠

dy 
 cos [at t = 0, x = 0]
dx 6

dy 3
 slope is positive.
dx 2
 = 102 rad/s
 = 0.5 kg/m3
I = 10–9 W/m2

## Pmax  2  104 N/m2

I
 Pmax 
2
 2  104  2
, 109 
2 .v 2  0.5  v
v = 4 × 10–8 × 109 = 40 m/s.

 P m 2  104
Amplitude of wave A    107 m
v 2
10  0.5  40

 102
k   2.5 m1
V 40
y = A sin (kx + t + )

= 10–7 sin (2.5 x + 100 t + )
2
= 10–7 cos (2.5 x + 100 t )
Factual

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## 91. Answer (2)

Velocity of sound w.r.t. ground = (V + Vw)
 From Doppler’s effect
V  Vw   V0
f = V  V  V f0
 w s

f V  Vw  V0

f0 V  Vw  Vs

## 91a. Answer (3) [JEE (Main)-2016]

30 m/s
obs f = 540 Hz
30 m/s
Source

⎛ 330  30 ⎞
fo = ⎜ ⎟ 540 = 648 Hz
⎝ 330  30 ⎠

## 91b. Answer (1) [JEE (Main)-2017]

For relativistic motion

c v
f = f0 ; v = relative speed of approach
c v

c
c
f = 10 2  10 3  17.3 GHz
c
c
2

## 92. Answer (2)

⎛ v  v0 ⎞ ⎛ v  v0 ⎞
338⎜ ⎟  342⎜ ⎟
⎝ v ⎠ ⎝ v ⎠
338 × (340 + v0) = 342(v – v0)
Clearly v0 = 2 ms–1 satisfies the above condition.

P   PV nRT
∵ V  
 m m

 V T

v T 1

v T

⎛ 1 ⎞
 340  ⎜1  ⎟
⎝ 546 ⎠

## = (340 – 0.61) m/s

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The particles just on the opposite sides of an antinode are vibrating in phase with each other.
⎛ 404 400 ⎞
Beat f1  f2  ⎜  ⎟2
⎝ 2 2 ⎠

   ( A1  A2 )2
2
Imax I1  I2
 [∵ I  A2]
 I2 
2
Imin I1  ( A1  A2 )2

2
⎛43⎞
⎜ ⎟  49 : 1
⎝43⎠

## 96a. Answer (1) [JEE (Main)-2018]

V 1 Y
f0  
2L 2L 

1 9.27  1010
=  4.88 kHz  5 kHz
2  0.6 2.7  103

## 97. Answer (3)

For a tube closed at one end in its lowest frequency mode, the closed end is a node and the open end is an
1
antinode with no other nodes in between. Therefore the length L of the tube is wavelength.
4
 = 4L
v = 340 m/s
 = 4l = 4 × 0.80 = 3.20 metre

##  Frequency f1  340  106.25  106 Hz

3 .2
∵ 1
f 
l
and shorter tube has length 80 cm therefore length of larger tube with lower frequency can be find as
f2 = 106 – 17 = 89 Hz
v 340
    3.82 metre
f2 89
 3.82
and l    0.955  95 cm
4 4
2
Let y = Asin(t – kx), where k 

2
1 ⎛ y ⎞ 1 mA 2 2
KE = m⎜ ⎟  mA 2 2 cos 2 (t  kx )  [1 + cos(2t – 2kx)]
2 ⎝ t ⎠ 2 4

Now 2Kx =
3
 v 360
 x   
12 12f 500  12 = 0.06 m = 6 cm

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## 99. Answer (4)

In this case
apparent frequency can given by

⎛v u ⎞
f  ⎜ ⎟f
⎝v u ⎠

## v = 340 m/sec, u = 25 m/s

⎛ 340  25 ⎞
 f  ⎜ ⎟  60  10 3 Hz
⎝ 340  25 ⎠

= 69.6 × 103 Hz
 70 kHz

A v

3
 B
4

v = 90 m/s
Velocity of source along AB

⎛ 4 ⎞ 4v
vs = v cos   v ⎜ ⎟ 
⎝ 5⎠ 5

## Velocity of guard along AB

⎛ 3 ⎞ 3v
v0 = v sin   v ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 
5 5

Apparent frequency
u = speed of sound = 340 m/s

⎛ 3v ⎞
⎛ u  v0 ⎞ ⎜v  5 ⎟
  0 ⎜ ⎟  0 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ u  v ⎠ ⎜⎜ v  4v ⎟⎟
⎝ 5 ⎠

⎛ 340  54 ⎞ ⎛ 286 ⎞
 1800 ⎜ ⎟  1800 ⎜  1921 Hz
⎝ 340  72 ⎠ ⎝ 268 ⎟⎠

## 101. Answer (3)

A tuning fork that can produce 2 beats with 514 Hz oscillator can have frequencies 512 Hz or 516 Hz.
Similarly, a tuning fork that can produce 6 beats with 510 Hz can have frequencies 504 Hz and 516 Hz. So,
answer is 516 Hz.

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 ⎛  2 ⎞
l   17 m ⎜ as k   ⎟
2 ⎝ 17  ⎠

 100 
Now, v   = 1700 ms–1
k  / 17
 t = 10–2 s
y = y1 + y2 + y3 = A[sin(kx – t) + sin(kx – t + ) + sin(kx – t + 2)] = 0
 sin(kx – t) + sin(kx – t + ) + sin(kx – t + 2) = 0

  
 2sin(kx  t )sin  2sin( kx  t  )sin 2sin(kx  t  2)sin  0
2 2 2

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞  3 ⎞
 cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟  cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟  cos ⎛⎜ kx  t  ⎞⎟  cos ⎛⎜ kx  t  ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞
 cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟  cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟0
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞
 cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟  cos ⎜ kx  t  ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

5 
  2n 
2 2

2 2 4
  or or
3 3 3
y = 0 for all x whenever cos(3.00t) = 0

  
i.e., when 3.00t = or t    0.524 s
2 ( 3  2) 6

## 105. Answer (1)

RT
v 
M
Maximum  and least molecular moss (or atomic mass) mark the maximum speed.
The power of a wave is proportional to f 2A2. Thus, to have the same power at one-third the frequency, the
amplitude must be tripled (i.e., ACBX/ACBY = 3), since the product of frequency and amplitude must be the same.

P
v  Now, E = P (adiabatic) and E = P (isothermal)

E P
 v 
E 

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174 Waves and Thermodynamics Success Achiever (Solutions)

## 108. Answer (1)

Suppose T is the temperature at x distance.

l = 410 m
P dx Q
T1 T2
x x=l
x=0

T2  T1 dx
T  T1  .x , v 
l dt

dx
20 t 
dt

dx
dt 
20 T

t l

∫ dt  ∫
dx

0 0 T2  T1
20
T1  .x
l

T2  T1 l
T1  x P, dx  dP
l T2  T1

⎛ l ⎞
⎜⎝ T  T ⎟⎠ d P l2 P
∫ ∫
dx 2 1
 
T2  T1 P T2  T1
T1  x
l

2l T T
 T1  2 1 . x
T2  T1 l

l
1 2l ⎡ T2  T1 ⎤
t . ⎢ T1  .x ⎥
20 T2  T1 ⎣ l ⎦0

l ⎡ T2  T1 ⎤
t
10 T2  T1  ⎣ ⎦

l

10  T2  T1 
410

10  441  400 

410
 1s
10 21  20 

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Success Achiever (Solutions) Waves and Thermodynamics 175
v
For a tube closed at one end, the fundamental frequency is f1 =  340 m/s  ( 4  0.60 m) = 142 Hz
4L
It can have only odd harmonic e.g. 3 × 142 = 426 Hz, 5 × 142 = 710 Hz etc.

(2n  1)v
f   1250
4L

(2n  1)  340
  1250
0.85  4
 2n – 1  12.5
 Answer is 6.

## 110. Answer (1)

I = 22vf 2y02

1/ 2
⎡ I ⎤
Therefore y 0  ⎢ 2 2⎥
⎣⎢ (2 vf ⎦⎥
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Speed of sound in water = 1550 m/s
y0 = [(1.5 × 10–5 W/m2) / (2 2 × 1000 kg/m3 × 1550 m/s (60 × 103 Hz)2]1/2 = 1.2 × 10–11 m

⎛ v ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞
f1  ⎜⎜ ⎟f ; f2  ⎜
⎟ ⎜v  v
⎟f

⎝ v  vs ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠

f f
or  2
f1 f2

 f    200 Hz
f1  f2 450

## 112. Answer (2)

The intensity I of the sound is equal to the power per unit area, or

P
I=
[area]

P
I
4R 2

1.25  10 3
Thus, I 
( 4  10 2 )

## = 1.0 × 10–6 W/m2

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176 Waves and Thermodynamics Success Achiever (Solutions)

## The sound intensity level is given by

⎛ I ⎞
  10 log10 ⎜⎜ ⎟ dB

⎝ I0 ⎠

Where
I0 = 10–12 W/m2
Thus, we have

⎛ 1.0  10 6 ⎞
  10 log10 ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 10 12 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

= 60 dB
f1 – f2 = 1 Hz
Also, l1 + l2 = 100, l1 – I2 = 0.2 cm

k k
 1
49.9 50.1

50.1  49.9
 k 
0 .2

k 50.1
Now, f1    250.5 Hz
49.9 0 .2

f
f 
2

T
 T 
2

T
 T 
4

T 3
 
T 4
As the tube is drawn away by 9.00 cm, the path difference introduced is 2 × 9.00 = 18.00 cm
So, x = 18.00 cm
 3
This represents the distance between a crest and the second next trough i.e. x    
2 2

3
  18.00
2
or  = 12.00 cm

v 348
Now f    2.9 kHz
 12.00  10  2
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Success Achiever (Solutions) Waves and Thermodynamics 177

v 360
   1m
0 360

2
⎛ 3⎞ 2 S
Path difference = 2 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠  x  3
2

## For second maxima

3
⎛ 3⎞
2 x
2 ⎜ ⎟  x2  3  2    2
⎝ 2⎠

2
⎛ 3⎞ O
2 ⎜ ⎟  x2  5
⎝ 2⎠

⎛9 2⎞ 25
⎜⎝  x ⎟⎠ 
4 4

25 9 16
x2    4
4 4 4
x=2m

  

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