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A 5GHz-Band SiGe-MMIC Quadrature Modulator using a Circular Polyphase Filter for 1Gbps Transmission

Kensuke Nakajima 1 , Noriharu Suematsu 1 , Keishi Murakami 1 , Tadashi Takagi 1 , Hiroyuki Nakase 2 , Yoji Isota 2 , and Kazuo Tsubouchi 2

1 Information Technology R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-city, Kanagawa 247-8501, Japan, +81-467-41-2544 2 Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Abstract — A 5GHz-band SiGe-MMIC direct conversion quadrature modulator using a circular polyphase filter for high data rate is described. High I/Q vector accuracy is achieved using a circular polyphase filter with a completely symmetric layout as a 90 degrees LO power divider. By combining high cut-off frequency baseband amplifiers and broad-band unit mixers, a fabricated quadrature modulator shows the EVM of 3.3 %rms at 5.5 GHz using 64-QAM OFDM signals with the channel bandwidth of 204 MHz, which corresponds to the data rate of 1.161 Gbps.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, there has been a strong demand for the RF transceiver ICs for IEEE 802.11a/b/g applications. RF transceiver ICs based on direct conversion architecture were reported [1]-[3]. They achieved small size and low cost by eliminating the IF circuits. As the next generation WLAN, high data rate systems of more than 100 Mbps [4] have become the focus. For these systems, the RF transceiver ICs should also have wide- band characteristics. For the direct conversion transmitter, one of the key implementation challenges is to achieve high accurate I/Q phase and amplitude balance [5] at the carrier frequency. Several types of I/Q signal generators for the use of direct conversion quadrature modulators of WLAN were reported [1]-[3], [6]-[9]. The polyphase filter shows the most attractive features from the view point of small die size and simple circuits at 2–5 GHz band [8], [9]. However, the polyphase filter has a difficulty to connect all unit RC-filters with the same length of transmission lines in the practical layout. The effect of the imbalanced transmission lines on the phase and amplitude accuracy is not negligible for 5 GHz band direct conversion quadrature modulator. A doubly stacked polyphase filter [9] is one of the solutions to overcome the layout problems, which demonstrated high I/Q vector accuracy using a double number of resistors and capacitors. However, the insertion loss is higher than that of conventional one. In this paper, a circular polyphase filter which has a completely symmetric layout is proposed. It achieves high I/Q vector accuracy without the complexity of the circuits and design. A direct conversion quadrature modulator is fabricated by employing high cut-off

frequency baseband amplifiers and broad-band unit mixers. It achieves high I/Q modulation accuracy suitable for 64-QAM OFDM signals having hundreds of MHz of channel bandwidth based on the IEEE 802.11a.

II. CIRCUIT DESIGN

Poly resistors MIM capacitors V I out V in V Q out V out I b
Poly resistors
MIM capacitors
V
I
out
V
in
V
Q
out
V
out I b
V
in
V
out Q b
L imb L imb (a) MIM capacitors L imb Q + L imb I + V
L imb
L imb
(a)
MIM capacitors
L imb Q +
L imb I +
V
V out I
V out Q
in
V out Q b
V
V
out I b
Poly resistors
in
L imb Q -
L imb I -
(b)

Fig. 1. Schematics of the two-stage polyphase filters with imbalanced transmission lines: (a) conventional polyphase filter, (b) proposed circular polyphase filter.

Figure

1

shows

the

schematics

of

the

two-stage

conventional

and

circular

polyphase

filters.

The

conventional polyphase filter [9] has the imbalanced transmission lines (L imb ) in the unit RC-filters, i.e., between the top resistor and bottom capacitor. On the other hand, the proposed circular polyphase filter has no imbalanced transmission lines in the unit RC-filters due to the completely symmetric layout for each stage.

L imb =0.3nH L imb I > L imb Q L imb I < L imb
L
imb =0.3nH
L imb I > L imb Q
L imb I < L imb Q

(a) L imb =0.3nH L imb I > L imb Q L imb I < L
(a)
L
imb =0.3nH
L imb I > L imb Q
L imb I < L imb Q
(b)

Fig. 2. Simulated results of the two-stage conventional and circular polyphase filters with imbalanced transmission lines:

(a) phase error, (b) magnitude error (L imb =|L imb I-L imb Q|=0.3nH,

L imb I=L imb I + =L imb I - , L imb Q=L imb Q + =L imb Q - ).

Figure 2 show the simulated results of the phase and magnitude errors of the two-stage conventional and proposed polyphase filters with imbalanced transmission lines (L imb , L imb I + , L imb I - , L imb Q + , L imb Q - ). Both the conventional and proposed polyphase filters were designed at the center frequency of 5.8 GHz. For the circular polyphase filter, each differential pair between the stages has the same length of transmission lines (L imb I + =L imb I - =L imb I, L imb Q + =L imb Q - =L imb Q). The transmission lines were assumed as inductances (L imb =|L imb I-L imb Q|=0.3nH) in the simulation. It is apparent that the conventional polyphase filter has larger phase and magnitude errors than those of the proposed circular polyphase filter. On the other hand, the circular polyphase filter has almost no phase and magnitude errors at the center frequency in spite of having the imbalanced transmission lines between the I/Q differential pairs (|L imb I-L imb Q|=0.3nH). In order to achieve high I/Q vector accuracy, the transmission lines having same length are required for the all connections of unit RC-filters.

RF out

RF out

BB in (I) LO in LO in Circular Polyphase filter
BB in (I)
LO
in
LO
in
Circular Polyphase filter

BB in (Q)

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the quadrature modulaor.

Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of the quadrature

modulator. The modulator consists of a two-stage circular polyphase filter, a pair of I/Q local amplifiers,

up-conversion mixers, baseband amplifiers, an in-phase

combiner, and an output-buffer. The simulated

characteristics of the desired (LSB) and image (USB) signal output power versus the local signal frequency are

shown in Fig. 4. The two-stage circular polyphase filter was designed at the center frequency of 5.8 GHz. The

local signal power was -10 dBm. The baseband signal

frequency was 20 MHz. The amplitude was 130 mV p-p .

The image suppression of more than -56 dBc was obtained over the wide frequency range from 5.0 to 6.0 GHz. This is corresponding to the phase error of less than 0.2 deg and the magnitude error of less than 0.02 dB.

Desired signal BB: 130mV p-p @20MHz LO: -10dBm Image signal
Desired signal
BB: 130mV p-p @20MHz
LO: -10dBm
Image signal

Fig. 4. Desired and image output signal power versus local signal frequency.

Figure 5 shows the desired output signal power versus the baseband signal frequency. The baseband signal was continuous waves, which had the amplitude of 130 mV p-p for all baseband signal frequencies. The local signal power was -10 dBm of 5.5 GHz. The constant desired output signal power was obtained over a wide frequency range from 1 MHz to 300 MHz by employing high cut- off frequency baseband amplifiers and broad-band unit mixers.

BB: 130mV p-p LO: -10dBm@5.5GHz
BB: 130mV p-p
LO: -10dBm@5.5GHz

Fig. 5. Desired output signal power versus baseband signal frequency.

on the IEEE 802.11a. The EVM of less than 3 %rms was

obtained up to the channel bandwidth of approximately

200 MHz. The EVM of higher than 200 MHz was

increased due to the transmit phase characteristics of the

baseband amplifiers.

The measured output spectrum and constellation of 64-

QAM OFDM signals having 832 subcarriers are shown

in Figs. 8 (a) and (b). The local signal frequency was

5.5GHz and the power was -10 dBm. The baseband

signal mean amplitude was 6.6 mVrms and the maximum amplitude was 73.2 mV p-p . The output spectrum bandwidth was 204 MHz and the corresponding data rate was calculated to be 1.161 Gbps without FEC. The measured EVM of 3.3 %rms was obtained.

III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The microphotograph of the quadrature modulator fabricated by a 0.35µm SiGe-BiCMOS is shown in Fig. 6. The quadrature modulator core dimension is 0.8 x 1.0 mm 2 . The two-stage circular polyphase filter occupies 0.1 x 0.17 mm 2 . The power consumption is measured to be 37.3 mW at a supply voltage of 3.3 V.

BB in (I)

RF out RF out
RF
out
RF
out

Circular polyphase filter

BB: 130mV p-p LO: -10dBm@5.5GHz Fig. 5. Desired output signal power versus baseband signal frequency. on

LO in

LO in

BB in (Q)

Fig. 6. Microphotograph of the direct quadrature modulator. The size of the modulator is 0.8 x 1.0mm 2 .

BB: 130mV p-p LO: -10dBm@5.5GHz Fig. 5. Desired output signal power versus baseband signal frequency. on
204MHz
204MHz
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig. 8. Measured results of 64-QAM OFDM signals with 832

subcarriers, which was calculated to be 1.161 Gbps without

FEC: (a) output spectrum, (b) constellation using software

demodulator.

Fig. 7. Measured bandwidth.

error

vector

magnitude

versus

channel

The measured results of the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus channel bandwidth from 28 to 410 MHz using 64-QAM OFDM signals are shown in Fig. 7. The high data rate by 64-QAM OFDM signals were configured by increasing the number of subcarriers based

IV. CONCLUSION

A 5GHz-band SiGe-MMIC quadrature modulator using a circular polyphse filter to achieve high data rate was described. High I/Q vector accuracy was obtained using a two-stage circular polyphase filter having a completely symmetric layout as a 90 degrees LO power divider. By employing high cut-off frequency baseband amplifiers and broad-band unit mixers, a fabricated quadrature modulator achieved EVM of 3.3 %rms using 64-QAM OFDM signals with the channel bandwidth of

204

MHz,

which

was

calculated

to

be

1.161

Gbps

without FEC. The quadrature modulator is aimed at a direct conversion transmitter to be used in higher data rate future wireless applications with no vector error correction scheme.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was partially supported by the IT-program (RR2002), Mext, Japan.

REFERENCES

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[2]

Arya R. Behzad et al., "A 5-GHz direct-conversion CMOS transceiver utilizing aoutomatic frequency control for the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standard," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2209-2220, December 2003.

[3] Laurent Perraud et al., "A direct-conversion CMOS transceiver for the 802.11a/b/g WLAN standard utilizing a Cartesian feedback transmitter," IEEE Journal of Solid-

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2004.

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[6]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Tech., vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2422-2435, June 2004. T. Tsukahara, M. Ishikawa, and M. Muraguchi, "A 2-V 2- GHz Si-bipolar direct-conversion quadrature modulator," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 263-267, February 1996.

[7] H. Matsuoka, and T. Tsukahara, "A 5-GHz Frequency- doubling quadrature modulator with a ring-type local oscillator," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1345-1348, September 1999. [8] U. Karthaus, N. Alomari, G. Bergmann, and H.

[9]

Schuhmacher, "High dynamic range, high output power I/Q modulator in 50 GHz ft SiGe technology," IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Proceedings, pp. 539-542, December 2004. K. Nakajima, T. Sugano, and N. Suematsu, "A 5GHz-band SiGe-MMIC direct quadrature modulator using a doubly stacked polyphase filter," IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Proceedings, pp. 409-412, December 2004.