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Power Plant Engineering; By Tamerat D. (MSc in Thermal Eng.

) Chapter 1 contents
• Introduction to power plant
Chapter One - Introduction • Raw energy resources
• Direct energy conversion system
• Power plant can be defined as :
• Indirect energy conversion power
• A machine (assembly of equipment) that generates and delivers mechanical/electrical plant.
energy, the main equipment for the generation of mechanical/electrical power is shaft/generator respectively.
• So the power produced to be expected
1. Economically useful. 2. Environmental friendly to society
• Methods to classify electricity generation power plant are
• Status, Fuel type, Capacity and Prime mover.
Non-renewable source of energy like coal, oil, • Most of the energy source we are using are from non-
natural gas, nuclear fuel etc.
renewable sources.
• When we say non-renewable; once they have been
Renewable source of energy like sun, wind,
waves, tides hydro power etc. used up, they cannot be replaced.
• Sources of energy that can be used over and over
again are called renewable sources.
• Some of the renewable sources are:
• Energy from the sun (Heat and light energy)
• Energy from the wind (Kinetic energy)
• Energy from the waves and tides (Kinetic energy)
• Except hydro-electric power
• Energy from earth’s core (Geothermal energy)
plant all are called thermal • Two main purpose of steam (thermal) power plants are:
power plant. Why? • Produce electric power and
• Since these convert heat • Produce steam for industrial purpose, beside
• into electric energy. 1
producing electric power.
• Power plant classifies based on fuel type as; • Power plant can be classified according to its capacity
• Thermal power plant (coal)
• Internal combustion engine plants (petrol or diesel) • Small power plant (producing less than 5MW)
• Gas turbine power plant (permanent gas) • Medium capacity plant (production capacity lies in the
• Nuclear power plant (nuclear fuels) range of 5- 100MW)
• Solar power plant (suns radiation heat) • High capacity plant (have production range of 100-
• Tidal power plant (tides in the sea) 1000MW)
• Hydro electric power plant (potential energy of water) • Super capacity plant (power production exceeds 1000MW)
• Wind power (energy available in wind)
• Geothermal power plant (underground heat energy) • Classification of power plant by prime mover.
• Working principle of power plants. • Steam turbine . Gas turbine . Water turbine
• A steam power plant (also called thermal power plant) • Wind turbine . Combined cycle . Heat engine
converts the energy of the fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) into other sources as wave, sun light, …etc.
mechanical / electrical energy.
• This is achieved by raising the steam in the boilers, expanding it through the turbines and coupling the turbines to the generators
which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• Knowledge of fundamental of engineering thermodynamics and use of steam table are pre request of the course.
• RAW ENERGY RESOURSES
• When we say raw energy resources, it’s the energy available in nature.
• Conventionally energy is classified as nuclear, electrical, thermal, chemical, mechanical and radiant energy.
• Energy is the capacity for doing work, generating heat, and emitting light.
• Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving quality of life.
• The serious problems to the present world are: energy crisis and west disposal with which the problem of
environmental pollution.
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• From variety of natural energy resources, the major (main) source of energy are:
1. Fossil fuels: • Solid fuels (such as wood and coal)
• It is classified as • Liquid fuels (such as petroleum & its derivatives)
• Gaseous fuels (such as natural gas, coal gas, blast furnace gas, producer gas etc.)
2. Solar energy 4. Hydro-energy 5. Wind energy 6. Geothermal energy
3. Tidal energy 7. Nuclear energy (fusion and fission)
• The amount of energy extracted from them are depends on its nature and the way we used.
• DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS
• These systems convert the energy resources into electric power without moving parts, vibration and inertial force.
some of then are;
• Solar cells (power source for satellites) . Fuel cells (electro-chemical device)
• Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) generators . Thermionic converter.
• Thermo-electric power and
• INDIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION POWER PLANTS
• The main equipment needed for electric power generation is generator.
• When the generator run by coupling it to a prime mover electricity is generated.
• Prime mover types are depends on the types of power plant: major power plant we focused are; steam, gas turbine, internal
combustion engine, hydro, geothermal & nuclear power plant.

Assignment Q1:
• Prepare teaching materials on
• Direct energy conversion systems.

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• Steam power plant: are the major source of power generation.
• The prime mover is a steam engine (currently replaced by steam turbine).
• Steam is generated in a boiler then expand into the turbine. The output then utilized to run the generator.
• Steam power plant use fuels such as petroleum, coal, or biomass to burn and heat up the water to create steam.
• Boiler, Steam turbine, Generator, Condenser, Various pump are the main component in steam power plant.
• Other parts such as water heater, cooling tower, regenerator, re-heater & water treatment systems.

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• Gas turbine power plant:
• The prime mover is gas turbine & working medium is hot gas.
• The main components are
• Compressor, Combustion chamber & Turbine
• When the unit runs using starter, the atmospheric air
draws into the compressor, then raised to static
pressure.

• The compressed air then flows into the combustion


chamber where fuel is injected. Then combustion
occur.

• The high temperature & pressure products of expand


through turbine to develop motive force for driving
the turbine motor.

• Then exhaust gas leave the turbine at atmospheric


pressure.

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• Internal Combustion Power Plant:
• The prime mover is an internal combustion engine (either petrol or diesel engine)
• Diesel engine is suitable for small & medium outputs.

• Hydro-Electric Power Plant:


• Hydroelectric power plant use falling (flowing) water to run the turbine. And then water turbine is the prime mover

• Water stored in dam, the KE of flowing water


transformed into PE (water level).

• This water carried through penstock to run the


turbine shaft w/c connected to the generator.


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• Nuclear power plant:
• Nuclear power plant use nuclear fission to turn water into steam.
• This drives the steam turbine, w/c spin the generator to produce power.
• Nuclear power plant is best alternative for future power, since the reserves and supply of fossil fuels is not infinite.
• Its attractive b/c large amount of energy can be released from small mass active materials (like uranium, thorium).
• 1 kg of uranium equivalent of 2000 tonnes of high grade coal.
• Uranium has 2million times the energy of coal.
• Its estimated that world reserves 25 million tonnes of uranium & 1 million tonnes of thorium w/c is equivalent of 6.6
x 1020 kJ. Where as the energy content of coal oil & gas reserves of the world is about 4.25x 1019 kJ.

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• Wind power plant
• The wind used to push against the turbine blades, spinning the copper wires inside the generator to create an electricity.
• Geothermal power plant
• Geothermal energy is heat transported from interior of the earth
and recovered as steam or hot water, temperature ranges from
3000 to 4000oC.
• The geothermal steam is of two kinds: that originated from
• The magma itself called magma steam and
• The ground water heated by magma called meteoritic steam.

Assignment Q2: Prepare Teaching material



• Discuss about Hydro-electric, Nuclear, Geothermal power plants
with diagrams, working principle, governing law etc. 8