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FORELCN LANGUAGE ANNALS * VOJ+ 3 9 , NO.

3 359

The Integrated Performance


Assessment (IPA): Connecting
Assessment to Instruction and
Learning
Bonnie Adair-Hauck
University of Pittsburgh

Eileen W. Glisan
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Keiko Koda
Carnegie-Mellon University

Elvira B. Swender
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages

Paul Sandrock
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

Abstract: This article reports on Beyond the OPI: Integrated Performance


Assessment (IPA) Design Project, a three-year (1997-2000) research initiative
sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education International Research and Studies
Program. The primary goal of the project was to develop an integrated shills assess-
ment prototype that would measure students’progress towards the Standardsfor Foreign

Bonnie Adair-Hauck (PhD, Unviersity of Pittsburgh) is a Research Professor in


Second Language Learning at the University of Pittsburgh5 Centerfor West European
Studies and European Union Centel; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Eileen W Glisan (PhD, University ofpittsburgh) is Professor of Spanish and Foreign


Language Education at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania.

Keiko Koda (PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) is Professor of Second


Language Acquisition and Japanese at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.

Elvira B. Swender (Doctor of Arts, Syracuse University) is director of ACTFL


Professional Programs, Yonkers, New York.

Paul Sandrock (MA, University of Wisconsin-Madison) is World Language Education


Consultant at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Madison, Wisconsin.
360 FALL 2006

Language Learning in the 21st Century (ACTFL, 1998) have enabled elementary
(National Standards, 1999, 2006). A second and secondary teachers to understand how
goal of the project was to use the assess- well their students perform across bench-
ment prototype as a catalyst for curricular marks of language development described
and pedagogical reform. This paper presents as Novice range, Intermediate range, and
the lntegrated Pevformance Assessment (IPA) Pre-Advanced range, based on the length
prototype, illustrates a sample IPA, and dis- and nature of their learning experiences.
cusses how classroom-based research on the These two national endeavors have served
IPA demonstrated the washbach effect of as catalysts for bringing about new ways of
integrated performance-based assessment on envisioning classroom instruction accord-
teachers’ perceptions regarding their instruc- ing to standards-based goals.
tional practices. While progress continues to be made
in strengthening classroom instruction,
Key words: integrated shills assessment; change in assessment practices has been
performance assessment; standards-based much slower to occur. According to Wiggins
instruction; standards-based learning; wash- (1998), “the aim of assessment is primarily
back effect to educate and improve student performance,
not merely to audit it” (p. 7). Accordingly,
Language: Relevant to all languages current research in assessment argues for a
closer connection between instruction and
assessment. In other words, assessment
Introduction should have a positive impact on teaching
Over the past several decades, language and learning practices (McNamara, 2001;
teaching in the United States has dramati- Poehner & Lantolf, 2003; Shohamy, 2001;
cally evolved from a discrete-point, gram- Wiggins, 1998).
mar-driven approach to one that focuses on Although current research suggests
communication and performance-based use new paradigms for assessments, virtually
of language.’ Great strides have been made no assessments have focused on measuring
both in second language acquisition (SLA) learner progress in attaining the standards
research (Donato, 1994, 2004; Ellis, 1994, while capturing the connection between
1997; Lantolf, 1994, 1997; Swain, 1995; classroom experiences and performance on
Vygotsky, 1978, 1986; Wells, 1999) and in assessments. In response to the need for
application of this research to classroom standards-based assessments that connect
teaching practices (Lee & VanPatten, 2003; to classroom practice, ACTFL received fed-
Lightbown, 2004; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; eral funding to design an assessment proto-
Shrum & Glisan, 2005). The Standards for type that would measure students’ progress
ForeignLanguageLearningin the21st Century in meeting the national standards. The
(National Standards, 2006) have provided a purpose of this article is to present the pro-
focus for K-16 language teachers concern- totype called the Integrated Performance
ing the goals of classroom instruction. Assessment (IPA); illustrate a sample IPA;
Accordingly, in “standards-based instruc- and show how classroom-based research
tion,” learners develop the ability to com- on the IPA has demonstrated the wash-
municate in another language, gain knowl- back effect of integrated performance-based
edge and understanding of other cultures, assessment on teacher’s perceptions regard-
connect with other disciplines and acquire ing their instructional practices.
information, develop insight into the nature We believe that the IPA holds much
of language and culture, and participate in promise not only for assessing student
multilingual communities at home and progress in meeting the standards, but also
around the world. Further, the ACTFL for connecting standards-based classroom
Pevformance Guidelines for K-12 Learners instruction and assessment practices in a
FOREJGN LANGUAGE ANNALS . VOL. 39, N O . 3 361

seamless fashion, so that both continually the part of the learner;


intersect in order to impact teaching and asks the learner to “do” the academic
learning alike. subject by carrying out work within the
discipline instead of reciting, restating,
Reconceptualizing Assessment or replicating through demonstration
Practices what he or she was taught;
In an attempt to characterize progress that replicates or simulates the contexts in
the field of language teaching has made in which adults are “tested” in the work-
the area of assessment, it is necessary to place, in civic life, and in personal life;
differentiate between current research in these contexts involve situations that
language assessment and actual assessment have particular constraints, purposes,
practices in language classrooms. Recent and audiences;
work in language assessment has focused assesses the learner’s ability to efficiently
on (1) the design of performance-based and effectively integrate a repertoire of
and authentic tests, (2) sharing of perfor- knowledge and skill to negotiate a com-
mance criteria and exemplars with stu- plex task; and
dents before the assessment, (3) the role of allows appropriate opportunities to
feedback in assessment to improve learner rehearse, practice, consult resources,
performance, and (4) the use of assessment and get feedback on and refine perfor-
information to improve instruction and mances and products. (pp. 23-24)
learning (McNamara, 2001; Poehner Q
Lantolf, 2003; Relearning by Design, 2000; Authentic assessments aim to improve
Wiggins, 1998, 2004). Performance-based learner performance and enable teachers
and authentic assessments have been sug- to reduce the gap between the classroom
gested as effective formats for assessing communication that they value and the
students’ progress in meeting the standards grammatical knowledge that they often
since they require goal-directed use of lan- continue to assess in a vacuum (CLASS,
guage, use of multiple skills or modes of 1998; Wiggins, 1998).
communication, and integration of content Authentic assessments feature “trans-
(Liskin-Gasparro, 1996; Wiggins, 1994, parent or de-mystified criteria and stan-
1998). In performance-based assessments, dards” that give learners a clear idea of what
learners use their repertoire of knowledge is expected of them and how their perfor-
and skills to create a product or a response, mance will be rated (Wiggins, 1994, p. 75).
either individually or collaboratively These criteria can be presented through the
(Liskin-Gasparro, 1996). Typically, learners rubric, a set of scoring guidelines for evaluat-
respond to prompts (complex questions ing student work (Wiggins, 1998). Rubrics
or situations) or tasks and there is more answer the following questions:
than one correct response. A performance-
based assessment that mirrors the tasks Which criteria should be used to judge
and challenges learners will face in the and/or evaluate performance?
real world is considered to be authentic Where should we look and what should
(Liskin-Gasparro, 1997; Wiggins, 1998).2 we look for to judge performance success?
According to Wiggins (1998), an assess- What does the range in the quality of
ment is authentic if it: performance look like?
How do we determine what score should
is realistic by testing the learner’s knowl- be given and what the score means?
edge and abilities in real-world situa- How should the different levels of quality
tions, or those that occur outside of the be described and distinguished from one
classroom context; another? (Relearning by Design, 2000)
requires judgment and innovation on
362 FALI. 2006

Since rubrics contain the performance of feedback do not go a long way in helping
objectives, range of performance, and per- the learner to understand the quality of his
formance characteristics indicating the or her performance and how to make it bet-
degree to which a standard of performance ter. Compare this comment to
has been met, they enable teachers to pro- Your description lacked descriptive
vide feedback to learners about their prog- details to keep your audience inter-
ress as well as to evaluate performance (San ested. Try to write more complex
Diego State University, 2001). Further, they sentences that include more colorful
provide some clues as to what good perfor- adjectives and phrases that help the
mance might look like even before learners audience to envision what you are
perform an assessment task (Adair-Hauck, describing.
Glisan, & Gadbois, 2001; Shrum & Glisan, Feedback has a specific place in today’s
2005). Of additional assistance to learners assessment paradigm: It is anchored in the
in demystifying performance expectations performance descriptions provided in rubrics
is seeing exemplars or models of the perfor- and performance exemplars that students
mance expected, together with the rubrics. explore before the assessment is adminis-
(For further details regarding rubrics, see tered, it occurs during and between phases
later discussion of IPA.) of the assessment, and its effect should
Current assessment research also stress- be reflected in subsequent performances
es the role of qualityfeedbach to learners if (Glisan, Adair-Hauck, Koda, Sandrock, &
assessment is to be used to improve perfor- Swender, 2003; Wiggins, 1998). In other
mance, not just audit it (Wiggins, 1998). words, feedback should play a role in
Shohamy (2001) has reminded us that, in enabling students to improve their perfor-
the absence of feedback, the test taker is mance on future assessment tasks.
often “used” by those in power and author- In current research in assessment, “alter-
ity so that their agendas might be achieved, native approaches to assessment” are being
while the test taker receives no personal proposed in order to bring about a more
benefit. I n her view, feedback to the test direct link between instruction and assess-
taker is critical if we want tests to serve a ment (McNamara, 2001, p. 343). The use
more ethical and pedagogical purpose, rath- of performance-based authentic assessment
er than being used for power and control formats, models, and rich descriptions of
by test administrators (Shohamy, 2001). In performance expectations, along with feed-
traditional models of assessment, providing back to the learner, as described above, work
feedback was equivalent to giving students in tandem to connect instruction and learn-
their test scores after the test. However, ing to assessment. Accordingly, assessment
current models stress the importance of can have a positive “washback effect” on
providing quality feedback not only after instruction (i.e., it can inform and improve
the performance, but during it (Wiggins, the curriculum and teaching and learn-
1998). Feedback that is of high quality ing practices beyond the test) (Poehner &
is that which is “highly specific, directly Lantolf, 2003; Shohamy, 2001).
revealing or highly descriptive of what Further support for connecting instruc-
actually resulted, clear to the performer, tion and assessment is offered through the
and available or offered in terms of specific concept of “dynamic assessment,” used in
targets and standards” (Wiggins, 1998, p. recent research to refer to the type of assess-
46). In other words, feedback should pro- ment in which the test examiner (i.e., the
vide information about how the performer teacher) intervenes in order to help the test
did in light of what he or she attempted, taker improve test performance, in similar
and further, about how this performance ways to how the teacher guides learners in
could be improved. Comments such as their individual zones of proximal develop-
“Good job!” that are used as the only type ment (ZPDs) in the classroom (Poehner &
FOREIGN LANGUAGE A N N A L S . VOL. 3’9. NO. 3 363

Lantolf, 2003; Vygotsky, 1978). By interven- There are several reasons why class-
ing, the examiner teaches the test taker how room assessment practices still largely
to perform better on individual parts or items reflect a more traditional paradigm of test-
or on the test as a whole. In this model, abil- ing. Many school districts continue to use
ity is viewed as a “malleable feature of the commercially available tests that accom-
individual and the activities in which the pany textbook programs, which still feature
individual participates” (Poehner & Lantolf, easily scoreable, discrete-point test items3.
2003, p. 4). Sternberg and Grigorenko Secondly, teachers often find it a daunting
(2002) contrasted this type of assessment task to switch from traditional testing for-
with traditional static approaches to assess- mats, which offer more control for teach-
ment, in which the test taker is presented ers, to more open-ended formats, which
with a series of tasks or items, responds to may pose challenges in terms of scoring
these items successively without feedback, for teachers who are not familiar with this
and typically receives feedback information type of assessment. Third, and perhaps of
only by virtue of a score or grade. In the greatest significance, is that many teachers
static model, instruction and assessment fear that performance-based or authentic
are often viewed as two separate entities. assessment requires too much class time;
On the other hand, dynamic assessment- this assumption verifies the pervasive dis-
which focuses on interventions that facili- connect between instruction and assess-
tate improved learner performance-offers ment-that is, teachers still view them as
a potential seamless connection to instruc- separate entities.
tion, since its role is to assist and improve
learner performance as well as to strengthen IPA Project
instructional practices. Goals of the Project
Although the professional literature In response to the prevailing disconnect
abounds in research studies and implica- between assessment research and practice,
tions for classroom assessment practices, as well as to address the need for a way to
these practices have tended to lag behind assess learner progress in attaining the stan-
what the research suggests, as illustrated in dards, ACTFL received a U.S. Department
the widespread use of classroom achieve- of Education International Research
ment tests and standardized instruments and Studies grant in 1997 to design an
that still rely on easily quantifiable test- assessment prototype, or an Integrated
ing procedures with frequent noncontex- Peiformance Assessment (IPA)4. The pri-
tualized and discrete-point items (Adair- mary goal of the project was to develop an
Hauck & Pierce, 1998; Bachman, 1990; assessment instrument that would measure
Chalhoub-Deville, 1997; Glisan & Foltz, students’ progress towards the Standards
1998; Liskin-Gasparro, 1996; Schulz, 1998; for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st
Wiggins, 1998). These types of tests do Century (National Standards, 1999, 2006).
not require students to create and perform A second goal of the project was to conduct
communicative and functional tasks with preliminary research on the effectiveness of
their second language (L2). Consequently, this assessment instrument in measuring
information gleaned from these tests do students’ progress towards achieving the
not inform the stakeholders (e.g., learners, standards and the feasibility of implement-
teachers, parents, program coordinators, ing this type of assessment in a typical
administrators) as to whether or not our classroom situation. A third goal of the
students will be able to perform authentic project was to use the assessment prototype
tasks in the real world. Nor do they indicate as a catalyst for curricular and pedagogical
students’ progress in attaining the National reform. Accordingly, the research design
Standards (1999, 2006). team wanted to investigate if implementa-
tion of the IPA would encourage teachers
364 FALL 2006

to modify or restructure their instructional Procedure


practices to create more effective standards- During the academic year 1997-1998,
based learning environments. the design team collaborated with experts
More specifically, would IPA train- in performance assessment to design the
ing assist teachers on how to create rich IPA prototype, sample tasks for Novice,
instructional contexts that provide a seam- Intermediate, and Pre-Advanced levels, as
less connection between assessment, cur- well as the rubrics to evaluate learner per-
riculum, and instruction? Due to the limi- formance. During Fall 1998, design team
tations of this paper, this article reports on members assisted master teachers in the
the ACTFL IPA research project, describes greater Pittsburgh area and participants of
the IPA prototype, illustrates a sample IPA, the Wisconsin Standards Institute to con-
and shares classroom-based teacher reflec- duct field tests of the first iteration of the
tions research which illuminates the wash- IPA prototype. Outcomes of field testing
back effect (Alderson & Wall, 1993) of and student performance exemplars were
integrated performance-based assessment incorporated into revisions of the IPA and
on instructional practices. Information rubrics and into the pilot training agenda.
regarding validation studies and language The ACTFL Assessment Fellows from six
learner performance across the modes will different field sites tested the IPAs in the
be shared in forthcoming publications. Spring of 1999 and provided feedback to
the design team. The original IPA tasks and
Participants rubric design underwent continuous modi-
A design team of foreign language educa- fication and revision based on the feedback
tors and educational consultants in perfor- received from the pilot site coordinators,
mance assessment developed the research assessment fellows, and students.
questions, designed the assessment tasks The first round of performance sam-
and rubrics, and provided professional ples submitted by the assessment fellows in
development to the teachers at the pilot 1999 revealed that, for the most part, the
sites. Thirty foreign language teachers, des- learners were not interacting interpersonal-
ignated as ACTFL Assessment Fellows5, ly during the interpersonal communication
participated in the IPA assessment project tasks; that is, the videotaped conversations
(see Appendix A for a complete list of par- between pairs of students illustrated that
ticipants). Approximately 1,000 students students were simply reading pre-scripted
of Chinese, French, German, Italian, and dialogs instead of communicating sponta-
Spanish, across grade levels 3-12, from neously. Therefore, more professional devel-
six different pilot sites and various geo- opment training regarding the differences
graphic regions (including learners from between interpersonal and presentational
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, modes of communication, as well as strate-
Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Oregon), par- gies to assist learners in the development of
ticipated in the three-year project. Field site interpersonal communication skills, were
coordinators were instrumental in facilitat- provided at the six field sites. In the spring
ing the administrative demands for the of 2000, the revised IPAs were administered
professional development workshops, and to approximately 445 students across grade
coordinated the administrative demands for levels in five languages (Chinese, French,
the pilot testing. In addition to professional German, Italian, Spanish). The teachers
development regarding the IPA, the teach- administered and scored the revised IPAs
ers also received professional training in and submitted to the design team a repre-
conducting the Oral Proficiency Interview sentative sample of student performance on
(OPI) or the Modified Oral Proficiency IPA tasks and scores. The teachers as well
Interview (MOPI). as the learners responded to questionnaires
concerning the usefulness, benefits, and
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS. VOL. 3 9 , NO. 3 365

Instructional

feasibility of the IPAs. The existing versions the assessment of single skills. Taking into
of the IPA tasks and rubrics reflect revisions account the relationships among skills
resulting from the data collection and vali- which occur normally in the course of real-
dation studies from the 2000 administra- world communication, the IPA prototype
tion and scoring. is a multi-task assessment which is framed
within a single thematic context. Students
IPA Prototype first complete an interpretive task, then use
Moving Beyond Single Shills to the information learned in an interpersonal
Integrative Skills Assessment task, and finally summarize their learning
IPAs were designed to assist teachers to with a presentational task. Clear rubrics
begin to respond to questions such as: “Am guide the students’ task completion and the
I assessing performance using standards- teachers’ scoring. In short, IPAs were devel-
based and real-world tasks that are mean- oped to meet the need for valid and reliable
ingful to students?” “Am I assessing the assessments that determine the level at
same way that the students are learning?” which students comprehend and interpret
“Are the students able to demonstrate sur- authentic texts in the foreign language,
vival skills in the target language?” “How interact with others in the target language
can I move beyond isolated, single skills in oral and written form, and present oral
assessment?” “How can I more effectively and written messages to audiences of listen-
assess the interpretive skills of my students ers and readers.
as they relate to the ACTFL Pevfomance Figure 1 conceptualizes how the IPA
Guidelines for K-12 Learners?” “What kind can serve as the nexus to connect class-
of feedback will improve learner perfor- room-based instructional practices with
mance?” the standards and ACTFL Performance
The IPA prototype outlines a process Guidelines. The standards represent con-
for going beyond current practice in for- tent standards that define the what of for-
eign language testing which focuses on eign language learning, the guidelines rep-
366 FALL 2006

f!
I
I. Interpretive Communication Phase
Students listen to or read an authen-
tic text ( e g newspaper article, radio
broadcast, etc.) and answer informa-
tion as well as interpretive questions to
assess comprehension. Teacher provides
students with feedback on performance.
I
, --. / \

111. Presentational 11. Interpersonal


Communication Phase Communication Phase
Students engage in presen- After receiving feedback
tational communication by regarding interpretive
sharing their research/ideas/ Phase, students engaged in
opinions. Sample presen- Interpersonal oral communi-
tational formats: speeches, cation about a particular topic
drama skits, radio broadcasts, which relates to the interpre-
posters, brochures, essays, tive text. This phase should be
Web sites, etc. either audio- or videotaped.
. 1

oda, Sandrock, & Swender, 2003, p 18

resent performance standards that define Structure of the IPA


how well learners perform at various points Taking into account the interconnectedness
along the language learning continuum, of communication, the IPA prototype is a
and the ACTFL IPAs are the assessment multi-task or cluster assessment featuring
tools that define how to measure student three tasks, each of which reflects one of
progress toward the standards. the three modes of communication-inter-
As Figure 1 illustrates, the overarch- pretive, interpersonal, and presentation-
ing purpose of the IPA is to assist both the al-as outlined in the ACTFL Performance
teacher and learners to identify the stu- Guidelines for K-12 Learners (1998) and
dents’ strengths across the communicative the National Standards (1999). Each task
modes and to recognize which skills need provides the information and elicits the
further development in order to meet stan- linguistic interaction that is necessary
dards-based goals. Furthermore, the results for students to complete the subsequent
of the IPA can assist the teacher in restruc- task. The tasks thus are interrelated and
turing hisker instructional plans to better build upon one another. All three tasks
meet the needs of the learners. In this way, are aligned with a single theme or content
the IPA can enhance instruction, improve area (e.g., Your Health, Famous Persons),
learner performance, and contribute to reflecting the manner in which students
educational decision making. naturally acquire and use the language in
the real world or the classroom. The IPA
F O R E I G N LANGUAGE ANNALS * VOL. 3 9 , NO. 3 367

is standards-based, incorporating the three


modes of communication, and it should
include at least one other goal area (e.g.,
Culture or Connections). In keeping with
the standards, the IPAs use authentic docu-
ments-texts created by native speakersfor
native speakers for the interpretive phase
of the IPA (Galloway, 1998). By using
authentic documents, the Culture goal area
is naturally incorporated into the IPAs.
Figure 2 depicts the structure of the
IPA, which consists of a series of tasks for
the interpretive, interpersonal, and presen-
tational modes of communication as defined Interpretive Task
in the National Standards (1999, 2006). The interpretive mode of communication
includes listening, reading, and viewing
Description of the IPA skills. Interpretive tasks involve activities
Series of Tasks such as listening to a news broadcast or
This section illustrates a sample “Your radio commercial; reading an article in a
Health” IPA for the Intermediate level. magazine, a short story, or a letter; and
viewing a film. In essence, interpretive
Overview of Task communication is a process of construct-
Each IPA begins with a general introduc- ing meanings based on the information
tion that describes for the student the presented in a written text (reading), oral
context and the purpose for the series of discourse (listening), or a film (view-
authentic tasks for interpretive, mterper- ing). Assessing this process is challenging,
sonal, and presentational communication because it involves an array of interrelated
This introduction, shown below, provides sub-skills and their interactions. In reading,
a framework for the assessment and illus- for example, the student must be able to
trates how each task is integrated into the extract the context-appropriate meanings
next and leads up to the culminating task, of printed words (Adams, 1990; McKenna
which results in an oral or written product. G;r Stahl, 2003), as well as integrate them
[Note: Due to the limited scope of this in ways consistent with the morphological,
paper, we will be addressing Intermediate- syntactic, and pragmatic rules, in order to
level IPAs only. See Glisan et al., 2003, for uncover sentence meanings (e.g., Fender,
Novice and Pre-Advanced level IPAs.] 2003). The extracted sentence information
is then integrated into a coherent whole,
using explicit connective and other orga-
nizational devices provided by the author
(e.g., Goldman Q Rakestraw, ZOOO), as
well as through inference (e.g., van den
Broek, 1994). In constructing text mean-
ings, moreover, the student must draw
on relevant background knowledge and
integrate it with extracted text information
(e.g., Koda, 2005).
This complexity of multiple skills is
further compounded by the cumulative
office that they have nature of their acquisition and function-
nutrition habits. Fi al interdependency. As an illustration, in
368 FALL 2006

the absence of successful word-meaning Concept inferences


extraction, sentence understanding cannot Inferring ideas not explicitly stated
be achieved and, in turn, lacking sentence- based on text information
level information, text meaning construc-
tion is virtually impossible. Nevertheless, Author/cultural perspectives
interpretive communication is dependent Inferring the authork ideological and/
on two major operations: one involving text or cultural stance based on text infor-
information extraction (hereafter referred mation
to as “literal comprehension”) and the
other entailing integration of extracted text In each IPA, students read or listen to
information and prior knowledge (here- an authentic text related to the theme of the
after referred to as “interpretive compre- IPA. To reiterate, authentic texts are docu-
hension”). Accordingly, for the IPA proto- ments written by native speakers for native
type, the interpretive (reading) skills to be speakers (Galloway, 1998). The authentic
assessed are defined as follows: texts used in the IPA project were taken
from the popular press such as magazines
Literal Comprehension: Extracting Text and newspapers. Prior to performing the
Information interpretive task, students are given the
interpretive rubric so that they understand
Word recognition which specific skills in both literal and
Identifying individual word meanings interpretive comprehension they should be
able to demonstrate. Students complete the
Important words and phrases Interpretive Task in the form of a “compre-
Differentiating text words and phrases hension guide,” which assesses the targeted
representing ideas directly related to the level of performance (Novice, Intermediate,
textk main theme as opposed to those Pre-Advanced) as defined in the ACTFL
representing peripheral ideas Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners
(ACTFL, 1998).
Main idea detection
Identifying sentences expressing ideas Interpretive Task
directly related to the textk main theme Intermediate Level: “Your Health”

Supporting idea detection


Identqymg sentences expressing ideas
which support or elaborate on the text’s
main theme

Organizational principles
Reconstructing the text organization by See Appendixes B and C for the
rearranging text segments popular press and authentic article in
Spanish used for the Intermediate-level
Interpretive Comprehension: Integrating “Your Health” IPA, and the corresponding
Extracted Text Information and Prior comprehension guide. See Appendix D
Knowledge for the IPA intermediate-level interpretive
rubric.
Word inferences Once learners have completed the
Inferring the context-appropriate mean- comprehension guide and the teacher cor-
ings of unfamiliar words, based on text rects their responses, the teacher, using
information the interpretive rubrics, provides useful
feedback that informs the students of their
FOREIGN LANGUAGE A N N A L S . VOL. 3 9 , N O . 3 369

interpretive strengths and which interpre- speaker doesn’t know what the other is
tive skills still need to be developed. It is going to say).
critical that learners understand the content Since interpersonal communication is
of the IPA authentic article before being spontaneous, speakers must listen to
expected to move into the interpersonal and interpret what each other says.
phase. Therefore, the feedback loop plays Interpersonal communication requires
an essential role in the IPA. The feedback conversational partners to negotiate
loop assists those students who did not meaning with one another in order to
fully comprehend the article to understand understand the message. Negotiating
pertinent information and content before meaning involves asking for repeti-
moving to the next phase of the IPA. The tion, clarification, or confirmation, or
feedback loop also becomes a rich instruc- indicating a lack of understanding as
tional and learning tool, for the teacher is speakers work toward mutual com-
now equipped with critical information prehension (Pica, Holliday, Lewis, &
which can eventually help the learners to Morgenthaler, 1989).
improve their performance on subsequent
IPA interpretive tasks. (For a more detailed In order to be successful in the IPA,
discussion of the feedback loop, see Glisan students benefit from classroom instruc-
et al., 2003.) tion that provides them with practice using
negotiation of meaning strategies, includ-
Interpersonal Task ing the use of conversational gambits, or
The interpersonal mode of communication “devices that help the speaker maintain
refers to two-way interactive communica- the smooth flow of conversation,” (e.g.,
tion (National Standards, 1999). Although excuse me, wait a minute, as I was saying, on
interpersonal communication may be another matter) (Adair-Hauck, 1996, p. 258;
either oral or written, the IPAs that have Taylor, 2002, p. 172). In each IPA, students
been developed up to this point feature exchange information with each other, and
oral interpersonal communication only. express feelings, emotions, and opinions
According to Shrum and Glisan (2005), the about the theme. Each of the two speakers
following characteristics of oral communi- comes to the task with information that
cation make it interpersonal: the other person may not have, thereby
creating a real need for students to provide
Two or more speakers engage in con- and obtain information through the active
versation and exchange of informa- negotiation of meaning. See below for the
tion. Interpersonal communication is sample IPA Interpersonal Task for “Your
spontaneous (i.e., it is not scripted Health.”
and read or performed as a memorized
skit, as is presentational communica- Interpersonal Task
tion). One of the most challenging Intermediate Level: “Your Health”
aspects of an IPA is to engage students
in speaking without resorting to a
printed script, since they are often
given few opportunities to do so in
class. d exercise regimen.
Interpersonal communication is mean- rition and exercise
ingful and has as its prompt a commu-
nicative reason for interacting.
There is usually an information gap
(i.e., one speaker seeks information
that the other speaker has, or one
370 FALI, 2006

about the regimens you both follow. Presentational Tush


Ask for examples of what your partner Presentational tasks are generally formal
has done in the past month. During speaking or writing activities involving
your conversation, see how much you one-way communication to an audience
both have in common and decide of listeners or readers, such as giving a
if there are any new habits you can speech or report, preparing a paper or
adopt. You will have 5 minutes. story, or producing a newscast or video.
Presenters may conduct an oral presenta-
Note: Students do not read any written tion “while reading from a script, they may
notes during the interpersonal task. use notes periodically during the presenta-
The interpersonal task is a spontane- tion, or they may deliver a pre-planned
ous two-way interaction. talk spontaneously” (Shrum & Glisan,
2005). In the IPA, students prepare a writ-
Prior to the interpersonal task, stu- ten or oral presentation based on the topic
dents review sample videotaped examples and information obtained in the previous
of students performing IPA interpersonal two tasks. The written or spoken presen-
tasks, as well as the interpersonal rubrics tational tasks reflect what students would
with the teacher in order to understand do in the world outside of the classroom.
the various criteria of interactive speak- The intended audience includes someone
ing performance. (See Appendix E for the other than the teacher, and the task avoids
Intermediate-level interpersonal rubric.) being merely an opportunity to display
After the interpersonal task is completed language for the teacher. See below for the
and scored, the teacher, using the IPA sample IPA “Your Health” Presentational
rubrics, provides feedback to the learners Task, which is the culminating activity
about their performance (i.e., what the that results in the creation of a written or
learners were able and not able to do €or oral product.
the interpersonal speaking task). During
the feedback loop, the teacher may again Presentational Task
need to demonstrate model performance in Intermediate Level: “Your Health’
order to solidify the learners’ comprehen-
sion of the criteria and skills expected of
them to meet the standard. For example, if
many of the learners are not “maintaining
the conversation by asking and answering
questions,” then it would be appropriate
during the feedback loop to demonstrate
model performance of two learners who
have acquired these skills. Assisting the
learners to conceptualize why a learner’s
performance exceeds, meets, or does not best to convince
meet the standard is essential for improved
performance on subsequent interperson-
al tasks. This type of performance-based
feedback will assist the learner to self-
assess and self adjust hidher language As in the other two phases, after the
Performance. As Wiggins (2004), noted: presentational task is completed and evalu-
“The more self-evident the feedback to ated, the teacher offers feedback on stu-
the performer; the more likely the gain” dents’ performance.
(p. 5).
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS . VOL. 3 9 , N O . 3 371

Evaluating and Improving The rubrics were designed to demys-


Learner Performance tify the criteria and standards by providing
on IPA Tasks learners with a clear idea of what is expect-
Performance on the IPA is evaluated ed of them and how their performance will
through the use of longitudinal scoring be rated (Wiggins, 1994). Moreover, the
rubrics for each task within a specific level rubrics were designed as a means for provid-
(Novice, Intermediate, Pre-Advanced). The ing effective feedback to learners. Teachers
rubrics are longitudinal since they reflect and learners can use the rubrics as guides
the cognitive and linguistic development of to identify students strengths and areas in
the learner over an extended period of time. need of improvement. See Appendixes D
Performance objectives and the range of and E for the interpretive and interpersonal
performance (exceeds expectations, meets rubrics at the Intermediate level.6
expectations, does not meet expectations) In order to improve the learners’ per-
described in the rubrics reflect expecta- formance, and concomitantly improve
tions outlined in the ACTFL Pevformance instruction, the IPA prototype suggests that,
Guidelines for K-12 Learners (ACTFL, first, the teacher and students view sample
1998); see Table 3. works or “models” of student performance
on standards-based, authentic tasks. Then,
in order to assist the learners or apprentices
to better understand expectations for their
own future performances, the teacher and
students review the criteria of the IPA per-
formance-based rubrics, which determine
what constitutes performance at each level
(i.e., exceeds expectations, meets expec-
tations, or does not meet expectations).
Using the rubrics as guidelines, the teacher
and students together evaluate which mod-
els meet and which ones do not meet
the criteria for the standards-and, most
importantly, why. “Models set the standards
that .we want to achieve. They anchor the
feedback” (Wiggins, 1998, p. 64).
After the modeling phase, students
have time to practice similar theme-based
and standards-based tasks before perform-
ing an IPA task for assessment purposes.
During the feedback phase, the teacher uses
the IPA rubrics to provide high quality feed-
back. Comparing students’ performance of
these tasks to model performance and pro-
viding high quality feedback based on this
comparison ensures that the learners have
access to the criteria and the standards on
which they are being assessed. “Modeling,
Practicing, Performing and Feedback”
demystifies the assessment process in per-
formance-based language learning. In other
of the message, and lang words, it answers the students’ frequently
(accuracy, form, flu asked question: “Is this what you want?”
(Wiggins, 2004, p. 6). Furthermore, it inte-
372 FALL 2006

grates a dynamic and interactive assessment tion of the TPA influenced the teachers’
process that intends to improve both stu- perceptions regarding standards-based lan-
dent performance, and in turn, improve the guage learning from a number of vantage
curriculum. (For a more detailed descrip- points. In particular, 83% (19 of 23) of
tion of the IPAS cyclical approach to second respondents indicated that implementation
language development, see Glisan et al., of the IPA had a positive impact on their
2003.) teaching, and 91% (20 of 22) reported that
the project had a positive effect on their
Potential impact of the IPA on design of future assessments. The follow-
Teacher Perceptions, Classroom ing comments reflect the degree to which
instruction, and Learning the IPA project influenced instruction and
As discussed earlier, in current research future assessment plans:
in assessment, “alternative approaches to
assessment” are being proposed in the pro- 0 Reaffirmed effective teaching techniques.
fessional literature in order to bring about 0 Made me aware of the different modes
a more direct link between instruction of communication.
and assessment (McNamara, 1997, 2001, 8 Use more standards-based rubrics, those
p. 343). The use of performance-based, that don’t lend themselves to objec-
authentic testing formats, models, and rich tive grading, so the students will know
descriptions of performance expectations, exactly what is expected.
along with feedback to the learner, as 8 Use or used IPA format in my class.
described above, work in tandem to con- 8 Pay more attention to all-inclusive proj-
nect instruction, learning, and assessment. ects rather than ones limited by gram-
Accordingly, alternative assessment may mar points.
have a constructive “washback effect” on 8 The idea of the videotape is excellent,
instruction and can inform and improve the for students had the opportunity to dis-
curriculum, teaching and learning practices cover their strengths and weaknesses.
beyond the test (Alderson Q Wall, 1993; 0 Need to do more speaking exercised
Messick, 1988; Poehner Q Lantolf, 2003; tasks.
Shohamy, 2001). The washback hypothesis 8 Learned how to clearly assess my stu-
also implies that “teachers and learners dents.
do things that they would not necessarily 8 Look out for authentic materialdnternet
otherwise do because of the test” (Alderson sources to use in this way
Q Wall, 1993, p. 17). Likewise, Swain 8 Incorporate the videotape interpersonal
(1985) and Rob and Ercanbrack (1999) assessment.
stressed the potential constructive wash- 8 Use more spontaneous and open-ended
back of the test influence, and therefore, type situations for them to create and
they encourage the creation of tests that use their language skills.
will have enlightening effects on language 0 Include integrated skills assessments.
curricula. Morrow (1986) argued that a 8 Learned a lot about designing questions
test’s validity should encompass the degree for an interpretive task.
to which the test has a positive influence on 8 IPA gave me a structure to follow for
teaching and learning. Therefore, a goal of two-person interviews-a logical appli-
the ACTFL research project was to investi- cation of paired oral practice.
gate the washback effect or consequential 8 Will focus more on authentic reading
validity (McNamara, 1996) of the IPA on materials and reading strategies.
teachers’ perceptions of their instructional 8 IPA informed me to include communi-
actions and practices. cation and content areas into my best
Teacher reflections from follow-up assessment.
questionnaires revealed that implementa-
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS. VOL. 39, NO. 3 373

As illustrated from these comments, Conclusion and Suggestions for


IPA training helped to raise the teach- Further Research
ers’ awareness regarding how to modify, This article has presented a prototype for
change, or refocus some of their instruc- measuring student progress towards achiev-
tional strategies to enhance the language ing the National Standards (1999, 2006)
curricula. Particularly noteworthy are the while capturing the connection between
teachers’ reflections pertaining to how the classroom experience and learner perfor-
IPA served as a consciousness-raising tech- mance on IPA tasks. Teachers’ reflections
nique for standards-based language learn- regarding implementation of IPA assess-
ing. For example, the teachers cited that ment highlight that IPA training can serve
the IPA served as a catalyst to make them as a consciousness-raising technique to
more aware of the need to integrate the influence or encourage teachers to modify
three modes of communication into their or refocus their instructional plans to better
lessons on a regular basis, design standards- meet the needs of the students. Although
based interpretive tasks using authentic the preliminary findings from the teachers’
documents, integrate more interperson- reflections are promising, more controlled,
al speaking tasks, use more open-ended classroom-based IPA studies are warranted
speaking tasks, and use more standards- in order to answer questions such as: What
based rubrics to help the students improve is the impact of IPA assessment on language
their language performance. learner perceptions, motivation, and anxiety?
Regarding the challenges of integrat- After IPA training, do teachers follow through
ing IPAs into the curriculum, the teach- and implement their proposed plans to enhance
ers reported: the lack of age-appropriate the curricula? Ifso, do the enhanced curricula
authentic materials; difficulty of preparing improve learner performance in achieving the
learners for interpersonal communication standards? Does IPA assessment guide the
or teaching the students how to commu- learners to become more reflective of their
nicate and “think on their feet” without own language development? In what ways
pre-scripted dialogues; and difficulty of can IPA teacher training and implementation
not being able to convert rubrics into letter enhance school districts’ efforts regarding
grades for their school districts. This latter portfolio assessment and second language
challenge regarding grades illuminates the development? Undoubtedly, the IPA is an
depth that the standards and standards- area ripe for future research. Further, it has
based assessment imply. the potential to change the way assessment
Although these preliminary data from is designed and implemented in foreign
the teachers’ reflections are promising, one language classrooms.
needs to recognize, however, that the teach-
ers’ reflections are self-reports and only one Acknowledgments
piece of evidence regarding washback effect The authors dedicate this article to the
or consequential validity of 1PA assess- memory of C. Edward Scebold, former
ment. Further research studies including ACTFL Executive Director, for his vision
classroom observational studies, journals, regarding standards-based assessment
and follow-up interviews will need to be and for his assistance in procuring fund-
conducted in order to ascertain if IPA train- ing for the ACTFL Integrated Pevformance
ing does indeed prompt teachers to modify Assessment research project. The authors
and improve their instructional strategies would also like to acknowledge the valu-
and plans. able contributions of Dr. Rick Donato,
University of Pittsburgh, who read and
responded to previous drafts of this article.
374 FALL 2006

Notes References
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APPENDIX A

IPA Participants

IPA Standards Assessment Design Project Pilot Site Coordinators


Martha G. Abbott, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Peggy Boyles, Putnam City Schools, OK
Donna Clementi, Appleton West High School, WI
Deborah Lindsay, Greater Albany School District, OR
Frank Mulhern, Wallingford-Swarthmore Schools, PA
Kathleen Riordan, Springfield Public Schools, MA

Assessment Fellows at Pilot Sites


Rosa Alvaro-Alves, Springfield Public Schools, MA
Linda Bahr, Greater Albany School District, OR
Carolyn Carroll, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Christine Carroll, Putnam City Schools, OK
Kathy Ceman, Butte des Morts Elementary, WI
Donna Clementi, Appleton West High School, WI
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS. VOL. 3 9 , N O . 3 3 77

Karin Cochran, Jesuit High School, OR


Michele de Cruz-Sainz, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Margaret Draheim, Appleton East High School, WI
Cathy Etheridge, Appleton East High School, WI
Carmen Felix-Fournier, Springfield Public Schools, MA
Catherine Field, Greater Albany School District, OR
Stephen Flesher, Beaverton Public Schools, OR
Nancy Gadbois, Springfield Public Schools, MA
Frederic Gautzsch, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Susana Gorski, Nicolet Elementary School, WI
Susan Harding, Putnam City Schools, OK
Heidi Helmich, Madison Middle School, WI
Mei-Ju Hwang, Springfield Public Schools, MA
Betty Ivich, Putnam City Schools, OK
Michael Kraus, Putnam City Schools, OK
Irmgard Langacker, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Dorothy Lavigne, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Deborah Lindsay, Greater Albany School District, OR
Conrad Lower, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Linda S. Meyer, Appleton North High School, WI
Paula J. Meyer, Appleton North High School, WI
Linda Moore, Putnam City Schools, OK
Frank Mulhern, Wallingford-Swarthmore School District, PA
Rita Oleksak, Springfield Public Schools, MA
Frances Pettigrew, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Rebecca Rowton, Rollingwood Elementary School, OK
Carol Schneider, Franklin Regional High School, PA
Ann Smith, Jesuit High School, OR
Alice Smolkovich, Shaler Area High School
Dee Dee Stafford, Putnam City Schools, OK
Adam Stryker, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Eileen Swazuk, Pittsburgh Public Schools
Catherine Thurber, Tigard High School, OR
Ghislaine Tulou, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Carter Vaden, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Isabel Valdivia, Pittsburgh Public Schools
Sally Ziebell, Putnam City Schools, OK
Special acknowledgments to:
Everett Kline, CLASS, Pennington, NJ
Greg Duncan, InterPrep Inc., Marietta, GA
A special thank you to the students of:
Albany High School, Albany, OR
Appleton Area Public Schools, WI
Beaverton Public Schools, OR
Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
Franklin Regional School District, PA
Putnam City Public Schools, OK
Public Schools of Springfield, MA
Shaler Area School District, PA
Wallingford-Swarthmore Schools, PA
378 FALI, 2006

APPENDIX B

Intermediate-Level Spanish Article for “Your Health” IPA

La Dm. Anita Ralnhmd d caurprL dabs a BUS miuculos.


CnrWQnrnRElem Dm@ dcl ejerciciq rcfrbqucst
Univemity, o h erma sugmn- a m d a dmnienfor.
cia bpsiar p mjom 8u d u d . Hpgp ejurricioc que pu& dis-
h tu .Tmte o nade, si le p s m
h a m ejcrdcios sda. Si a wtcd Ic
9- gurta eater en- la genre, hap
Toms por lo rnanoe 8 deportca dc equip. H4gaz.e
vesos de sgua a1 dfa. e s r preenens:
~ @~YJ formar

2.
ppm de un dub pp” h m r ejer-
Protejs sue ojoa do1 801 fieias? si s ad, (pucdoyo
use sepejuelos oecuros Coma aliicnm vrriados. Esto aftontar este gnrm?(Deb0 a m -
o sombrero. ham a ~ “ p m o b hem y lo p m algun quip cspd?
a p d a a comb& lw enfir- Recucrde, sea renlirta acerca
3.
Toms I08 eacsleres. en m d d e s . pbr ejemplo, la leche dc qu6 ejercicioa rcolmente
lugsr del elevwlor le da a su mupo calcio y vitami- usted pucde hacu. ‘Los ejerci-
na D. (La leche baja en po cios deben scr divertidosy exi-
a. duncmada, cs mcjor que la gentes-, dice la Dm. Redahan”,
No corns boberlas o icche cntem). Lnr fruas y 10s pero no Cmnuantcs”.
comldas r&pldss
vegerples Ie dan a 8u m”p0
6. fbms y vitaminas. JAMfiijolcs
iPere ye ds fumsrl son bajos en py ricos en
6.
fibm y proreinas. Los grnnos
Come frutss y vege- hunbitn le d m a su cuerpo
tales tres veces el dfa fibzas. Coma pan integral, en
Iugar de pan blanco. Un ejercicio regular cs una
7.
Camins m&sy rnaneje
La came tvnbiCn ea buena manera divertidr dc manrencrse Los patmnes regulares de sueiio
menos para w e d . La came roja es rica saludable. Lo8 mejom tipos dc ayudan a reducir la tcnsibn en
en hium, pem us& no debe ejercicios para su sdud son: su vida. Si su mente y su cucrpo
a* comer dcmsliiads cantidad. caminar, trot=, montar bicicle- atb cansados, probPblementc
No fris la comids Compre h a s bajw en grasa. M, nadar, hacer ejercicios used va a dormir mejor, psi que
Hornbela o M ~ a l a 10
psrrilla
U d tambiCn puedc comer acrdbicos y patinar. mant6nga.w acuvu durann el
SueriNtOs de came edudables, Es mtry importantehncaka dia. hftividades calmadas en la
a. nlcs como tofu, ttmpeh (una RpulM.mn,los ejerciuos vi- noche, dcs como la kcNrP o
Siempra use loci6n lip de & j o b de sop y granos), goma debcmoa hnccrlos, pw lo minr televisibn, la a y u d d n a
bloquesdora de 501 hamburpas V C ~ C ~ I U ~yM S menos de tns a a t m vcrcs a la relajvse antes de irsc a la cama.
U s e Is loc16n con rnarce
de SPF 16 o SPF 30. hongos portobeb. ~~MII.Los ejcrdeioB m9s =In- No tome una siesta durantt el
haste en invlerno Los mtdicos twomiendan jmw, U ~ C E a m o &MI o dla, o no ten& suefio d h e a
quc no debe conrumir demasia- brilpr,pueden hranr diaria- la c m a de noche. Tran de
10. da d en 8u diem. Esro le puede mmh. Siunpre h a g cstirnmiento manbner sus horarios dc sueao
Visits a su doctor cede
a60 per0 un cheque0
pmvocar presibn &d dm. y cdentnmienm antes ck urmcn- en una forma regular In mayoria
No le sgngue sd extra a 8us ali- w.Dc o m formo, Wted pdr4 dd tiempo 0
. __
FOREIGN LANGUAGE A N N A L S . VOL.3 9 , N O . 3 379

APPENDIX C

Spanish “Your Health” IPA Comprehension Guide

Intermediate Level

Student ID#:- ~ Date:-

I. Main Idea. Answer the following question in one sentence in English:


What is the point (main idea) of this article?

11. Supporting Details. For each of the following details listed below,
circle the letter of each detail that is mentioned in the article
write the letter of the detail next to where it appears in the text
write the information that is given in the article in the space provided next
to the detail below

A. Foods that make your body strong: ~- -

-~ - ~ ~ ~ _ -_ _

B. Names of vitamins to buy at the health food store:- ~~

~~ ~~~~ ~ ~-

D. A recommended cholesterol level: - ~ -~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

E. Ways to limit your salt intake: ~~

__ ~ ~~ ~-

E Types of effective physical exercise:


~~ -. - - - ~~

G. Ways to relax before going to bed: ~~ ~

~~ -~ -~ - ~~ ~-

H. Sources to contact for good dietary tips: ~ ~~

~ ~~~~~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ . ~~ ~ _____~
380 FALL 2006

Meaning From Context. Based on this passage, write what the following words
probably mean in English:

1. bujos en grasa (1st paragraph):

2 . mejores hdbitos alimenticios (4th paragraph):

3. 10s ejevcicios mds relajantes (5th paragraph):

Inferences. Answer the following questions by providing as many reasons as


you can and using the information from the article. Your responses may be
in English or in Spanish.

1. What problems might a person have if he or she doesn’t eat a variety of


foods? Explain.

2 . Why is it important to have a regular exercise program? Use details from the
article to support your answer.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS * VOL. 3 9 , NO. 3 381

APPENDIX D

Sample IPA Rubric: Interpretive Mode, Intermediate Level


Text types: longer, more detailed conversations and narratives, simple stories, cor-
respondence, and other contextualized print within familiar contexts

Exceeds Does Not Meet


Interpretive Expectations Meets Expectations Expectations
Literal
ComDrehension:

Main idea detectiona Identifies the Does not identify


main idea(s) of the main idea(s)
the intermediate- of the intermediate-
level text. level text.

Supporting detail Identifies some Identifies few


detection supporting details supporting details.

Interpretive
Comprehension:

Word inferencesb Infers meaning of


unfamiliar words in
new contexts.
~

Concept inferencesb Infers and interprets


the author's intent.

Authorkultural
perspectives'

Organizational
principles'

At the intermediate level, the learner exceeds expectations by performing both the
literal and the interpretive comprehension criteria.

Note. a There is no way for learners to exceed expectations on this interpretive task.
At the intermediate level, the learner exceeds expectations by performing these
literal and interpretive comprehension criteria.
Pre-Advanced level interpretive tasks.
382 FAI,12006

APPENDIX E
Sample IPA Rubric: Interpersonal Mode, Intermediate Level
Exceeds Meets Expectations Does Not Meet
Category ~
Expectations ~-
STRONG WEAK Expectations
Language Function Language expands Creates with Creates with Mostly
Language tasks the toward narration language; abil- language, able memorized
student is able to handle and description ity to express to express own language with
in a consistent, com- that includes own meaning meaning in a some attempts
fortable, sustained, and connectedness, expands in basic way to create.
spontaneous manner cohesiveness, and quantity and
different time quality.
frames.
Text Type Mostly connected Strings of sen- Simple sentences Simple
Quantity and sentences and tences; some and some strings sentences and
organization of language some paragraph- connected of sentences. memorized
discourse (continuum like discourse. sentence-level phrases.
word - phrase - discourse
sentence - connected (with cohesive
sentences - paragraph) devices), some
may be complex
(mu1ti-clause)
sentences.
Communication Initiates and Maintains Maintains Responds to
Strategies maintains con- conversation simple conversa- basic direct
Quality uf engagement versation using a by asking and tion: asks and questions
and interactivity; variety of strate- answering ques- answers some Asks a few
amount of negotiation of gies. tions. basic questions formulaic ques-
meaning; how one (but still may be tions (primarily
participates in the con- reactive). reactive)
versation and advances it
Clarijktiun Strategies Clarifies by Clarifies by Clarifies by Clarifies by
How the student handles paraphrasing. asking and asking and occasionally
a breakdown in compre- answering answering selecting
hension; what one does questions. questions. substitute
when one partner doesn’t words.
understand the other ~~~ ._
Comprehensibility Although there Generally Generally under- Understood
Who can understand may be some con- understood by stood by those with occasional
this person’s meaning? fusion about the those accus- accustomed to difficulty
How sympathetic must message, gener- tomed to inter- interacting with by those
the listener be? Does it ally understood acting with lan- language learn- accustomed
need to be the teacher or by those unaccus- guage learners. ers. to interacting
could a native speaker tomed to interact- with language
understand the speaker? ing with language learners.
How independent of the learners.
teaching situation is the
conversation? ~ ~~

Language Control Most accurate Most accurate Most accurate Most accurate
Accuracy, form, with connected with connected when producing with memorized
appropriate vocabulary, discourse in sentence-level simple sentences language, includ-
degree of fluency present time. discourse in in present time. ing phrases.
Accuracy decreas- present time. Accuracy Accuracy
es when narrating Accuracy decreases as decreases when
and describing in decreases as lan- language creating, when
time frames other guage becomes becomes more t y n g to exprw
than present. more complex. complex own meaning.