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Engineering Procedure

SAEP-137 16 September 2015


Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................. 2
2 Applicable Documents.................................... 2
3 Terms and Definitions.................................... 4
4 Transformer Management Components........ 6
5 Requirements................................................. 7
6 Responsibilities............................................ 10

Appendix A - Transformer Condition-Based


Alternatives........................................... 16
Appendix B - Transformer Management
Criteria and Scoring Procedure............ 17
Appendix C - TCA Flow Diagram........................ 25

Previous Issue: 24 December 2014 Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Ahmed (ghamma07) on +966-13-8809667

©Saudi Aramco 2015. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

1 Scope

This procedure describes the implementation and administration of the Saudi Aramco
management of power transformers. The purpose of this procedure is to allow proactive
action of flagging end of life, expedite mitigations, monitor and report on the state of
critical power transformers at all Saudi Aramco facilities.

2 Applicable Documents

The requirements contained in the following documents apply to the extent specified in
this procedure:

2.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard


SAES-P-121 Transformers and Reactors

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification


14-SAMSS-531 Power Transformers

Saudi Aramco Best Practices


SABP-P-009 Power Transformer Diagnostics
SABP-P-016 Power Transformer Maintenance
SABP-P-020 Transformers Condition Assessment

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American National Standards Institute


ANSI C57.12.00 Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed
Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers
ANSI C57.12.10 American National Standard for Transformers
230 kV and below 833/958 through 8333/10,
417 kVA, Single-Phase, and 750/862 through
60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA, Three-Phase without
load Tap Changing; and 3750/4687 through
60,000/80,000/100,000 kVA with Load Tap
Changing - Safety Requirements
C57.125 Guide for Failure Investigation, Documentation, and
Analysis for Power Transformers and Shunt
Reactors

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
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C57.140 Guide for Evaluation and Reconditioning of Liquid-


Immersed Power Transformers

ASTM International
ASTM D117-10 Standard Guide for Sampling, Test Methods, and
Specifications for Electrical Insulating Oils of
Petroleum Origin
ASTM D971 Standard Test Method for Interfacial Tension of Oil
against Water by the Ring Method
ASTM D1275 Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in
Electrical Insulating Oils
ASTM D3487 Standard Specification for Mineral Insulating Oil
Used in Electrical Apparatus
ASTM D3612 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Gases
Dissolved in Electrical Insulating Oils by Gas
Chromatography
ASTM D5837 Standard Test Method for Furanic Compounds in
Electrical Insulating Liquids by High Performance
Liquid Chromatography

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


IEEE C57.140-2006 IEEE Guide for the Evaluation and Reconditioning of
Liquid Immersed Power Transformers
IEEE C57.139 Guide for Dissolved Gas Analysis of Load Tap
Changers
IEEE C57.143 Guide for Application of Monitoring to Liquid-
Immersed Transformers and Components
IEEE C57.12.90 IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed
Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers
IEEE C57.113 IEEE Guide for Partial Discharge Measurement in
Liquid-Filled Power Transformers and Shunt
Reactors)
IEEE C57.91 IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed
Transformers
IEEE C57.93 IEEE Guide for Installation of Liquid-Immersed
Power Transformers
IEEE C57.106 IEEE Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of
Insulating Oil in Equipment

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

IEEE 637 IEEE Guide for the Reclamation of Insulating Oil


and Criteria for Its Use
IEEE C57.104 Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in
Oil-Immersed Transformers
IEEE 62 Guide for Diagnostic Field Testing of Electric Power
Apparatus Part 1: Oil-filled Power Transformers,
Regulators, and Reactors

International Electrotechnical Commission


IEC 60599 Mineral Oil-Impregnated Electrical Equipment in
Service – Guide to the Interpretation of Dissolved
and Free Gases Analysis
IEC 62535 Test Method for Detection of Potentially Corrosive
Sulphur in Used and Unused Insulating Oil

National Fire Protection Association


NFPA 70B Recommended Practices for Electrical Equipment
Maintenance

Other Documents
PEB 5 Transformer Nitrogen Advisory

3 Terms and Definitions

3.1 Terms

Capital Projects: A project with a value over $4,000,000 and documented in the
annual budget as separate budget items.

Critical loads: Loads for which a single contingency failure could cause a loss
of power which would create an immediate hazard to human life or cause a
significant reduction in Saudi Aramco production, or loads which cannot be
shut down for a minimum of five days annually for scheduled maintenance on
upstream power supply equipment. Examples: major computer centers, critical
care areas in clinics and hospitals, major office buildings, process units in major
gas plants, major GOSPs, terminals, and process units in refineries, as defined in
SAES-P-100.

Critical Power Transformers: A transformer whose failure would constitute a


safety hazard, facility outage, or critical load(s) power interruption.
The following are examples of critical power transformers:

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

 Main-entrance transformers serving as coupling point between Saudi


Electricity Company’s network and Saudi Aramco’s critical facilities
 Generator Step-Up (GSU) transformers as defined by SAES-P-121,
Section 6.1.12 and IEEE 57.116
 Captive transformers feeding critical motor loads
 Transformers feeding critical single-ended substation
 Transformers feeding central control rooms (CCRs)
 Transformers feeding critical loads as defined by SAES-P-100

Electrical Master Plan: A plan headed by FPD to address all expected future
projects.
End of Life: Transformer end-of-life predicted according to the transformer
design and history.

High Voltage: Voltages 1000 V or greater unless otherwise designated in a


specific MSAER or referenced international standard, as defined in SAES-P-100.

Low Voltage: Voltages less than 1000 V, unless otherwise designated in a specific
MSAER or referenced international standard, as defined in SAES-P-100.

Redundant System: A system where a load is supplied by two power sources


such as a double ended switchgear, or where two loads exist with the same
function such as run and standby pumps.

Transformers Management: Coordinated activities to direct and control an


organization to facilitate making life cycle decisions such as repair, replacement,
or any required action to extend the life of aged power transformers.

Transformers Management Plan: The strategy to identify and mitigate specific


transformer conditions through all residual transformer lifetimes.

Transformers Management Team (TMT): A team composed of


representatives from Proponent, FPD, PS, MSO and CSD organizations,
coordinated by PS.

3.2 Abbreviations
BoE Board of Engineers
CSD Consulting Services Department
DGA Dissolved Gas Analysis
FPD Facilities Planning Department

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

ID Inspection Department
MSAER Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements
MSO Material Supply Organization
POD Power Operations Department
PM Preventive Maintenance
PMT Project Management Team
PS Power Systems
PSED Power Systems Engineering Department
SAES Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
SAMSS Saudi Aramco Material Specification System
TCA Transformer Condition Assessment
TMT Transformers Management Team
TTR Transformer Turns Ratio

4 Transformer Management Components

This procedure shall be initiated to monitor the condition of the Company’s critical
power transformers once a transformer reaches 20 years of age, major Preventive
Maintenance finding(s), or following an electrical fault.

The objective of Transformers Management is to assess the condition of the critical


power transformers currently operational in Saudi Aramco. The goal is to reduce major
transformer failures and ensure the continued availability of a safe and reliable power
supply system. The Transformers Management consists of the following components:
 DATABASE: A company-wide database of critical power transformers information,
accessible to all business lines, admin. areas and departments that will be maintained
regularly.
 CRITERIA: A two-level criteria and scoring system to objectively assess the
condition of existing and critical power transformers. .
 REPORTS: Reports will highlight specific areas of risk and concern.
 FPD PLANNING: Transformers Condition Assessment (TCA)reports shall be
provided to the Facilities Planning Department (FPD) for the business case analysis
of new project submittals by Proponents, and shall be used for future updates of the
Electrical Master Plan.

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

5 Requirements

This section provides the management requirements of the critical power transformer
database, criteria, scoring, and reporting systems.

5.1 Database

The database contains detailed information on the critical power transformers for
each Saudi Aramco facility.

5.1.1 Database Information Gathering

Database contains fields of data originating from the Proponent, and MSO.
Each organization shall be responsible for performing its own information
gathering, and submitting the database to POD. The database shall have the
following minimum information about a critical power transformer:
 Facility Name
 Plant Number
 Substation Number
 Transformer Tag Number
 Manufacturer Name
 Manufacturing Year
 Primary Side Voltage (kV)
 Secondary Side Voltage (kV)
 Cooling Class/OA Rating (MVA)/FA Rating (MVA)
 The Latest Results of Major PM

5.1.2 Database Access

POD, as the custodian, will share the database over the Company intranet
to CSD, ID, MSO, and FPD representatives with password access.

5.2 Transformers Management Criteria

5.2.1 Criteria Description

A two-level criteria and scoring system to provide an objective assessment


of the condition of existing critical power transformers. The criteria will
be periodically applied using the database to determine and track Saudi
Aramco's critical power transformer conditions. See Appendix C.

The Transformers Management criteria consists of two levels, which


cover all transformer condition parameters. Criteria that are at or below

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
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the threshold value will be flagged. These measurements provide an in-


depth indication of the condition of the critical power transformers.
See Appendix B: for a list of the criteria and instructions.

5.2.2 Transformer Condition Assessment (TCA)

5.2.2.1 The Transformer Condition Assessment criteria are to be scored


using information retained in the database. The criteria require
careful and deliberate; therefore, application of the criteria will
not be automatic and will require specific individual scoring for
each plant.

5.2.2.2 The TCA criteria are to be applied and scored for each identified
transformer, identified in Section 5.1, within each plant.
Each criterion has a 0-3 scoring, with 0 being the lowest score,
and a weighting factor listed (see

Table 1). The score multiplied by the weight produces the individual
TCA criterion score.

Table 1 - TCA Weighting Factors


Indicator TCA Score Weighting Total
Criterion
# (0 - 3) Factor (WF) Score
Level 1
1.1 Oil Screening Test Analysis 1.30
1.2 Transformer Age 0.33
1.3 Operation and Maintenance History 0.33
1.4 Oil Dissolved Gas Analysis 0.66
1.5 Power Factor and Excitation Current Tests 0.66
Level 2
2.1 Turns Ratio Test 0.46
2.2 Short Circuit Impedance Test 0.46
2.3 Core-to-Ground Resistance Test 0.46
2.4 Winding DC Resistance Measurement 0.46
2.5 Frequency Response Analysis 1.13
2.6 Degree of Polymerization 0.33

5.2.2.3 The weighted sum of the first five criterions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 fall
under TCA level 1 which determines whether the transformer
has abnormal conditions that can be resolved with standard
corrective maintenance solutions. Level 1 test results may also

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
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indicate the need for additional investigation, categorized as


Level 2 tests.

A score of 7 or less (out of 10) will indicate the need to consider


TCA Level 2 and suggested course of actions stated in
Appendix A.

5.2.2.4 Each criterion is assigned a flag threshold. If the evaluation


score is equal to or below the threshold value, a Flag is set for
that criteria. These flags are additional indicators of
transformer condition.

5.2.2.5 If a criterion is not available, its weighting factor (WF) shall be


redistributed as per below formula:

Where:
A = weighting factor for the absent criterion
B = weighting factor for the criterion that requires modification
C = total sum of all weighting factors

If more than one criterion are not available, then weighting


factor redistributions shall not be made and TCA is considered
incomplete.

5.2.2.6 The TCA request is initiated by the Facility Proponent or POD.


The TMT will enter and finalize the agreed score and the TCA
evaluation comments.

5.3 TCA Reporting

TCA report will be generated and affected users will be notified when criteria
scoring falls below the threshold score.
Commentary Note:

TCA reports shall be made accessible via the intranet and shared with POD and
Proponent department heads.

5.4 Transformer Management Plan

The TCA Report is the main input required to develop the business case
justification for transformer(s) upgrade or replacement projects. Following are
general guidelines that shall be used to plan for a transformer replacement:

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

5.4.1 A transformer whose failure would constitute a safety hazard shall be


rectified immediately under a BI-19 Project, or submitted to FPD for
introduction into the capital plan as a safety priority. These items will be
assigned priority.

5.4.2 Before submitting any business case, each Proponent shall conduct
assessment to determine the condition and expected life of the
transformer.

5.4.3 Proponent shall provide supporting documents including a TCA report.

5.4.4 The TMT will evaluate and score the TCA level 1 and/or 2, where these
eleven (11) criterions are the basis to determine the transformer condition
and end of life.

5.4.5 The TMT will conduct the following additional conditions to rank and set
the priority:
a. Risk Assessment
Transformer condition, criticality of the fed load, redundancy of
supply/load and failure incident rate, impact of transformer failure
on the system, and adjacent equipment.
b. Economic Analysis
Cost of transformer maintenance, spare parts, and design-related
expenditures.

5.4.6 Selection of the mitigation will be in one of the following forms:


a. A transformer repair, or life extension
b. A transformer replacement which shall meet current standards and
specifications requirements of SAES-P-121 and 14-SAMSS-531.
The replacement shall be based on life cycle cost (LCC) analysis
equalized to 20 years per SAES-P-121.

6 Responsibilities

Administration of Transformer Management shall be as follows:

6.1 Transformer Management Team

6.1.1 PS Coordinators

POD and PSED are responsible for the overall planning, administration,

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
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coordination, and execution of this procedure. The Transformer


Management coordinators will be appointed by the managers of POD
(Northern Area and Southern Area and Regional).

6.1.2 Database Access and Security

Each Proponent department representing plant(s) as well as FPD, CSD,


and MSO Departments, shall identify a department Transformer
Management Coordinator to PSED. PSED will maintain the list of
Department Coordinators and is responsible to provide each with
Transformer Management Database security access. Department
Coordinators will be the single point contact for all interdepartmental
Transformer Management communications.

6.1.3 Database Input and Timing

The TMT is responsible to obtain and input specific database information.


The TMT shall coordinate the overall completion of the yearly update of
the Transformer Management Database by January 31 of each year.

6.1.4 Criteria Application - Scoring and Timing

The TMT shall use the criteria clarifications, guidelines and scoring
matrices/tables to determine the composite score for the particular
transformer being evaluated. The team shall use the detailed steps
outlined below:
1. Determine the members for the representative team that will be
evaluating the particular facility transformer(s).
2. Setup a coordination meeting for the members of the evaluation team.
Select a team evaluation coordinator to communicate and expedite
the process. Confirm that the proponent has populated the database
with its facility data.
3. Obtain the following information:
 Transformer design and construction drawings
 Electrical one-line diagram of transformer under consideration
 Electrical one-line diagram of the entire system connected to the
transformer(s)
 Representative sample of operating temperatures and loading
[1 month data of normal operation and peak operation
(i.e., summer time) in either electronic format or log sheets]

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
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 Inspection/failure/repair/modification/replacement history
 Details of any previous condition assessment study or specialized
investigation
 Preventive maintenance shutdown interval and records
 Details of any major operational upsets
 Total number of start-ups and shutdowns to date
 Start-up procedure
 Load increase as a percentage of maximum continuous rating
(MCR) when one or more of the other transformers trip in
Double-Ended Substation
 Commissioning date and approximate service hours to date
 Details of oil sampling and Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA)
records, i.e., testing results and frequency.

The team coordinator should verify that all the members have the
drawings and access to the database including vendor, proponent, and
MSO data, as well as any appropriate reference material.
4. Reconvene the evaluation team after the site visit. The team shall
verify that the gathered information is consistent with the data
existing in the Transformer Management database for each specific
site.
The team shall coordinate any modifications to the database to
maintain consistency between the database and the site.
5. Assemble the evaluation team, review the one line diagrams and any
available system descriptions and perform a site visit. The following
activities should be performed during the site visit:
 Physically inspect the transformer that will be evaluated
 Talk to representatives from Engineering, Maintenance and
Operations in order to develop an understanding of their
perspective of the transformers
 Review the transformer functional location code structure in SAP
 Provision of any planned TCA services (in-house or contracted)

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 Confirm plant safety regulations and requirements for any safety


briefing or qualification before starting any work
 Ensure suitable access, scaffolding and lighting at all workscope
components
 Ensure power supply to all workscope locations
 Chemistry lab support as required
 Use appropriate PPE and work permit as required
6. Notify each team member that they are responsible for individually
scoring the transformer specific criteria (supply comments, support
scoring rationale). The individual scores shall be input into the
system and saved. The individual scores will be used as the basis for
the team scoring and subsequent discussions.
7. The evaluation team shall develop the composite score for the
transformer being evaluated. PSED shall login and input the
composite scores as well as all commentary.
8. Detailed instructions for applying the criteria against the database are
defined in Appendix B, Transformer Management Criteria and
Scoring Procedure.

6.1.5 Scoring Reports - Distribution and Timing

The TMT is responsible to generate and distribute the TCA reports for
each plant transformer(s) where criteria scoring indicate significant
system changes. Distribution shall correspond to no later than four weeks
from the completion of the scoring activity and be sent to all TMT
Department Coordinators after scoring report saved in the database.

6.2 Facility Proponent, FPD, MSO and PMT

6.2.1 Facility Proponent Responsibilities

6.2.1.1 Assure that the transformers data exists, for the various systems
at their facilities.

6.2.1.2 Identify the TMT Coordinator who will be responsible for


security access to the Transformer Management Database within
his organization. He is also responsible to update the
Transformer Management Database with his department data to
coincide with the completion of any TCA Scoring activity.
Proponent Coordinators will receive TCA reports and are

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
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responsible for its internal distribution. Coordinators will also


be the contact for all interdepartmental communications.

6.2.1.3 Provide all required logistics inside the facility, e.g., gate passes,
work permits, and safety training.

6.2.1.4 Initiate transformers parts cataloging by using MDM Cataloging


System.

6.2.2 MSO Responsibilities

6.2.2.1 Identify a Standards Committee member as Transformer


Management Coordinator who is responsible for security access
to the database within his department.

6.2.2.2 Enter transformers parts cost and supply data to the Transformer
Management database as requested by the TMT.

6.2.2.3 Support Proponent to catalog and manage selected transformers


materials.

6.2.3 FPD Responsibilities

6.2.3.1 Identify a Transformer Management Coordinator who is


responsible for security access to the electrical equipment
database and will be the single point contact for all
interdepartmental communications.

6.2.3.2 Use the Transformer Management database as one input to a


business case analysis on new project submittals from
proponents, and for future updates to the Electrical Master Plan.

6.2.3.3 Maintain its traditional role of business case and project


alternative analysis and the development of project justifications
consistent with the capital programs investment policies and
requirements of Corporate Planning and Finance.

6.2.3.4 Use Transformer Management criteria evaluations to identify


business opportunities and assist in the development of
migration, upgrade and replacement programs and planning
strategies via updates of the Electrical Master Plan.

6.2.4 CSD Responsibilities

6.2.4.1 CSD shall be the responsible for ownership of this procedure.

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6.2.4.2 Assist with all technical matters associated with this effort.

6.2.4.3 Review and approve TCA assessment reports.

6.2.5 PMT Responsibilities

All new transformer projects shall deliver to MSO standardization a


complete data set, in a format that can be quickly and easily imported into
the database. The data set shall cover all critical transformers within the
systems defined by this procedure.

Revision Summary
24 December 2014 New Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure.
16 September 2015 Minor revision to clarify the scoring system.

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Appendix A - Transformer Condition-Based Alternatives

Table 2 - Transformer Condition-Based Alternatives


TCA Score Remaining Lifetime
Suggested Course of Action
Range Estimation (Years)
Immediate evaluation including additional Level 2 testing
Consultation with experts
0-3.99 (Poor) 0-5
Adjust O&M as prudent
Begin replacement/repair process1
Consider using appropriate Level 2 tests
Continue operation but re-evaluate O&M practices
4.00-7.99 (Fair) Conduct full life extension study 2 5-10
Repeat TCA assessment process as recommend by the
TCA report
Continue O&M without restriction
8.00-10 (Good) Repeat TCA assessment process as recommend by the 10-15
TCA report
The transformers replacement shall be based on the transformer criticality and the outcome of FPD
Planning component.
Life extension technologies such as oil drying and transformer protector could be used, as
recommended by the TMT.

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Appendix B - Transformer Management Criteria and Scoring Procedure

Table 3 - Transformer Management Criterion

Criterion 1 Oil Screening Test Analysis


Criterion 2 Transformer Age
Level 1 Criterion 3 Operation and Maintenance History
Criterion 4 Oil Dissolved Gas Analysis
Criterion 5 Power Factor and Excitation Current Tests
Criterion 6 Turns Ratio Test
Criterion 7 Short Circuit Impedance Test
Criterion 8 Core-to-Ground Resistance Test
Level 2
Criterion 9 Winding DC Resistance Measurement
Criterion 10 Frequency Response Analysis
Criterion 11 Degree of Polymerization

Criterion 1: Oil Screening Test Analysis


The Oil Screening Test Analysis consists of four conditions. The test described in Table 4 shall
be conducted on the transformer and its tap changer as applicable. The oil sample shall be
submitted to an independent laboratory for testing.

The samples shall be taken as per ASTM D117-10. Results are analyzed and applied using
Table 5 to arrive at a TCA score. Tap changer score shall be recorded separately and then the
TMT shall develop a composite score for both transformer and tap changer. It is recommended
to test for corrosive sulfur in oil per ASTM D-1275 or IEC 62535.

For any results falling between different conditions, record the higher condition level.
Table 4: Oil Screening Test Analysis
TEST Condition Condition Condition Condition
TITLE ASTM UNIT 1 2 3 4
Water Content % M/DW <1.25 1.26-2.0 2.01-2.5 >2.5
Oil Temperature (when oil
°C
samples were taken)
mg
Neutralization Number D-974 <0.05 0.06-0.08 0.09-0.10 >0.10
KOH/g
Dielectric Strength
(Disk electrodes - gap 2.5 mm) D-877 kV >30 29-28 27-25 <25
(Spherical electr. - gap 1 mm) D-1816 kV >24 24-23 22-20 <20
Interfacial Tension D-971 mN/m >32 31.9-30 29-28 <27.9
Oil Power Factor
(at 25°C) D-924 % <0.1 0.1-0.2 0.21-0.3 >0.3

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TEST Condition Condition Condition Condition


TITLE ASTM UNIT 1 2 3 4
(at 100°C) D-924 % <2.99 3-3.5 3.6-3.99 >4
Specific Gravity D-1298 0.84-0.91 <0.84 <0.84 >0.91
Color D-1500 <3.5 ---- ---- >3.5
Bright Turbid Turbid Opaque
Visual Appearance D-1524
% >0.20 0.19-0.15 0.14-0.11 <0.10
Oxidization Inhibitor Content D-1473 Bright Turbid Turbid Opaque
Oxidization Inhibitor Content D-1473 % >0.20 0.19-0.15 0.14-0.11 <0.10
Quality Index =
>1500 <1500
Interfacial Tension/Neutralization Number

Table 5: Oil Screening Test Analysis Scoring


Test Results TCA Score
Condition 1 3
Condition 2 2
Condition 3 1
Condition 4 0

Criterion 2: Transformer Age

Transformer age is one indicator of remaining life and upgrade potential to current state-of-the-
art materials. During the life of the transformer, the structural and insulating properties of
materials used for structural support and electrical insulation, especially wood and paper,
deteriorate. Although actual service life varies widely depending on the manufacturer’s design,
quality of assembly, materials used, operating history, current operating conditions, and
maintenance history, the average expected life for an individual transformer in a large population
of transformer is statistically about 40 years. Results are analyzed and applied as per Table 6 to
arrive at a TCA Score.
Table 6: Transformer Age Scoring

Age TCA Score


Under 20 years 3
20 – 25 years 2
25 – 30 years 1
Over 30 years 0

As per Table 7, a Transformer Age scoring of 40 years and above warrants immediate evaluation
to begin the replacement/repair process, justified by business case analysis (see Section 4 ).
Table 7: Transformer Age Consideration Factor
No. of Years < 10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-60 >60
Transformer 1 1 1 0.95 0.85 0.75 .25 0 0 0 0

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Criterion 3: Operation and Maintenance History


The TMT shall make a subjective determination of scoring that encompasses as many O&M
factors as possible under this indicator. Results are analyzed and applied to Table 8 to arrive at a
TCA Score. The O&M history factors that apply should be based on SABP-P-016, Power
Transformer Maintenance. Additionally, the following factors should be applied and analyzed
by the TMT:

 Sustained overloading

 Abnormally high corona

 Previous failures records

 Nearby lightning strikes or through faults detected

 Unusual operating temperatures indicated by gauges and continuous monitoring

 Abnormal temperatures indicated by infrared scanning

 Failures or problems on transformers of similar design, construction, or age


operating in a similar environment

 Problems with auxiliary systems (fans, radiators, motors, controls, nitrogen,


indications, and protection devices)

 Deteriorated control and protection wiring and devices

 Increase in corrective maintenance or difficulty in acquiring spare parts

 Anomalies determined by physical inspection (external inspection or internal


inspection not requiring untanking) (e.g., incorrectly positioned valves, plugged
radiators, stuck temperature indicators and level gauges, noisy oil pumps or fans,
oil leaks, connections to bushings)
Table 8: Operation and Maintenance History Scoring

History Results TCA Score


Operation and maintenance are normal 3
Some abnormal operating conditions experienced and/or additional maintenance above
2
normal occurring.
Significant operation outside normal and/or significant additional maintenance is
required; or forced outage occurs; or outages are regularly extended due to 1
maintenance problems; or similar units are problematic.
Repeated forced outages; maintenance not cost effective; or major oil leaks and/or
0
severe mechanical problems; or similar units have failed.

Page 19 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Criterion 4: Oil Dissolved Gas Analysis


The Dissolved Gas Analysis shall consist of collecting transformer insulating oil samples from
top and bottom of the transformer tank and then determining the contents of key gas with
chromatography equipment, either portable or at a laboratory for analysis (see Table 9). Results
are analyzed and applied to arrive at a TCA Score (see Table 9). Tap changer score shall be
recorded separately and then TMT team develop a composite score for both transformer and tap
changer. Any results falling between different conditions, the higher condition level to be
recorded.
Table 9: Dissolved Gas Analysis
IEC Typical
Key Gases Concentration Limits per IEEE C57.104
Values
Gas Table Condition Condition Condition Condition
A.2 1 2 3 4
ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
Hydrogen (H2) 60-150 100 101-700 701-1800 >1800
Methane (CH4) 40-110 120 121-400 401-1000 >1000
Acetylene (C2H2) 350 35 36-50 51-80 >80
Ethylene (C2H4) 60-280 50 51-100 101-200 >200
Ethane (C2H6) 50-90 65 66-100 101-150 >150
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 540-900 350 351-570 571-1400 >1400
Total Dissolved Combustible
720 721-1920 1921-4630 >4630
Gases (TDCG)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 5100-13000 2500 2501-4000 4001-10000 >10000
Oxygen (O2) <2000 2001-10000 >10000
Nitrogen (N2)
Total Dissolved Gases (TDG)
CO2/CO Ratio >7 5.1-7 <5 <3
Furanic Compounds (ppb) <100 101-250 251-1000 >1000

Table 10: Dissolved Gas Analysis Scoring

Test Results TCA Score


Condition 1 3
Condition 2 2
Condition 3 1
Condition 4 0

Page 20 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Criterion 5: Power Factor and Excitation Current Tests


Power factor measurements are performed with transformer de-energized at rated frequency and
at test voltages up to 10 kV. The test detects shorted turns, poor tap changer contacts, and core
problems. Results are analyzed and applied to arrive at a TCA Score (see Table 11).

Table 11: Power Factor and Excitation Current Test Scoring

Test Results1 TCA Score


Power factor results normal (Good - G)
AND
3
Normal excitation current values and patterns compared to other phases and prior
tests.
Power factor results show minor degradation.
(Deteriorated - D)
OR 2
Minor deviation2 in excitation current values and patterns compared to other phases
and prior tests.
Power factor results show significant deterioration.
(Investigate - I)
OR 1
Significant deviation2 in current values and patterns compared to other phases and
prior tests.
Power factor results show severe degradation. (Bad - B)
OR
0
Severe deviation2 in current values and patterns compared to other phases and
prior tests.
1 Double insulation rating in parentheses
2 Be sure to account for residual magnetism and load tap changer (LTC)

Criterion 6: Turns Ratio Test


TTR is performed with the transformer de-energized. Results are analyzed and applied as per
Table 12 to arrive at a TCA Score.
Table 12: Turns Ratio Test
Test Results TCA Score
Less than 0.20% difference from nameplate V1/V2 and compared to
3
previous readings
0.20% to 0.30% difference compared to nameplate V1/V2 2

0.40% to 0.50% difference compared to nameplate V1/V2 1

Greater than 0.5% difference compared to nameplate V1/V2 0

Page 21 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Criterion 7: Short Circuit Impedance Test

Short Circuit Impedance is performed with transformer de-energized and then compared to
nameplate information, previous tests, and similar units to detect deformation of the core or
windings caused by shipping damage, through faults, or ground faults. Some difference may be
expected between nameplate and field test results because factory tests are conducted at full load
current, normally not possible in the field.

Field connections and test leads and jumpers also play a significant role in test results, and it is
impossible to exactly duplicate the factory test setup. Therefore, the I2R losses may be different
and cause different test results. By comparing percent-reactance to nameplate impedance, the
differences caused by leads and connections can be eliminated. Because reactance is only the
inductive component of the impedance, I2R losses are omitted in the test results. Results are
analyzed and applied using Table 13 to arrive at a TCA Score.
Table 13: Short Circuit Test Scoring

Test Results TCA Score

Less than 1% difference from nameplate impedance. 3

1% to 3% difference from nameplate impedance (minor degradation) 2

3% to 5% difference from nameplate impedance (significant degradation). 1

Greater than 5% difference from nameplate impedance (severe


0
degradation).

Criterion 8: Core-to-Ground Resistance Test


This test is to supplement DGA that shows generation of hot metal gases (methane, ethane and
ethylene) and to indicate if a false, unintentional core ground is the problem. Experience can
help locate the source of the problem. Results are analyzed and applied using Table 14 to arrive
at a TCA Score.
Table 14: Core-to-Ground Resistance Test Scoring
Test Results1 TCA Score
Greater than 1,000 MΩ (results normal) 3
600 to 900 MΩ 2
200 to 500 MΩ 1
Less than 200 MΩ 0
1With intentional ground disconnected

Page 22 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Criterion 9: Winding DC Resistance Measurement

The measurement supplements DGA and is useful when DGA shows generation of heat gases
(ethane, ethylene, methane). These tests are performed with a micro-ohmmeter and or
Wheatstone bridge. Test results are compared between phases or with factory tests. When
comparing to factory tests, a temperature correction must be employed as per IEEE P62. This
test should be performed only after the rest of the routine electrical tests because it may
magnetize the core, affecting results of the other tests. Transformer Bushings shall be included
in this test. Results are analyzed and applied using Table 15 to arrive at a TCA Score.
Table 15: Winding Direct-Current Resistance Measurement Scoring

Measurement Results TCA Score

No more than 5% difference between phases or from factory tests 3

5% to 7% difference between phases or from factory tests 2

7% to 10% difference between phases or from factory tests 1

More than 10% between phases or from factory tests 0

Criterion 10: Frequency Response Analysis

Frequency Response Analysis (or Sweep Frequency Response Analysis) is placed on each of the
high voltage windings, and the signal is detected on the low-voltage windings. If the windings
have been displaced or shifted, test results will differ markedly from prior tests. Test results are
kept in transformer history files so they can be compared to later tests. Results are determined
by comparison to baseline or previous measurements or comparison to units of similar design
and construction. Results are analyzed and applied using Table 16 to arrive at a TCA Score.
Table 16: Frequency Response Analysis Scoring

Test Results TCA Score

No deviation compared to prior tests 3

Minor deviation compared to prior tests 2

Moderate deviation compared to prior tests 1

Significant deviation compared to prior tests 0

Page 23 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Criterion 11: Degree of Polymerization

Winding insulation (cellulose) deterioration can be quantified by analysis of the degree of


polymerization (DP) of the insulating material. This test gives an indication of the remaining
structural strength of the paper insulation and an indication of the remaining life of the paper and
the transformer itself. This requires analyzing a sample of the paper insulation in an independent
laboratory to determine the deterioration of the molecular bonds of the paper. Results are
analyzed and applied using Table 17 to arrive at a TCA Score.

Table 17: Degree of Polymerization Scoring

Test Results TCA Score

900 or higher no polymerization decrease (results normal) 3

800-700 (minimal polymerization decrease) 2

600-300 (moderate polymerization decrease) 1

<300 (severe polymerization decrease, insulation has no mechanical


0
strength; end of life)

Page 24 of 25
Document Responsibility: Electrical Substations Equipment Standards Committee SAEP-137
Issue Date: 16 September 2015
Next Planned Update: 24 December 2019 Saudi Aramco Management of Power Transformers

Appendix C - TCA Flow Diagram

Level 1 Inspections, Tests, and Measurements

TCA Flow Diagram


Oil Power Factor Routine Age
Analysis & Excitation O&M

YES
Routine Inspection TCA
Repeat TCA within Score >
10-15 years 7
NO

NO Adjust/Repair:
LEVEL 2 TESTS Problem?
Transformer Tripped
or Malfunctioning
YES

Shorted Winding Core/Winding Bad Intentional Ground & Winding Low Shifted Insulation
Deformation Uninetentional Ground Resistance To Winding Degredation
Ground

Turns Ratio test Short Circuit Impedance Core-to-Ground Resistance Winding DC Frequency Degree of
(Leakage Reactance) Test Test Resistance Test Response Test polymerization

Conduct Life Extension Study


Score Score Score
0-3 (Poor) 4-7 (Fair) 8-10
(Good)
Repeat TCA
Begin Replacement within
Routine Inspection 10-15 years

Page 25 of 25