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In the November 2011 tip of the month (TOTM) we presented the compressor calculations of a case study.

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We compared the rigorous method results with the values from the shortcut methods. The rigorous method

was based on an equation of state like the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) for calculating the required

enthalpies and entropies. The enthalpies and entropies are used to determine the power requirement and Search for:

the discharge temperatures. The results indicated that the accuracy of the shortcut method is sensitive to

the value of ideal gas state heat capacity ratio, k. Search

From a calculation viewpoint alone, the power calculation is particularly sensitive to the specification of mass

flow rate, suction temperature and pressure, and discharge temperature and pressure. A compressor is English TOTM Home

going to operate under varying values of the variables affecting its performance. Thus the most difficult part

of a compressor calculation is specification of a reasonable range for each variable and not the calculation Spanish TOTM Home

itself. Reference [1] emphasizes that using a single value for each variable is not the correct way to evaluate

a compression system.

Archives

Normally, the thermodynamic calculations are performed for an ideal (reversible) process. The results of a reversible

process are then adapted to the real world through the use of a thermodynamic efficiency. In the compression process

there are three ideal processes that can be visualized: 1) an isothermal process (PV1=C1), 2) an isentropic process July 2018

(PVk=C2) and 3) a polytropic process (PVn=C3). Any one of these processes can be used suitably as a basis for June 2018

evaluating compression power requirements by either hand or computer calculation. The isothermal process, however, is

seldom used as a basis because the normal industrial compression process is not even approximately carried out at May 2018

constant temperature.

April 2018

Note that Dresser Rand is doing quite a lot of work with “Near constant temperature” compression especially for CO2

March 2018

compression from vent stacks. For detail refere to:

February 2018

http://www.nist.gov/pml/high_megawatt/upload/6_1-Approved-Moore.pdf

January 2018

In this TOTM, we will demonstrate how to determine the efficiency of a compressor from measured flow rate, composition,

suction and discharge temperatures and pressures. A rigorous calculation based on an equation of state and a shortcut December 2017

method are considered and the results are compared. November 2017

Compress Efficiency October 2017

Compressor efﬁciencies vary with compressor type, size, and throughput. They can only be determined (afterward) by a September 2017

compressor test, although compressor manufacturers can usually provide good estimates. For planning purposes,

reference [2] suggests the following values for the overall efﬁciencies: August 2017

Table 1. Overall Compressor Efficiencies [2] July 2017

June 2017

Compressor Type Efficiency, η May 2017

April 2017

Centrifugal 0.70 – 0.85

March 2017

High Speed Reciprocating0.72 – 0.85 February 2017

January 2017

Low Speed Reciprocating 0.75 – 0.90

December 2016

Rotary Screw 0.65 – 0.75 November 2016

October 2016

Reference [2] indicates that these overall efﬁciencies include gas friction within the compressor, the mechanical losses

(bearings, seals, gear-box, etc.), and gear-box losses. The mechanical efﬁciency varies with compressor size and type, September 2016

but 95% is a useful planning number. When calculating the compressor head and discharge temperature the efﬁciency August 2016

used will be isentropic or polytropic (isentropic efﬁciency is sometimes called adiabatic efﬁciency). Adding 3-4 % efﬁciency

(mechanical losses) to the overall efﬁciencies in Table 1 will generally give a good estimate of the thermodynamic July 2016

efﬁciency [2].

June 2016

To evaluate the performance of an existing compressor, the objective is to calculate the compressor efficiency (η) and

power requirement. May 2016

April 2016

Known and measured properties are:

March 2016

a. Standard condition gas volume flow rate (qS) or gas mass rate ()

February 2016

b. Gas composition (zi)

January 2016

c. Suction pressure (P1) and temperature (T1) December 2015

d. Discharge pressure (P2) and temperature (T2) November 2015

Estimating Efficiency – Rigorous Method October 2015

The heart of any commercial process flow simulation software is an equation of state. Due to their simplicity and relative September 2015

accuracy, a cubic EOS such as Soave Redlich-Kwong (SRK) [3] or Peng-Robinson [4] is used. These equations are used August 2015

to calculate Vapor-Liquid-Equilibria (VLE), enthalpy (h), and entropy (s). With proper binary interaction coefficients, the

process simulation results of these two equations are practically the same. Therefore, only the SRK is used in this work. July 2015

The isentropic efficiency is defined by June 2015

May 2015

April 2015

March 2015

February 2015

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January 2015

December 2014

November 2014

October 2014

September 2014

August 2014

July 2014

Where:

June 2014

ηIsen = Isentropic efficiency

May 2014

h1 = Suction enthalpy calculated at P1, T1, and composition (zi)

April 2014

h2 = Discharge enthalpy calculated at P2, T2, and composition (zi) March 2014

h2Isen = Isentropic discharge enthalpy at P2 (or T2), S2Isen =S1, and composition (zi) February 2014

January 2014

= Mass flow rate

December 2013

The computation compressor efficiency or power involves two steps

November 2013

1. Determination of the ideal or isentropic (reversible and adiabatic) enthalpy change (h2Isen-h1) of the compression

process.

October 2013

September 2013

August 2013

The step-by-step calculation based on an EOS:

July 2013

a. Assume steady state, i.e.

June 2013

b. Assume the feed composition remain unchanged

May 2013

c. Calculate suction enthalpy h1=f(P1, T1, and zi) and entropy s1=f(P1, T1, and zi) by EOS April 2013

d. Assume isentropic process and set s2Isen = f (P2, T2Isen, zi) = s1 = f (P1, T1, zi). March 2013

e. Calculate the ideal enthalpy (h2Isen) at discharge condition for known zi, T2 (or P2) and s2Isen. February 2013

f. Calculate the actual enthalpy (h2) at discharge condition for known zi, T2 and P2.

January 2013

December 2012

g. Calculate isentropic efficiency by Equation 1: µIsen = (h2Isen – h1)/(h2 – h1)

November 2012

h. Calculate power by Equation 2:

October 2012

September 2012

Estimating Efficiency – Shortcut Method

August 2012

The isentropic path exponent (k) or ideal gas heat capacity ratio (k=CP/CV) can be calculated by the correlation presented

in the May 2013 TOTM: July 2012

June 2012

May 2012

April 2012

Where:

March 2012

T = Temperature, K (°R)

February 2012

= Gas relative density; ratio of gas molecular weight to air molecular weight January 2012

A = 0.000272 (0.000151) December 2011

The actual discharge temperature based on an isentropic path can be estimated by November 2011

October 2011

September 2011

August 2011

July 2011

June 2011

May 2011

April 2011

Solving for the isentropic efficiency,

March 2011

February 2011

January 2011

December 2010

November 2010

October 2010

Similarly, the actual discharge temperature based on a polytropic path can be estimated by

September 2010

August 2010

July 2010

June 2010

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May 2010

April 2010

March 2010

February 2010

Solving the above equation for the polytropic path coefficient (n): January 2010

December 2009

November 2009

October 2009

September 2009

August 2009

July 2009

Similarly, the actual discharge temperature based on a polytropic path can be estimated (ηPoly) by:

June 2009

May 2009

April 2009

March 2009

February 2009

January 2009

The isentropic head is calculated by

December 2008

November 2008

October 2008

September 2008

August 2008

Similarly, the polytropic head is calculated by July 2008

June 2008

May 2008

April 2008

March 2008

February 2008

For an isentropic (reversible and adiabatic) process the power is calculated by January 2008

December 2007

November 2007

October 2007

September 2007

August 2007

Or for a polytropic process the power is calculated by July 2007

June 2007

May 2007

April 2007

March 2007

February 2007

Alternatively: January 2007

December 2006

November 2006

October 2006

September 2006

Where:

August 2006

Head = Compressor head, m (ft)

July 2006

Power = Compressor power, kW (HP) June 2006

R = Universal gas constant, 848 kg-m/(kmol-K) or (1545 ft-lbf/(lbmol-°R)) May 2006

PS = Standard condition pressure, kPa (psia) April 2006

P1 = Suction pressure, kPa (psia) March 2006

February 2006

P2 = Discharge pressure, kPa (psia)

January 2006

TS = Standard condition temperature, K (°R)

December 2005

T1 = Suction temperature, K (°R)

November 2005

T2 = Discharge temperature, K (°R) October 2005

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7/31/2018 How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency? | Campbell Tip of the Month

qS = Gas volumetric rate at the standard condition, Sm3/d (scf/day) September 2005

Za = Average gas compressibility factor = (Z1+Z2)/2 August 2005

Z1 = Gas compressibility factor at the suction condition July 2005

June 2005

Z2 = Gas compressibility factor at the discharge condition

The power calculation should be made per stage of compression and then summed for all stages connected to a single Free Subscription

driver.

a. Calculate the isentropic exponent (k) by Equation 3 using the average temperature defined by T = (T1+3T2)/4.

This form of average temperature was defined to obtain better match between the rigorous and shortcut method Gas Processing

results.

Mechanical

b. Calculate the isentropic efficiency (ηIsen) by Equation 5.

Pipeline

c. Calculate the polytropic coefficient (n) by Equation 7.

Process Facilities

d. Calculate the polytropic efficiency (ηPoly) by Equation 8. Process Safety

e. Calculate the isentropic and polytropic heads by Equations 9 and 10, respectively. Refining

f. Calculate the required power per stage by either Equation 11 or 12. Reliability Engineering

Case Study Supply Chain

Management

A natural gas mixture is compressed using a three-stage centrifugal compressor. The process flow diagram is shown in

Figure 1. For each stage, the measured pressure, and temperature are presented in Table 1. The measured feed Uncategorized

composition, flowrates, and calculated molecular weight and relative density are presented in Table 2.

Water and Corrosion

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Table 1. Measured temperature and pressure for the three stages of compression

Table 2. Gas analysis and flow rate for the three stages of compression

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* Calculated

The process flow diagram shown in Figure 1 was simulated by ProMax software [5] to perform the rigorous calculations

using the SRK EOS. The program calculated polytropic and isentropic efficiencies, heads, and compression power. The

program also calculated the isentropic path exponent (k), and polytropic path exponent (n). These calculated results are

presented in Table 2 for all three stages under SRK headingings. The calculations performed by ProMax are very similar

to the step-by-step of a through h described in the rigorous section. Table 2 also presents the shortcut caculation results

for the corresponding values under the shortcut heading. The shortcut calculations are based on the step-by-step of a

through f described in the shortcut method section. The error percent between the rigrous method and the shortcut

methods for each stage are presented in Table 2, too. Table 2 indicates that excellent agreements are obtained for stages

1 and 2. However, larger deviations are obseved for the isetropic and polytropic exponents of stage 3 due to high pressure

operation which deviated too far from ideal gas state conditions.

Conclusions

Table 2 indicates that there are good agreements between the shortcut and the rigorous results. The differences between

the rigorous and shortcut method results for facilities calculations and planning purposes are negligible. For stage 3, due

to high-pressure operation and deviating too far from the ideal gas state condition, a larger error is observed for the

isentropic exponent (k).

The calculated isentropic exponent (k) in the ProMax [5] is not the ideal gas state heat capacity (CP/CV) ratio. It is the

value of the isentropic exponent that is required to yield an isentropic path from inlet to outlet. Its value is calculated as an

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7/31/2018 How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency? | Campbell Tip of the Month

integration of that path. Thus it is somewhat of an “average” value representing the true isentropic path. For ideal gases,

the value would be equal (CP/CV) ratio.

This error in ‘k’ also illustrates the importance of specifying which correlation is to be used when ordering a performance

test (ie, refer to ASME PTC-10 for additional details), so that client and vendor are on the same agreement moving

forwards with regard to molecular weight (MW) and k for the test fluid. For further detail refer to reference [6] and August

and September 2010 TOTMs [7, 8].

It may also be worth noting that when trending ‘n’ and the polytropic efficiency to evaluate machine condition, the relative

accuracy of measurement instrument/equipment (temperature and pressure transducers) and mapping of compressor

performance to the original performance curve (actual gas volume flow rate vs speed), introduces many potential

erroneous sources into this daily evaluation.

Note that the accuracy of the shortcut methods is dependent on the values of k and n. The definition of average

temperature in the shortcut method was adjusted to obtain a better match between the isentropic path exponent (k)

calculated by rigorous method.

To learn more about similar cases and how to minimize operational problems, we suggest attending our G4 (Gas

Conditioning and Processing), PF4 (Oil Production and Processing Facilities), ME46 (Compressor Systems–

Mechanical Design and Specifications) and ME44 (Fundamentals of Pump and Compressors Systems), courses.

PetroSkills offers consulting expertise on this subject and many others. For more information about these services, visit

our website at http://petroskills.com/consulting, or email us at consulting@PetroSkills.com.

Reference:

1. Maddox, R. N. and L. L. Lilly, “Gas conditioning and processing, Volume 3: Advanced Techniques and Applications,”

John M. Campbell and Company, 2nd Ed., Norman, Oklahoma, USA, 1990.

2. Campbell, J.M., Gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume 2: The Equipment Modules, 9th Edition, 2nd Printing, Editors

Hubbard, R. and Snow–McGregor, K., Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 2014.

3. Soave, G., Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, pp. 1197-1203, 1972.

4. Peng, D. Y., and Robinson, D. B., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., Vol. 15, p. 59, 1976.

5. ProMax 3.2, Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc, Bryan, Texas, 2014.

7. Honeywell, J. “Important Aspects of Centrifugal Compressor Testing-Part 1”, Tip of the Month, August 2010

8. Honeywell, J. “Important Aspects of Centrifugal Compressor Testing-Part 2”, Tip of the Month, September 2010

Leave us a Comment below!

Subscribe to our RSS Feed or visit the Tip of the Month Archives

for past articles.

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DR. MAHMOOD MOSHFEGHIAN is a Senior Technical Advisor and Senior Instructor. He is the author of most Tips of the

Month and develops technical software for PetroSkills. He has 40 years teaching experience in universities as well as for

oil and gas industries. Dr. Moshfeghian joined JMC in 1990 as a part time consultant and then as full time

instructor/consultant in 2005. Moshfeghian was Professor of Chemical Engineering at Shiraz University. Dr. Moshfeghian

is a senior member of AIChE and has published more than 125 technical papers on thermodynamic properties and

Process Engineering. Dr. Moshfeghian has presented invited papers in international conferences. He is a member of the

Editorial Board for the International Journal of Oil, Gas, and Coal Technology and a member of the GPSA Technical

Committee Group F. He holds B.S. (74), M.S. (75) and and PhD (78) degrees in Chemical Engineering, all from Oklahoma

State University.

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1. Paul says:

August 31, 2015 at 7:11 am

I would also mention that rigorous methods (based on interpolated values such as ASME PTC-10 or numerical

integration pin->pout such as Huntington etc.) consider non-contant values for properties from pin->pout,

these variations may originate large errors (see the example provided in Huntington’s paper),

finally, a procedure can also consider phase equilibria, I know Prode Properties (see

http://www.prode.com/docs/pppman.pdf) which includes both Huntington and a proprietary method for solving a

polytropic stage with phase equilibria,

when there is a change of phase it is difficult to evaluate and adopt a value for efficiency in different conditions…

Reply

2. Francis says:

http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2015/07/how-to-estimate-compressor-efficiency/ 6/9

7/31/2018 How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency? | Campbell Tip of the Month

December 28, 2015 at 9:30 am

Please may I know the equation seven. I cannot find the formula for calculating the polytropic path exponent(n).

Please can u write the formula for calculating polytropic path exponent

Reply

Laurent says:

February 25, 2016 at 8:37 am

Reply

Dr. Mahmood Moshfeghian says:

February 27, 2016 at 9:54 am

Laurent:

You are correct, both temperature and pressure ratios should have been ln(T2/T1) and ln(P2/P1).

Thanks.

Reply

3. Daniel says:

April 22, 2016 at 3:51 am

Hello, used these equations with preos… did not work, gave me an efficiency of 4000…

Reply

4. Ray Fang says:

April 25, 2016 at 9:32 pm

CAE350 compressor analyzing system is a low cost portable system to test the capacity,power efficiency and unit

air consumption of the compressor

Reply

5. Panos says:

June 17, 2016 at 4:19 pm

Here is the link of a new article, which describes the rigorous calculation of the polytropic efficiency based on

thermodynamics of real gases. A comparison with data shown on this website (!) can also be found, under:

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/tjj.ahead-of-print/tjj-2016-0029/tjj-2016-0029.xml?format=INT

Reply

Arif says:

November 2, 2016 at 12:55 pm

Reply

Arif says:

November 2, 2016 at 12:56 pm

Reply

6. Norman Day says:

September 7, 2016 at 3:21 pm

AIR

5.4 bore

6.5 stroke

1800-2400 RPM

mechanical valves

from a Caterpillar 3406 Diesel engine

Reply

7. Norman Day says:

September 7, 2016 at 3:25 pm

AIR

BORE 5.4 INCHES

STROKE 6.5 INCHES

1800-2400 RPM

Mechanical valves

Caterpillar 3406 Diesel Engine

is 85% practical?

Reply

8. TRILOK SINGH says:

February 19, 2017 at 5:22 am

Reply

9. TRILOK SINGH says:

February 19, 2017 at 5:23 am

Reply

10. Rodney A. Olsen says:

April 21, 2017 at 5:15 am

Compressor efficiency is very important factor for any business. Thanks for sharing this detailed calculations.

http://www.zahroofvalves.com

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7/31/2018 How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency? | Campbell Tip of the Month

Reply

11. Faisal says:

May 1, 2017 at 5:55 am

I built an air compressor with a quick return mechanism and a bike pump. So obviously it is a single stage

compressor. But for the calculation of efficiency should I follow these equations? If I want to neglect the

temperature change(too low) which equations should I follow?

Reply

M. Azarakhshi says:

July 1, 2017 at 8:30 am

in other words you mean fixed temp., => isohermal? or P.v = const.

Reply

12. Greg Janse van Vuuren says:

May 17, 2017 at 1:32 pm

Would these equation work for an oil injected twin rotary screw compressor?

Reply

13. prathima says:

July 4, 2017 at 3:48 am

when I try to calculate the polytropic exponent with the T1 = 40.6, T2 = 129.4, P1 = 793.1, P2 = 2275.9 the n =

1.808666. but in the table the value is n = 1.3097. Please clarify me why i am getting wrong.

Reply

14. Ankit says:

August 17, 2017 at 2:27 am

I tried using the same formulas for calculating the compressor efficiency but results are good in one case but in

other cases error is more than 20 %.

Efficiency was calculated for high pressure compressor with suction pressure 60 kg/cm2.

Reply

15. nurse says:

September 5, 2017 at 8:23 am

Did you design this weЬsite yourself оr did yоu hire someone t᧐ do it

for you? Plz reply as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like

to find out wһere u got this from. kսdos

Reply

16. M.Haris says:

December 1, 2017 at 11:59 pm

can anyone please help that how to calculate the efficiency of rotary screw air compressor..????

Reply

17. Martin says:

June 14, 2018 at 3:40 pm

Reply

Dr. Mahmood Moshfeghian says:

June 18, 2018 at 9:38 am

The correlation of heat capacity ratio (Eq 3) is valid for light hydrocarbon mixtures. It is not valid for air. Air

heat capacity ratio is about 1.4 in the range of -40 deg F to 200 deg F.

Reply

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