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GEOMETRY SMG3013

ASSIGNMENT 2
The Great Pyramid of Giza

Lecturer : Dr. Nor Suriya binti Abd Karim


Name Student ID

ADAM BIN CHE MURAD D20141066925

AHMAD AQIL BIN IDRUS D20141066948

ANIS NADIRAH BINTI ROSLAN D20141066924

NUR SYAMIMI BT CHE ABD RAHIM D20141066946

IZZAH MARDHIYA BINTI MOHAMMAD ISA D20141066952

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1.0 PART A

The History

History Of Pyramid (Khafre) :

Sumber : Google

Khafre was an acuent Egyption king from 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He was

the son of Khufu the King who built the first pyramid of Giza, Khufu’s Pyramid. Khafre’s

Pyramid is the second largest pyramid in Giza after Khufu’s Pyramid. Khafre’s Pyramid was

constructed on 2570 BC. The size of Khafre’s Pyramid actually 10 feet shorter than the Great

Pyramid (Khufu’s Pyramid) that was built by his father. To make it look bigger and taller

than his father’s pyramid, Khafre built his pyramid on the higer ground. Then the pyramid

also sits on bedrocks which is 10 metre higher than Khufu’s Pyramid so its look taller than

his father’s pyramid. The degree of the slant of Khafre’s Pyramid also not same as Khufu’s

Pyramid. The degree of Khafre’s Pyramid is sharper than the degree of Khufu’s Pyramid

which is 53 degree for Khafre’s and 52 degree for Khufu’s Pyramid. Then the measurement

of each corner also not so accurate than his father’s pyramid. In modern time, this Khafre

pyramid was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni on second March 1818. Actually, Giovanni

Belzoni has hope to find burial inside this pyramid but when the first door opened, he found

that the burial chamber is empty. So that we cannot say that Khafre’s Pyramid was built to

store dead bodies or mummies.

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Location

Khafre’s Pyramid location is at Giza Governorate, Egypt. It is in the center of the country on

the west of the Nile River opposite Cairo. Its capital is the city of Giza. Then its coordinates

is 29°58′34″N 31°07′51″E.

Size

The measurement of Khafre’s Pyramid are given by its height is 136.4m (447.50 ft) which is

we can say that it is the altitude of the pyramid. The length of each side(base) is 215.25 metre

(706.19 ft). The lateral area leaned by 53°. The estimated volume of the pyramid is 1,659,200

cubic metre.

Usage

The Great Pyramid was used as a monumental place for gathering, amplifying, and focusing a

mysterious energy field for the spiritual benefit of human beings. Then, scientist also

believed that the Pyramid was built to kept foods preserved without spoiling, (beacause of the

humidity inside the pyramid), sharpened dull razor blades, induced plants to germinate and

grow more quickly, fastened the healing of animals' wounds. This were discovered by

looking at the picture around and inside the pyramid. But, some people also believe that the

pyramid was built as a burial chamber.

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Diagram

FRONT PROJECTION :

Height (altitude)

Base

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION :

Altitude

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PART B

1.0 The geometrical shapes of The Great Pyramid of Giza.

Figure B1
Figure B2

Figure B
Source: Google

Since The Great Pyramid of Giza has a polygon as its base and all the vertices of the base are

joined to a point which known as the vertex of the apex then the object we chose are

considered as a pyramid as well as its name. It satisfies the definition of pyramid. Well, based

on geometry theorm of pyramid, the pyramid is named according to its base. If the base is

triangle, then the pyramid is known as triangular pyramid. In this case, the base of The Great

Pyramid of Gize is a square, then the pyramid is known as a square pyramid as show in

Figure B3.

Square base of The Great Pyramid has the same length of its side. Square is a

rectangle that has two congruent adjacent sides. All angles of a square are right angle as

shown in Figure B1. Thus, since square is equilateral dan equiangular, then the base is a

regular polygon. Furthermore, the lateral edges of The Great Pyramid are all congruent. So,

this is called as a regular pyramid.

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Figure B3
Square base of The Great Pyramid of Egypt

Source : Google

In addition, The Great Pyramid of Egypt can be considered as a polyhedron since it is a solid

or object bounded by four or more plane regions. Pyramid contains five faces and its edge are

the line segment which common to the faces.

2.0 The concept of the geometrical shapes apllied to The Great Pyramid of Giza.

Pyramid is a polyhedron that has a base and three or more triangular faces . All the

vertices of the base are joined to a point , known as vertex or apex of pyramid. A

pyramid is named and known according to its bases , which can be any polygon .If

the base is square,then the pyramid is known as the square pyramid.

A regular pyramid is a pyramid whose base is regular polygon and whose

lateral edges are congruent. The slant height, H, of regular pyramid is the altitude

from the apex of pyramid to the base of any congruent lateral faces of regular

pyramid. Regular pyramid is the only pyramid that has a slant height.

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Apex: Point F

Base : quadrilateral ABCD

Base edges : ̅̅̅̅


𝐴𝐵 , ̅̅̅̅
𝐵𝐶 , ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐷 , ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐴

Lateral faces: ∆𝐴𝐹𝐵 , ∆𝐵𝐹𝐶, ∆𝐶𝐹𝐷 , ∆𝐷𝐹𝐴

Lateral edges: ̅̅̅̅


𝐵𝐹, ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐹 , ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐹, ̅̅̅̅
𝐴𝐹

Altitude: ̅̅̅̅
𝑂𝐹

̅̅̅̅
Slant height: 𝐸𝐹

In regular pyramid with an apothem of length a, an altitude of length h, and a slant

height of length H, they satisfy the theorem of Pythagoras.

𝑯𝟐 = 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒉𝟐

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The lateral area , L of a regular pyramid with slant height of length H and the

perimeter , P of the base , is given by

𝑳 = 𝟏⁄𝟐 𝑯𝑷

The Total Area, A of a pyramid with lateral area, L and the base area, B is given by

A= L + B

The Volume, V of a pyramid with the base area , B and the altitude of length h, is

given by

𝑽 = 𝟏⁄𝟑 𝑩𝒉

Measurements of the Pyramid

1. Altitude of length,h = 146.7 m

2. Slant height, H = 186.52 m

3. Each side of the base = 230.34 m

The lateral area, L of a pyramid :

1
Lateral area,L = HP
2

1
= × (186.52) × (230.34 × 4)
2

= 85 926.034 m2

The lateral area of The Great Pyramid of Giza is 85 926.034 m2 .

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The total area, A of a pyramid :

Total area, A = L + B

= (85 926.034) + (230.34 × 230.34 )

= 85 926.034 + 53 056.516

= 138 982.55 m2

The total area, A of The Great Pyramid of Giza is 138 982.55 m2

The volume, V of a pyramid :

1
Volume, V = BH
3

1
= × (53 056.516) × (146.7)
3

= 2 594 463.632 m3

The volume, V of The Great Pyramid of Giza is 2 594 463.632 m3 .

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3.0 The cross section of The Great Pyramid of Giza.

A cross section diagram is what you could see when there is a cut through the object

and see what the new surface looks like. Cross section views have diagonal line

showing the new cutting plane.

3D Picture of Regular Pyramid

Top view Side and front view

Based on the figures, the multi view of the regular pyramid for the Great Pyramid of Giza

show three sides of view which is front view, top view and side view. The front view and side

view show a triangle and top view show a square.

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REFERENCES

Alexander, D.C. and Koeberlein, G.M. (2014) Elementary Geometry for College Students 6th

Ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Dunham, D. (1956). Building An Egyptian Pyramid. ARCHAELOGY.

History.com Staff. (2009). Egyptian Pyramids. Retrieved from

https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/the-egyptian-pyramids

Nor Suriya A.K. (2018). Topic 9: Surfaces and Solids.

Quibell, A. (n.d.). The Pyramids of Giza. The C.M.S Bookshop.

Schmitz, E. R. (2012). THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA:Decoding the Measure of a

Monument. Roland Publishing.

Sen, N. (2012, September 06). Amazing Facts about the Great Pyramids of Giza. Retrieved

from https://www.livescience.com/34193-great-pyramids-of-giza.html

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