RINGKASAN GEOGRAFI

 The up land and lowland the earth surface is called relief.  The relief was formed from endogenous and exogenous forces.
A. Earth landforms Diversity The layer of the earth are: 1. Inside earth core Is the inner layer of the earth surface. The depth of the inner core sphere is about 1,231 km. The characteristic of inside earth core are: Hot and liquid. 2. Outside earth core Is the secong inner layer of the earth. The depth of the outer core sphere is about 2,257 km. The characteristic of outside earth core are: hot and clay. 3. Mantle Is spere lying beneath the crust and it·s thickness reaches 2,900 km. It·s characteristic are: hot, clay,and liquid. 4. Crust Is the outer shell of the earth. It is made of separated plates about 1oo km named lithosphere. At lithosphere there are geological forces that made the lithosphere layer. Its consist of endogen energy and exogen energy. B. Earth·s Surface Formation Process There are two kind of geological force such as: 1. Endogen Energy Is the energy from the inside of the earth and it has constructive characteristic. a. Tectoism/Diathropism Is a diposition of the earth·s crust vertically ang horizontally. Its consist of orogenetic and epyrogenetic. 

Epyrogenetic Is the process of continent and ocean formation by the movements of the earth·s crust that slowly and happend in large area.

so it make slab and long form. b. Volcanism Is all event which are related to infiltrate of magma or relasing to the earth surface. Horst is a ride of the earth crust that has been forced upward so it hi gher than sourounding land. (lempeng dan panjang)  Latholit : Is the magma infiltrate in betwen the rock and phused the up layer so it make flat base and concave top. The kind of volcanism:  Magma Intrusion It hapend if infiltrate activity can·t reached the earth surface. that fast and happens in smal area.The kinds of orogenetic are :  Fold The curving crust cause by compresive horizontally strees is called fold. atas cembung)  Gang (coroc)  Amphofisa . The kind of fault: graben and horst. and isoclinal fold (lipatan tegak). Orogentic Is process mountain formation by the displecement of the earth crust.The form of magma intrusion:  Batholit : Is magma kiln that freezing (Dapur magma membeku)  Siil : Is the magma infiltrate in betwen the crust layer and the freezing. overtuned fold (lipatan miring).  Fault Its causes of fast and strong horizontally and vertically compressive stresses. The top of fold is called anticline and the bottom is called synclineThe kind of fold are recumbent fold (lipatan rebah). (Dasar datar. Graben is faultsof the earth·s crust being downtown.

volcanic or collapse of cave. When the volcano erupted. Its hapend sause of mixtureeruption beween effusive and explosive.  Solid materials (efflata) consisting giant rocks (bomb).  Volcanic gasses (exhalation) such as CO 2. pumice and volcanic ash.  Geycer is a spring that throws a jet of hot water or steam into the air intervals. it enters post volcano stages. gravel.:  Flumarole is a steam water vapour gas. It hapens cause of high explosion . Earth Quake/Seism Is the vibration on the earth·crust that occur suddenly and it·s causes by tectonic. Magma Extrusion Is the infiltrate activity of magma reached the earth surface so it occurs volcanoes. Cl. molten rock expelled by a volcano during eruption. and HCl As a volcano reaches the end stages of activities. small rock (lapilli).  Shield volcano The shape is wide fondation and slope slightly.  Marr/Fissure volcano The shape is small lake or crater. such as geycer and flumarole. marked by extrusion of gasses and hot spring. H2O. sands. c. The kind of volcanoes:  Stratovolcano/cone Its form like cone. H 2SO4. It hapends cause effusive eruption and the magma melt. H2S (hydrogen sulfide). the following materials are flow toward the creater:  Lava.   Hypocenter : is the source of quake inside the earth layer Epycenter : is dot on the earth surface which is perpendicular above on hypocenter .

and rain. The produce of abrasion : cliff.  Exarasion Is decomposition that cause by glaicer  Deflasion Is decomposition that cause by wind energy. b. The kind of erosion:  Abrasion Is erosion that is caused by wave of sea water. . The kind of exogen energy: a.  Chemical weathering Is decomposition that is ccaused by chemical process  Biologycal weathering Is decomposition that caused by organism. wind. sunrise. Erosion Is the process of stone particles release by erosion energy. Its divide into three:  Physical/mechanical weathering Is the decomposition that is caused by exogen energy. temperature. fyord  Ablasion Is the erosion that is caused by flowing water. Exogen energy: water.  Isoseista scale Macroseist : line that connects areas with the same : an area around the epycenter that experiense the biggest damage by earth quake  Pleistoseista : line on the quake map sourrounding the macroseist 2. Weathering/Decomposition Is the broken stone process that caused by exogenous energy. Exogen Energy Is the energy from outer of the earth and has destructive characteristic.

Rock on the Earth·s Surface . geycer. C. Sedimentation byriver produces various landforms:  Delta Is the sedimentation of land in the riverestuary  Food Plain Is the plain in the right or left of river and having fuction to receive water when there is a flood. d. Sedimentary Is the process of sedimentation stone particles that is carried by wind. Mass Washing Is the moving rock mass that goes under the slope of mountain/hill and si influence by earth gravitation.c.  Meander Is a bend in a sinous watercourse The major areas for deposition of sediments in the marine environment are as follows:  Spit Is sand deposit of coats or river mouth occur due to waves meeting the beach backwashing perpendicular to the shore  Nehrung Is the crosswise sand sedimentary hat has form like tongue. or water .  Tombolo Is sand sedimentary that connects/plain and island which is near the beach.

2. Definition 1. Social Contact Is to meet. B. relation face to face between two individuals. Based characteristic 1) Primary Social Contact Is the social contact that happ en cause direct relation 2) Secondary Social Contact Is the social contact is happen by agent . Social interaction is universal forn from social. The Qualification of Social Interaction 1. among relation inter individual.INTERACTION AS SOCIAL PROCESS A. The teacher mnae question and the students answer the question b. shake their hand. Social Process Is relationship between various social life side that mutually influence one with other. two social group and individual with group The kind of social contact: a. Social Interaction Is social relationship that dynamic. processmand key from all social life. inter group or individual with group. Based on form 1) Social Contact inter individual Two person meet each other and say greetings. introdution 2) Social Contact inter group In the football match two group of football mutually race to take the ball into goal posts 3) Social Contact between individ ual and group The contact between teacher and the students. Based on reaction 1) Positive social contact Is social contact resemble mutual cooperation 2) Negative Social Contact Is social contact that direct to conflict c.

Communication Is the process sending message or news between two people or more aso the message cab be understand The comunucation can be done by feeling.Is derived into two: a) Secondary social contact direct by agent. letter and sound. Comunicator is the person who give information Comonicant is the person who receive information The component . li ke telephone. b) Secondary social contact indirect through 3 rd person 2.

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