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Nama : Desi Syafitri

Nim : 35154185

Fak/kelas : FITK/PMM-6

Contoh Soal Olimpiade Matematika SMP Tingkat Provinsi 2018

5𝑘+1
1. Diketahui bilangan bulat positif 𝑘 sehingga juga bilangan bulat positif. Dua
3𝑘−18

nilai 𝑘 yang memenuhi adalah ....


Pembahasan :
5𝑘+1
Diketahui 3𝑘−18 dimana 𝑘 merupakan bilangan bulat positif atau bilangan asli

Untuk menemukan nikai 𝑘, perlu menggunakan strategi “manipulasi bentuk aljabar”,


5𝑘+1
yakni 3𝑘−18 = 𝑎, dimana 𝑎 bilangan asli

⟹ 5𝑘 + 1 = 𝑎(3𝑘 − 18)
⟹ 5𝑘 + 1 = 3𝑎𝑘 − 18𝑎
⟹ 18𝑎 + 1 = 𝑘(3𝑎 − 5)
18𝑎 + 1
⟹ =𝑘
3𝑎 − 5
6(3𝑎 − 5) + 31
⟹ =𝑘
3𝑎 − 5
6(3𝑎 − 5) 31
⟹ + =𝑘
3𝑎 − 5 3𝑎 − 5
31
⟹ 6+ =𝑘
3𝑎 − 5

Agar nilai k dihasilkan bilangan bulat positif maka (3𝑎 − 5) haruslah pembagi bulat
positif dari 31, yaitu: 1 dan 31
31
3𝑎 − 5 = 1 ⟹ 𝑎 = 2, sehingga nilai 𝑘 = 6 + 3(2)−5 = 6 + 31 = 37
31
3𝑎 − 5 = 31 ⟹ 𝑎 = 12, sehingga nilai 𝑘 = 6 + 3(12)−5 = 6 + 1 = 7

Jadi, nilai k yang memenuhi adalah k = 7 dan k = 37


Contoh Soal Olimpiade Matematika SMP Internasional 2014

1. Let 𝑎0 < 𝑎1 < 𝑎2 < ⋯ be an infinite sequence of positive integers. Prove that there
exists a unique integer 𝑛 ≥ 1 such that
𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛
𝑎𝑛 < ≤ 𝑎𝑛+1
𝑛
Terjemahan : Diberikan 𝑎0 < 𝑎1 < 𝑎2 < ⋯ suatu barisan tak hingga dari bilangan
bulat positif. Buktikan bahwa terdapat suatu bilangan bulat 𝑛 ≥ 1 yang unik sehingga
𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛
𝑎𝑛 < ≤ 𝑎𝑛+1
𝑛
Hidden Solution :
𝑎0 +𝑎1 +⋯+𝑘
For 𝑘 ≥ 1 we will say that the term is large if 𝑎𝑘 ≥ . Notice that the last
𝑘
𝑎0 +𝑎1 +⋯+𝑘
inequality is equivalent to 𝑎𝑘 ≥ for 𝑘 ≥ 2 . If 𝑎𝑘 is not large we say that it
𝑘

is small. We need to prove that there exists a unique 𝑛 ≥ 1 such that 𝑎𝑛 is small and
𝑎𝑛+1 is large. Since 𝑎0 > 0 we have that 𝑎1 is small. We will first prove that there is
an integer 𝑛 such that 𝑎𝑛 is large. Assume the contrary, that is small for all 𝑘 ≥ 1.
Then for 𝑘 ≥ 2 we have
1
𝑎𝑘 < (𝑎 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑘−1 )
𝑘−1 0
1 1
< (𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑘−2 ) + (𝑎 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑘−2 )
𝑘−1 𝑘−2 0
1
= (𝑎 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑘−2
𝑘−2 0
Continuing in the same way we obtain
1 1
𝑎𝑘 < 𝑘−2 (𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑘−3 < ⋯ < (𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + 𝑎3 )
3

which means that is a bounded sequence. This contradiction proves that there is at
least one 𝑛 such that 𝑎𝑛 is large. Let us assume that there are two positive integers 𝑛
and 𝑚 such that 1 ≤ 𝑛 < 𝑚 for which the given two inequalities are satisfied. Then
we have
(𝑎0 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 ) + (𝑎𝑛+1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚 ) (𝑛𝑎𝑛+1 + (𝑎𝑛+1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚 )
𝑎𝑘 < ≤
𝑚 𝑚
(𝑛𝑎𝑚 + (𝑎𝑚 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚 )
< = 𝑎𝑚
𝑚
This completes the proof of the required statement.