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#10 Dela Cruz, Mikaela Denise B.


APA Format

 In APA format, the works are listed alphabetically by author (or title if there is no
 In writing the author, last names should be written first.
 The first line of each reference entry begins at the left margin, then the next lines are
indented 5-7 spaces and double spaced.
 The journal titles should be italicized.

For In-text Citations

 In citations, this style briefly identifies the source for readers which can enable them to
locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list.
 For materials which are directly quoted, the page numbers (or paragraph numbers with
electronic sources) must be included in the citation.
 If the quotation is less than 40 words, enclose the quotation with double quotation
 For quotations of 40 or more words, it should be displayed in a free-standing block of
lines without the quotation marks. The block quotation should start on a new line and
indented 5 spaces from the left margin.
 Brackets, not parentheses, should be used to enclose materials (explanations or
additions) inserted in a quotation.
 Use double quotation marks for quotations in the text.

Order and Components of the Reference Entries

 Alphabetize the entries by name of author or by title if there is no author. Write the
author’s last name first, then the first name.
 The date of publication, which is enclosed in parentheses, is after the author’s name. If
there is no date, write n.d. in the parenthesis.
 Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle of books, articles and chapter
names. Proper nouns should also be capitalized. Underlines or quotation marks around
the title of articles or chapters should not be placed.
 Next is to give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters.
 Provide the volume number of the journals, magazines and newsletters, but do not use
Vol. before number.
 Underline or italicize the name and volume number of the periodical used.
 If the journal does not include volume numbers, include the month or season with date.
 Give the inclusive page numbers using pp. before the page numbers.
 After the periodical title is the place of publication, followed by the publisher’s name.
 Close each element in the reference entry, including the last element, with a period.
 Articles of personal communications (letters, memos, phone calls, personal interviews)
are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data.

For Electronic Sources

 At minimum an online source provides:

o Author’s name (if known)
o Date of publication or revision
o title of Document
o Title of complete work
o Retrieval date and URL
 If the internet articles are based on a print source, add brackets after the title
“[Electronic Version]”

Examples of basic formats of APA

1. Article from a print journal

Hoyert, D.L., & Lima, A.R. (2005, May-June). Querying of death certificates in the United
States. Public Health Reports, 120(3), 288-293.
2. Article from online journal (with no doi assigned)
Eysenbach, G., & Kohler, C. (2001). How do consumers search for and appraise health
information on the world wide web? [Electronic version]. British Medical Journal,
324, 573-577.
3. Article from online journal (with doi assigned)
Bravata, D. M., Smith-Spangler, C., Sundaram, V., Gienger, A. L., Lin, N., Lewis, R., et
al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A
systematic review. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association,
298(19), 2296-2304. doi:10.1001/jama.298.19.2296
4. Online web document with a fixed publication date
American Psychological Association. (1995, September 15). APA public policy alert.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
5. Online web document with no fixed publication date
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Anthrax Q & A: anthrax and animal
hides. Retrieved December 12, 2007, from
6. Book
Viola, D. (2004). Effectively writing your thesis. Valhalla, NY: Barefoot Press.
7. Chapter in a book
Choolfaian, A., & Viola, D. (2001). Writing for publication in health policy. In J.A. O'Brien
(Ed.), Award winning student papers (2nd ed., pp. 12-28). Valhalla, NY: New
York Medical College Press.


APA Style: Highlights. (2006). Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018 from

Cunningham, D. (2008). American Psychological Association (APA) Style Highlights for NYM

Students. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018 from