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Theoretical Framework

According to Elmer(1989) as cited in Arguelles & Miranda (2014) , specialization

planning is life goal setting. Sound decision -making is a need to prevent any misfits and
to assist students in the process of solidifying their course specialization. Below are
several theories on the choice of specialization.

First, Gottfredson’s theory, occupational aspirations are a reflection of one’s self-

concept. People seek occupations that (a) arc congruent with their self-image and (b)
reflect their knowledge of different occupations. This theory describes that students
become attracted to certain specialization. According to this theory,self-concept is the
key to specialization selection. Students tend to choose jobs that are compatible with
their personality. The key determinants according to the theory are one’s social class,
level of intelligence and experiences with sex typing. In the study of Siguan Jr., (1994) as
cited in Sonsona (2012) self-concept was also found significant on the choice of
specialization of students. Another is Holland’s theory of career choice suggested that
people can function and develop best and find jobs satisfaction in work environments
that are compatible with with their personalities. People tend to choose a career that is
reflective of their personality. Holland (1994), suggest that the closer the match of
personality to job, the greater the satisfaction. Holland’s theory places emphasis on the
accuracy of self-knowledge and career information necessary for career decision making
(Zunker, 1994 p. 49) as cited in Abernathy (2003).

Additionally, Socioeconomic theory suggest that many people follow path of least
resistance in their career development by simply falling into whatever work
opportunities happen to come their way. Furthermore, happenstance theory says that
people choose their career based on what they learned. Certain behaviors are modeled,
rewarded, and reinforced.

Sonsona (2012) further cited the need approach of Roe (1993) which gives emphasis on
the role of early childhood experiences in finding satisfaction in one’s choosen field.
Thereupon, structure of individual would be greatly influenced by early childhood
frustration and satisfaction. Personalities and backgrounds determines an individuals
choice of specialization. To Holland (2000) as cited in Sonsona (2012), specialization
choice is an expression or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by
subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotype. This approach can also
have in explaining why certain students choose their strand as their specialization.