Anda di halaman 1dari 1

Everyday fields Specialised fields Highly technical fields

Shared by all members of the culture (eg. Not shared by all members of the Shared by few members of the
shopping, using public transport, eating) culture (gardening, surfing, cooking). culture and often take many years
Text books in school (photosynthesis, to develop, typically in tertiary
WHAT? cell division, moles, electrolysis, oxbow institutions.
lakes, break even analysis) (extra – smart people language,
(Smart people language – academic highly academic)
language)

Informal: greatest emotional Neutral: Formal: least emotional


involvement decreasing contact involvement
Familiar: greatest contact Unfamiliar: least contact
Novice: status is lowest Expert: status is highest
Child to adult, sibling to sibling or personal Student as ‘knower’ to familiar or Student/adult as expert,
contact with familiar individuals unfamiliar audiences. higher status,
Teacher to student on coursework, Institutionalised relationships.
WHO?
tests, examinations. You and the examboard.
No slang allowed. You and the examiner.

Most spoken Spoken texts written down and Most written


Language as action written texts spoken aloud Language as reflection
Close Distant
Face-to-face, dialogic, Unshared experiences, recounting, Monologic and reflective
spontaneous generalising. (decontextualised)
Concrete and specific to the Taking notes from a teacher’s talk. Precise, planned, edited,
local, shared context Reading out from a textbook. organised and coherent.
(contextualised) HOW? Essays/Papers, Ph.Ds,
Coursework, Reports, Newsletters,
Magazine Articles