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LAGUNDI (Vitex negundo Linn.

)
Vitex negundo Linn. also known as Lagundi is
credited with innumerable medicinal acivities like
analgesic, anti- inflammatory, anticonvulsant,
antioxidant, bronchial relaxant, hepatoprotective
and many more

 Analgesic activity

Ravishankar et al (1985) found that the interperitoneal administration of


some leaf and root extracts using different solvents showed analgesic activity.
The chloroform extract showed moderate, butanol and cold aqueous root extract
produced marked effects in acetic acid induced writhing method. In another
study, the methanolic leaf extract when given by IP route has been found to
possess analgesic properties. Gupta et al(1999) and Telang et al(1999)
evaluated the analgesic property of aqueous methanol leaf extract on oral
administration and results showed both central and peripheral analgesic action in
acetic acid and writhing and tail immersion test comparable to Salicylate and
Pethidine hydrochloride, respectively. Gupta and Tandon (2004) also suggested
that ethanolic leaf extract of this plant possesses analgesic activity, which
appears to be due to prostaglandin inhibition and reduction of oxidative stress.
They suggested in their study that sub-therapeutic doses of this plant could
potentiate the analgesic action of standard drugs like Aspirin and Meperidine.
Moreover, they indicated that Naloxone did not reverse the analgesia induces by
the extract, indicating that the central analgesic action is not mediated through
opioid receptors.

 Anti-inflammatory activity
The experimental studies using various animal models have demonstrated that
different parts of the plant especially leaves, fruits, roots and seeds possess anti-
inflammatory and anti- arthritic activity (Chaturvedi & Singh, 1965). However,
possible mechanism of anti- inflammatory activity was indicated as an inhibitory
action on prostaglandin biosynthesis (Telang et al, 1999). Recently, Dharmasiri
et al (2003) suggested that leaves have anti- inflammatory and analgesic
properties mediated via prostaglandin synthesis inhibition, antihistamine,
membrane stabilizing and antioxidant activities. V. negundo, which is also known
to act by prostaglandin inhibition, may be expected to cause gastric damage but
on the contrary it produced no histomorphological changes in the stomach even
in toxic doses (Tandon & Gupta, 2004). This ay be to a selective COX-2 inhibition
that might be responsible for its NSAIDs like activity.

 Anticonvulsant activity
This plant has been studied for its anticonvulsant activity. The petroleum and
butanol leaf extracts have shown protection but could only provide protection
against Leptazole induced convulsions (Ravishankar et al, 1985,1986) whereas,
mathanolc leaf extract showed significant protection against Strychnine and
Leptazole induced convulsions (Gupta et al, 1999). Gupta and Tandon(2002) not
only suggested anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaf exract of this plant but
also indicated that it can potentiate the effects of standard anticonvulsants, which
may help reduce dose and dose related side effects of standard convulsants.

 Antioxidant activity
The antioxidant activity of the plant was studied using free radical scavenging
activity effect on hydroxyl radical mediated damage to deoxyribose and in vivo
lipid peroxidation assay but did not show any significant effect (Munasinghe et al,
2001). However, recently Tandon and Gupta (2004) observed reduction of
oxidative stress produced by leaf extract in albino rats. It produced significant
reduction in malodialdehyde(MDA) levels after 14 days treatment in only higher
dose. Although non- significant marginal rise of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in
this dose was observed. In ethanol induced oxidative stress model, however, it
significantly reduced only MDA levels in both moderate and higher doses and the
effect on SOD were non-significant.

 Other activities
Ethanolic leaf extract has been found to possess anti- histamic or mast cell
stabilizing activity and bronchial smooth muscle relaxing activity (Nair & Saraf,
1995).

Plemex Forte 600 mg Capsule

Indications / Uses
Relief of cough due to common colds & flu. Treatment of
bronchospasm in acute bronchial asthma, chronic
bronchitis & other bronchopulmonary disorders. Relief of
reversible, mild to moderate bronchospasm
(prophylactic/maintenance medication) in adults & children
w/ obstructive airway disease.
Dosage / Direction for Use
Plemex Forte capsule
 Adult 300-600 mg three times daily -four times daily.
 Children 7-12 yr 300 mg three times daily -four times daily.

Administration
May be taken with or without food: Take before or after meals.
This product requires no prescription.

References:

Chaturvedi,GN. and Singh RH., Experimental studies on anti-arthritic effect of certain


indigeneous drugs, Indian J Med Res, 1965, 53(1), 71-80

Dharmasiri, MG., Jayakody, JR., Galhena G., Liyanage, S.S and Ratnasooriya, WD.,
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Vitex neguno, J Ethanopharmacol, 2003,
87(2-3), 199-206

Gupta, RK. And Tandon, V., An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of


Vitex negundo, Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference, Dec. 17-20, 2002 in CME
Programme in Physiology and Pharmacology, Lucknow (Abstract), In Indian J Physiol
Pharmacol, 2002,46(58), 82

Gupta, RK. And Tandon, V., Antinociceptive activity of Vitex negundo Linn extract,
Proceedings of 35th Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmacological Society, Nov.26-
29, 2002 , Gwalior (Abstract), In Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 2004,36(1), 54

Munasinghe TCJ., Seneviratne CK., Thabrew MI. and Abeysekera AM., Anti-radical and
antilipoperoxide effect of some plant extracts used by Sri Lankan traditional medical
practitioner for cardioprotection, Phytother Res, 2001, 15, 519-523

Nair, AM., and Saraf MN., Inhibition of antigen and compound 48/80 induced
contractions of Guinea pig trachea by ethanolic extract the leaves of Vitex negundo
Linn., Indian J Pharmacol, 1995, 27, 230-233

Ravishankar, B., Bhaskaran, NR., and Sasikala, CK., Pharmacological evaluation of


Vitex negundo (Nirgundi) leaves, Bull Medico-Ethano-Bot Res, 1985, 6(1), 72-92

Tandon, V. and Gupta RK., Histamorphological changes induced by Vitex negundo in


albino rats, Indian J Pharmacol, 2004, 36(3), 176-177

Tandon, V. and Gupta, RK., Effect of Vitex negundo on oxidative stress, Indian J
Pharmacol, 2005, 37(1), 38-40
Telang, RS., Chatterjee, S. and Varshneya, C., Studies on analgesic and anti-
inflammatory activities of Vitex negundo Linn., Indian J Pharmacol, 1999,31(5), 363-366