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VIA UNIVERSITY

Metallic structure
Jose Agudelo Bravo

2013
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Metallic structure

What is a metallic structure?

Why use metallic structure? Why not?

What advantages there are in the design of the steel structure?

What are the problems with the fire? How we can avoid these problems?

What are their methods and strategies for greater safety and quality in
construction?

1. Metallic structure
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Methods of design
1.3. History
1.4. Advantages and disadvantages
2. Production
2.1. Steel production
2.2. Treatment
3. Different kinds of profiles.
3.1. Analysis
3.2. Fire protection
4. Joints
5. Process execution
6. Aggressions
7. Conclusion
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What is a metallic structure?

1. Metallic structure.
1.1. Introduction
I will investigate about the metallic structure, because I really like the
topic of structures and I want to know more about this.
I will write about this topic and along of this document I am going to
answer the questions.
The modern world is built with the strength of steel, whose
characteristics have allowed concrete the architectural ideas and most
ambitious civil works and complex imagined by man.
In this regard, the steel offers several advantages over other materials
for construction, in principle for greater strength and rigidity ratio per
unit volume, and is a homogeneous material and which maintains
uniformity of the mechanical and physical properties in the course
weather.
Is defined as a metallic structure elements or sets of elements forming
the resistant part and sustainable of a building. The works consist in
execution of steel structures and steel parts corresponding to the mixed
structures of steel and concrete.
The design of a structure has two aspects: functional aspect and
strength aspect.
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1.2. Methods of design


Structural design is a process by which a structure required to perform a
given function is satisfy certain performance criterion in a safe and
economic way.
There can be a large number of solutions which at least will satisfy the
criterion, although many of them can be uneconomic.
One important thing, Is that the solution with the smallest amount of
material is very often not the most economical.
There are two philosophies for design of structures:
- Elastic design or working stress design: this method is the
attainment of the yield stress at any point in the structure marks the
end of acceptable behaviour. Is defined by the relation
Working stress ≤
- Plastic design: the usefulness of the material is limited up to
ultimate load. The method, while taking account of the plastic
extension of steel is able to predict the load which should just cause
the structure to collapse. The plastic design in limit state terms is
based on the ultimate limit state of collapse. Is defined by the
relation:
Working load =
Indian standard code recommends the following methods of design of
steel frame work.
- Simple design: this method applies to structures in which the end
connection between the members are such that they will not
develop restrain moments adversely affecting the members and the
structure as a whole
- Semi rigid design: this method assumes partial fixity at the ends and
hence has compared to the simple design method, permits a
reduction in the maximum bending moment in the beams suitably
connected to their supports. It thus provides a degree of direction
fixity.
- Fully rigid design: this method as compared with the methods of
simple and semi rigid designs gives the greatest rigidity and
economy in the weight of steel used when applied in appropriate
cases. The end connections of the members of the frame shall have
sufficient rigidity to hold the original angles between such members.
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1.3. History
The effects of the Industrial Revolution were felt in all areas of
contemporary life.
Technological progress was the real culprit, and architecture greatly
affected by technological advances, experimented a great change
Incorporating new materials involved a radical change in the
appearance of the architecture, making it necessary to extend the
concept of architecture. The use of iron in architecture cannot be
considered a novelty of the nineteenth century, since from before has
been used, though occasionally or in addition, were very limited pieces
that hardly reached oversized measures.
One consequence of this way of building with iron was the change of
traditional values, i.e. the structural impairment outside wall of the
building in favour of sustaining the internal frame. The load is supported
by the skeleton of iron, the outer wall is "curtain" not sustained.
Eiffel tower: This tower was created as a symbol of the progress of the
iron

Crystal palace: It was the first building constructed entirely of iron and
glass in London.
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1.4. Advantages and disadvantages


Why use metallic structure? Why not?
The steel has a number of features that allow it to be an ideal material
for the construction fields.
Mainly the features that have led to this success as material for use in
construction is the relatively high ability to transmit heat, the current ,
low weight, and capabilities to the application of tensile stresses
(tensile), compression and shear.
Furthermore the steel remains constant most of the properties over the
years, as long as you provide proper care.
Advantages:
 High resistance
 Homogeneity
 Elasticity
 Dimensional accuracy
 Ductility
 Tenacity
 Ease of union with other members
 Rapid assembly
 Availability of sections and sizes
 Cost recovery
 Recyclable
 Allows extensions easily
 Structures can be prefabricated
 Uniformity
 Durability
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Disadvantages:
 Corrosion
 Heat and fire
 Elastic buckling
 Fatigue
 Maintenance Cost
 Brittle fracture
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What advantages there are in the design of the steel structure?


The buildings whose structure is steel, is built rapidly because, while the
steel is making, can be performed the works of earthmoving and
foundation. After placing the steel work, can be performed the roof and
then, work covered.
The assembly is independent of weather conditions so, can be
guaranteed the execution times and the final delivery of the work.

And the steel structure can be easily reinforced a posteriori


The lower section of the pillars and the absence of load-bearing walls,
reduce the area occupied by the structure
Multi-storey buildings of steel are lighter, so that the foundation is
cheaper
A steel structure can be disassembled, and reraise in another place.
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2. Production
2.1. Steel production
The Steel is certainly the most important metal for the construction
industry. Is a malleable iron with a carbon content of maximum 2%. It
can therefore be called an alloy of iron and carbon. But Structural steel
generally have a carbon content ‹0,25%.
Iron ore is converted to steel via two main steps. The first involves the
production of molten iron and the second is that of actual steel
manufacture.
Molten iron:
The Primary Concentrate is mixed with limestone and coal and heated.
The iron oxides are reduced in the solid state to metallic iron, which
then melts, and the impurities are removed either as slag or gas.
Iron is the fourth commonest chemical element in the Earth's crust. In
its natural form it exists as a base metal in an oxidized state. Rocks with
an iron content exceeding 20% are suitable for smelting and are
collectively known as iron ore.
First, there are to crush and screening break down the ore and coke raw
materials into equal-sized pieces.
In order to integrate the dust components and improve the flow of
gases through the charging stock in the blast-furnace shaft, the ore is
baked (sintered) with coke and limestone, or pelletized as a granulate.

The blast-furnace process reduces the oxygen bonded in the iron ore.
The coke reacts with the hot air introduced via the bustle main to form
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carbon monoxide, which in turn reduces the iron ore to pig iron in a
redox reaction and is itself further oxidised to form carbon dioxide.
The two carbon oxide forms escape through the throat, the topmost
part of the blast-furnace, and are fed to the air pre-heaters. Here, the
combustible carbon monoxide is ignited and used to heat up the air,
which is fed back into the blast-furnace via the bustle main.
Modern blast-furnaces can produce more than 10000 tonnes of pig iron
every day. Their average service life- in which the blast-furnace process
runs unceasingly is 10 years.
The pig iron in this way contains 3,5%-4,5% carbon as well as other
disruptive accompanying elements which make it brittle and cause it to
soften immediately upon being heated. In order to convert the pig iron
into steel, the carbon content must be lowered and the accompanying
elements, principally sulphur, reduced or removed.
This is essentially done by blowing oxygen or air into the molten pig iron
and by deoxidizing it through the addition of limestone slag.
The many different methods for producing the crude steel are mainly
distinguished by the way in which the oxygen is fed and the heat
applied. The best-known methods are the basic Bessemer process with
its converter and oxygen lances, the open-hearth furnace with the
addition of steel scrap, and the electric-arc furnace.
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Steel making:
The steel making process is shown below:

2.2. Treatment
In this section I will discuss the treatments that can bring a piece of steel
in solid state and to improve some of its properties. Basically these
treatments are of three types, surface thermal and thermochemical.

Surface treatments:
The main drawback of the steel as work material is his tendency to
oxidize upon contact with air or with water. Thus normally the steel
must be subjected to surface treatments to combat this deficiency.
- Chrome: decorative coating surface to protect from oxidation.
- Zinc coating: surface coating with zinc that is given to the steel.
- Nickel: similar to chrome
- Blued: surface treatment that is given to small steel parts, such as
screws, consists of applying a surface layer of oxide, which parts are
covered and prevents corrosion.
- Painting: protective coating, used in structures, cars, boats.
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Thermal treatment:
Through these processes is achieved very significantly modify the
mechanical properties such as toughness, tenacity and mechanical
strength of steel. In these processes there is no contribution of new
chemical elements to the base material.
They consist of heat the material up to a temperature lower than the
merger and keep him there long enough as to that the piece arrive to
the same temperature, in order to homogenize the grain size. Then the
material can be cooled at different speeds, depending on the type of
treatment that you want to perform.
- Quenching: Its purpose is to increase the hardness and the
resistance of the steel. To do this, heats up the steel at a
temperature slightly higher than the upper critical Ac (900-950 ° C)
and after that, suffer rapid cooling (according to characteristics of
the piece) in a medium such as water, oil, etc
- Tempering: This process applies after of quenching to slightly
decrease the effects of tempering, retaining some of the hardness
and increase the tenacity. The tempering decrease the strength and
toughness of tempered steels, removed the tensions created in the
quenching and is improved tenacity, leaving the steel with hardness
or resistance desired. Basically differs from the quenching in terms
of maximum temperature and cooling rate.
- Annealing: It basically consists in heating up to temperature of
austenizing (800-925 ° C) followed by slow cooling. This treatment is
achieved to increase elasticity, while it decreases the hardness. It
also facilitates the machining of parts to homogenize the structure,
refine the grain and soften the material, eliminating the pungency
produced by cold-working and internal tensions.
- Normalizing: It is to leave a material in normal state, i.e., absence of
internal tensions and with a uniform distribution of carbon. It is
often used as a prior to quenching and the tempering treatment.

Thermochemical treatments
In these cases the surface modifies the composition of materials
without affecting their internal composition, subjecting them to
thermochemical treatments.
- Cementation with carbon: are often used as carbon solids or liquids
such as sodium cyanide (CNNa), or gases such as mixtures of carbon
monoxide and methane.
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- Nitrogen nitriding: will reach temperatures around 500 ° C and at


the heart of an atmosphere of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen atoms are
associated with components of the alloy as the chrome becoming
compounds extraordinarily hard.
- Cyanidation: in this treatment temperatures of the order of 850 °C
are reached and the elements that are disseminated are: sodium
cyanide, chlorine and sodium carbonate.
- Sulfinization: rises at temperature up to 600 ° C and is subject to the
piece to be treated to a bath of salts rich in sulphur, combining this
element superficially with the piece to try obtaining an
extraordinary surface hardness.

Sometimes after a thermochemical treatment, it is usually applied a


surface tempering to increase the resilience of the workpiece and
reduce their internal tensions.

3. Different kinds of profiles

Steel sections
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3.1. Analysis
Steel angles: Steel angles, are essential tools in any architectural
project. They can be made either from a single piece of iron or steel
bent lengthwise to a particular angle -- usually 90 degrees -- or by
attaching two pieces together at the desired angle. The larger the steel
angle, the more weight and stress it can bear. Steel angles are used
broadly, from major construction work to basic home improvement, but
they fall into several broad categories.
You can use this for reinforce (Steel angles can be used as braces to help
reinforce structures), support (can be used as brackets to provide
support), framework (is vital to any structure) and decorative.

Tee: Is the result of cut a profile IPE or H and is often used in


construction and metal frame.

Channel: Structural Steel Channel is typically used in miscellaneous


applications where not a lot of strength is required, e.g. purlins, grating
support, etc.
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They are very weak torsionally and therefore are never used where
twisting occurs (unless they are mated together to form a closed box
section). They are great where you just need something light to hold up
a small load and make for easy connections.
If you mate it together to form a closed box section you can use it as
pillar.

Column: As its own name indicates, this kind of steel is used for pillars,
columns, support and here we have different types of profiles.
HE: this is the most common used, and is characterized by large wings
and parallel between them.

UNP: They are used as supports and pillars. This is done with two
profiles forming a kind of almost square section tube. In other cases,
allows the use of interior space for pipes.

Beam: here we have specially the IPE and IPN


IPE: The outer and inner sides of the wings are perpendicular to the
soul, so they have constant thickness.
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IPN: The outer faces of the wings are perpendicular to the inner soul
and have an inclination of 14% compared to those, so the wings are
decreasing thickness towards the edges.

SHS, RHS, CHS: SHS (square hollow section), RHS (rectangular hollow
section), CHS (circular hollow section).
Especially the rectangular sections are commonly used in welded steel
frames where members experience loading in multiple directions.
Square and circular have very efficient shapes for this multiple-axis
loading. This makes them good choices for columns. They also have
excellent resistance to torsion.
HSS can also be used as beams, although wide flange or I-beam shapes
are in many cases a more efficient structural shape for this application.
However, the HSS has superior resistance to lateral torsional buckling.
The flat square surfaces of rectangular HSS can ease construction, and
they are sometimes preferred for architectural aesthetics in exposed
structures.
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3.2. Fire protection


According with the European regulation we have a classification system
to classify the construction materials and the building components
according to their reaction to fire:
Primary classes:

Additional classes:
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Capacity criteria:

The registered time span during which a building component maintains


the defined capacity criteria is indicated in minutes, for example 30, 60,
90, and 120.
It is difficult for the steel structures to resist all of this time. For that,
there are different solutions like:

a) Solid protection: surround the structural element with current


concrete or low density, assuming that the concrete does not meet
structural function but only provides fire resistance. The thickness of
the coating of concrete depends on the fire resistance required for
the structural element.
- Advantages: achieved high resistance to fire (depending of coating)
- Disadvantages: weight and volume.
-
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b) Masonry coatings: solution frequently applied in the buildings of the


late 19th-century Chicago.
- Advantages: high fire protection is achieved.
- Disadvantages: it takes up space; is relatively craftsmanship; effects
of the earthquake should be considered.

c) Plate coating: coating with plates in the form of box around the
elements of steel to protect is a solution applied increasingly.
Normally used drywall carton normal or with additions that enhance
its fire resistance or variants of them, as the fibrosilicatos plates.
- Advantages: dry; light; smooth finish to receive paint.
- Disadvantages: in complex geometry elements or connections
installation is difficult.
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d) Mortars: There are various solutions of implementation of mortars,


either traditional or with additives which apply following the
contour of the profiles to protect and that significantly improve their
resistance to fire. Mechanical anchoring elements that improve the
adhesion between mortar and steel or mesh must be considered in
the case of traditional applications. It also applies in the form of
spray or projected mortar. The thickness of the coating depends of
the mortar to use and characteristics of fire resistance required for
the structural element.
- Advantages: your application follow the geometry of the element
allowing precise control of the thickness, adding little volume and
mass to the structure; the application can be made partially in
workshop.
- Disadvantages: control of adhesion mortar-steel; traditional
application is intensive and laborious workmanship; Occasionally the
projected application leaves a somewhat rustic rough finish.

e) Blankets: there are blankets of ceramic fibre and rock wool that can
be applied in coatings of box type or outline of profiles to protect.
Outline applications are mechanically set to the element of steel
with welded dowels and washers, to a distance not exceeding 300
mm in all directions. Box type applications are more economical, but
should not be used in profiles with souls over 150mm without the
use of an auxiliary mesh fixation that avoid deformations and
opening matches or joints.
- Advantages: they are lightweight; dry.
- Disadvantages: laborious installation; risk of breakage of the blanket
in handling.
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f) Intumescent paints: they are inert paintings at low temperatures


but which react at temperatures above 200 ° c generating a
protective film in the form of sponge which increases up to 50 times
its original thickness giving a significant thermal insulation which
improves resistance to fire of the protected item. It must be applied
over the base coat and be protected with finish paint, especially if
applied to items exposed to the weather, since it degrades in the
presence of water.
- Advantages: all described solutions, is the only one that allows
expressing the structure of steel in all its quality.
- Disadvantages: they are relatively expensive; durability or limited
warranty, you must repaint.

g) Filling of hollow members: frequently the interior space of the


tubular profiles can be used to fill them with elements that act as
thermal mass absorbing part of the energy of the heat from the fire.
There is experience with concrete, cellular concrete and even water.

h) Screens: The interior partitions and/or perimeter of a building as


well as the ceilings offer the opportunity to provide fire protection
to the extent that to ensure the integrity, insulation and the stability
of the whole.
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4. Joints
The capacity of all metal structure is mainly based on the strength of its
connections. Therefore caution should be used in the modelling, designing and
build, since they are in charge of distributing the forces of a member to another
and therefore generate the stability of the system, forming a resistant assembly
transmitting the loads to the Earth, that is: are the fundamental links to the
configuration structures. For the designer of steel structures, it is so important
to optimize profiles to be used as connect them properly to ensure that the
whole work harmoniously. There is no safe structure if the joints do not work
properly, especially in areas where side loads are significant, for example in
earthquakes.
Following are the requirements of a good connection in steelwork:
- It should be rigid, to avoid fluctuating stressed which may cause
fatigue failure
- It should be such that there is the least possible weakening of the
parts to be joined.
- It should be such that it can be easily installed, inspected and
maintained.
The following are the common types of connections used for structural
steelwork:
- Riveted connection
- Bolted connection
- Pinned connection
- Welded connection

Riveted connection:
Riveting is a method of joining together structural steel components by insert
ductile metals pins, called rivets, into holes of the components to be connected
from coming apart. A rivet consists of a shank of given length and diameter and
a head known as a manufactured head. The size of the rivet is defined by the
diameter of the shank.
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Types of riveted joins:


A riveted joins can be classified according to arrangement of rivets and plates,
mode of load transmissions and nature and location of load with respect of rive
group.
- Arrangement of rivets and plates.
Lap joint

Butt joint
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- Mode of load transmissions.


The rivet has a shear function.

- Nature and location of load.

And there can be two more types of special connections eccentric


tension connection or pure couple connection.
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Bolted and pinned connection


In the bolted connection, bolts and nuts are used. There are several kinds of
bolts that can be used for connecting the structural steel members.
In pinned connection, the pins are used for jointing the members in the
structure.
Advantages of bolted connection
- The operation is very silent
- Is a cold process and there isn’t risk of fire
- Bolting operation is faster than riveting
- There is no risk involved in the bolting
- Is required less man-power in the process
Disadvantages
- If subjected to vibratory loads, result in reduction in strength if they
get loosened
- Unfinished bolts have lesser strength because of non-uniform
diameter
- Have lesser strength in axial tension.

Bolt types:
A bolt is a metal pin with a head at one end and the shank threaded at the
other end in order to receive a nut.
- According to type of shank
a) Unfinished and black bolts
b) Turned bolts
- According to material and strength
a) Ordinary structural bolt
b) High strength steel bolt
- According to shape of head and nut
a) Square bolt
b) Hexagonal bolt
- According to pitch and fit of thread
1) Standard pitch bolt
2) Coarse pitch bolt
3) Fine pitch bolt
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In common steel structural work, are recognised


- Unfinished or black bolts
- Turned and fitted bolts
- High strength bolts.
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Welded connection
The welding is a process of connecting pieces of metal by application of heat
with or without pressure. A metallic bond is established between the two
pieces and this has the same mechanical and physical properties as the parent
metal.
The oxyacetylene or gas welding and electric arc are the most important
methods for weld.
The metal at the joint is melted by the heat generated from an electric arc or
an oxyacetylene flame and fuses with metal from a welding rod. After cooling
the base metal and the welded metal form a continuous and homogeneous
joint.
Arc welding process can be of three types:
- Shielded

- Unshielded

- Submerged
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Advantages of welding:
- Are economical
- Has a 100% of efficiency
- The fabrication of a complicated structure is easier by welded
connection
- Provides a very rigid joints
- Look more pleasing
- Is faster than the riveting work
Disadvantages:
- The inspection is more difficult
- Required skilled persons
- The fatigue can take place
- There is a greater possibility of brittle fracture in welding than in
riveting

Types of welding
Are classified as:
- According to their position
a) Flat
b) Horizontal
c) Vertical
d) Overhead
- According to type of weld
a) Butt weld
b) Filled weld
c) Slot weld
d) Plug weld
- According to type of joint
a) But joint
b) Lap joint
c) Tee joint
d) Edge joint
e) Corner joint
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Welded connections
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5. Process execution
What are their methods and strategies for greater safety and quality in
construction?
We can divide the process execution in stakeout, building process and quality
control.
- Stakeout: Check dimensions of stakeout of the structure for the
preparation of shop drawings, for define all the elements of the
structure. These plans must contain:
 Dimensions to define all components of the structure
 The camber of beams, when you have planned
 The arrangement of joints, distinguishing the kind of union
 The diameter of the holes for screws
 Classes and diameters of screws employed
 Form and dimension of the welded joint, the preparation of
edges, the process, methods used in each case and the
execution order.
 Every taller plane has to indicate the kind of profiles and
types of steel used.
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- Building process: here we have the manufacture in workshop and


site assembly.
In site assembly we have:
 Assembly program: The assembly will write a program
detailing the following.
a) Description of the implementation in phases, the order
assigned and assembly times of the elements of each
phase.
b) Description of equipment used in the assembly of each
phase.
c) Any item used for supporting provisionally
d) List of personnel assigned to perform each phase
e) Elements of safety and protection of personnel
f) Control and verification of the stakeout
g) Control and verification of levelling and alignment

 Receipt, Storage and Handling:


a) All elements of the structure must have their
identification marks.
b) The storage and the elements of the work should be
done by keeping a strict order and systematically, so as
not to cause delays or errors in the assembly.
c) Manipulations for loading, discharge, transport, storage
walk work and mounting must be performed carefully to
avoid damaging parts or paint
d) The parties that have established chains, hooks or wires
used in the lifting of parts of the structure should be
protected
e) Before assembling, must be corrected carefully any dents
or twist that has appeared during transport operations.

 Mounting: The bases of the first pillars or frames are


supported on foundations. These bases are level with steel
wedges. It is convenient a separation between them of 40
and 80 mm. Then, proceed to the placement of the first floor
beams and then is aligned the pillars and porticos. The
spaces between the bases of the pillars and the foundation
should be cleaned and then filled completely with mortar or
concrete.
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Provisional elements during the mounting phase are secured


to resist any effort that occurs during work.
In the mounting are done the joints of the various elements,
for the structure suits the manner provided in the plans.
After have checked that the position of each joint element is
correct, we can start with the welding or riveting.
- Quality control: the quality control will be done in the manufacture
in workshop and site assembly.
 All materials received will be subject to trial
 The manufacturer should guarantee the mechanical
properties and chemical composition of the materials
supplied
 All materials must bear the initials of the factory, steel type
and the name of the product, properly labelled
 And you have to define the type of steel structure.

These are the methods to have a safety and quality building, reducing the
dangers and possible errors in the structure.

6. Aggressions
Metallic structures may suffer injuries that threaten both the integrity
constructive as building security. These pathological processes may result from
causes specific to the nature of the material, especially its weakness
environmental chemical attack and the solution adopted in project
construction and implementation. Because of this, it is necessary to analyse the
conditions for fix the problems
- Biological aggressions: This is a rare case in the building, since it is
not common to find metal fed agencies. Despite this, there are
certain bacteria may enhance with their activity the corrosion
processes.
It is develops in the presence of microorganisms, especially bacteria,
fungi and microscopic algae.
- Physical and mechanical aggressions: These types of attacks are
similar to those which may have any structure. Probably, the
vibrations, depending of the configuration of the structure are
transmitted with greater ease in the metal structure.
Regarding other physical attacks, fire is the most significant because
of its great destructiveness, which is necessary to establish specific
protection carefully: in the material, its disposition and the
organization of the building, for facilitate rapid evacuation and
extinguishing fire.
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The mechanical reasons that cause the alteration and deterioration


of materials include movements, deformations and ruptures caused
by:
a) Direct external loads: acting on the structure
b) Indirect loads: due to changes in temperature or humidity
c) Rheological loads: Are produced by material fatigue
d) Movements in the structure: Result from alterations
encountered in the terrain.
- Electrochemical aggressions: Electrochemical corrosion has with the
fire an important destructive power, but differs in that your reaction
time is much slower and usually not perceived until damages are not
significant. Moreover, it can act locally in small areas of the
structure and dangerous as in the connecting welds or bolts. The
difficulty is that the structure has access and inspection areas
complicated, which makes hard the control and the maintenance of
these structural elements against corrosion.
Some of the factors driving these processes are:
a) Water
b) Acids: From rain, terrain, plaster, wood, algae and mosses. Cause
drilling of metals.
c) Salts: In many cases assist in the formation of a protective film
avoiding corrosion , if not exceed certain amounts
d) Alkalis: Sodium hydroxide and potassium released from the
Portland cement are very harmful for the zinc, aluminum and
lead in the presence of moisture, however, do not affect the
copper corrosion and it protect ferrous materials embedded in
concrete rich cement
e) Climate
f) Design factors: To prevent premature corrosion should give to
surfaces a slight slope to allow water drainage, drainage holes
and distribute enough space between elements have to prepare
surfaces and paint.
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7. Conclusion:
The steel structure of the building has been gaining ground against the
concrete structures, as that has huge benefits that help you design with more
flexibility, reducing the space used at build this kind of structure, being one of
the biggest advantages against the concrete.
In steel structures can implement a hybrid of the same, concrete and steel, for
the convenience of design.
Can we trust in the components of metallic structures?
This is another advantage of the metallic structures, due to the different
components, beams, pillars, screws… are made in a factory, as we can see in
the point 2, so, they can fulfil with the necessary requirements of the standard,
making the best components for the building.
As we know, one of the biggest problems of the steel is the fire, but this can be
avoided easily if we use some application described in the point 3.2., like the
plate coating or intumescent paints.
Definitely, a metallic structure is one of the best solutions for the building, due
to its high ability to transmit heat, the current, low weight, and capabilities to
the application of tensile stresses (tensile), compression and shear.

Bibliography

Book:

Design of steel structures

Websites:

http://www.miliarium.com/Proyectos/Pliegos/AyuntamientoMadrid/EstructurasMetalicas.asp

http://www.iiarquitectos.com/2010/01/estructura-de-acero.html

http://www.slideshare.net/luisk_44/estructuras-deacero

http://www.buenastareas.com/ensayos/Estructuras-De-Acero-Ventajas-y-
Desventajas/2379759.html

http://www.arquitecturaenacero.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21&It
emid=37

http://www.construmatica.com/construpedia/Ejecuci%C3%B3n_de_Estructuras_Met%C3%A1l
icas