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Dec 11, 2018

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Estabilidad

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17 tayangan

Estabilidad

© All Rights Reserved

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4. Why are marginally stable systems considered unstable under the BIBO

definition of stability?

5. Where do system poles have to be to ensure that a system is not unstable?

6. What does the Routh-Hurwitz criterion tell us?

7. Under what conditions would the Routh-Hurwitz criterion easily tell us the

actual location of the system’s closed-loop poles?

8. What causes a zero to show up only in the first column of the Routh table?

9. What causes an entire row of zeros to show up in the Routh table?

10. Why do we sometimes multiply a row of a Routh table by a positive constant?

11. Why do we not multiply a row of a Routh table by a negative constant?

12. If a Routh table has two sign changes above the even polynomial and five sign

changes below the even polynomial, how many right–half-plane poles does the

system have?

13. Does the presence of an entire row of zeros always mean that the system has jv

poles?

14. If a seventh-order system has a row of zeros at the s3 row and two sign changes

below the s4 row, how many jv poles does the system have?

15. Is it true that the eigenvalues of the system matrix are the same as the closed-

loop poles?

16. How do we find the eigenvalues?

Problems

1. Tell how many roots of the following polynomial are Determinehow many closed-loop poles liein theright

in the right half-plane, in the left half-plane, and on half-plane, in the left half-plane, and on the jv-axis.

the jv-axis: [Section: 6.2] 5. How many poles are in the right half-plane, in the

PðsÞ ¼ s þ 3s þ 5s þ 4s þ s þ 3

5 4 3 2 left half-plane, and on the jv-axis for the open-loop

system of Figure P6.1? [Section: 6.3]

2. Tell how many roots of the following polynomial are

in the right half-plane, in the left half-plane, and on

R(s) s2 + 4s – 3 C(s)

the jv-axis: [Section: 6.3]

s4 + 4s3 + 8s2 + 20s +15

PðsÞ ¼ s5 þ 6s3 þ 5s2 þ 8s þ 20

FIGURE P6.1

3. Using the Routh table, tell how many 6. How many poles are in the right half-plane, the left

poles of the following function are in half-plane, and on the jv-axis for the open-loop

the right half-plane, in the left half- system of Figure P6.2? [Section: 6.3]

plane, and on the jv-axis: [Section: 6.3]

sþ8 R(s) –6 C(s)

TðsÞ ¼

s5 s4 þ 4s3 4s2 þ 3s 2 s6 + s5 – 6s4 + s2 + s – 6

[Section: 6.3]

7. Use MATLAB to find the pole

s3 þ 2s2 þ 7s þ 21 locations for the system of

TðsÞ ¼ 5

s 2s4 þ 3s3 6s2 þ 2s 4 Problem 6.

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:9 Page 327

Problems 327

8. Use MATLAB and the Symbolic 15. Given the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with

Math Toolbox to generate a

8

Routh table to solve Problem 3. GðsÞ ¼

sðs6 2s5 s4 þ 2s3 þ 4s2 8s 4Þ

9. Determine whether the unity feedback

system of Figure P6.3 is stable if tell how many closed-loop poles are located in the

[Section: 6.2] right half-plane, in the left half-plane, and on the jv-

240 axis. [Section: 6.3]

GðsÞ ¼ 16. Repeat Problem 15 using MATLAB.

ðs þ 1Þðs þ 2Þðs þ 3Þðs þ 4Þ

17. Consider the following Routh table. Notice that the

R(s) + E(s) C(s) s5 row was originally all zeros. Tell how many roots

G(s) of the original polynomial were in the right half-

–

plane, in the left half-plane, and on the jv-axis.

[Section: 6.3]

FIGURE P6.3

10. Use MATLAB to find the pole

locations for the system of s7 1 2 1 2

Problem 9. s6 1 2 1 2

11. Consider the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 s5 3 4 1 0

with s4 1 1 3 0

1 s3 7 8 0 0

GðsÞ ¼

4s2 ðs2 þ 1Þ s2 15 21 0 0

s1 9 0 0 0

Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, find the region

s0 21 0 0 0

of the s-plane where the poles of the closed-loop

system are located. [Section: 6.3]

12. In the system of Figure P6.3, let 18. For the system of Figure P6.4, tell how

many closed-loop poles are located in

Kðs þ 2Þ the right half-plane, in the left half-

GðsÞ ¼ plane, and on the jv-axis. Notice that

sðs 1Þðs þ 3Þ

there is positive feedback. [Section: 6.3]

Find the range of K for closed-loop stability.

[Section: 6.4] R(s) + E(s) 18 C(s)

13. Given the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with + s5 + s4 – 7s3 – 7s2 – 18s

[Section: 6.3]

84 FIGURE P6.4

GðsÞ ¼

sðs7 þ 5s6 þ 12s5 þ 25s4 þ 45s3 þ 50s2 þ 82s þ 60Þ

19. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, tell how many

tell how many poles of the closed-loop transfer func- closed-loop poles of the system shown in Figure P6.5

tion lie in the right half-plane, in the left half-plane, lie in the left half-plane, in the right half-plane, and

and on the jv-axis. [Section: 6.3] on the jv-axis. [Section: 6.3]

14. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the unity

feedback system of Figure P6.3 with R(s) + 507 C(s)

s4+3s3+10s2+30s+169

1 –

GðsÞ ¼

2s4 þ 5s3 þ s2 þ 2s

1

s

tell whether or not the closed-loop system is stable.

[Section: 6.2] FIGURE P6.5

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:9 Page 328

20. Determine if the unity feedback system of Figure 28. Find the range of gain, K, to ensure stability in the

P6.3 with unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with [Section:

6.4]

Kðs2 þ 1Þ

GðsÞ ¼ Kðs 2Þðs þ 4Þðs þ 5Þ

ðs þ 1Þðs þ 2Þ GðsÞ ¼

ðs2 þ 12Þ

can be unstable. [Section: 6.4]

21. For the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with 29. Find the range of gain, K, to ensure stability in the

unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with [Section:

Kðs þ 6Þ 6.4]

GðsÞ ¼

sðs þ 1Þðs þ 4Þ Kðs þ 2Þ

GðsÞ ¼ 2

ðs þ 1Þðs þ 4Þðs 1Þ

determine the range of K to ensure stability.

[Section: 6.4] 30. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, find the value of

22. In the system of Figure P6.3, let K that will yield oscillations for the unity feedback

system of Figure P6.3 with [Section: 6.4]

Kðs aÞ

GðsÞ ¼ K

sðs bÞ GðsÞ ¼

ðs þ 77Þðs þ 27Þðs þ 38Þ

Find the range of K for closed-loop stability when:

31. Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find the range

[Section: 6.4]

of K for which the system of Figure P6.6 is stable.

a. a < 0; b<0 [Section: 6.4]

b. a < 0; b>0

c. a > 0; b<0 R(s) + E(s) C(s)

K(s2 – 2s + 2)

d. a > 0; b>0 –

23. For the unity feedback system of

Figure P6.3 with 1

s2 + 2s + 4

Kðs þ 3Þðs þ 5Þ

GðsÞ ¼ FIGURE P6.6

ðs 2Þðs 4Þ

32. Repeat Problem 31 for the system of

determine the range of K for stability. [Section: 6.4] Figure P6.7. [Section: 6.4]

24. Repeat Problem 23 using MATLAB.

R(s) + E(s) K(s + 2) C(s)

25. Use MATLAB and the Symbolic s(s + 1)(s + 3)

–

Math Toolbox to generate a

Routh table in terms of K to

solve Problem 23. s+6

s+7

26. Find the range of K for stability for the unity feed-

back system of Figure P6.3 with [Section: 6.4] FIGURE P6.7

33. Given the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with

Kðs þ 4Þðs 4Þ

GðsÞ ¼ Kðs þ 4Þ

ðs2 þ 3Þ GðsÞ ¼

sðs þ 1:2Þðs þ 2Þ

27. For the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with

find the following: [Section: 6.4]

Kðs þ 1Þ a. The range of K that keeps the system stable

GðsÞ ¼

s4 ðs þ 2Þ b. The value of K that makes the system oscillate

c. The frequency of oscillation when K is set to the

find the range of K for stability. [Section: 6.4] value that makes the system oscillate

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:9 Page 329

Problems 329

34. Repeat Problem 33 for [Section: 6.4] a. Find the range of K for stability.

Kðs 1Þðs 2Þ b. Find the frequency of oscillation when the system

GðsÞ ¼ is marginally stable.

ðs þ 2Þðs2 þ 2s þ 2Þ

41. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the

35. For the system shown in Figure P6.8, find the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with

value of gain, K, that will make the system oscil- [Section: 6.4]

late. Also, find the frequency of oscillation.

[Section: 6.4] K

GðsÞ ¼

sðs þ 1Þðs þ 2Þðs þ 5Þ

R(s) + + 1 C(s)

K s(s+7)(s+3)

– – a. Find the range of K for stability.

b. Find the value of K for marginal stability.

s c. Find the actual location of the closed-loop poles

when the system is marginally stable.

FIGURE P6.8 42. Find the range of K to keep the system shown in

Figure P6.9 stable. [Section: 6.4]

36. Given the unity feedback system of

Figure P6.3 with [Section: 6.4]

R(s) + E(s) K C(s)

Ksðs þ 2Þ s

GðsÞ ¼ –

ðs 4s þ 8Þðs þ 3Þ

2

s–1

a. Find the range of K for stability.

s2 + 2s + 1

b. Find the frequency of oscillation when the system

is marginally stable. FIGURE P6.9

43. Find the value of K in the system of

Figure P6.10 that will place the closed-

38. For the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with loop poles as shown. [Section: 6.4]

Kðs þ 2Þ

GðsÞ ¼

ðs2 þ 1Þðs þ 4Þðs 1Þ

R(s) + K C(s)

s2

find the range of K for which there will be only two – s2

closed-loop, right–half-plane poles. [Section: 6.4] +

2 +

39. For the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with s

[Section: 6.4]

K 1

GðsÞ ¼ s+1

ðs þ 1Þ3 ðs þ 4Þ

jω

a. Find the range of K for stability.

b. Find the frequency of oscillation when the system

is marginally stable.

σ

40. Given the unity feedback system of Figure P6.3 with

[Section: 6.4]

K

GðsÞ ¼

ðs þ 49Þðs2 þ 4s þ 5Þ FIGURE P6.10 Closed-loop system with pole plot

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:10 Page 330

44. The closed-loop transfer function of a system is 48. A linearized model of a torque-controlled crane

hoisting a load with a fixed rope length is

s2 þ K 1 s þ K 2

TðsÞ ¼

s4 þ K 1 s3 þ K 2 s2 þ 5s þ 1 X T ðsÞ 1 s2 þ v20

PðsÞ ¼ ¼

F T ðsÞ mT s2 ðs2 þ av20 Þ

Determine the range of K 1 in order for the system to

be stable. What is the relationship between K 1 and qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

g

K 2 for stability? [Section: 6.4] where v0 ¼ L ; L ¼ the rope length, mT ¼ the mass

45. For the transfer function below, find the constraints of the car, a ¼ the combined rope and car mass, f T ¼

on K 1 and K 2 such that the function will have only the force input applied to the car, and xT ¼ the

two jv poles. [Section: 6.4] resulting rope displacement (Marttinen, 1990). If

the system is controlled in a feedback configuration

K1 s þ K2 by placing it in a loop as shown in Figure P6.11, with

TðsÞ ¼

s4 þ K 1 s3 þ s2 þ K2 s þ 1 K > 0; where will the closed-loop poles be located?

R(s) + C(s)

speed (rpm) to the input main burner fuel flow rate K P(s)

(lb/h) in a short takeoff and landing (STOL) fighter –

aircraft, ignoring the coupling between engine fan

speed and the pitch control command, is (Schier-

man, 1992) [Section: 6.4] FIGURE P6.11

GðsÞ ¼

s8 þ 103s7 þ 1180s6 þ 4040s5 þ 2150s4 8960s3 10; 600s2 1550s 415 49. The read/write head assembly arm of a computer

hard disk drive (HDD) can be modeled as a rigid

a. Find how many poles are in the right half-plane, rotating body with inertia I b : Its dynamics can be

in the left half-plane, and on the jv-axis. described with the transfer function

b. Is this open-loop system stable?

47. An interval polynomial is of the form XðsÞ 1

PðsÞ ¼ ¼

FðsÞ I b s2

PðsÞ ¼ a0 þ a1 s þ a2 s2 þ a3 s3 þ a4 s4 þ a5 s5 þ

with its coefficients belonging to intervals where X(s) is the displacement of the read/write

xi ai yi , where xi, yi are prescribed constants. head and F(s) is the applied force (Yan, 2003).

Kharitonov’s theorem says that an interval polyno- Show that if the HDD is controlled in the con-

mial has all its roots in the left half-plane if each one figuration shown in Figure P6.11, the arm will

of the following four polynomials has its roots in the oscillate and cannot be positioned with any pre-

left half-plane (Minichelli, 1989): cision over a HDD track. Find the oscillation

frequency.

K1 ðsÞ ¼ x0 þ x1 s þ y2 s2 þ y3 s3 þ x4 s4 þ x5 s5 þ y6 s6 þ

K2 ðsÞ ¼ x0 þ y1 s þ y2 s2 þ x3 s3 þ x4 s4 þ y5 s5 þ y6 s6 þ 50. A system is represented in state space as

K3 ðsÞ ¼ y0 þ x1 s þ x2 s2 þ y3 s3 þ y4 s4 þ x5 s5 þ x6 s6 þ 2 3 2 3

K4 ðsÞ ¼ y0 þ y1 s þ x2 s2 þ x3 s3 þ y4 s4 þ y5 s5 þ x6 s6 þ 0 1 3 0

x_ ¼ 4 2 2 4 5x þ 4 1 5u

Use Kharitonov’s theorem and the Routh-Hurwitz 1 4 3 0

criterion to find if the following polynomial has any y ¼ ½1 1 0 x

zeros in the right–half-plane.

Determine how many eigenvalues are in the right

PðsÞ ¼ a0 þ a1 s þ a2 s2 þ a3 s3 half-plane, in the left half-plane, and on the jv-axis.

2 a0 4; 1 a1 2; 4 a2 6; a3 ¼ 1 [Section: 6.5]

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:10 Page 331

Problems 331

51. Use MATLAB to find the eigenval- of gain, K, that will keep the system stable. Can the

ues of the following system: system ever be unstable for positive values of K?

2 3

2 3 56. A common application of control systems is in

0 1 0 0 regulating the temperature of a chemical process

6 7 6 7

x_ ¼ 4 0 1 4 5x þ 4 0 5u (Figure P6.13). The flow of a chemical reactant to a

process is controlled by an actuator and valve. The

1 1 8 0

reactant causes the temperature in the vat to

y ¼ ½0 0 1 x change. This temperature is sensed and compared

to a desired set-point temperature in a closed loop,

where the flow of reactant is adjusted to yield the

52. The following system in state space

desired temperature. In Chapter 9, we will learn

represents the forward path of a unity

how a PID controller is used to improve the per-

feedback system. Use the Routh-

formance of such process control systems. Figure

Hurwitz criterion to determine if

P6.13 shows the control system prior to the addition

the closed-loop system is stable. [Sec-

of the PID controller. The PID controller is

tion: 6.5]

replaced by the shaded box with a gain of unity.

2 3 2 3 For this system, prior to the design of the PID

0 1 0 0 controller, find the range of amplifier gain, K, to

x_ ¼ 4 0 1 3 5x þ 4 0 5u keep the system stable.

3 4 5 1

y ¼ ½0 1 1 x

Actuator Chemical

Desired Future PID and heat

53. Repeat Problem 52 using temperature controller Amplifier valve process

Actual

MATLAB. set point + 1 0.7 temperature

1 K

– s + 0.4 s2 + 1.7s + 0.25

54. A Butterworth polynomial is of the form

2n 0.1

n s s + 0.1

Bn ðsÞ ¼ 1 þ ð1Þ ; n > 0:

vc Temperature

sensor

Use the Routh-Hurwitz criteria to find the zeros of FIGURE P6.13 Block diagram of a chemical process control

a Butterworth polynomial for: system

b. n ¼ 2 Control) can be used as part of a system to feed

people with disabilities (see Figure P6.14(a)). The

control system guides the spoon to the food and

DESIGN PROBLEMS then to a position near the person’s mouth. The arm

55. A model for an airplane’s pitch loop is uses a special pneumatically controlled actuator

shown in Figure P6.12. Find the range called a rubbertuator. Rubbertuators consist of rub-

ber tubes covered with fiber cord. The actuator

contracts in length when pneumatic pressure is

increased and expands in length when pressure is

Commanded

Controller Aircraft dynamics decreased. This expansion and contraction in length

pitch angle + K(s + 1) s + 10 Pitch angle can drive a pulley or other device. A video camera

(s + 4.85) s2 + 0.6s + 9 provides the sight for the robot and the tracking

–

loop (Kara, 1992). Assume the simplified block

1

diagram shown in Figure P6.14(b) for regulating

the spoon at a distance from the mouth. Find the

Gyro range of K for stability. (Use of a program with

FIGURE P6.12 Aircraft pitch loop model symbolic capability is recommended.)

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:10 Page 332

Desired Actual

force Controller Plant force

R(s) + 63 × 106 C(s)

K

(s+30)(s+140)(s + 2.5)

–

permission of ASME.)

and not easily predicted. However, assuming

the simplified force control model shown in Figure

P6.16, use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find the

range of K to keep the system stable (Rober, 1997).

60. Transportation systems that use magnetic levitation

can reach very high speeds, since contact friction at

(a) the rails is eliminated (see Figure P6.17(a)). Electro-

magnets can produce the force to elevate the vehi-

Desired Actual cle. Figure P6.17(b) is a simulation model of a

spoon Rubbertuator spoon control system that can be used to regulate the

position Controller and load position

R(s) +

magnetic gap. In the figure, Zvin ðsÞ represents a

K(s+0.01)(s+6) 10 C(s)

s(s+20)(s+100) s2+10s+29

voltage proportional to the desired amount of levi-

–

tation, or gap. Zvout ðsÞ represents a voltage propor-

tional to the actual amount of levitation. The plant

(b)

models the dynamic response of the vehicle to

FIGURE P6.14 a. ISAC used for feeding (Courtesy of

Kazuhiko Kawamura, Vanderbilt University.)

b. simplified block diagram

another vehicle, such as a practice

target or glider. To stabilize the

towed vehicle and prevent it from

rolling, pitching, and yawing, an autopilot is built

into the towed vehicle. Assume the block diagram

shown in Figure P6.15 represents the autopilot roll

control system (Cochran, 1992). Find the range of K

to keep the roll angle stable.

roll angle Compensator Actuator dynamics roll angle

φc(s) + K(s+0.6)(s+6) 200 500 φ (s)

(a)

Zvin(s) + 7570 Zvout(s)

K(s+0.8)(s+103)

59. Cutting forces should be kept constant during – s (s+62.61)(s–62.61)

machining operations to prevent changes in spindle

speeds or work position. Such changes would dete- (b)

riorate the accuracy of the work’s dimensions. A FIGURE P6.17 a. A magnetic levitation transportation system

control system is proposed to control the cutting (# Japan Air Lines/Photo Researchers); b. simplified block

force. The plant is difficult to model, since the diagram (# 1998 IEEE)

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:10 Page 333

Problems 333

signals from the controller (Bittar, 1998). Use the The circuit will oscillate if it is designed to have

Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find the range of gain, poles on the jv-axis.

K, to keep the closed loop system stable. a. Show that the transfer function for the passive

61. A transfer function from indoor radiator power, network in the circuit is given by

_

QðsÞ; to room temperature, T(s), in an 11 m2

V 2 ðsÞ 1

room is ¼

V 1 ðsÞ 1 1 2 2

TðsÞ 1 106 s2 þ 1:314 109 s þ 2:66 1013

1þ 2þ 3

PðsÞ ¼ ¼ sRC sRC sRC

_

QðsÞ s3 þ 0:00163s2 þ 5:272 107 s þ 3:538 1011

b. Show that the oscillator’s characteristic equation

where Q _ is in watts and T is in C. (Thomas, 2005). is given by

1

The room’s temperature will be controlled by 1K ¼ 0;

embedding it in a closed loop, such as that of Figure 1 1 2 2

1þ 2þ 3

P6.11. Find the range of K for closed-loop stability. sRC sRC sRC

62. During vertical spindle surface grinding, adjust-

R2

ments are made on a multi-axis computer numerical where K ¼

R1

control (CNC) machine by measuring the applied

force with a dynamometer and applying appropriate c. Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to obtain the

corrections. This feedback force control results in oscillation condition and the oscillation

higher homogeneity and better tolerances in the frequency.

resulting finished product. In a specific experiment 64. In order to obtain a low-cost lithium-ion battery

with an extremely high feed rate, the transfer func- charger, the feedback loop of Figure P6.3 is used,

tion from the desired depth of cut (DOC) to applied where GðsÞ ¼ Gc ðsÞPðsÞ. The following transfer

force was functions have been derived for G(s) (Tsang,

2009):

FðsÞ KC

¼

DOCðsÞ

1þ 2

KC

KC 1 R1 R2 C1 C2 s2 þ ðR1 C1 þ R2 C1 þ R2 C2 Þs þ 1

ms þ bs þ k K f Ts þ 1 PðsÞ ¼

C1 ð1 þ R2 C2 Þs

Gc ðsÞ ¼ K p þ

104 Kg; K C ¼ 1:5 104 N/mm and T ¼ 0:004 s: Kf s

is a parameter that is varied to adjust the system.

If R1 ¼ 0:15 V; R2 ¼ 0:44 V; C1 ¼ 7200 F; and C2 ¼

Find the range of K f under which the system is

170 F use the Routh-Hurwitz criteria to find the

stable (Hekman, 1999).

range of positive KP and KI for which the system is

63. Figure P6.18 depicts the schematic diagram of a closed-loop stable.

phase shift oscillator.

65. Figure P6.19 is a simplified and linearized block

diagram of a cascade control system, which is used

to control water level in a steam generator of a

nuclear power plant (Wang, 2009,).

R1 R2 In this system, the level controller, GLC(s), is the

master controller and the feed-water flow controller,

GFC(s) is the slave controller. Using mass balance

C C C equations, the water level would ordinarily be

+

– regarded as a simple integration process of water

+ + flow. In a steam generator, however, steam flow rate

V1(t) R R R V2(t) and the cooling effect of feed-water change the

– – dynamics of that process. Taking the latter into

account and ignoring the much-less pronounced

impact of changes in steam flow rate, a first-order

FIGURE P6.18 Phase shift oscillator lag plus time delay is introduced into the transfer

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:12 Page 334

Controlled

Set point level

R(s) + X (s) + Y (s) Qw (s) C (s)

GLC (s) GFC (s) GV (s) Gfw (s)

_ _

FIGURE P6.19

2 3 2 3

function, Gfw(s), relating the controlled level, C(s), V_ 2 3 V

6 7 11:7 6:8 61:6K 7:7K 6 7

to feed-water flow rate, Qw(s) as follows: 6 r_ 7 6 3:5 6r 7

6 7¼6 24 66:9K 8:4K 7

76 7

6_ 7 4 0 1 0 0 56 c 7

CðsÞ K 1 et1 S 2e2S 4c 5 4 5

Gf w ðsÞ ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 0 10 0

Qw ðsÞ sðT 1 s þ 1Þ sð25s þ 1Þ Y_ g Yg

2 In this model, V ¼ bicycle’s lateral velocity, r ¼

sð25s þ 1Þð2s2 þ 2s þ 1Þ bicycle’s yaw velocity, c ¼ bicycle’s yaw accelera-

tion, and Y g ¼ bicycle’s center of gravity coordinate

where K1 ¼ 2 is the process gain, t 1 ¼ 2 is the pure on the y-axis. K is a controller parameter to be

time delay, and T 1 ¼ 25 is the steam generator’s chosen by the designer (Ozg€€ uner, 1995). Use the

time constant. (The expression et1 s represents Routh-Hurwitz citerion to find the range of K for

a time delay. This function can be represented by which the system is closed-loop stable.

what is known as a Pade approximation. This ap-

proximation can take on many increasingly compli- PROGRESSIVE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROBLEMS

cated forms, depending upon the degree of accuracy 67. High-speed rail pantograph. Problem 21 in Chapter 1

required. Here we use the Pade approximation, discusses active control of a pantograph mechanism

1 for high-speed rail systems. In Problem 79(a), Chap-

ex , and specific numerical values for ter 5, you found the block diagram for the active

x2

1þxþ pantograph control system. Using your solution for

2! Problem 79(a) in Chapter 5 and the Routh-Hurwitz

the considered steam generator.)

criterion, find the range of controller gain, K, that will

The dynamic characteristics of the control valve

keep the system stable (O’Connor, 1997).

are approximated by the transfer function:

Q ðsÞ Kv 1

Gv ðsÞ ¼ w ¼ ¼ , where Kv is the 68. Control of HIV/AIDS. The HIV infection linear-

YðsÞ T v s þ 1 3s þ 1 ized model developed in Problem 82, Chapter 4, can

valve gain and Tv is its time constant. be shown to have the transfer function

Given that: GFC ðsÞ ¼ K PFC þ K DFC s ¼ 0:5 þ 2s

YðsÞ 520s 10:3844

and GLC ðsÞ ¼ K PLC þ K DLC s ¼ 0:5 þ K s, use the PðsÞ ¼ ¼

Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find the range of the U 1 ðsÞ s3 þ 2:6817s2 þ 0:11s þ 0:0126

level controller’s derivative gain, K DLC ¼ K > 0, Desired virus

that will keep the system stable. count change + U1(s) Virus count change, Y(s)

G(s) P(s)

66. Look-ahead information can be used to automati- –

cally steer a bicycle in a closed-loop configuration.

A line is drawn in the middle of the lane to be

followed, and an arbitrary point is chosen in the FIGURE P6.20

vehicle’s longitudinal axis. A look-ahead offset is

calculated by measuring the distance between the It is desired to develop a policy for drug delivery to

look-ahead point and the reference line and is used maintain the virus count at prescribed levels. For

by the system to correct the vehicle’s trajectory. A the purpose of obtaining an appropriate u1 ðtÞ;

linearized model of a particular bicycle traveling on feedback will be used as shown in Figure P6.20

a straight-line path at a fixed longitudinal speed is (Craig, 2004).

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:12 Page 335

0.6154

Torque

controller Armature Motive TL (s) Motor

Ref. Speed Speed & power resistance Armature torque angular Vehicle

error amplifier Ra(s)

signal controller

UC (s) Ua(s) current T(s) _ speed speed

Ev(s) Ia(s)

Rv(s) K p s + 40 + 10 s + 6 + + 1 Ω (s) 0.3 V(s)

1 1.8

s s 7.226s 4.875

+ _ _ _ _

Feedback Friction

Feedback Eb(s) torque

current signal Back emf

speed signal Tf (s)

KCS Ia(s)

KSS Ω (s) 0.1

2

Current sensor

sensitivity

0.5

Speed sensor

sensitivity

0.0443

FIGURE P6.21

As a first approach, consider GðsÞ ¼ K; a constant have been substituted. It is assumed here that the

to be selected. Use the Routh-Hurwitz criteria to speed controller has a proportional gain, Kp, to be

find the range of K for which the system is closed- adjusted. Use the Routh-Hurwitz stability method

loop stable. to find the range of positive Kp for which the system

69. Hybrid vehicle. Figure P6.21 shows the HEV system is closed-loop stable (Graebe, 1995).

presented in Chapter 5, where parameter values

Experiment 6.1

Objectives To verify the effect of pole location upon stability. To verify the effect

upon stability of loop gain in a negative feedback system. R(s) + C(s)

G(s)

Minimum Required Software Packages MATLAB, Simulink, and the –

Control System Toolbox

H(s)

Prelab

1. Find the equivalent transfer function of the negative feedback system of Figure FIGURE P6.22

P6.22 if

K

GðsÞ ¼ and HðsÞ ¼ 1

sðs þ 2Þ2

2. For the system of Prelab 1, find two values of gain that will yield closed-loop,

overdamped, second-order poles. Repeat for underdamped poles.

3. For the system of Prelab 1, find the value of gain, K, that will make the system

critically damped.

E1C06 11/03/2010 21:23:12 Page 336

4. For the system of Prelab 1, find the value of gain, K, that will make the system

marginally stable. Also, find the frequency of oscillation at that value of K that

makes the system marginally stable.

5. For each of Prelab 2 through 4, plot on one graph the pole locations for each case

and write the corresponding value of gain, K, at each pole.

Lab

1. Using Simulink, set up the negative feedback system of Prelab 1. Plot the step

response of the system at each value of gain calculated to yield overdamped,

underdamped, critically damped, and marginally stable responses.

2. Plot the step responses for two values of gain, K, above that calculated to yield

marginal stability.

3. At the output of the negative feedback system, cascade the transfer function

1

G1 ðsÞ ¼

s2 þ 4

Set the gain, K, at a value below that calculated for marginal stability and plot the

step response. Repeat for K calculated to yield marginal stability.

Postlab

1. From your plots, discuss the conditions that lead to unstable responses.

2. Discuss the effect of gain upon the nature of the step response of a closed-loop

system.

Experiment 6.2

Objective To use the LabVIEW Control Design and Simulation Module for

stability analysis.

and Simulation Module

Prelab Select six transfer functions of various orders and use Routh-Hurwitz to

determine their stability.

Lab Create a LabVIEW VI that receives the order and the coefficients of the

characteristic equation and outputs the location of the poles and information

regarding stability.

Bibliography

Ballard, R. D. The Riddle of the Lusitania. National Geographic, April 1994, National

Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 68–85.

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