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Recall the functions of the organs in the gas exchange system.

The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel
carbon dioxide as we breathe.

The gas exchange process is performed by the lungs and respiratory system. Air, a mix
of oxygen and other gases, is inhaled.

In the throat, the trachea, or windpipe, filters the air. The trachea branches into two bronchi,
tubes that lead to the lungs.

Once in the lungs, oxygen is moved into the bloodstream. Blood carries the oxygen through the
body to where it is needed.

Red blood cells collect carbon dioxide from the body’s cells and transports it back to the lungs.

An exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli, small structures within the
lungs. The carbon dioxide, a waste gas, is exhaled and the cycle begins again with the next

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle below the lungs that controls breathing. The diaphragm
flattens out and pulls forward, drawing air into the lungs for inhalation. During exhalation the
diaphragm expands to force air out of the lungs.

Adults normally take 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Strenuous exercise drives the breath rate up to
an average of 45 breaths per minute.

Describe how substances reach respiring cells form the blood and how waste products are
returned to the blood.

Blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries
away carbon dioxide and other waste products. Technically, blood is a
transport liquid pumped by the heart (or an equivalent structure) to all parts of
the body, after which it is returned to the heart to repeat the process. Blood is
both a tissue and a fluid. It is a tissue because it is a collection of similar
specialized cells that serve particular functions. These cells are suspended in
a liquid matrix (plasma), which makes the blood a fluid. If blood flow ceases,
death will occur within minutes because of the effects of an
unfavourable environment on highly susceptible cells.
Describe the causes and explain the effects of reduced oxygen supply on the

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By Mayo Clinic Staff
Several factors are needed to continuously supply the cells and tissues in your body
with oxygen:

 There must be enough oxygen in the air you are breathing

 Your lungs must be able to inhale the oxygen-containing air — and exhale carbon
 Your bloodstream must be able to circulate blood to your lungs, take up the oxygen
and carry it throughout your body
A problem with any of these factors — for example, high altitude, asthma or heart
disease — might result in hypoxemia, particularly under more extreme conditions, such
as exercise or illness. When your blood oxygen falls below a certain level, you might
experience shortness of breath, headache, and confusion or restlessness.
Common causes of hypoxemia include:

 Anemia
 ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome)
 Asthma
 Congenital heart defects in children
 Congenital heart disease in adults
 COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
 Emphysema
 Interstitial lung disease
 Medications, such as certain narcotics and anesthetics, that depress breathing
 Pneumonia
 Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
 Pulmonary edema (excess fluid in the lungs)
 Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in an artery in the lung)
 Pulmonary fibrosis (scarred and damaged lungs)
 Sleep apnea

Describe how to detect aerobic respiration ?

Respiration releases energy for cells from glucose. This can be aerobic respiration,
which needs oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which does not. During exercise, the
breathing rate and heart rate increase. During hard exercise an oxygen debt may build

Aerobic respiration
Energy is needed for life processes such as:
 Protein synthesis
 Muscle contraction
 Control of body temperature in mammals
Respiration provides the energy needed for all life processes in plants and in animals.
Aerobic respiration needs oxygen. These are the equations for aerobic respiration:
Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
C6H12O6 + 6O2→ 6CO2 + 6H2O

Measuring respiration rate

The rate of respiration can be determined by measuring:
 Increased oxygen consumption
 Increased carbon dioxide production
The faster the rate of respiration, the greater the rate of oxygen use and the greater the rate of
carbon dioxide release. Take care not to confuse respiration with breathing, and rate of
respiration with breathing rate.

Describe how fluid pressure changes with depth or height.

Pressure exists on surfaces, in air and in liquids. On surfaces it is calculated by dividing force by
area. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height, and liquid pressure increases with depth.

Pressure in fluids
Liquids and gases are fluids. A fluid is able to change shape and flow from place to place. Fluids
exert pressure on surfaces, and this pressure acts at 90° to those surfaces – we say that it
acts normal to the surface.

Atmospheric pressure
The atmosphere exerts a pressure on you, and everything around you. You may have seen a
demonstration of the effects of this atmospheric pressure.

Atmospheric pressure changes with altitude. The higher you go:

 the lower the weight of the air above you

 the lower the atmospheric pressure
For example, atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 100,000 Pa, but it is only about 21,000
Pa at the cruising height of an airliner.

Pressure in liquids
Just like the atmosphere, liquids exert pressure on objects. The pressure in liquids changes with
depth. The deeper you go:
 the greater the weight of liquid above
 the greater the liquid pressure

Pressure in a liquid increases with depth so the jet coming from the bottom of the bucket
travels further sideways
Liquid pressure is exerted on the surface of an object in a liquid. This pressure causes upthrust.
An object placed in a liquid will begin to sink. As it sinks, the liquid pressure on it increases and
so the upthrust increases. For a floating object, the upthrust is equal and opposite to the object’s
weight. An object will continue to sink if its weight is greater than the maximum upthrust.

The weight of the boat is balanced by the upthrust from the water

Explain some Effects of pressure in different situations using a particle model.

Pressure in gases
If you ride your bike over a bump in the road, you will be pleased that gases exert pressure on
the walls of their container. A pumped-up tyre cushions the rider against bumps, but a flat tyre
does not. The pressure of the air inside a flat tyre is just too low to do this.

Colliding particles
The particles in a gas move quickly in all directions, but they do not get far before they collide
with each other or with the walls of their container. Gas pressure is caused when gas particles hit
the walls of their container. The more often the particles hit the walls, and the faster they are
moving when they do this, the higher the pressure.

This is why the pressure in a tyre or balloon goes up when more air is pumped in.

Heating increases pressure

If a gas is heated, its particles move around more quickly. They hit the walls of their
container harder and more often. This increases the pressure. Sometimes the pressure
gets so great that the container bursts.

This is why balloons and tyres burst if you blow them up too much. It is also why
deodorant spray cans carry warning signs to tell you not to leave them in the sunshine.
If they get too hot they may explode.
explain why some objects float and some sink in water

The first is gravity, and this force is a function of the weight of the object. It pulls the
object towards the planet.

The second is buoyancy, and is a function of the volume of the object. It pushes the
object towards the surface of the water, or away from the planet.

The net effect is the difference between the two forces. If buoyancy is greater, the object
will float; otherwise it will sink.

Explain how internal energy and temperature are different.

Heating and temperature


A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of an object

The temperature of an object is to do with how hot or cold it is, measured in degrees Celsius.
Note that the unit of temperature is written as °C, (not °c or oC).

All objects contain internal energy. Some of this is due to the movement of the particles in the
object. When an object is heated, its particles move more vigorously and its internal energy
increases. Unless the object changes state (eg melts or boils), its temperature will increase.

Example 1

A swimming pool at 30°C is at a lower temperature than a cup of tea at 80°C. But the swimming
pool contains more water, so it stores more internal energy than the cup of tea.
Example 2

To boil water we must increase its temperature to 100°C. It takes longer to boil a large beaker of
water than a small beaker. This is because the large beaker contains more water and needs to
gain more internal energy to reach 100°C.

Explain what happens to particles when liquid evaporates.

Change of state
Substances can change state, usually when they are heated or cooled. For example, liquid water
turns into steam when it is heated enough, and it turns into ice when it is cooled enough.

The closeness, arrangement and motion of the particles in a substance change when it changes
state. Simple diagrams of particles in a solid, liquid and a gas are shown like this:

Gaining energy
The table summarises what happens to the particles in a substance when it gains
energy, and it melts or boils (ie changes state):

Melting Evaporating or boiling

Description Solid to liquid Liquid to gas

Melting Evaporating or boiling

Closeness of particles Stay close together Become much further apart

Arrangement of
Regular to random Stay random

Start to move around each Become able to move quickly in all

Motion of particles
other directions

Evaporation happens below the boiling point of a liquid. When the liquid reaches its
boiling point, evaporation happens very quickly and the liquid boils.

Losing energy
The table summarises what happens to the particles in a substance when it loses energy, and it
freezes or condenses (ie changes state):

Condensing Freezing

Description Gas to liquid Liquid to solid

Closeness of
Become much closer together Stay close together

Arrangement of
Stay random Random to regular

Stop moving quickly in all directions, and can Stop moving around each other, and
Motion of particles
only move around each other only vibrate on the spot

Conservation of mass
The particles in a substance stay the same when it changes state - only their closeness,
arrangement or motion change. This means that the mass of the substance stays the same. For
example, 10 g of water boils to form 10 g of steam, or freezes to form 10 g of ice. This is
called conservation of mass.
Explain how energy is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection.

What is Heat?
All matter is made up of molecules and atoms. These atoms are always in different types of motion
(translation, rotational, vibrational). The motion of atoms and molecules creates heat or thermal
energy. All matter has this thermal energy. The more motion the atoms or molecules have the more
heat or thermal energy they will have.

The above is a flash file (requires Flash) made from a short molecular dynamics simulation of water.
The green lines represent hydrogen bonds between oxygen and hydrogen. Notice the tight structure
of water (works best with Chrome).
It is still possible to see all the motions the waters molecules have.
What is temperature?
From the video above that shows movement of atoms and molecules it can be seen that some move
faster than others. Temperature is an average value of energy for all the atoms and molecules in a
given system. Temperature is independent of how much matter there is in the system. It is simply an
average of the energy in the system.
How is heat transferred?
Heat can travel from one place to another in three ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation.
Both conduction and convection require matter to transfer heat.
If there is a temperature difference between two systems heat will always find a way to transfer from
the higher to lower system.
Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other. The
better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Metal is a good conduction of heat.
Conduction occurs when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and vibrate more.
These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This
then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.
Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection. Convection occurs when
warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then
takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This results in a continous circulation
pattern. Water boiling in a pan is a good example of these convection currents. Another good
example of convection is in the atmosphere. The earth's surface is warmed by the sun, the warm air
rises and cool air moves in.
Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source
and the heated object as is the case with conduction and convection. Heat can be transmitted
through empty space by thermal radiation often called infrared radiation. This is a
type electromagnetic radiation . No mass is exchanged and no medium is required in the process of
radiation. Examples of radiation is the heat from the sun, or heat released from the filament of a light
RECALL Ways of reducing energy transfers.

Saving energy
Electricity can be used to heat homes and offices. If some of the heat escapes from the house, it
costs money and wastes resources. There are several ways that heat can escape from a house,
and different ways to reduce these losses. In deciding how cost-effective an energy-saving
measure is, we need to know what its payback time is:
Heat is lost through:
 the roof - fit loft insulation
 windows - fit double glazing and curtains
 gaps around the door - fit draught excluders
 the walls - fit cavity wall insulation
 the floor - fit a carpet
Heat energy is transferred from homes by conduction through the walls, floor, roof and windows.
It is also transferred from homes by convection. For example, cold air can enter a house through
gaps in doors and windows, and convection currents can transfer heat energy in the loft to the
roof tiles. Heat energy also leaves the house by radiation through the walls, roof and windows.

Ways to reduce heat loss

There are some simple ways to reduce heat loss, including fitting carpets, curtains and draught
Heat loss through windows can be reduced by using double glazing. There can be either air or
a vacuum between the two panes of glass. Air is a poor conductor of heat, while a vacuum can
only transfer heat energy by radiation.
Heat loss through walls can be reduced using cavity wall insulation. This involves blowing
insulating material into the gap between the brick and the inside wall, which reduces the heat
loss by conduction. The material also prevents air circulating inside the cavity, therefore reducing
heat loss by convection.
Heat loss through the roof can be reduced by laying loft insulation. This works in a similar way to
cavity wall insulation.

Describe what power and efficiency means.

Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money,
and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. ... In general, efficiency is a
measurable concept, quantitatively determined by the ratio of useful output to total input.
Efficiency Formula
Efficiency is a measure of how much work or energy is conserved in a process.
In many processes, work or energy is lost, for example as waste heat or
vibration. The efficiency is the energy output, divided by the energy input, and
expressed as a percentage. A perfect process would have an efficiency of 100%.

Power is the ability or capacity to do something or act in a particular way.

Explain how power companies charge for energy used.

Energy costs
In science, the unit used for energy is the joule, J. However, energy suppliers (companies that
provide electricity and gas) use a different unit. This is the kilowatt hour, shown as kW hour or

One kWh is the same as the amount of energy used by a 1 kW appliance for 1 hour:

A 2 kW electric fire is used for 3 hours. Calculate the energy used in

energy used = 2 kW × 3 h = 6 kWh

A 40 W electric lamp is used for 45 minutes. Calculate the energy used
in kWh.

40 W = 40 ÷ 1000 = 0.04 kW

45 minutes = 45 ÷ 60 = 0.75 h

energy used = 0.04 kW × 0.75 h = 0.03 kWh