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Annotated Bibliography 1

Annotated Bibliography

Jake Kopinski

The University of Texas at El Paso

RWS 1301

Dr. Vierra

Annotated Bibliography 2

Research Questions

1. What is mental health/illness?

2. What are the causes in different areas of the world?

3. How does mental illness affect people globally?

4. How is mental health viewed globally?

5. How does mental affect UTEP students?

Annotated Bibliography 3

Annotated Bibliography

Blanco, C. Okuda, M. Wright, C. Mental Health of College Students and Their Non–College-

Attending Peers Results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related

Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65.1429–1437. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.12.1429

College aged people are at risk of many psychiatric diseases. Research has shown that

college students and non-college-attending counterparts suffer from mental illnesses at

the same rate but are at greater risk for certain diseases. According to the authors, a

college student is more susceptible to alcoholism. While their peers that don’t attend

college are at a higher risk of drug and nicotine addiction. With your college aged years

being some of the most important years of your life, it is vital for college students and

their peers alike to seek out help. A study conducted by the authors states that out of the

subjects interviewed and diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder less than 25% sought out

help (p.1429). With that being such a low percentage, the stigma surrounding mental

illness is something that needs to change.

This reflection compares and contrast metal disorders in college aged students. It also

shows what disorders a person might be more susceptible to depending on their

educational background.

Grove, B. (1994). Reform of Mental Health Care in Europe: Progress and Change in the Last

Decade. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165(4), 431-433. doi:10.1192/bjp.165.4.431

When comparing countries mental health programs, there is not a more diverse view than

in Europe. With so many unique social and economic problems differing in each corner

of the continent, you have many different systems set in place to attempt to tackle the
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same issues of providing care for mental health. But who seems to do the best?

According to Bob Grove (1994) The East is turning to the West for answers. With the

suicide rate increasing in eastern European countries it is obvious that there needs to be

reform. If you compare metal health associations from a western European country and

eastern/southern country, you can see that it is all about money. In eastern Europe, many

countries have privatized mental health institutions, leaving patients to pay more for a

less effective treatment. While in the west, independent organizations help with metal

health legislation and reform.

This reflection shines light on the issues of mental health care in Europe. Specifically, on

the comparison of eastern to western European countries.

Kokai, M. Fujii, S. Shinfuku, N. Edwards, G. (2004). Natural Disasters and Mental Health in

Asia. Psychiatric and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 58(2), pp. 110-116.

The continent of Asia is affected by multiple natural disaster every year. According to the

authors (2004), Asia suffers from more natural disasters than any other area of the world

(p.110). These graphic storms, that happen on most occasions expectantly, wreak havoc

across the continent and its inhabitants. With the constant reoccurrence of these disasters,

people are left hopeless and scarred. There is little research still done in the field of post

natural disaster psychiatry. Many survivors experienced symptoms of PTSD, but many of

them were assessed using different scales. This caused a discrepancy on how the data was

compared so researchers decided upon a universal scale to avoid confusion. Researchers

also believe survivors do not report the full magnitude of their symptoms because of the

stigma of how psychological issues are viewed in this region.

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The text explains the correlation of natural disasters to mental health in Asia. It also deals

with the stigma of mental illness in Asia. Explains why reports of PTSD are so low in the

Asian region.

McKinney, W. T. (1988). Models of Mental Disorders: A New Comparative Psychiatry. Plenum

Medical Book Company: Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Most psychiatric disorders are developed and affected by one’s environment. According

to William McKinney (1988), “there are vulnerabilities, causes, triggers, precipitants,

etc.” (p.21), that cause mental disorders. Since mental disorders are artificially caused by

the environment, animal models are a great way to study them. Researchers use animal

models to manipulate the triggers of an illness in animal and use that information to

further knowledge about said illness in humans. Members in the field believe them to be

more useful than human studies. Animal models have been key in develop treatment for

anxiety, depression and alcoholism.

This reflection highlights the relationship between mental disorders and their

environment. It talks about the usefulness of animal models in the research of diseases.

Ohkasha, A. Mental health in Africa: The Role of the WPA. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of

the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), (2002), 1(1), 32-5.

Africa is a breeding ground for all types of mental illnesses due to the social and

economic issues. The continent has severe problems with HIV/AIDS, poverty and civil

conflict. With these and a number of other causes African’s, more specifically sub-

Saharan Africans, mental health are quite vulnerable to disorders and diseases. According

to the Ahmed (2002), 70% of newly diagnosed patients with HIV live in sub-Saharan
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Africa (p.33). With the extreme poverty within the culture of most African countries,

mental health programs are being underfunded while the need for these programs are

increasing. If the legislation of these affected countries changes their stigma on mental

health and illness, positive steps can be taken to tackle this pressing issue.

Mental Health Programs at UTEP – primary source

The University of Texas at El Paso values the mental health of their students and staff.

According to the university’s website (year), they offer free counselling and

psychological services(page). These services are offered in both English and Spanish due

to the diverse cultural make-up of the school. Under the page listed division of student

affairs, there is a list of mental health resources for UTEP students. In this section of the

website there are links to counselling and treatment, substance abuse, and other resources

not offered by the university. A crisis line is even offered for urgent situations after

normal operating hours.

Collins, Timothy W. Jimenez, Anthony M. Grineski, Sare E. (2013). Hispanic Health Disparities

After a Flood Disaster: Resultsof a Population-based Survey of Individuals Experiencing

Home Site Damage in El Paso (Texas, USA) Journal of Immigration and Minority

Health, 15(2), pp.415-426. doi:

Due to extreme rainfall in 2006, residents of El Paso, Texas experienced physical and

mental health problems. El Paso is a mainly Hispanic community located on the United

States, Mexico border. This diverse community is made up of a multitude of different

ages, ethnicities and economic statuses. As stated by the Authors(2013), their research
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“suggest that the physical and mental health effects of disasters are likely to

disproportionately burden groups of people in disadvantaged social positions” (p.415).

They go onto state later in the introduction that more severe mental health were prevalent

in women, young adults, the poor, and racial minorities (p.416). With El Paso’s close

proximity to the border there are a list of unique factors that effect mental health

problems; language barriers and citizenship status can relate to inadequate health care for

those affected by the flood.

The reflection discusses the correlation of being disadvantaged to mental health issues. It

reflects on a study done on a border town. This diverse population gives a unique look on

the topic of mental health.