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Table of Contents

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................ 2
1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................. 4
3.0 THEORY ....................................................................................................................................... 5
4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ...................................................................................................... 8
4.1 Apparatus and Equipment ...................................................................................................... 8
4.2 Procedure of The Experiment ................................................................................................. 9
5.0 RESULTS..................................................................................................................................... 10
6.0 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................... 11
7.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 12
8.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 13

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ABSTRACT

The mechanical properties of material can be determined by performing experiments


that replicate as nearly as possible the condition. There are many factors that involve in nature
that shown loads are applied on a material. The examples that load applied are tensile, shear
and torsion. These were important in mechanical design because it can be used to estimate the
safety of the material selection.

This experiment was conducted to determine the tensile properties subjected to tensile
loading. In this experiment, the mild steel was projected to tensile loading on tensile test
machine. The specimen was projected load until the specimen fracture. These experiments also
conduct to identify the type of fracture surface under tensile loading. From the experiment, the
value of stress and strain can be determined; hence Young’s modulus can be calculated. From
the result, we can compare the Young’s modulus from theoretical and Young’s modulus from
experiment.

The ratio of stress and strain along an axis is defined as elastic modulus. By using this
equation, we can mathematically calculate and predict the deformation or an object if the force
applied are lower than the elastic limit of the material or also known as maximum yield strength
of the material. The exact reason of this tensile test conducted is to determine the tensile
properties of a mild steel specimen when it undergoes tensile loading. Data between
experimental and theoretical value are validated. The experiment is conducted by subjecting
the specimen to tensile loading until fracture occurs. The values for stress and strain are
obtained and graph is plotted.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Tensile test is performed for several reasons. The results of tensile tests are used in
selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties frequently are included
in material specifications to ensure quality. Tensile properties often are measured during
development of new material and processes, so that different materials and processes can
be compared.

Finally, tensile properties often are used to predict the behaviour of a material under
forms of loading other than uniaxial tension. The strength of a material often is the primary
concern. The strength of interest may be measured in terms of either the stress necessary
to cause appreciable plastic deformation or the maximum stress that the material can
withstand. These measures of strength are used, with appropriate caution (in the form of
safety factors), in engineering design.

Also, of interest is the material’s ductility, which is a measure of how much it can
be deformed before it fractures. Rarely is ductility incorporated directly in design; rather,
it is included in material specifications to ensure quality and toughness. Low ductility in a
tensile test often is accompanied by low resistance to fracture under other forms of loading.
Elastic properties also may be of interest, but special techniques must be used to measure
these properties during tensile testing, and more accurate measurements can be made by
ultrasonic techniques.

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2.0 OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this experiment, students should be able to;


 Determine the tensile properties subjected to tensile loading
 Identify types of fracture surface under tensile loading
 Validate the data between experiment and theoretical values

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3.0 THEORY

When the material is stressed beyond the yield point, permanent deformation will
occur. Steel has region of yielding, where the material will exhibit increase with no
increase in stress. The region of strain hardening causes further yielding of the material
with a corresponding increase in stress. At the ultimate stress, a localized region on the
specimen will begin to constrict, forming a neck. After this, the fracture occurs on the
specimen.

Stress-Strain diagram is the best diagram to describe the deformation stages of a


material. There are two type of material which is ductile and brittle. A ductile material is a
type of material that experience necking process because it has a higher yield strength
ability that prevent it from fracture or breakdown immediately. Unlike ductile material,
brittle material on the other hand is a type of material that do not undergoes necking process
because it has no yield ability to prevent it from fracture when stress applied.

Figure 3.1: Stress-Strain diagram for mild steel

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The equations involved in the calculations are:

𝑃
1. Stress, 𝜎=𝐴

Where, 𝜎 is average normal stress at any point on cross-sectional area of the specimen,
𝑃 is internal resultant normal force that act through the centroid of the cross-sectional area
and determined using the method of sections and the equations of equilibrium, and 𝐴 is
cross-sectional area of the bar where 𝜎 is determined.

Figure 3.2: The formation of Normal Stress.

𝛿
2. Strain, 𝜀= 𝐿

Where 𝜀 is average normal strain that was referred as the elongation or


contraction of a specimen per unit length, 𝛿 is difference between initial length of
the specimen and the length of specimen after elongation or contraction, and 𝐿 is
the initial length of the specimen.

Figure 3.3: The formation of Normal Strain.

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𝜎
3. Young modulus, 𝐸= 𝜀

Where, 𝐸 is modulus of elasticity also known as Young’s modulus that can


only be used if a material has linear-elastic behaviour, 𝜎 is the stress that applied
to the specimen and 𝜀 is the strain that applied to the specimen.

Figure 3.4: Young’s modulus that shown by Hooke’s Law

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4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

4.1 Apparatus and Equipment

Vernier Caliper Tensile Test Machine

Figure 4.1.1: Vernier calliper Figure 4.1.2: Tensile test machine

Extension Gauge Mild Steel Specimen

Figure 4.1.3: Extension gauge Figure 4.1.4: Mild steel specimen

Load Gauge

Figure 4.1.5: Load gauge

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4.2 Procedure of The Experiment

1. The length, thickness, and width of mild steel specimen had been
measured using Vernier Calliper, and had been recorded.
2. The specimen was mounted to the jaw grip of tensile test machine Figure 7.

Figure 4.2.1: Specimen mounted on the jaw

3. Extensometer was placed on the vertical flat of inner jaw

Figure 4.2.2: Extensometer placed on the vertical flat of inner jaw

4. The load anchor was turned in counter-clockwise direction.


5. Step 5 was repeated for rate 0.3mm rotation.
6. The final length was measured and recorded after it was fractured.

Figure 4.2.3: Specimen broke

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5.0 RESULTS

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6.0 DISCUSSION

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7.0 CONCLUSION

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8.0 REFERENCES

1. Marc, and K. K., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, ed. 2, Cambridge


University Press, 2008.

2. Wikibooks, 23 August 2014. [Online]. Available:


http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Alevel_Physics_(Advancing_Physics)/Stress,_Strai
n_%2 6_Young's_Modulus. [Accessed 11 September 2014].

3. R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Material Eight Edition in SI Unit, United


States of America: Prentice Hall, 2010.

4. U. Strength, "Dictionary.com," 2014. [Online]. Available:


http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ultimate%20strength.
[Accessed 11 September 2014].

5. G. Dahlberg, "Materials Testing Machines Investigation of error sources


and determination of measurement uncertainty," MTS Systems
Corporation, Eden Prairie, USA.

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