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BACILLARY DYSENTERY (shigellosis)

ETILOGIC AGENT:

Twenty seven zero-types of germs Shigella (dysentery bacillus). There are four main
groups: Shflesneri; Shboy-dii; Sn-connei; Sh-dyseneterae.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

Feces of infected person, many in apparent mild and unrecognized infections.

DESCRIPTION

An acute bacterial infection of the intestine characterized by diarrhea, fever,


tenesmus and in severe cases bloody and mucoid stools. Patients with mild and
undiagnosed infections have only transient diarrhea or no intestinal symptoms.
Severe infections are frequent in infants and in elderly debilitated persons.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Eating contaminated foods, or drinking contaminated water or milk and by hand to


mouth transfer of contaminated materials; by flies, by objects soiled with feces of a
patient or carrier.

INCUBATION PERIOD

One day, usually less than four days.

PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY

During acute infection and until microorganisms is absent from feces usually with in
a few weeks even without specified therapy. A few individuals become carriers or a
year or two and rarely longer.

SUSCEPTIBILLITY, RESISTANCE AND OCCURRENCE

Disease is more common and more severe in children than in adults. A relative and
transitory strain- specific immunity follows recovery.

METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL

• Sanitary disposal of human feces.

• Sanitary supervision of processing, preparation and serving of food


particularly those eaten raw.

• Adequate provision for safe washing facilities.

• Fly control and screening to protect foods against fly contamination.


• Protection of purified water supplies and contraction of safe privy.

• Control of infected individual contacts and environment.

• Reporting to local health officer.

• Isolation of patient during acute illness.

• Rigid personal precautions by attendants.

PUBLIC HEATH NURSING RESPOSIBILITIES

• Encourage medical care for any case of diarrhea.

• Obtain stool specimens from any person found with undiagnosed diarrhea
and request examinations for pathogens.

• Instruct patient and family on procedures of proper disposal of human


excreta.

NURSING CARE

• Hospitalization if facilities are available.

• Teach and demonstrate to family how to make patient comfortable.

• Check o understanding of family on treatment prescribed and how it is


carried for necessary guidance if indicated.

DIET

• Low fiber plenty of fluids, easily digestible foods .

• Nursing care should be based on prescribed treatment by the physician.