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THE EFFECT OF GELATINIZATION TEMPERATURE AND

SACCHARIFICATION TIME ON SAGO GLUCOSE SYRUP PRODUCTION

1
Rissa Megavitry, 2Amran Laga, 3Adiansyah Syarifuddin
1
Part of Science and Food Technology, Agriculture Faculty, Hasanuddin University
(email: rissamegavitry@gmail.com)
2
Part of Science and Food Technology, Agriculture Faculty, Hasanuddin University
(email: amranlaga@yahoo.co.id)
3
Part of Science and Food Technology, Agriculture Faculty, Hasanuddin University
(email: ad11ra.ila@gmail.com)

Correspondence Address:

Rissa Megavitry, S.Pd


Agriculture Faculty
Hasanuddin University
Makassar, 90245
Phone Number: 0853 3540 7015
Email:rissamegavitry@gmail.com
Abstrak

Kebutuhan gula sebagai bahan pemanis semakin meningkat dari tahun ke tahun dan dewasa ini telah digunakan
berbagai macam bahan pemanis alami maupun sintesis baik itu yang berkalori, rendah kalori, dan nonkalori yang
dijadikan alternatif pengganti sukrosa,sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian-penelitian untuk mencari alternatif
sumber pemanis lain selain gula tebu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh suhu gelatinisasi
dalam memecah kristalin pati sagu dan pengaruh waktu sakarifikasi dalam produksi sirup glukosa. Penelitian ini
menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) faktorial dengan dua faktoryaitu variasi suhu gelatinisasi (87°C
dan 121°C) dan waktu sakarifikasi 72 jam (pengambilan sampel tiap selang waktu 6 jam) dengan tiap variasi
dilakukan pengulangan sebanyak dua kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan suhu gelatinisasi
terbaik diperoleh dengan penggunaan suhu gelatinisasi 121ºC dengan nilai gula pereduksi sebesar 108,34 g/L,
total padatan sebesar 25,43%, dekstrosa ekuivalen sebesar 54,17%, dan tingkat kemanisan sebesar 23,22°brix.
Sedangkan lama sakarifikasi terbaik yaitu sakarifikasi selama 72 jam dengan nilai gula pereduksi sebesar 126,54
g/L, total padatan sebesar 27,15%, dekstrosa ekuivalen sebesar 63,27%, dan tingkat kemanisan sebesar
24,80°brix.

Kata kunci: sagu, konsentrasi, gelatinisasi, sakarifikasi, glukosa

Abstract
The need for sugar as a sweetener is increases from year to year and nowadays various kind of natural and
synthetic sweeteners have been used eitherwith calorie, low calorie, and non-calorieas the alternatives of the
sucrose replacement, so that it is necessary to carry out research to find out the alternative sources other than
canesugar. Theresearch aimed to study the effect of gelatinization temperature to break the sago starch
crystalline and the effect of the saccharification duration in glucose syrup production. Theresearch used the
completely randomized design (CRD), factorial design with two factors namely: variationsof the gelatinization
temperature (87°C and 121°C) and saccharification duration of 72 hours (sampling was done every 6 hours). All
experimental combinations were carried out in two replications.The researchresults indicated that the best
gelatinization temperature was at 121ºC which gave reducing sugar value of 108.34 g/L, solid total of 25.43%,
equivalent dextrose of 54.17%, and sweetness level of 23.22°brix. The best saccharification duration was 72
hours which resulted in reducing sugar value of 126.54 g/L,solid total of 27.15%s, equivalent dextroseof
63.27%, and sweetness level of 24.80°brix.

Keywords: sago, concentration, gelatinization, saccharification, glucose


INTRODUCTION
Sugar is an important organic compound as a source of calories because it is easily
digested in the body and has a sweet taste. Sugar is also used as food preservative and mixing
medicines. The need for sugar as a sweetener is increasing from year to year. Nowadays has
used a wide variety of natural and synthetic sweeteners either calorie, low calorie, and non-
calorie used as an alternative to sucrose.
The lack of natural sweetener ingredients (sugar cane) causes people to consume
synthetic sweeteners such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate. However, artificial sweeteners
cannot replace natural sweetener because it provides unpleasant taste if consumed in high
concentrations and levels of use is limited by health regulations in many countries including
Indonesia (Anugrahati, 1999). So it is necessary to do research to find alternative source of
other sweetener besides sugar cane. One alternative that has been taken is an attempt to
produce sugars from starch base material by hydrolyzing starch into sugar.
Glucose has been used by the confectionery industry, beverage, biscuit, and so on. The
food and beverage industry currently tends to use glucose syrup. This is based on several
advantages of glucose syrup including the manufacture of ice cream products, glucose can
increase the smoothness of texture and suppress freezing and for cakes can keep the cake fresh
for a long time and reduce cracks. For sweets, glucose is preferred because it can prevent
microbiological damage, and improve texture (Virlandia, 2008 in Sutanto et al., 2014).
The opportunity to use sago as a basic ingredient in making glucose syrup is very large
because the high carbohydrate content reaches 75.88% - 85.08% (Richana et al., 2010).
Glucose syrup is an alternative sweetener which is defined as a clear and viscous liquid whose
main component is glucose obtained from starch hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of starch can use acid,
enzyme or acid-enzyme combination. Glucose syrup which is now produced commercially by
industries derived from corn starch and cassava starch (Oesman et al., 2009). In enzymatic
starch hydrolysis to produce glucose syrup, the enzymes that can be used are α-amylase, β-
amylase, amyloglucosidase, glucose isomerase, pululanase, and isoamylase (Virlandia, 2008
in Mukarramah et al., 2016).
Several research on the manufacture of enzymatic glucose syrup from starchy
materials have been carried out such as the manufacture of glucose syrup from kimpul. The
operating variables used were suspension levels, liquidation pH, and saccharification
temperature. The best glucose syrup that can be produced is the operating variable suspension
levels of 35%, saccharification temperature of 65oC, and the pH of liquefaction of 6, and from
this condition glucose levels of 27.98% are produced (Azwar & Erwanti, 2009). Another
similar research is the enzymatic manufacture of glucose syrup from kepok banana peels by
varying the substrate concentration and the liquefaction temperature used. The best glucose
syrup that can be produced is with a substrate concentration of 10%, and a liquefaction
temperature of 90oC, and from this condition equivalent dextrose is 98.56% (Albaasith et al,
2014).
This research aims to produce glucose syrup by utilizing sago flour due to the high
content of sago starch. In this study, variations in gelatinization temperature and sago
substrate concentration were carried out every 6 hours during the saccharification process
which lasted for 72 hours.

RESEARCH METHODS
Time and Place of Research
This research was conducted from December 2017 to March 2018 at the Laboratory of
Microbiology and Food Biotechnology and Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Food
Science and Technology Study Program, Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of
Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar.
Research design
The study design was used completely randomized design (CRD) factorial consisting
of two factors, namely, variations in the gelatinization temperature (87oC and 121oC) and
saccharification duration for 72 hours (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 , 54, 60, 66, and 72
hours)
Data Analysis Method
The product obtained will be tested with several parameters to obtain the best
gelatinization temperature and the best duration of saccharification used in producing glucose
syrup. The parameters used were reducing sugar (Miller in Suryadama & Ardiansah, 2007),
total solids (Andarwulan et al., 2011), equivalent dextrose (Yunianta et al., 2015), and
sweetness level (Apriyantono, 1989). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance/ANOVA.

RESULTS
Figure 1 shows the acquisition value of reducing sugar glucose syrup obtained from
the respective gelatinization temperature used. In the image shown that the acquisition value
of reducing sugar increased with increasing temperature gelatinization, where the value of
reducing sugar for use 87oC temperature is 94.56 g/L and at 121oC temperature is 108.33 g/L.
Figure 2 shows the acquisition value of the total solids glucose syrup obtained at each
gelatinization temperature. The picture shows that the value of total solids increases with
increasing gelatinization temperature, where the 87oC temperature of gelatinization value of
total solids obtained is 22.95% and at 121oC temperature the value of the total solids obtained
is 25.43%.
Figure 3 shows the acquisition value of equivalents dextrose of glucose syrup obtained
from each temperature gelatinization used. It can be seen that the higher temperature of
gelatinization is used, the value of equivalent dextrose obtained is increased, that 87oC
temperature the value of equivalent dextrose obtained is 47.28% and 121oC temperature the
equivalent dextrose value obtained is 54.17%. Figure 4 shows the acquisition value of the
sweetness level of glucose syrup obtained from each temperature gelatinization used. It can be
seen that the higher temperature of gelatinization that is used then the value of the sweetness
level obtained increases, at 87oC temperature the value of sweetness level obtained is
20.82obrix and at 121oC temperature the value of sweetness level obtained is 23.22obrix.

DISCUSSION
This study showed that the glucose syrup produced was strongly influenced by
gelatinization temperature and saccharification time, where the best gelatinization temperature
obtained was 121°C with saccharification duration for 72 hours.
Reducing sugar produced increases with increasing temperature gelatinization and
saccharification time is used. When the starch is heated, some double helix amylopectin
fractions stretch and release when hydrogen bonds broken. If higher temperatures are given,
more hydrogen bonds are cut off, causing the water to be absorbed into the starch granules
and the amylose molecules detached into the water phase that envelopes the granules, so that
the structure of the starch granules becomes more open, and more water goes into in the
granules, causing the granules to swell and their volume to increase. Then the water molecules
form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups on the sugar molecule amylose and
amylopectin. Amylose molecules tend to leave the granules because their structures are
shorter and easier to dissolve (Pomeranz, 1988 in Imanningsih, 2012).
When amylose and amylopectin diffuse out of the granule, the α-amylase and
glucoamylase enzymes can more easily hydrolyze. Hydrolysis enzyme α-amylase and
glucoamylase together produce reducing sugars such as glucose, maltose, dextrin, maltose,
maltotriosa and maltotetrosa. The longer the time used in the saccharification process, the
more contact occurs between enzymes and sago starch so that the termination of α-1,4
glycosidic bonds and α-1,6 glycosidic on amylose and amylopectin in sago starch is higher so
that the reducing sugars obtained are increasingly high anyway. Also stated in the research of
Sukoyo et al (2014), regarding the temperature of vacuum processing of liquid coconut sugar
that the higher the temperature used in the processing of liquid coconut sugar it will increase
the total reduction sugar in liquid coconut sugar.
The longer the saccharification time is used, the more reducing sugars produced. This
is because the longer the enzyme-substrate bond occurs, the more sugar chains are hydrolyzed
into simple sugar chains. Each simple sugar chain has one reducing sugar group. This is
explained in Ni'maturohmah & Yunianta (2015), as the reaction time increases, the more
hydrolyzed starch and increased enzyme activity to break the glycosidic bonds into simple
sugars that cause the amount of reducing sugar to increase.
Total solids are the total number of suspended or soluble solids in water and become
an indication of food quality (Virlandia, 2008 in Mukarramah et al., 2016). Total dissolved
solids content of a material includes reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, organic acids,
pectin and protein.Total solids obtained increases with increasing temperature gelatinization
used. An increase in total solids is due to more water molecules that evaporate so that the
water content in the material gets smaller. Evaporation is also caused due to the difference
between water vapor pressure on the material with water vapor in the air. The water vapor
pressure of the material is generally greater than the vapor pressure in the air resulting in mass
transfer of water from material to air. (Fitriani, 2008). This is also supported by Agus (2012)
statement, the evaporation of water during heating causes the water content to decrease and
the concentration of solids will increase.
On the other hand, total solids may indicate the presence of simple sugars or reducing
sugar formed by hydrolysis of starch and become dissolved solids in suspension. It can also be
the cause of total solids in the product increases. This is explained by Muafi (2004), that the
components measured as total dissolved solids are sucrose, reducing sugar, organic acids and
proteins. In addition, the increase in total solids during the gelatinization process can also be
caused by the number of small particles from cutting the starch chain, especially in the
amylopectin fraction in the crystalline region during the gelatinization process, where the
particles become dissolved solids in the suspension.
Saccharification time used was affecting the total solids obtained where the longer
time saccharification is used, the higher the total solids obtained by evaporation of water
occurs also high. Increased total solids along with the high evaporation of water is also put
forward by Heldman (2012), that the longer the cooking process, the process of evaporation of
free water in the product will be higher. If the evaporation is higher then the water content
decreases so that the percentage of total solids increases.
Equivalent dextrose is the total reducing sugar which is expressed as dextrose and is
calculated as the percentage of dry matter as a whole (Kalsum & Surfiana, 2013). DE value is
a parameter that describes how much starch converted into glucose by hydrolysis enzyme
(Ni'maturohmah & Yunianta, 2015).
The higher the temperature of gelatinization used the amorphous and crystalline
regions of starch will melt resulting in amylose and amylopectin diffuses out of the granules
so that the enzyme can more easily catalyze into a simple sugar chain. Each hydrolyzed sugar
chain has one reducing sugar group. The higher and the longer the reaction takes place the
more hydrolyzed sugar chains also mean that the reducing sugar produced is even higher, with
the higher reducing sugar the equivalent dextrose value will increase. This was stated in the
research of Andriani & Yunianta (2015), regarding the manufacture of glucose syrup from
empirical ginger starch which is the increasing incubation temperature, the equivalent
dextrose value also increases. This is because in general, the enzyme-catalyzed reaction rate
will rise when the temperature rises.
Saccharification time used also affects the dextrose equivalent is obtained, where the
longer time saccharification used then obtained reducing sugar is increasing as well. Increased
reducing sugars mean equivalent dextrose values are increased because equivalent dextrose is
the percentage of the number of hydrolyzed glycosidic bonds. The linkage between the
reducing sugar value and equivalent dextrose value is also expressed by Pudiastuti and Pratiwi
(2013), that the longer the reaction process takes place, the more starch the enzyme
hydrolyzes to produce dextrin.
The sweetness level is one of the parameters of how many simple sugars are formed in
a product or food ingredient. Glucose syrup sweetness level was measured using a hand
refractometer to measure based on the amount of dissolved solids that dominates in a food.
The sweetness level is obtained from the total dissolved solids obtained. Basically the total
dissolved solids of a material include reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, organic acids,
pectin, salt, and proteins which are very influential in ° brix (Ranken & Kill, 1993).
The sweetness level is related to the total solids in glucose syrup produced. The higher
the gelatinization temperature, the level of sweetness obtained also higher. This is because the
higher the gelatinization temperature, the evaporation of water from the material will increase
and increase the total solids in glucose syrup. Besides that the high temperature can increase
the amount of reducing sugars obtained, where reducing sugars found in simple chain sugars
such as glucose and reducing sugars are one component of total solids. As explained by Muafi
(2004), that total solids can indicate the presence of simple sugars or reducing sugars which
are formed due to hydrolysis by enzymes and become dissolved solids in suspensions. The
components were measured as total dissolved solids, sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids
and protein.
The longer the saccharification time is used then the sweetness level will increase as
well. This is because enzymes can react longer with the substrate and hydrolyze starch to
produce more glucose. Furthermore, in research of Sutanto et al (2014), that the higher the
hydrolysis temperature, the higher the glucose level obtained. Hydrolysis using high
temperatures causes starch to expand and rupture so that the long chain of glucose units from
amylose and amylopectin becomes shorter and then breaks down into glucose units.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS


From the results obtained, it was concluded that the best gelatinization temperature
variation in glucose syrup formation was at 121ºC in terms of reducing sugar of 108.34 g/L,
total solids of 25.43%, equivalent dextroseof 54.17%, and sweetness level of 23.22°brix.
While the best saccharification reaction durati onin glucose syrup production was 72 hours in
terms of reducing sugar of 126.54 g/L, total solids of 27.15%, equivalent dextrose of 63.27%,
and sweetness level of 24.80°brix. Further research to be done by using the combination of
pullulanase enzyme to obtain the more optimal glucose syrup.

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Figure 1. Relation of the Use of Gelatinization Temperature to Reducing Sugar (g/L)
Glucose Syrup

110.00
Reducing Sugar (g/L)

105.00
100.00 108.33
95.00
94.56
90.00
85.00
Suhu 87 Suhu 121
Gelatinization Temperature

Figure 2. Relation of the Use of Gelatinization Temperature to Solid Total (%) Glucose
Syrup

26.00
Solid Total (%)

25.00
24.00
25.43
23.00 22.95
22.00
21.00
Suhu 87 Suhu 121
Gelatinization Temperature

Figure 3. Relation of the Use of Gelatinization Temperature to Equivalent Dextrose (%)


Glucose Syrup
Equivalent Dextrose (%)

56.00
54.00
52.00
50.00 54.17
48.00
46.00 47.28
44.00
42.00
Suhu 87 Suhu 121
Gelatinization Temperature
Figure 4. Relation of the Use of Gelatinization Temperature to Sweetness Level (obrix)
Glucose Syrup

23.50
23.00
Sweetness Level (°brix)

22.50
22.00 23.22
21.50
21.00
20.50 20.82
20.00
19.50
Suhu 87 Suhu 121
Gelatinization Temperature