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PRIME COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

BUILDING SERVICES III (AR 6611)

VI Semester

REGULATION 2013

Notes Prepared by

Er. A. BHUVANESHWARI.
AR6611 BUILDING SERVICES - III L T P/S C
20 2 3
OBJECTIVES:
• To expose the students to the science behind an air-conditioning and refrigeration system.
• To familiarize them with the various air- conditioning systems and their applications
• To study the design issues for the selection of various systems and their installation
• To inform of the various ways by which fire safety design can be achieved in buildings through
passive design.
• To familiarize the students with the various fire fighting equipment and their installation.
• To familiarize the students with the fundamentals of acoustics and principles in designing
various built environment.
UNIT I- AIR CONDITIONING: BASIC REFRIGERATION PRINCIPLES 4
Thermodynamics – Heat – Temperature – Latent heat of fusion – evaporation, saturation
temperature, pressure temperature relationship for liquid refrigerants – condensate cycle, air
cycle, chilled water cycle and cooling water cycle – vapor compression cycle – compressors –
evaporators – Refrigerant control devices – electric motors – Air handling Units – cooling towers

UNIT II -AIR CONDITIONING: SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS 12


Air conditioning system for small buildings – window types, evaporative cooler, packaged
terminal units and through the wall units split system b) Case for Central Plant – DX system –
Chilled Water System – Air Cooled and Water Cooled condensers – Air Distribution system –
VAV & VRV Systems – Low temperature applications - Configuring/ sizing of mechanical
equipment, equipment spaces and sizes for chiller plant, cooling tower, Fan room, Circulation
Pumps, Pipes, ducts – case studies.

UNIT III - AIR CONDITIONING: DESIGN ISSUES AND HORIZONTAL


DISTRIBUTION OF SYSTEMS 8
Design criteria for selecting the Air conditioning system for large building and energy
conservation measures - Typical choices for cooling systems for small and large buildings -
Horizontal distribution of services for large buildings - Grouped horizontal distribution over
central corridors, Above ceiling, In floor, Raised access floor, Horizontal distribution of
mechanical services – case studies.

UNIT IV -FIRE SAFETY: DESIGN AND GENERAL GUIDELINES OF EGRESS


DESIGN - FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE FIGHTING AND INSTALLATION 24

Principles of fire behavior, Fire safety design principles _ NBC Planning considerations in
buildings – Non- Combustible materials, egress systems, Exit Access – Distance between exits,
exterior corridors – Maximum travel distance, Doors, Smoke proof enclosures General
guidelines for egress design for Auditoriums, concert halls, theatres, other building types,
window egress, accessibility for disabled- NBC guidelines – lifts lobbies, stairways, ramp
design, fire escapes and A/C, electrical systems – case studies Fire Detection and Fire Fighting:
Heat smoke detectors – sprinkler systems -Fire fighting pump and water requirements, storage –
wet risers, Dry rises –Fire extinguishers & cabinets -Fire protection system – CO2 & Halon
system - Fire alarm system, snorkel ladder -Configuring, sizing and space requirements for fire
fighting equipments.
UNIT V- ACOUSTICS 12
Fundamentals – Sound waves, frequency, intensity, wave length, measure of sound, decibel
scale, speech and music frequencies, Reverberation time. Acoustics and building design-site
selection, shape volume, treatment for interior surfaces, basic principles in designing open air
theatres, cinemas, broadcasting studios, concert halls, class rooms, lecture halls, schools,
residences, office buildings including constructional measures and sound reinforcement systems
for building types – case studies
TOTAL: 60
PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
The students are exposed to various air conditioning systems and their applications. They are
also exposed to various design issues in the distribution system.
An understanding of fire safety, fire fighting, fire prevention and installations in buildings
including codal requirements.
the students are exposed to fundamentals of a acoustics and its applications in buildings

REQUIRED READINGS:
1. William H.Severns and Julian R Fellows, “Air conditioning and Refrigeration”, John Wiley
and Sons, London, 1988
2. “Fire Safety: National Building Code of India 1983” published by Bureau of Indian Standards.
3. Dr. V. Narasimhan, “ An introduction to building physics”, Kabir Printing works, Chennai-5,
1974.
4. David Egan, “Concepts in Architectural Acoustics”, 1972.
5. National Building Code of India, 2005 (NBC 2005).
REFERENCES:
1. A.F.C. Sherratt, “Air conditioning and Energy conservation”, The Architectural Press,
London, 1980
2. Andrew H Buchanan, “Design for fire safety”, First edition John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New
York., 2001
UNIT 1 : AIR CONDITIONING AND BASIC REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLE

THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation
to energy and work. Thermo means Heat and Dynamics means Work.
HEAT
Heat is a form of energy. We feel only this. we don’t see this one by eyes. That is, we really
think of temperature instead of heat, for it is temperature that we recoginse that an object as
heat in it. Temperature is an concentration value of the heat.

UNITS OF HEAT
B.T.U. BRITISH THERMAL UNIT. IN this defind as the amount of heat added to raise
the temperature of one pound of water by one degree FAHRENHEIT. C.G.S CALORIE IN
THE METRIC IN THIS the amount of heat added to raise the temperature of one gram of water
by one degree celsius. As calorie is a small unit, kilocalorie is used.

1kilo calorie=1000 calories

1kilo calorie=3.97 BTU

Temperature
Temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy of an object. Temperature is an
indication level of heat in a substance. A substance at the temperature of 10 degree Celsius has
more heat in it than the same substance at a Temperature of 0 degree Celsius. The Temperature
of a substance, however does not given an idea of the amount of heat the substance has.
Measuring Instrument : Thermometer
Scale : Fahrenhit and Celsius

Latent heat of Fusion


During the State Changes Like, liquid to water the Temperature remains constant. It requires
great deal of heat energy for this change of state , and the quality of heat neeed for the change is
called latent heat of fusion.

Latent heat of Evaporation


During the State Changes Like, liquid to gas the Temperature remains constant. It requires great
deal of heat energy for this change of state , and the quality of heat neeed for the change is called
latent heat of Evaporation.
TON OF REFRGIERATION

TOR is the one short of one ton water freeze in to ice. It is also used to measure the power in
some countries. It is also short form of TR. It is also describe the heat of fusion. Also describes
the heat extraction capacity of refridgeration and air-conditioning.

Refridgerant Control Devices


To maintain correct operating conditions, control devices are needed in a refrigeration system.
Metering Devices
Metering devices, such as expansion valves and float valves, control the flow of liquid
refrigerant between the high side and the low side of the system. It is at the end of the line
between the condenser and the evaporator. These devices are of five different types:
an automatic expansion valve (also known as a constant-pressure expansion valve), a
thermostatic expansion valve, low-side and high-side float valves, and a capillary tube.
Automatic Expansion Valve
An automatic expansion valve maintains a constant pressure in the evaporator. Normally this
valve is used only with direct expansion, dry type of evaporators. In operation, the valve feeds
enough liquid refrigerants to the evaporator to maintain a constant pressure in the coils. This type
of valve is generally used in a system where constant loads are expected. When a large variable
load occurs, the valve will not feed enough refrigerant to the evaporator under high load and will
over feed the evaporator at low load. Compressor damage can result when slugs of liquid enter
the compressor.
Thermostatic Expansion Valve.
before discussing the thermostatic expansion valve, let’s explain the term SUPERHEAT. A
vapor gas is superheated when its temperature is higher than the boiling point corresponding to
its pressure. When the boiling point begins, both the liquid and the vapor are at the same
temperature. But in an evaporator, as the gas vapor moves along the coils toward the suction line,
the gas may absorb additional heat and its temperature rises. The difference in degrees between
the saturation temperature and the increased temperature of the gas is called superheat. A
thermostatic expansion valve keeps a constant superheat in the refrigerant vapor leaving the coil.
The valve controls the liquid refrigerant, so the evaporator coils maintain the correct amount of
refrigerant at all times.
The valve has a power element that is activated by a remote bulb located at the end of the
evaporator coils. The bulb senses the superheat at the suction line and adjusts the flow of
refrigerant into the evaporator. As the superheat increases (suction line), the temperature, and
therefore the pressure, in the remote bulb also increases. This increased pressure, applied to the
top of the diaphragm, forces it down along with the pin, which, in turn, opens the valve,
admitting replacement refrigerant from the receiver to flow into the evaporator. This replacement
has three effects.

(1) it provides additional liquid refrigerant to absorb heat from the evaporator.4
(2) it applies higher pressure to the bottom of the diaphragm, forcing it upward, tending to close
the valve.
(3) it reduces the degree of superheat by forcing more refrigerant through the suction line.
Low-Side Float Expansion Valve.
The low-side float expansion valve controls the liquid refrigerant flow where a flooded
evaporator is used. It consists of a ball float in either a chamber or the evaporator on the low-
pressure side of the svstem. The float actuates a needle valve through a lever mechanism. As the
float lowers, refrigerant enters through the open valve; when it rises, the valve closes.
High-Side Float Expansion Valve.
In a high-side float expansion valve , the valve float is in a liquid receiver or in an auxiliary
container on the high-pressure side of the system. Refrigerant from the condenser flows into the
valve and immediately opens it, allowing refrigerant to expand and pass into the evaporator.
Refrigerant charge is critical. An overcharge of the system floods back and damages the
compressor. An undercharge results in a capacity drop.

Capillary Tube.he capillary tube consists of a long tube of small diameter. It acts as a constant
throttle on the refrigerant. The length and diameter of the tube are important; any restrictions
cause trouble in the system. It feeds refrigerant to the evaporator as fast as it is produced by the
condenser. When the quantity of refrigerant in the system is correct or the charge is balanced, the
flow of refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator stops when the compressor unit stops.
When the condensing unit is running, the operating characteristics of the capillary tube equipped
evaporator are the same as if it were equipped with a high-side float.
The capillary tube is best suited for household boxes, such as freezers and window
airconditioners, where the refrigeration load is reasonably constant and small horsepower motors
are used.

Vapor-Compression Cycle:
The Vapor Compression Cycle uses energy input to drive a compressor that increases the
pressure and pressure of the refrigerant which is in the vapor state. The refrigerant is then
exposed to the hot section (termed the condenser) of the system, its temperature being higher
than the temperature of this section. As a result, heat is transferred from the refrigerant to the hot
section (i.e. heat is removed from the refrigerant) causing it to condense i.e. for its state to
change from the vapor phase to the liquid phase (hence the term condenser). The refrigerant then
passes through the expansion valve across which its pressure and temperature drop considerably.
The refrigerant temperature is now below that existing in the cold or refrigerated section (termed
the evaporator) of the system, its temperature being lower than the temperature in this section.
As a result, heat is transferred from the refrigerated section to the refrigerant (i.e. heat is
absorbed by the refrigerant) causing it to pass from the liquid or near-liquid state to the vapor
state again (hence the term evaporator). The refrigerant then again passes to the compressor in
which its pressure is again increased and the whole cycle is repeated. The four basic components
of the vapour compression refrigeration system are thus:

1.C o m p r e s s o r :
The function of the compressor is to compress the input refrigerant of low pressure and low
temperature. As a result the pressure and the temperature of the refrigerant increases. Generally
reciprocating compressors are used in refrigeration system. An external motor is used to drive
the compressor.
2.Condenser:
The condenser is a coil of tubes, which are made of copper. This issued to condense the
refrigerant which is in the form of vapor. And convert into liquid.
3.ExpansionValve:
This is otherwise called throttle valve. This valve is used to control the flow rate of refrigerant
and also to reduce the pressure of the refrigerant.
4.Evaporator:
This is the part in which the cooling takes place. This is kept in the space where cooling is
required. It is a coil of tubes made up of copper.
Compressor
The purpose of the compressor is to circulate the refrigerant in the system under pressure; this
concentrates the heat it contains.
At the compressor, the low pressure gas is changed to high pressure gas.
This pressure build up can only be accomplished by having a restriction in the high
pressure side of the system. This is a small valve located in the expansion valve.
The compressor has reed valves to control the entrance and exit of refrigerant gas during the
pumping operation. These must be firmly seated.
An improperly seated intake reed valve can result in gas leaking back into the low side
during the compression stroke, raising the low side pressure and impairing the cooling
effect.
A badly seated discharge reed valve can allow condensing or head pressure to drop as
it leaks past the valve, lowering the efficiency of the compressor.
Two service valves are located near the compressor as an aid in servicing the system.
One services the high side, it is quickly identified by the smaller discharge hose routed
to the condenser.
One is used for the low side, the low side comes from the evaporator, and is larger
than the discharge hose
The compressor is normally belt-driven from the engine crankshaft. Most manufacturers use a
magnetic-type clutch which provides a means of stopping the pumping of the compressor
when refrigeration is not desired.

Condenser
The purpose of the condenser is to receive the high-pressure gas from the compressor
and convert this gas to a liquid.
It does it by heat transfer, or the principle that heat will always move from a warmer
to a cooler substance.
Air passing over the condenser coils carries off the heat and the gas condenses.
The condenser often looks like an engine radiator.
Condensers used on R-12 and R-134a systems are not interchangeable. Refrigerant-134a has a
different molecular structure and requires a large capacity condenser.
As the compressor subjects the gas to increased pressure, the heat intensity of the refrigerant
is actually concentrated into a smaller area, thus raising the temperature of the refrigerant
higher than the ambient temperature of the air passing over the condenser coils. Clogged
condenser fins will result in poor condensing action and decreased efficiency.
A factor often overlooked is flooding of the condenser coils with refrigerant oil. Flooding
results from adding too much oil to the system. Oil flooding is indicated by poor condensing
action, causing increased head pressure and high pressure on the low side. This will always
cause poor cooling from the evaporator.
Expansion valve
The expansion valve removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant to allow expansion or
change of state from a liquid to a vapour in the evaporator.
The high-pressure liquid refrigerant entering the expansion valve is quite warm. This may be
verified by feeling the liquid line at its connection to the expansion valve. The liquid
refrigerant leaving the expansion valve is quite cold. The orifice within the valve does not
remove heat, but only reduces pressure. Heat molecules contained in the liquid refrigerant are
thus allowed to spread as the refrigerant moves out of the orifice. Under a greatly reduced
pressure the liquid refrigerant is at its coldest as it leaves the expansion valve and enters the
evaporator. Pressures at the inlet and outlet of the expansion valve will closely approximate
gauge pressures at the inlet and outlet of the compressor in most systems. The similarity of
pressures is caused by the closeness of the components to each other. The slight variation in
pressure readings of a very few pounds is due to resistance, causing a pressure drop in the lines
and coils of the evaporator and condenser.
Evaporator
The evaporator works the opposite of the condenser; here refrigerant liquid is converted to gas,
absorbing heat from the air in the compartment. When the liquid refrigerant reaches the
evaporator its pressure has been reduced, dissipating its heat content and making it much cooler
than the fan air flowing around it. This causes the refrigerant to absorb heat from the warm air
and reach its low boiling point rapidly. The refrigerant then vaporizes, absorbing the maximum
amount of heat. This heat is then carried by the refrigerant from the evaporator as a low-pressure
gas through a hose or line to the low side of the compressor, where the whole refrigeration cycle
is repeated.
The evaporator removes heat from the area that is to be cooled. The desired temperature of
cooling of the area will determine if refrigeration or air conditioning is desired. For example,
food preservation generally requires low refrigeration temperatures, ranging from 40°F (4°C) to
below 0°F (-18°C).
A higher temperature is required for human comfort. A larger area is cooled, which requires that
large volumes of air be passed through the evaporator coil for heat exchange. A blower becomes
a necessary part of the evaporator in the air conditioning system. The blower fans must not only
draw heat-laden air into the evaporator, but must also force this air over the evaporator fins and
coils where it surrenders its heat to the refrigerant and then forces the cooled air out of the
evaporator into the space being cooled.
Air handling unit (AHU)
A central unit consisting of a blower, heating and cooling elements, filters, etc. that is in direct
contact with the airflow.
To improve air quality circulating air is mixed with fresh air
Usually equipped with a heat recovery unit for energy saving purposes
Supply air temperature kept constant so that temperature can be adjusted locally
with thermostats.
Chillers – a device that removes heat from a liquid. The cooled liquid flows through pipes
and passes through coils in air handling units, FCUs, etc
Damper – a plate or gate placed in a duct to control airflow
Fan coil unit (FCU) – a small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a
cooling coil
Variable air volume (VAV) – an HVAC system that has a stable supply air temperature and
varies the airflow rate with dampers and adjusting fan speeds to meet the temperature
requirements
AHU is the heart of the air-distribution system in atir-conditioning plant, because it moves the
air through the air distribution system and facilitates, air mixing , air volume control,
filteration, cooling-dehumidifying, heating-humidifying, space pressurization, energy recovery,
noise vibration control, maintaining indoor air quality, etc.

Features AHU
 Air displacements up to 150,000 m3/h
 Very economical to buy and use
 Integration of high efficiency heating modules is possible
 Modular construction
 Easy to maintain
 Long life
 Flexible and variable
 Proven design
 Low weight
Electrical Motors
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is
done by an electric generator.
In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an
electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor. In
certain applications, such as in the transportation industry with traction motors, electric motors
can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also produce electrical energy
from mechanical energy.
The main parts of the motors are,
Rotor
In an electric motor the moving part is the rotor which turns the shaft to deliver the mechanical
power. The rotor usually has conductors laid into it which carry currents that interact with the
magnetic field of the stator to generate the forces that turn the shaft. However, some rotors carry
permanent magnets, and the stator holds the conductors.
Stator
The stator is the stationary part of the motor’s electromagnetic circuit and usually consists of
either windings or permanent magnets. The stator core is made up of many thin metal sheets,
called laminations. Laminations are used to reduce energy losses that would result if a solid core
were used.
Air gap
The distance between the rotor and stator is called the air gap. The air gap has important effects,
and is generally as small as possible, as a large gap has a strong negative effect on the
performance of an electric motor. It is the main source of the low power factor at which motors
operate.The air gap increases the magnetizing current needed. For this reason air gap should be
minimum . Very small gaps may pose mechanical problems in addition to noise and losses.
Windings
Windings are wires that are laid in coils, usually wrapped around a laminated soft iron magnetic
core so as to form magnetic poles when energized with current.
Electric machines come in two basic magnet field pole configurations: salient-pole machine
and nonsalient-pole machine. In the salient-pole machine the pole's magnetic field is produced
by a winding wound around the pole below the pole face. In the nonsalient-pole, or distributed
field, or round-rotor, machine, the winding is distributed in pole face slots. A shaded-pole
motor has a winding around part of the pole that delays the phase of the magnetic field for that
pole.
Some motors have conductors which consist of thicker metal, such as bars or sheets of metal,
usually copper, although sometimes aluminum is used. These are usually powered
by electromagnetic induction.

Commutator
A toy's small DC motor with its commutator

A commutator is a mechanism used to switch the input of most DC machines and certain AC
machines consisting of slip ring segments insulated from each other and from the electric motor's
shaft. The motor's armature current is supplied through the stationary brushes in contact with the
revolving commutator, which causes required current reversal and applies power to the machine
in an optimal manner as the rotor rotates from pole to pole. In absence of such current reversal,
the motor would brake to a stop. In light of significant advances in the past few decades due to
improved technologies in electronic controller, sensorless control, induction motor, and
permanent magnet motor fields, electromechanically commutated motors are increasingly being
displaced by externally commutated induction and permanent-magnet motors.
Types of motors
Brushed DC motor
All self-commutated DC motors are by definition run on DC electric power. Most DC motors are
small PM types. They contain a brushed internal mechanical commutation to reverse motor
windings' current in synchronism with rotation.
Workings of a brushed electric motor with a two-pole rotor and PM stator. ("N" and "S"
designate polarities on the inside faces of the magnets; the outside faces have opposite
polarities.)

A commutated DC motor has a set of rotating windings wound on an armature mounted on a


rotating shaft. The shaft also carries the commutator, a long-lasting rotary electrical switch that
periodically reverses the flow of current in the rotor windings as the shaft rotates. Thus, every
brushed DC motor has AC flowing through its rotating windings. Current flows through one or
more pairs of brushes that bear on the commutator; the brushes connect an external source of
electric power to the rotating armature.
The rotating armature consists of one or more coils of wire wound around a
laminated, magnetically "soft" ferromagnetic core. Current from the brushes flows through the
commutator and one winding of the armature, making it a temporary magnet (an electromagnet).
The magnetic field produced by the armature interacts with a stationary magnetic field produced
by either PMs or another winding (a field coil), as part of the motor frame. The force between the
two magnetic fields tends to rotate the motor shaft. The commutator switches power to the coils
as the rotor turns, keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from ever fully aligning with the
magnetic poles of the stator field, so that the rotor never stops (like a compass needle does), but
rather keeps rotating as long as power is applied.
DC motor

 Armature circuit - A winding where the load current is carried, such that can be either
stationary or rotating part of motor or generator.
 Field circuit - A set of windings that produces a magnetic field so that the electromagnetic
induction can take place in electric machines.
 Commutation: A mechanical technique in which rectification can be achieved, or from which
DC can be derived, in DC machines.
 Windings are wires that are laid in coils, usually wrapped around a laminated soft
iron magnetic core so as to form magnetic poles when energized with current.
A: shunt B: series C: compound f = field coil

Stepper motor

A stepper motor with a soft iron rotor, with active windings shown. In 'A' the active windings
tend to hold the rotor in position. In 'B' a different set of windings are carrying a current, which
generates torque and rotation.
Stepper motors are a type of motor frequently used when precise rotations are required. In a
stepper motor an internal rotor containing PMs or a magnetically soft rotor with salient poles is
controlled by a set of external magnets that are switched electronically. A stepper motor may
also be thought of as a cross between a DC electric motor and a rotary solenoid. As each coil is
energized in turn, the rotor aligns itself with the magnetic field produced by the energized field
winding. Unlike a synchronous motor, in its application, the stepper motor may not rotate
continuously; instead, it "steps"—starts and then quickly stops again—from one position to the
next as field windings are energized and de-energized in sequence. Depending on the sequence,
the rotor may turn forwards or backwards, and it may change direction, stop, speed up or slow
down arbitrarily at any time.
Simple stepper motor drivers entirely energize or entirely de-energize the field windings, leading
the rotor to "cog" to a limited number of positions; more sophisticated drivers can proportionally
control the power to the field windings, allowing the rotors to position between the cog points
and thereby rotate extremely smoothly. This mode of operation is often called microstepping.
Computer controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems,
particularly when part of a digital servo-controlled system.
Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle in discrete steps with ease, and hence stepper
motors are used for read/write head positioning in computer floppy diskette drives. They were
used for the same purpose in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision and
speed they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk
drive. As drive density increased, the precision and speed limitations of stepper motors made
them obsolete for hard drives—the precision limitation made them unusable, and the speed
limitation made them uncompetitive—thus newer hard disk drives use voice coil-based head
actuator systems. (The term "voice coil" in this connection is historic; it refers to the structure in
a typical (cone type) loudspeaker. This structure was used for a while to position the heads.
Modern drives have a pivoted coil mount; the coil swings back and forth, something like a blade
of a rotating fan. Nevertheless, like a voice coil, modern actuator coil conductors (the magnet
wire) move perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force.)
Stepper motors were and still are often used in computer printers, optical scanners, and digital
photocopiers to move the optical scanning element, the print head carriage (of dot matrix and
inkjet printers), and the platen or feed rollers. Likewise, many computer plotters (which since the
early 1990s have been replaced with large-format inkjet and laser printers) used rotary stepper
motors for pen and platen movement; the typical alternatives here were either linear stepper
motors or servomotors with closed-loop analog control systems.
So-called quartz analog wristwatches contain the smallest commonplace stepping motors; they
have one coil, draw very little power, and have a PM rotor. The same kind of motor drives
battery-powered quartz clocks. Some of these watches, such as chronographs, contain more than
one stepping motor.
Closely related in design to three-phase AC synchronous motors, stepper motors and SRMs are
classified as variable reluctance motor type.[71] Stepper motors were and still are often used in
computer printers, optical scanners, and computer numerical control (CNC) machines such as
routers, plasma cutters and CNC lathes.
Linear motor
A linear motor is essentially any electric motor that has been "unrolled" so that, instead of
producing a torque (rotation), it produces a straight-line force along its length. Linear motors are
most commonly induction motors or stepper motors. Linear motors are commonly found in many
roller-coasters where the rapid motion of the motorless railcar is controlled by the rail. They are
also used in maglev trains, where the train "flies" over the ground. On a smaller scale, the 1978
era HP 7225A pen plotter used two linear stepper motors to move the pen along the X and Y
axes.
COOLING TOWER
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the
cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use
the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb
air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the
working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil
refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems
for cooling buildings. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower: the
main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers.
Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in
the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 metres (660 ft) tall and 100 metres (330 ft) in diameter,
or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres (130 ft) tall and 80 metres (260 ft) long. The
hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants,[1] although they are
also used in some coal-fired plants and to some extent in some large chemical and other
industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling
towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat
from air conditioning.
Heat transfer methods

 dry cooling towers operate by heat transfer through a surface that separates the working
fluid from ambient air, such as in a tube to air heat exchanger, utilizing convective heat
transfer. They do not use evaporation.
 wet cooling towers (or open circuit cooling towers) operate on the principle of evaporative
cooling. The working fluid and the evaporated fluid (usually water) are one and the same.
 fluid coolers (or closed circuit cooling towers) are hybrids that pass the working fluid
through a tube bundle, upon which clean water is sprayed and a fan-induced draft applied.
The resulting heat transfer performance is much closer to that of a wet cooling tower, with
the advantage provided by a dry cooler of protecting the working fluid from environmental
exposure and contamination.
With respect to drawing air through the tower, there are three types of cooling towers:

 Natural draft — Utilizes buoyancy via a tall chimney. Warm, moist air naturally rises due
to the density differential compared to the dry, cooler outside air. Warm moist air is less
dense than drier air at the same pressure. This moist air buoyancy produces an upwards
current of air through the tower.

 Mechanical draught — Uses power-driven fan motors to force or draw air through the
tower.
 Induced draught — A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge (at the top)
which pulls air up through the tower. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge.
This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility
of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake. This fan/fin
arrangement is also known as draw-through.
 Forced draught — A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake. The
fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. The
low exiting velocity is much more susceptible to recirculation. With the fan on the air
intake, the fan is more susceptible to complications due to freezing conditions. Another
disadvantage is that a forced draft design typically requires more motor horsepower than
an equivalent induced draft design. The benefit of the forced draft design is its ability to
work with high static pressure. Such setups can be installed in more-confined spaces and
even in some indoor situations. This fan/fill geometry is also known as blow-through.
 Fan assisted natural draught — A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft setup,
though airflow is assisted by a fan.
Hyperboloid (sometimes incorrectly known as hyperbolic) cooling towers have become the
design standard for all natural-draft cooling towers because of their structural strength and
minimum usage of material. The hyperboloid shape also aids in accelerating the
upward convective air flow, improving cooling efficiency. These designs are popularly
associated with nuclear power plants. However, this association is misleading, as the same kind
of cooling towers are often used at large coal-fired power plants as well. Conversely, not all
nuclear power plants have cooling towers, and some instead cool their heat exchangers with lake,
river or ocean water.

CONDENSATE CYCLE

Condensation the process by which water vapor (gas) in the atmosphere turns into water (liquid
state). It is the opposite of evaporation. This stage is very important because it is the cloud
formation stage. Cool temperatures are essential for condensation to happen, because as long as
the temperature in the atmosphere is high, it can hold the water vapor and delay condensation.

As water vapor rises into the atmosphere, they mix up with very tiny particles of dust, soot and
salt, which are all particulate matter in the atmosphere. These tiny particles are called aerosols.
As the surrounding temperatures fall (cool), the water vapor turns into very tiny particles of
water and ice crystals. The water particles bump into the aerosols and stick together. As more
and more water particles and aerosols stick together, clouds are formed. This process is known as
coalescence. Cloud droplets can range from sizes between 10 microns to about 1 millimeter.

Soon, there is so much moisture in the atmosphere, far more than the air in that region can take.
Here, we say there is saturation, and the water / ice crystals are ready to come down in the form
of precipitation.

AIR CYCLE

Air cycle refrigeration systems use air as their refrigerant, compressing it and expanding it to
create heating and cooling capacity.

Why use air cycle? Air cycle systems have specific advantages that apply to all potential
applications:

• The working fluid (air) is free, environmentally benign, safe and non-toxic
• Air cycle equipment is extremely reliable, reducing maintenance costs and system
down-time
• The performance of an air cycle unit does not deteriorate as much as that of a
vapour-compression unit when operating away from its design point
• When operating in a refrigeration cycle, an air cycle unit can also produce heat at
a useful temperature. If this is used together with the cooling, highly efficient, low
energy processes are possible.
WORKING
Air cycle refrigeration works on the reverse Brayton or Joule cycle. Air is compressed and then
heat removed, this air is then expanded to a lower temperature than before it was compressed.
Work must be taken out of the air during the expansion, otherwise the entropy would increase.
Work is taken out of the air by an expansion turbine, which removes energy as the blades are
driven round by the expanding air. This work can be usefully employed to run other devices,
such as generators or fans. Often, though, it is used to power a directly connected (bootstrap)
compressor, which elevates the compressed (hot) side pressure further without added external
energy input, essentially recycling the energy removed from the expanding air to compress the
high pressure air further. The increase in pressure on the hot side further elevates the temperature
and makes the air cycle system produce more useable heat (at a higher temperature). The cold air
after the turbine can be used as a refrigerant either directly in an open system, or indirectly by
means of a heat exchanger in a closed system. The efficiency of such systems is limited to a
great extent by the efficiencies of compression and expansion, as well as those of the heat
exchangers employed.
Originally, slow speed reciprocating compressors and expanders were used. The poor efficiency
and reliability of such machinery were major factors in the replacement of such systems with
vapour compression equipment. However, the development of rotary compressors and expanders
(such as in car turbochargers) greatly improved the isentropic efficiency and reliability of the air
cycle. Advances in turbine technology, together with the development of air bearings and
ceramic components offer further efficiency improvements.
Combining these advances with newly available, compact heat exchangers, which have greatly
improved heat transfer characteristics, makes competition with many existing vapour
compression quite feasible.

CHILLED WATER CYCLE


Chilled water systems work to cool a room using cold water instead of cold air. The system
operates in a similar manner to a refrigerator, but on the scale of a house or building. Pipes run
throughout the house circulating cold water throughout to air handlers in each room. These
handlers work like a radiator, but instead of steam, cold water is poured over coils inside the
handler. A small fan blows air over these coils cooling the air as it moves into the room.

The key to the system is a chiller with an attached water reservoir. The chiller has a thermostat
that monitors the temperature of the water in the reservoir, and therefore the rest of the system. If
the water temperature rises above a certain level, the chiller kicks in. It cools the water back
down with a compressor that raises the pressure of a refrigerant in the system and passes it
through an expansion valve which instantly allows it to expand into a gas. The gas is cold and
helps to pull heat from the water in the pipes. As the gas warms it condenses and may even
become a hot liquid, while the water grows cold and is sent through pipes in the home to
handlers.
COOLING WATER CYCLE

We understand that the water treatment of cooling towers is an integral part of process operations
in many industries, with the possibility of productivity and product quality being adversely
affected by scale, corrosion, fouling and microbiological contamination.
These water treatment problems can be very costly when they cause the loss of heat transfer in
the cooling tower, equipment failure, and health and safety concerns. Nalco uses a unique
engineering approach, looking at your cooling tower and water treatment systems from
mechanical, operational and chemical angles. We can provide best-in-class cooling tower water
treatment solutions tailored to your open recirculating, once-through, closed loop, geothermal,
and process cooling tower systems.
TWO MARKS

UNIT : 1 AIR – CONDITIONING AND BASIC REFRIGERATION PRINCIPLE


1. Define Thermodynamics? (AU NOV 2013) (AU MAY 2015)
Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their
relation to energy and work. Thermo means Heat Dynamics means Work.

2. Define : Ton Of Refrigeration (TR)


This term is Used to indicate the capacity of the Refrigeration and Air – Conditioning
system and is equal to the heat removal required to freeze one metric tonne of water at
0degree Celusis into ice in 24 hours.
(I,e) (2000 lb) * (144 BTU/lb)/24 hrs.
3. Define : Latent heat of Fusion (AU NOV 2013)
During the State Changes Like, liquid to water the Temperature remains constant. It
requires great deal of heat energy for this change of state , and the quality of heat neeed
for the change is called latent heat of fusion.
4. Define : Refrigerant (AU NOV 2013)
Any body or substance that acts as a cooling medium by extracting heat from another
body or substance is known as Refrigerant.
5. List the types of Refrigerant controlling device or metering devices? (AU MAY
2015)
 Automatic expansion valve
 Thermostatic expansion valve
 Low side float expansion valve
 High side Float expansion valve
 Capillary Tube
6. What is Air Handling Unit (AHU)? (AU NOV 2013)
A Central unit consisting of a blower , Heating cooling elements , Fillters, Etc. That is, in
direct contact with the air flow.
(1) To improve Air quality circulating air is mixed with fresh air.
(2) Usually equipped with a heat recovery unit for energy saving purposes.
(3) Supply air temperature kept constant so that temperature can be adjusted locally with
Thermostats.
7. Define : Temperature
Temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy of an object.
Temperature is an indication level of heat in a substance. A substance at the temperature
of 10 degree Celsius has more heat in it than the same substance at a Temperature of 0
degree Celsius. The Temperature of a substance, however does not given an idea of the
amount of heat the substance has.
Measuring Instrument : Thermometer
Scale : Fahrenhit and Celsius
8. Explain Cooling Tower. (AU MAY 2015)
The selection cooling tower to go hand in with water cooled condenser and together form
heat rejection component of System.
The cooling tower performance is given interms of water Temperature range and wet
bulb approach, which are fixed while selecting the condenser. It is on the condensing
temperature, Compressor ‘s capacity, when compressor Capacity is sufficient for the
load.

9. Define : Saturation Temperature


Saturation Temperature means Boilling point.
Saturation Temperature is a Temperature at corresponding saturation pressure liquids
boils in its vapour. This also Said to be Liquid Saturated at this Thermal Energy.
10. Explain what is Superheat
A Vapour gas is superheated when its Temperature is higher than the boling point
corresponding to its pressure. When the boiling poit begins both the liquid and vapour are
at same temperature. But in an evaporator, gas vapour moves along the coil towards
suction line, the gas may absorb additional heat.
11. Components of Refridgeration Cycle (AU NOV 2013) (AU MAY 2015)
1. Compressor
2. Condensor
3. Flow control devices
4. Evaporator.

16 MARKS

1. Explain in detail (AU NOV 2013)


(I) Air handling Unit
(ii) Components of Refrigeration Cycle
(iii) Relation Ship between pressure and Saturation Temperature.
2. Explain in Detail about (AU NOV 2013)
(i)cooling Towers
(ii) Chiller Plant
3. Components of Refrigertation cycle (AU APR 2015)
4. Explain in detail about Refrigerant control Devices.
5. Explain in detail about types of cycles in in conditionersanu
6. Explain in detail about vapour Compression Cycle.
UNIT 2: AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATIONS

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDINGS

WINDOW TYPES
Working of a Window Air conditioning system
It is called a window air conditioner because it is usually fixed in a window. The Window or
Room air conditioner is used to cool a single room or a large space. This window room air
conditioner system has four main components. They are
An entire cooling system, which includes a condenser, compressor and an
evaporator.
A fan and adjustable grills to ensure proper circulation of air.
A filter, which is made of fibre, mesh or glass wool to remove the impurities in
the air.
Controlling equipments to regulate the properties of the air.
The working of the window air conditioner shown in Figure is described asunder:
The refrigerant vapour leaving the compressor is at high pressure and temperature. It then passes
through the condenser. Outside air is drawn in by the fan and it cools the refrigerant in the
condenser, the refrigerant then becomes liquid. he high pressure, low temperature liquid
refrigerant enters the expansion valve. The pressure and temperature of the refrigerant falls
when it leaves the valve. The cold refrigerant from the valve passes through the evaporator (the
evaporator side of the air conditioner faces the room to be cooled). The warm air from the room
is drawn in by blower. The evaporator cools this air and the liquid inside the evaporator tube gets
vaporized by absorbing the heat from the warm air. The cool air is again sent to the room
through the opening at the top of the air conditioning unit. The liquid and vapour refrigerant
from the evaporator passes to the compressor and is compressed to high-pressure, high
temperature liquid. The operation hereafter is carried out in cycle as the same manner as
explained.
The amount of air circulated into the room can be controlled by the dampers provided. When air
flows over the cooling coil or the evaporator coil, the moisture in the air gets condensed and they
are made to drip into the trays provided below the coils. This water evaporates to some extend
and thus helps in cooling the compressor and condenser. For every cycle, the temperature of the
air keeps on reducing. The unit automatically stops with the help of thermostat and control panel,
when the required temperature is reached inside the room.
Evaporative Cooling:
As the name indicates, evaporative cooling is the process of reducing the temperature of a system
by evaporation of water. Human beings perspire and dissipate their metabolic heat by
Evaporative cooling if the ambient temperature is more than skin temperature. Animals such as
the hippopotamus and buffalo coat themselves with mud for evaporative cooling.
Evaporative cooling has been used in India for centuries to obtain cold water in summer by
storing the water in earthen pots. The water permeates through the pores of earthen vessel to its
outer surface where it evaporates to the surrounding, absorbing its latent heat in part from the
vessel, which cools the water. It is said that Patliputra University situated on the bank of river
Ganges used to induce the evaporative-cooled air from the river. Suitably located chimneys in
the rooms augmented the upward flow of warm air, which was replaced by cool air. Evaporative
cooling by placing wet straw mats on the windows is also very common in India. The straw mat
made from “khus” adds its inherent perfume also to the air. Now-a-days coolers are being used
in hot and dry areas to provide cooling in summer.
TYPES OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM:
(1) DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM (OPEN CIRCUIT)
(2) INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM(CLOSED CIRCUIT)
Direct evaporative cooling (open circuit)
This is used to lower the temperature of air by using latent heat of evaporation, changing liquid
water to water vapor. In this process, the energy in the air does not change. Warm dry air is
changed to cool moist air. The heat of the outside air is used to evaporate water.
Indirect evaporative cooling (closed circuit)
This is similar to direct evaporative cooling, but uses some type of heat exchanger. The cooled
moist air never comes in direct contact with the conditioned environment.

Advantages and disadvantages of evaporative cooling systems:


Compared to the conventional refrigeration based air conditioning systems, the evaporative
cooling systems offer the following
advantages:
1. Lower equipment and installation costs.
2. Substantially lower operating and power costs. Energy savings can be as high as 75%.
3. Ease of fabrication and installation.
4. Lower maintenance costs.
5. Ensures a very good ventilation due to the large air flow rates involved, hence, are very
good especially in 100 % outdoor air applications.
6. Better air distribution in the conditioned space due to higher flow rates
7. The fans/blowers create positive pressures in the conditioned space, so that infiltration of
outside air is prevented
8. Very environment friendly as no harmful chemicals are used
Compared to the conventional systems, the evaporative cooling systems suffer from the
Following
disadvantages:
1. The moisture level in the conditioned space could be higher, hence, direct evaporative
coolers are not good when low humidity levels in the conditioned space is required. However,
the indirect evaporative cooler can be used without increasing humidity
2. Since the required air flow rates are much larger, this may create draft and/or high noise
levels in the conditioned space
3. Precise control of temperature and humidity in the conditioned space is not possible
4. May lead to health problems due to micro-organisms if the water used is not clean or the
wetted surfaces are not maintained properly.
Depending upon the following factors the conditioning systems has its own advantages
and disadvantages:
Ducts
Portability
Aesthetics
Flexible Sizing
Affordability
Split Air Conditioner:
A Streamlined and light-weight air handler is mounted on the inside wall. Refrigerant and
condensate lines run through a small hole in the wall to the outside unit. Initial power is to the
outside unit and then relayed to the air handler. Extremely quiet as the compressor and condenser
coil are outside. Full electronic and remote control. The compressor (6) in the exterior unit
compresses the refrigerant into a high-temperature, high-pressure gas. When this gas flows along
the cooling fins of the condenser (7), heat is exuded and the gas is led to the evaporator (1) in the
interior unit. The liquid expands into a gas at a low temperature and low pressure. This gas
absorbs the warmth of the air in the room, the cooled air is blown back into the room and the
heat is led to the compressor along with the gas.
A fan (3) draws the air (a) over the filter (2) and blows the cooled air (b) back into the room.
A fan (8) draws air over the condenser and blows warm air (d) away. As with cooling, the
moisture in the air condenses on the cold evaporator at room temperature.

Central Systems Are Complex


Central Systems comprise one or more large mechanical spaces
Sizable distribution trees are used.
Central Systems are generally Direct Expansion (DX) and Chilled Water systems.
Chilled water system:
The supply air, which is approximately 20° F cooler than the air in the conditioned space, leaves
the cooling coil through the supply air fan, down to the ductwork and into the conditioned space.
The cool supply air picks up heat in the conditioned space and the warmer air makes its way into
the return air duct back to the air handling unit. The return air mixes with outside air in a mixing
chamber and goes through the filters and cooling coil. The mixed air gives up its heat into the
chilled water tubes in the cooling coil, which has fins attached to the tubes to facilitate heat
transfer. The cooled supply air leaves the cooling coil and the air cycle repeats. The chilled water
circulating through the cooling coil tubes, after picking up heat from the mixed air, leaves the
cooling coil and goes through the chilled water return (CHWR) pipe to the chiller's evaporator.
Here it gives up the heat into the refrigeration system. The newly "chilled" water leaves the
evaporator and is pumped through the chilled water supply (CHWS) piping into the cooling coil
continuously and the water cycle repeats. The evaporator is a heat exchanger that allows heat
from the CHWR to flow by conduction into the refrigerant tubes. The liquid refrigerant in the
tubes "boils off" to a vapor removing heat from the water and conveying the heat to the
compressor and then to the condenser. The heat from the condenser is conveyed to the cooling
tower by the condenser water. Finally, outside air is drawn across the cooling tower, removing
the heat from the water through the process of evaporation.
The figure above provides a conceptual view of chilled water air-conditioning system with
water cooled condenser.
The main equipment used in the chilled water system is a chillers package that includes
1) A refrigeration compressor (reciprocating, scroll, screw or centrifugal type),
2) Shell and tube heat exchanger (evaporator) for chilled water production
3) Shell and tube heat exchanger (condenser) for heat rejection in water cooled configuration
(alternatively, air cooled condenser can be used, where water is scarce or its use is prohibited)
4) A cooling tower to reject the heat of condenser water
5) An expansion valve between condenser and the evaporator
The chilled water system is also called central air conditioning system. This is because the
chilled water system can be networked to have multiple cooling coils distributed through out a
large or distributed buildings with the refrigeration equipment (chillers) placed at one base
centrallocation.

DX Central Air Conditioning Plant


a)The Plant Room:
The plant room comprises of the important parts of the refrigeration system, the compressor and
the condenser. The compressor can be either semi-hermetically sealed or open type. The semi-
hermetically sealed compressors are cooled by the air, which is blown by the fan, while open
type compressor is water cooled. The open compressor can be driven directly by motor shaft by
coupling or by the belt via pulley arrangement. The condenser is of shell and tube type and is
cooled by the water. The refrigerant flows along the tube side of the condenser and water along
the shell side, which enables faster cooling of the refrigerant. The water used for cooling the
compressor and the condenser is cooled in the cooling tower kept at the top of the plant room,
though it can be kept at other convenient location also.

b) The Air Handling Unit Room:


the refrigerant leaving the condenser in the plant room enters the thermostatic expansion valve
and then the air handling unit, which is kept in the separate room. The air handling unit is a large
box type of unit that comprises of the evaporator or the cooling coil, air filter and the large
blower. After leaving the thermostatic expansion valve the refrigerant enters the cooling coil
where it cools the air that enters the room to be air conditioned. The evaporator in the air
handling unit of the DX central air conditioning system is of coil type covered with the fins to
increasing the heat transfer efficiency from the refrigerant to the air. There are two types of ducts
connected to the air handling unit: for absorbing the hot return air from the rooms and for
sending the chilled air to the rooms to be air conditioned. The blower of the air handling unit
enables absorbing the hot return air that has absorbed the heat from the room via the ducts. This
air is then passed through the filters and then over the cooling coil. The blower then passes the
chilled air through ducts to the rooms that are to be air conditioned.
c) Air Conditioned Room:
This is the space that is to be actually cooled. It can be residential room, room of the hotel, part
of the office or any other suitable application. The ducts from the air handling room are passed to
all the rooms that are to be cooled. The ducts are connected to the grills or diffusers that supply
the chilled air to the room. The air absorbs the heat and gets heated and it passes through another
set of the grill and into the return air duct that ends into the air handling unit room. This air is
then re-circulated by the air handling unit. Though the efficiency of the DX plants is higher, the
air handling units and the refrigerant piping cannot be kept at very long distance since there will
be lots of drop in pressure of the refrigerant along the way and there will also be cooling losses.
Further, for the long piping, large amounts of refrigerant will be needed which makes the system
very expensive and also prone to the ma instance problems like the leakage of the refrigerant.
Due to these reasons the DX type central air conditioning systems are used for small air
conditioning systems of about 5 to 15 tons in small buildings or the number of rooms on a single
floor. If there are large air conditioning loads, then multiple direct expansion systems can be
installed. In such cases, when there is lesser heat load one of the plants can be shut down and the
other can run at full load. The DX expansion system runs more efficiently at higher loads. Even
in case of the breakdown of the plants, the other plants can be used for the cooling purpose. The
DX types of central air conditioning plants are less popular than the chilled water type of central
conditioning plants.
Water-cooled condenser:
To cool a building or process, the transferred heat must ultimately be rejected. The total amount
of heat rejected includes the sum total of the evaporator load, the compressor work, and the
motor inefficiency. In a hermetic chiller, where the motor and compressor are in the same
housing, these loads are all rejected through the condenser. In an open chiller, where the motor is
separate from the compressor and connected by a shaft, the motor heat is rejected directly to the
surrounding air. The evaporator load and the compressor work are rejected through the
condenser and the motor heat must be taken care of by the air conditioning system.
Air-cooled condenser:
air-cooled chillers do not use condenser-water, since they reject their heat by having ambient air
passed across refrigerant-to-air heat exchangers. In packaged air-cooled chillers, the
manufacturers attempt to provide optimal performance by staging fans in response to chiller load
and ambient, dry-bulb temperature.
AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
(1) Variable Air volume
(2) Variable Refrigerant Volume.

(1) Variable Air volume

Variable air volume (VAV) is a type of heating, ventilating, and/or air-conditioning


(HVAC) system. The simplest VAV system incorporates one supply duct that, when in
cooling mode, distributes approximately 55 °f (13 °c) supply air.
Because the supply air temperature, in this simplest of VAV systems, is constant, the air
flow rate must vary to meet the rising and falling heat gains or losses within the thermal
zone served.
A VAV terminal unit, often called a VAV box, is the zone-level flow control device. It is
basically a quality, calibrated air damper with an automatic actuator.

FEATURES
1. Sophisticated solution
2. Insensitive to duct pressure
3. Factory calibration possible
4. No site calibration required (self balancing system)
5. Duct design less critical
6. Modulating controls
7. Accurate pressure and air volume control
Benefits
 Localize control & data backup
 Reduction in cabling
 Easy maintenance, fault traceability
 System to work as Standalone / Networkable
 there by free from central system for local operation
this is single duct system that can easily having many zones. A variable air volume control box is
located when duct system enters into separate zone.
A thermostat control the air volume in the each zone flow by operating damper in the VAV
control box. More cooling is required, more cool air is allowed to enters in the zone.

VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME SYSTEMS (VRV)


The system offers large outdoor capacities, greater energy savings, easier installation, longer
actual and total piping, and more. Individual control Conventional systems air-condition a
building as a whole, whereas the VRV system air conditions each room individually. Hence it is
ideal for the constantly changing occupancy of a typical building. Even further, precise level
control is possible that reacts to the exact conditions in each room. Individual control promotes a
far more economical and efficient system.
Saves energy
Using the VRV for ventilation dramatically boosts energy efficiency.
Conserves space
Space efficiency is enhanced by the compact size of the individual units, the long maximum
piping length, and the ability to realize a large-scale air conditioning system with a single piping
circuit.
Offers a wide selection of models
Lineup of heat pump types are 5 to 54 HP, and both in 2 HP increments*. Indoor units consist of
14 types with a total of 79 models. This wide selection of models makes it possible to build a
system that perfectly suits the customer’s requirements * Except for 5 HP (HEAT PUMP
SYSTEM)

Configuring of Mechanical Equipment.


A method and system of managing a configuration of mechanical equipment provides a
structured procedure for managing information on parameters of the mechanical equipment to
facilitate the maintenance of safety, legal compliance, performance, and reliability of the
mechanical equipment. A desired configuration of the mechanical equipment is defined based on
a design objective, such as safety, reliability, performance, or any combination of the foregoing
objectives. An actual configuration of the mechanical equipment is determined based on an
evaluation of the mechanical equipment. Upgrade requirements are planned for upgrading the
actual configuration to the desired configuration if the actual configuration is noncompliant with
the desired configuration.
 A method and system of managing a configuration of mechanical equipment provides a
 structured procedure.
 It helps to manage various parameters of the mechanical equipment to facilitate the
 Maintenance of safety,
 Legal compliance,
 Performance, and
 Reliability of the mechanical equipment.
 An actual configuration of the mechanical equipment is determined based on an
evaluation of
 the mechanical equipment.
 Upgrade requirements are planned for upgrading the actual configuration to the desired
 configuration if the actual configuration is noncompliant with the desired configuration.
Sizing of equipment.
 Correct sizing of mechanical equipment is important for several reasons. Extra money
 need not be paid up front for an oversized system. This is the typical process for the
 construction of new buildings.
 Mechanical equipment that is larger than needed results in inefficiencies of the system.
 Oversized furnaces and air conditioners cycle on and off more often than if they were
 correctly sized.
 They blast on and meet the required heating or cooling loads quickly, turning off before
 maximum efficiency is reached. This is called ‘short-cycling’. Further, this also
 results in a shorter service life for the equipment, and can also result in thermostat
and humidity problems.
CHILLERS PLANT
Larger buildings and multiple building campuses usually use a chiller plant to provide cooling.
in such systems, chilled water is centrally generated and then piped throughout the building to air
handling units serving individual tenant spaces, single floors, or several floors. Ductwork then
runs from each air handler to the zones that are served. Chilled water-based systems result in far
less ductwork than all-air systems because chilled water piping is used to convey thermal energy
from the point of generation to each point of use. Whereas the all-air systems used to cool
smaller buildings usually contain all of their components packaged within a single cabinet
(underergo the term “packaged cooling unit”), a chiller plant is a collection of individual
components that have been selected to work together as a system. Though more costly to install
and more complicated to operate, a chiller plant offers a number of benefits over simple
packaged cooling units, including greater energy efficiency, better controllability, and longer
life. Additionally, a chiller-based system can be much more efficient in terms of space utilization
within the building because components need not be located within the same space.
Chiller plants are usually used to cool large buildings because their components require much
less space within the building than all-air systems. One reason that less space is needed is that the
size of pipes that convey chilled water throughout the building is much smaller than the size of
air ducts that would deliver cold air to provide the same cooling effect. Water is a more space
efficient heat transfer medium than air, and therefore works well in space-constrained
applications such as high-rise buildings.
Characteristics of an Efficient Chiller Plant
There are three key characteristics of an efficient chiller plant. Severe shortcomings in any one of
these areas cannot necessarily be overcome by excellence in the others:
An efficient design concept. Selecting an appropriate design concept that is responsive to the
anticipated operating conditions is essential to achieving efficiency. Examples include using a
variable-flow pumping system for large campus applications, and selecting the quantity, type,
and configuration of chillers based upon the expected load profile.
Efficient components.
Chillers, pumps, fans, and motors should all be selected for stand-alone as well as systemic
efficiency. Examples include premium efficiency motors, pumps that have high efficiency at the
anticipated operating conditions, chillers that are efficient at both full and partial loads, and
induced-draft cooling towers.
Proper installation, commissioning, and operation.
A chiller plant that meets the first two criteria can still waste a lot of energy—and provide poor
comfort to building occupants—if it is not installed or operated properly. For this reason,
following a formal commissioning process that functionally tests the plant under all modes of
operation can provide some assurance that the potential efficiency of the system will be realized.
Cooling Tower:
The cooling tower is used to cool the water that absorbs heat from the compressor and the
condenser. When water flows through these components some water gets evaporated, to make up
this loss some water is also added in the cooling tower. The cooling tower is of evaporative type.
Here the water is cooled by the atmospheric air and is re-circulated through the compressor and
the condenser.
FAN ROOM

Fans are the heart of a building’s air-handling system. Like a heart that pumps blood through a
body, they distribute the conditioned (heated or cooled) air throughout the building.
There are two main types of fans: centrifugal and axial
Centrifugal fans (A) are the most common fans used in HVAC applications. They are often
cheaper but usually less efficient than axial fans (B).
Circulator Pump
A circulator pump is used to circulate gases, liquids or slurries in a circuit. Most often, these
pumps are found circulating water in a hydronic heating or cooling system. The circulator's job is
to move hot water from the boiler to the radiators, and then return the cooled water for another
injection of heat.
Types of Circulator Pumps
While the function of circulator pumps is generally the same, there are many different kinds.
Among the designs are bronze sweat end pumps, stainless steel/bronze circulator pumps, cast
iron pumps, pre-wired models and in-line pumps. Circulator pumps also vary based on
horsepower, flow range (expressed in gallons per minute), head range (expressed in submersible
feet of depth), motor type, and the maximum and minimum liquid temperatures they can be used
in.
Design of piping systems:
Types of piping system: The piping systems are divided into two types:
Closed system: In a closed system chilled or hot water flowing through the coils, heater ,
chillers, boiler or other heat exchanger forms a closed re circulating loop as shown in the figure
below. In close system water is not exposed to the atmospheric during its flowing process. The
purpose of re circulating is to save water and energy.
Open system:
In an open system the water ix expose to the atmosphere as shown in the Figure below. For
example, chilled water come directly into contact with the cooled and dehumidified air in the air
washer and condenser water is exposed to atmosphere in the cooling tower. Recirculation of
water is used to save water and energy.

The close systems are consists of the following components:


 Load unite which represents the terminal unite as cooling or heating coils or
 radiators
 Source unites which represent the chiller in cooling system or the boiler and
 furnace in heating systems.
 Distribution systems which represents the piping and fitting of the piping systems.
 Pump that used to circulate the water in the cooling or heating systems. It is
 usually of centrifugal types with constant flow rates (0.3 l/s with 20 kPa up to
 hundreds of l/s and appropriate pressures.
 Expansion tanks which are of two types.
Types of closed systems:
One pipe system: A single pipe connects all the system components i. e. the pipe started from
the source unit through the pump to the load units and then returns to the source. The
disadvantage of this system is that the efficiency of the last units are low because the return
cold or hot water of all units is added to the same pipe that supply the end units.
Two pipe system: This system has a two pipes one to the supply water and the other to the
return water. In this system the disadvantage of the one pipe system is overcome. This is the
most popular system in use because it is simple and cheep.

Three pipe system: This system can be use in central air conditioning units that used for cooling
and heating in the same time . It has one pipe to supply hot water, the other to supply cold water
and the third is a common return pipe i. e. the third pipe is used to return cold and hot water to
the chillers and boiler. The disadvantage of the system is the waste of heat in the third common
return pipe.
Four pipe system: The disadvantage of the three pipe system ( i. e. the common third return
pipe ) is overcome in this system by adding a fourth pipe . The four pipe system can be used in
central air conditioning plant with cold and hot circuits separated.
Ducts
 Ducts can be round, oval or rectangular
 Round ducts are usually less expensive to fabricate and install, but require higher
 ceiling heights.
 Ducts are generally fabricated in galvanized steel.
 Fiberglass ducts are lighter and competitively priced.
 Ducts are available in rigid and flexible round profiles.
 Fiberglass ductwork is generally unsuitable for hospitals because the breeding of
 micro-organisms is more pronounced on them.
 For better circulation of air when cooling, air supply should be through the ceiling
 and return air through low wall or floor return-air grilles.
 Ducts are hung from metal hangers, straps, lugs or brackets.
 Supply ducts should have locking-type dampers in branch ducts for volume
 control.
 Dampers should be installed as far as possible from the outlet.
 Distribution system needs to be balanced and adjusted for proper performance.
 It is critical that pressure differentials between adjacent rooms of a hospital be
 maintained to prevent cross-contamination.
 Economizer cycle is an arrangement of dampers and controls that permits cooler
 external air to replace return-air in the cooling cycle.
 Air diffusers and grilles are common to central all-air systems.
 Diffusers come in a wide variety of styles, shapes and sizes ranging from bar-type
 grilles for walls, to round, rectangular and slot-shaped diffusers for ceilings.
 The choice of air-diffusers is largely dependent on the desired architectural effect.
Types of Supply Duct Systems
There are several basic types of supply and return duct systems. Any one of the system types,
or a combination of different types, can be utilized to fit the needs of a particular structure.
The general types of supply duct systems include:
 radial system
 extended plenum system
 reducing plenum system
 reducing trunk system
 Perimeter loop system.


UNIT 2: AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATIONS

2 MARKS

1. T-S diagram for vapour compression cycle? ( AU NOV 2013)

2. Brief upon the Health issues created by the air conditioning system? (AU NOV
2013)
(1) Skin allergy
(2) Breathing Problems
3. Define chiller plant? (AU NOV 2013)
Chiller plants are usually used to cool large buildings because their components require
much less space within the building than all-air systems. One reason that less space is
needed is that the size of pipes that convey chilled water throughout the building is much
smaller than the size of air ducts that would deliver cold air to provide the same cooling
effect. Water is a more space efficient heat transfer medium than air, and therefore works
well in space-constrained applications such as high-rise buildings.
4. Define VAV (Variable Air Volume)?
Variable air volume (VAV) is a type of heating, ventilating, and/or air-conditioning
(HVAC) system. The simplest VAV system incorporates one supply duct that, when in
cooling mode, distributes approximately 55 °f (13 °c) supply air.
Because the supply air temperature, in this simplest of VAV systems, is constant, the air
flow rate must vary to meet the rising and falling heat gains or losses within the thermal
zone served.
5. Define VRV (Variable Refrigerant Volume)?
Variable air volume (VRV) is a type of heating, ventilating, and/or air-conditioning
(HVAC) system. The simplest VRV system incorporates one supply duct that, when in
cooling mode, distributes approximately 55 °f (13 °c) supply air.
Because the supply Refrigerant temperature, in this simplest of VRV systems, is constant,
the Refrigerant flow rate must vary to meet the rising and falling heat gains or losses
within the thermal zone served.
6. Define Evaoprative cooling?
As the name indicates, evaporative cooling is the process of reducing the temperature of a
system by evaporation of water. For examples, Human beings perspire and dissipate their
metabolic heat by Evaporative cooling if the ambient temperature is more than skin
temperature. Animals such as the hippopotamus and buffalo coat themselves with mud
for evaporative cooling.
7. Define Air cooled Condensor?
Air-cooled chillers do not use condenser-water, since they reject their heat by having
ambient air passed across refrigerant-to-air heat exchangers. In packaged air-cooled
chillers, the manufacturers attempt to provide optimal performance by staging fans in
response to chiller load and ambient, dry-bulb temperature.
8. Define Water cooled condenser?
Water cooled condenser condensing or reject their heat by having water passed across
refrigerant to water heat exchanges.
9. Define circulation pumps?
A circulator pump is used to circulate gases, liquids or slurries in a circuit. Most often,
these pumps are found circulating water in a hydronic heating or cooling system. The
circulator's job is to move hot water from the boiler to the radiators, and then return the
cooled water for another injection of heat.
16 MARKS
(1) Explain about (AU APR 2015)
(1) Window type air – conditioning system
(2) Evaoprative cooling System
(3) Spilt Air – Conditioner System
(2) Explain in detail about (AU NOV 2013)
(1) Chiller Plant System
(2) Cooling Towers
(3) Explain Detail about
(1) Air cooled condenser
(2) Water cooled Codensor
(4) Explain detail about
(1) Variable Air Volume
(2) Variable Refrigerant Volume
(5) To Study about
(1) Circulation Pumps
(2) Pipes
(3) Ducts
(4) Fan Rooms.
Unit 3 : Design issues and Horizontal Distribution system
Air conditioning systems for large buildings:
Selection criteria for air conditioning systems:
Selection of a suitable air conditioning system depends on:
 Capacity, performance and spatial requirements
 Initial and running costs
 Required system reliability and flexibility
 Maintainability
 Architectural constraints
The relative importance of the above factors varies from building owner to owner and may vary
from project to project. The typical space requirement for large air conditioning systems may
vary from about 4 percent to about 9 percent of the gross building area, depending upon the type
of the system. Normally based on the selection criteria, the choice is narrowed down to 2 to 3
systems, out of which one will be selected finally.
Architectural Constraints
Designing air conditioning for different building applications and occupancies requires a
consideration of different design criteria, operating hours, and different system characteristics.
Specific design criteria usually dictate the type of air conditioning system that should be
selected. A good example is the design of an air conditioning system for a class 10 clean room
for fabrication of semiconductor wafer. In this case a constant-volume central system is always
the preferred option. When the clean room is in operation, adequate clean air must be provided to
maintain unidirectional flow to prevent the contamination of semiconductor wafers by sub-
micrometer-size particulates. It should be noted that a constant-volume system with electric
terminal reheat is always preferable to a VAV system in places requiring highprecision constant
temperature to be maintained in the conditioned space.
For guest rooms in luxury hotels, a four-pipe fan-coil system is the most widely used air
conditioning system as in addition to the systems ease of maintenance, the four-pipe fan-coil
system provides individual temperature and fan speed controls as well as a positive supply of
adequate outdoor ventilation air. When the room is not occupied, the fan coil unit (in the room)
can be turned off conveniently.
Space limitations specified by the architect or facility owner also influence the selection of the
air conditioning system. For example where the design for a high-rise building provides no
ooftop space for AHUs and other mechanical equipment, or if there is not enough space for
supply and return duct shafts, a floor-by-floor AHU central system may be the practical choice.
Capacity and Performance Requirements
Another vital consideration for the selection of air conditioning system is the system capacity.
For a single-story small retail shop, a constant-volume packaged system is often chosen. If the
conditioned space is a large indoor stadium with a seating capacity of up to 70,000 spectators, a
single-zone VAV central system is often selected. This system also guarantees the provision of
minimum ventilation controls for required indoor air quality regulation.
Maintenance Considerations
It is worth mentioning here that a central system with AHUs, a few water-cooled centrifugal
chillers, and cooling towers needs less maintenance work than a packaged system with many
rooftop air-cooled units. A VAV reheat central system needs less maintenance work in the fan
and plant rooms than fan-coil system, which often requires much maintenance work in the
ceiling space directly above the conditioned space.
Cost Considerations
Initial cost and operating costs (mainly energy cost) are always primary factors that affect the
selection of an air conditioning system. The initial cost of the air conditioning system in a
building, expressed in $ /m2, depends on the building occupancies, system configurations,
size of the building, and capabilities of specific systems. Generally, the more complex an air
conditioning system becomes and the more features it has, the higher will be the initial cost.
Energy Efficiency in Air- Conditioning Systems
 Balance air and water systems that are out of balance
 repair variable-air-volume boxes that are not working properly
 tighten loose fan belts
 repair leaking control valves
 replace leaking damper seals
 repair or replace malfunctioning variable-speed drives
 seal ductwork to minimize leaks
 Reduce excessive air-change rates.
Building Envelope
(1)repair door and window seals to prevent excessive infiltration of unconditioned
outdoor air and excessive exfiltration of conditioned air replace inefficient glazing or install
solar-control film provide internal or external shading devices to control solar-heat gainInstall
additional thermal insulation where needed to reduce heat gain and loss.
(2)Two-speed cooling tower fans and variable-speed drives on fans and pumps and energy
management systems (or direct digital control systems) will allow for the modulating of HVAC
equipment. This controls the system so that it works only to meet the space conditioning and
ventilation requirements of the building spaces, and not just at full output capacity at all times.
For example, demand-controlled ventilation modulates ventilated air to keep CO2 levels below a
set point (for example, 1000 parts per million), thereby allowing ventilation rates to be adjusted
to the number of people occupying the space and other variables. This strategy for reducing
building ventilation saves energy without compromising indoor air quality, and modern CO2
sensors are both reliable and inexpensive.
(3)The cost-effectiveness of installing direct digital controls (DDCs) on an HVAC system varies
widely with the specific site and application. DDC systems save energy if they are used to turn
building systems off when they are not needed. In office buildings, DDC systems can modulate
HVAC and lighting equipment to achieve energy savings as well as to trim demand during
peak periods, thereby lowering energy bills for months to come.
(4)Using occupancy sensors in conjunction with digital controls can limit energy waste in
unoccupied hotel and motel rooms and similar spaces, including offices. Guest room occupancy
sensors or central control systems can reduce energy requirements without inconveniencing
guests. For example, a central switching system at the front desk can turn on heating or air
conditioning as the guest checks in or manually adjust thermostat settings if the room is
unoccupied. Heat sensing (infrared) detectors can activate HVAC and lighting systems based on
human presence in the room. Turn-off time delays of 10 to 30 minutes can ccommodate a
guest’s departure from the room for short periods of time.
(5)Variable air volume (VAV) air-handling systems with variable-speed drives (VSDs) can save
considerable fan energy over constant volume systems. Incorporating a VSD on a VAV fan
allows it to slow down as load decreases. Because reducing fan speed by one-half will reduce
power consumption by seveneighths, a VSD on a VAV fan system offers compound energy
savings that can provide a payback of three to five years. Typical VSD installation costs are $200
to $250 per horsepower of the motor driven. VAV can save energy costeffectively
in systems whose fans are 20 hp or more.
(6)Variable-speed drives are also useful in a number of other commercial and industrial
applications, from moving water from boilers or chillers to local heat exchangers to adjusting
patterns of irrigation to optimize crop growth while minimizing water use. Motors used in
pumping fluids like water or high-pressure air can match pumping rates to instantaneous
demands, thereby saving both energy and demand costs.
(7)VSD’s are also useful in adjusting ventilation rates to ensure good indoor air quality while
controlling fan energy use. Instead of operating at fixed fan rates on a predetermined schedule,
ventilation rates can be varied to maintain CO2 levels below a given threshold, for example,
1100 parts per million. Inserting a CO2 sensor in the return air stream to give feedback to a
simple control algorithm can optimize fan use while safeguarding air quality.

Classification of air conditioning systems:


Based on the fluid media used in the thermal distribution system, air conditioning systems can be
classified as:

1. All air systems


2. All water systems
3. Air- water systems
4. Unitary refrigerant based systems

All air systems:


As the name implies, in an all air system air is used as the media that transports energy from the
conditioned space to the A/C plant. In these systems air is processed in the A/C plant and this
processed air is then conveyed to the conditioned space through insulated ducts using blowers
and fans. This air extracts (or supplies in case of winter) the required amount of sensible and
latent heat from the conditioned space. The return air from the conditioned space is conveyed
back to the plant, where it again undergoes the required processing thus completing the cycle. No
additional processing of air is required in the conditioned space. All air systems can be further
classified into:
1. Single duct systems
2. Dual duct systems
The single duct systems can provide either cooling or heating using the same duct, but not
both heating and cooling simultaneously. These systems can be further classified into:
1. Constant volume, single zone systems
2. Constant volume, multiple zone systems
3. Variable volume systems
The dual duct systems can provide both cooling and heating simultaneously.

These systems can be further classified into:


1. Dual duct, constant volume systems
2. Dual duct variable volume systems
Single duct, constant volume, single zone systems:
Figure 36.2 shows the classic, single duct, single zone, constant volume systems. As shown in
the figure, outdoor air (OD air) for ventilation and re circulated air (RC air) are mixed in the
required proportions using the dampers and the mixed air is made to flow through a cooling and
dehumidifying coil, a heating coil and a humidifier using a an insulated ducting and a supply fan.
As the air flows through these coils the temperature and moisture content of the air are brought
to the required values. Then this air is supplied to the conditioned space, where it meets the
building cooling or heating requirements. The return air leaves the conditioned space, a part of it
is re circulated and the remaining part is vented to the atmosphere. A thermostat senses the
temperature of air in the conditioned space and controls the amount of cooling or heating
provided in the coils so that the supply air temperature can be controlled as per requirement. A
humidistat measures the humidity ratio in the conditioned space and controls the amount of water
vapour added in the humidifier and hence the supply air humidity ratio as per requirement.

This system is called as a single duct system as there is only one supply duct, through which
either hot air or cold air flows, but not both simultaneously. It is called as a constant volume
system as the volumetric flow rate of supply air is always maintained constant. It is a single zone
system as the control is based on temperature and humidity ratio measured at a single point. Here
a zone refers to a space controlled by one thermostat. However, the single zone may consist of a
single room or one floor or whole of a building consisting of several rooms.
The cooling/ heating capacity in the single zone, constant volume systems is regulated by
regulating the supply air temperature and humidity ratio, while keeping the supply airflow rate
constant. A separate sub-system controls the amount of OD air supplied by controlling the
damper position.
Since a single zone system is controlled by a single thermostat and humidistat, it is important to
locate these sensors in a proper location, so that they are indicative of zone conditions. The
supply air conditions are controlled by either coil control or face-and-bypass control. In coil
control, supply air temperature is controlled by varying the flow rate of cold and hot water in
the cooling and heating coils, respectively. As the cooling season gradually changes to heating
season, the cooling coil valve is gradually closed and heating coil valve is opened.
Though coil control is simpler, using this type of control it is not possible to control the zone
humidity precisely as the dehumidification rate in the cooling coil decreases with cold water
flow rate. Thus at low cold water flow rates, the humidity ratio of the conditioned space is
likely to be higher than required.
In face-and-bypass control, the cold and hot water flow rates are maintained constant, but the
amount of air flowing over the coils are decreased or increased by opening or closing the by-pass
dampers, respectively. By this method it is possible to control the zone humidity more
precisely, however, this type of control occupies more space physically and is also expensive
compared to coil control.
Applications of single duct, single zone, constant volume systems:
1. Spaces with uniform loads, such as large open areas with small external loads e.g. theatres,
auditoria, departmental stores.
2. Spaces requiring precision control such as laboratories
The Multiple, single zone systems can be used in large buildings such as factories, office
buildings etc.
Single duct, constant volume, multiple zone systems:
For very large buildings with several zones of different cooling/heating requirements, it is not
economically feasible to provide separate single zone systems for each zone. For such cases,
multiple zone systems are suitable. Figure 36.3 shows a single duct, multiple zone system with
terminal reheat coils. In these systems all the air is cooled and dehumidified (for summer) or
heated and humidified (for winter) to a given minimum or maximum temperature and humidity
ratio. A constant volume of this air is supplied to the reheat coil of each zone. In the reheat coil
the supply air temperature is increased further to a required level depending upon the load on that
particular zone. This is achieved by a zone thermostat, which controls the amount of reheat, and
hence the supply air temperature. The reheat coil may run on either electricity or hot water.
Advantages of single duct, multiple zone, constant volume systems with reheat coils:
a) Relatively small space requirement
b) Excellent temperature and humidity control over a wide range of zone loads
c) Proper ventilation and air quality in each zone is maintained as the supply air amount is
kept constant under all conditions
Disadvantages of single duct, multiple zone, and constant volume systems with reheat
coils:
a) High energy consumption for cooling, as the air is first cooled to a very low temperature and
is then heated in the reheat coils. Thus energy is required first for cooling and then for reheating.
The energy consumption can partly be reduced by increasing the supply air temperature, such
that at least one reheat coil can be switched-off all the time. The energy consumption can also be
reduced by using waste heat (such as heat rejected in the condensers) in the reheat coil.
b) Simultaneous cooling and heating is not possible.
Single duct, variable air volume (VAV) systems:
Figure 36.4 shows a single duct, multiple zone, and variable air volume system for summer air
conditioning applications. As shown, in these systems air is cooled and dehumidified to required
level in the cooling and dehumidifying coil (CC). A variable volume of this air is supplied to
each zone. The amount of air supplied to each zone is controlled by a zone damper, which in turn
is controlled by that zone thermostat as shown in the figure. Thus the temperature of supply air to
each zone remains constant, whereas its flow rate varies depending upon the load on that
particular zone.

Compared to constant volume systems, the variable air volume systems offer advantages such
as:
a) Lower energy consumption in the cooling system as air is not cooled to very low temperatures
and then reheated as in constant volume systems.
b) Lower energy consumption also results due to lower fan power input due to lower flow rate,
when the load is low. These systems lead to significantly lower power consumption, especially in
perimeter zones where variations in solar load and outside temperature allows for reduced air
flow rates.
However, since the flow rate is controlled, there could be problems with ventilation, IAQ and
room air distribution when the zone loads are very low. In addition it is difficult to control
humidity precisely using VAV systems. Balancing of dampers could be difficult if the airflow
rate varies widely. However, by combining VAV systems with terminal reheat it is possible to
maintain the air flow rate at a minimum required level to ensure proper ventilation and room air
distribution. Many other variations of VAV systems are available to cater to a wide variety of
applications.
Dual duct, constant volume systems:
Figure 36.5 shows the schematic of a dual duct, constant volume system. As shown in the
figure, in a dual duct system the supply air fan splits the flow into two streams. One stream

flow through the cooling coil and gets cooled and dehumidified to about 13 degree C, while the
other stream flows the heating coil and is heated to about 35–45degree C. The cold and hot
streams flow through separate ducts. Before each conditioned space or zone, the cold and hot air
streams are mixed in required proportions using a mixing box arrangement, which is controlled
by the zone thermostat. The total volume of air supplied to each zone remains constant, however,
the supply air temperature varies depending upon load.
Advantages of dual duct systems:
1. Since total airflow rate to each zone is constant, it is possible to maintain proper IAQ and
room air distribution.
2. Cooling in some zones and heating in other zones can be achieved simultaneously
3. System is very responsive to variations in the zone load, thus it is possible to maintain
required conditions precisely.
Disadvantages of dual duct systems:
1. Occupies more space as both cold air and hot air ducts have to be sized to handle all air
flow rate, if required.
2. Not very energy efficient due to the need for simultaneous cooling and heating of the air
streams. However, the energy efficiency can be improved by completely shutting down the
cooling coil when the outside temperature is low and mixing supply air from fan with hot air in
the mixing box. Similarly, when the outside weather is hot, the heating coil can be completely
shut down, and the cold air from the cooling coil can be mixed with supply air from the fan in
the mixing box.
Dual duct, variable air volume systems:
These systems are similar to dual duct, constant volume systems with the only difference that
instead of maintaining constant flow rates to each zone, the mixing boxes reduce the air flow rate
as the load on the zone drops.
Outdoor air control in all air systems:
Outdoor air is required for ventilation purposes. In all air systems, a sub-system controls the
amount of outdoor air by controlling the position of exhaust, re-circulated and outdoor air
dampers. From mass balance, since the outdoor airflow rate should normally be equal to the
exhaust airflow rate (unless building pressurization or de-pressurization is required), both the
exhaust and outdoor air dampers open or close in unison. Again from mass balance, when the
outdoor air damper opens the re-circulated air damper closes, and vice versa. The control system
maintains a minimum amount of outdoor air (about 10 to 20% of supply air flow rate as required
for ventilation) when the outdoor is too cold (≤−30oC) or too warm (≥ 24oC). For energy
conservation, the amount of outdoor air can be increased gradually as the outdoor air temperature
increases from −30oC to about 13oC. A 100 percent outdoor air can be used when the outdoor
air temperature is between 13oC to about 24oC. By this method it is possible to reduce the
annual energy consumption of the air conditioning system significantly, while maintaining the
required conditions in the conditioned space.
Advantages of all air systems:
1. All air systems offer the greatest potential for energy conservation by utilizing the outdoor air
effectively.
2. By using high-quality controls it is possible to maintain the temperature and relative humidity
of the conditioned space within ± 0.15 o C (DBT) and ± 0.5%, respectively.
3. Using dual duct systems, it is possible to provide simultaneous cooling and heating.
Changeover from summer to winter and vice versa is relatively simple in all air systems.
4. It is possible to provide good room air distribution and ventilation under all conditions of load.
5. Building pressurization can be achieved easily.
6. The complete air conditioning plant including the supply and return air fans can be located
away from the conditioned space. Due to this it is possible to use a wide variety of air filters and
avoid noise in the conditioned space.
Disadvantages of all air systems:
1. They occupy more space and thus reduce the available floor space in the buildings. It could be
difficult to provide air conditioning in high-rise buildings with the plant on the ground floor or
basement due to space constraints.
2. Retrofitting may not always be possible due to the space requirement.
3. Balancing of air in large and particularly with variable air volume systems could be difficult.
Applications of all air systems:
All air systems can be used in both comfort as well as industrial air conditioning applications.
They are especially suited to buildings that require individual control of multiple zones, such as
office buildings, classrooms, laboratories, hospitals, hotels, ships etc. They are also used
extensively in applications that require very close control of the conditions in the conditioned
space such as clean rooms, computer rooms, operation theatres, research facilities etc.
All water systems:
In all water systems the fluid used in the thermal distribution system is water, i.e., water
transports energy between the conditioned space and the air conditioning plant. When cooling is
required in the conditioned space then cold water is circulated between the conditioned space and
the plant, while hot water is circulated through the distribution system when heating is required.
Since only water is transported to the conditioned space, provision must be there for supplying
required amount of treated, outdoor air to the conditioned space for ventilation purposes.
Depending upon the number of pipes used, the all water systems can be classified into a 2-pipe
system or a 4-pipe system.
A 2-pipe system is used for either cooling only or heating only application, but cannot be used
for simultaneous cooling and heating. Figure 36.6 shows the schematic of a 2 -pipe, all water
system. As shown in the figure and as the name implies, a 2-pipe system consists of two pipes –
one for supply of cold/hot water to the conditioned space and the other for the return water. A
cooling or heating coil provides the required cold or hot water. As the supply water flows
through the conditioned space, required heat transfer between the water and conditioned space
takes place, and the return water flows back to the cooling or heating coil. A flow control valve
controls the flow rate of hot or cold water to the conditioned space and thereby meets the
required building heating or cooling load. The flow control valve is controlled by the zone
thermostat. As already mentioned, a separate arrangement must be made for providing the
required amount of ventilation air to the conditioned space. A pressure relief valve (PRV) is
installed in the water line for maintaining balanced flow rate.
A 4-pipe system consists of two supply pipelines – one for cold water and one for hot water; and
two return water pipelines. The cold and hot water are mixed in a required proportion depending
upon the zone load, and the mixed water is supplied to the conditioned space. The return water is
split into two streams, one stream flows to the heating coil while the other flows to the cooling
coil.

Heat transfer between the cold/hot water and the conditioned space takes place either by
convection, conduction or radiation or a combination of these. The cold/hot water may flow
through bare pipes located in the conditioned space or one of the following equipment can be
used for transferring heat:
1. Fan coil units
2. Convectors
3. Radiators etc.
A fan coil unit is located inside the conditioned space and consists of a heating and/or cooling
coil, a fan, air filter, drain tray and controls. Figure 36.7 shows the schematic of a fan coil unit
used for,
cooling applications. As shown in the figure, the basic components of a fan coil unit are:
finned tube cooling coil, fan, air filter, insulated drain tray with provision for draining
condensate water and connections for cold water lines. The cold water circulates through the
finned tube coil while the blower draws warm air from the conditioned space and blows it over
the cooling coil. As the air flows through the cooling coil it is cooled and dehumidified. The cold
and dehumidified air is supplied to the conditioned space for providing required conditions
inside the conditioned space. The water condensed due to dehumidification of room air has to be
drained continuously. A cleanable or replaceable filter is located in the upstream of the fan to
prevent dust accumulation on the cooling coil and also to protect the fan and motor from dust.
Fan coil units for domestic air conditioning are available in the airflow range of 100 to 600 l/s,
with multi-speed, high efficiency fans. In some designs, the fan coil unit also consists of a
heating coil, which could be in the form of an electric heater or steam or hot water coil. Electric
heater is used with 2-pipe systems, while the hot water/steam coils are used with 4-pipe systems.
The fan coil units are floor mounted, window mounted or ceiling mounted. The capacity of a fan
coil unit can be controlled either by controlling the cold water flow rate or by controlling air flow
rate or both. The airflow rate can be controlled either by a damper arrangement or by varying
the fan speed. The control may be manual or automatic, in which case, a room thermostat
controls the capacity. Since in the fan coil unit there is no provision for ventilation, a separate
arrangement must be made to take care of ventilation. A fan coil unit with a provision for
introducing treated ventilation air to the conditioned space is called as unit ventilator.
A convector consists of a finned tube coil through which hot or cold fluid flows. Heat transfer
between the coil and surrounding air takes place by natural convection only, hence no fans are
used for moving air. Convectors are very widely used for heating applications, and very rarely
are used for cooling applications.
In a radiator, the heat transfer between the coil and the surrounding air is primarily by radiation.
Some amount of heat is also transferred by natural convection. Radiators are widely used for
heating applications, however, in recent times they are also being used for cooling applications.
Advantages of all water systems:
1. The thermal distribution system requires very less space compared to all air systems. Thus
there is no penalty in terms of conditioned floor space. Also the plant size will be small due to
the absence of large supply air fans.
2. Individual room control is possible, and at the same time the system offers all the benefits of a
large central system.
3. Since the temperature of hot water required for space heating is small, it is possible to use
solar or waste heat for winter heating.
4. It can be used for new as well existing buildings (retrofitting).
5. Simultaneous cooling and heating is possible with 4-pipe systems.
Disadvantages of all water systems:
1. Requires higher maintenance compared to all air systems, particularly in the conditioned
space.
2. Draining of condensate water can be messy and may also create health problems if water
stagnates in the drain tray. This problem can be eliminated, if dehumidification is provided by a
central ventilation system, and the cooling coil is used only for sensible cooling of room air.
3. If ventilation is provided by opening windows or wall apertures, then, it is difficult to ensure
positive ventilation under all circumstances, as this depends on wind and stack effects.
4. Control of humidity, particularly during summer is difficult using chilled water control valves.
Applications of all water systems:
All water systems using fan coil units are most suitable in buildings requiring individual room
control, such as hotels, apartment buildings and office buildings.

Air-water systems:
In air-water systems both air and water are used for providing required conditions in the
conditioned space. The air and water are cooled or heated in a central plant. The air supplied to
the conditioned space from the central plant is called as primary air, while the water supplied
from the plant is called as secondary water. The complete system consists of a central plant for
cooling or heating of water and air, ducting system with fans for conveying air, water pipelines
and pumps for conveying water and a room terminal. The room terminal may be in the form of a
fan coil unit, an induction unit or a radiation panel. Figure 36.8 shows the schematic of a basic
air-water system. Even though only one conditioned space is shown in the schematic, in actual
systems, the air-water systems can simultaneously serve several conditioned spaces.
Normally a constant volume of primary air is supplied to each zone depending upon the
ventilation requirement and the required sensible cooling capacity at maximum building load.
For summer air conditioning, the primary air is cooled and dehumidified in the central plant, so
that it can offset the entire building latent load. Chilled water is supplied to the conditioned space
to partly offset the building sensible cooling load only. Since the chilled water coil kept in the
conditioned space has to take care of only sensible load, condensation of room air inside the
conditioned space is avoided thereby avoiding the problems of condensate drainage and related
problems in the conditioned space. As mentioned, the primary takes care of the ventilation
requirement of the conditioned space, hence unlike in all water systems, there is no need for
separate ventilation systems. In winter, moisture can be added to the primary air in the central
plant and hot water is circulated through the coil kept in the conditioned space. The secondary
water lines can be of 2-pipe, 3-pipe or 4-pipe type similar to all water systems. As mentioned

the room unit may be in the form of a fan coil unit, an induction unit or in the form of a radiant
panel. In an induction unit the cooling/heating coil is an integral part of the primary air system.
The primary air supplied at medium to high pressure to the induction unit, induces flow of
secondary air from the conditioned space. The secondary air is sensibly cooled or heated as it
flows through the cooling/heating coil. The primary and secondary air are mixed and supplied to
the conditioned space. The fan coil units are similar to the ones
used in all water systems.

Advantages of air-water systems:


1. Individual zone control is possible in an economic manner using room thermostats, which
control either the secondary water flow rate or the secondary air (in fan coil units) or both.
2. It is possible to provide simultaneous cooling and heating using primary air and secondary
water.
3. Space requirement is reduced, as the amount of primary supplied is less than that of an all air
systems.
4. Positive ventilation can be ensured under all conditions.
5. Since no latent heat transfer is required in the cooling coil kept in the conditioned space, the
coil operates dry and its life thereby increases and problems related to odours or fungal growth in
conditioned space is avoided.
6. The conditioned space can sometimes be heated with the help of the heating coil and
secondary air, thus avoiding supply of primary air during winter.
7. Service of indoor units is relatively simpler compared to all water systems.
Disadvantages of air-water systems:
1. Operation and control are complicated due to the need for handling and controlling both
primary air and secondary water.
2. In general these systems are limited to perimeter zones.
3. The secondary water coils in the conditioned space can become dirty if the quality of filters
used in the room units is not good.
4. Since a constant amount of primary air is supplied to conditioned space, and room control is
only through the control of room cooling/heating coils, shutting down the supply of primary air
to unoccupied spaces is not possible.
5. If there is abnormally high latent load on the building, then condensation may take place on
the cooling coil of secondary water.
6. Initial cost could be high compared to all air systems.

Applications of air-water systems:


These systems are mainly used in exterior buildings with large sensible loads and where close
control of humidity in the conditioned space is not required. These systems are thus suitable for
office buildings, hospitals, schools, hotels, apartments etc.

Unitary refrigerant based systems:


Unitary refrigerant based systems consist of several separate air conditioning units with
individual refrigeration systems. These systems are factory assembled and tested as per standard
specifications, and are available in the form of package units of varying capacity and type. Each
package consists of refrigeration and/or heating units with fans, filters, controls etc. Depending
upon the requirement these are available in the form of window air conditioners, split air
conditioners, heat pumps, ductable systems with air cooled or water cooled condensing units etc.
The capacities may range from fraction of TR to about 100 TR for cooling. Depending upon
the capacity, unitary refrigerant based systems are available as single units which cater to a
single conditioned space, or multiple units for several conditioned spaces. Figure 36.9 shows the
schematic of a typical window type, room air conditioner, which is available in cooling
capacities varying from about 0.3 TR to about 3.0 TR. As the name implies, these units are
normally mounted either in the window sill or through the wall. As shown in the figure, this type
of unit consists of single package which includes the cooling and dehumidification coil,
condenser coil, a hermetic compressor expansion device (capillary tube), condenser fan,
evaporator fan, room air filter and controls. A drain tray is provided at the bottom to take care of
the condensate water. Both evaporator and condensers are plate finand- tube, forced convection
type coils. For rooms that do not have external windows or walls, a split type room air
conditioner can be used. In these air conditioners, the condensing unit comprising of the
condenser, compressor and condenser fan with motor are located outside, while the indoor unit
consisting of the evaporator, evaporator fan with motor, expansion valve and air filter is located
inside the conditioned room. The indoor and outdoor units are connected by refrigerant piping. In
split type air conditioners, the condensed water has to be taken away from the conditioned space
using separate drain pipes. In the room air conditioners (both window mounted and split type),
the cooling capacity is controlled by switching the compressor on-and-off. Sometimes, in
addition to the on-and-off, the fan speed can also be regulated to have a modular control of
capacity. It is also possible to switch off the refrigeration system completely and run only the
blower for air circulation. Figure 36.10 shows a typical package unit with a remote condensing
unit. As shown, in a typical package unit, the remote condensing unit consists of the compressor
and a condenser, while the indoor unit consists of the plate fin-and-tube type, evaporator, a
blower, air filter, drain tray and an arrangement for connecting supply air and return air ducts.
These units are available in capacities ranging from about 5 TR to up to about 100 TR. The
0condenser used in these systems could be either air cooled or water cooled. This type of system
can be used for providing air conditioning in a large room or it can cater to several small rooms
with suitablesupply and return ducts. It is also possible to house the entire refrigeration in a
single package with connections for water lines to the water cooled condenser and supply and
return air ducts. Larger systems are either constant air volume type or variable air volume type.
They may also include heating coils along with the evaporator.

Condensing unit Cold air


Most of the unitary systems have a provision for supplying outdoor air for ventilation purposes.
The type of control depends generally on the capacity of the unit. The control system could be as
simple as a simple thermostat based on-off control as in room air conditioners to sophisticated
microprocessor based control with multiple compressors or variable air volume control or a
combination of both.

Advantages of unitary refrigerant based systems:


1. Individual room control is simple and inexpensive.
2. Each conditioned space has individual air distribution with simple adjustment by the
occupants.
3. Performance of the system is guaranteed by the manufacturer.
4. System installation is simple and takes very less time.
5. Operation of the system is simple and there is no need for a trained operator.
6. Initial cost is normally low compared to central systems.
7. Retrofitting is easy as the required floor space is small.
Disadvantages of unitary refrigerant based systems:
1. As the components are selected and matched by the manufacturer, the system is less flexible in
terms of air flow rate, condenser and evaporator sizes.
2. Power consumption per TR could be higher compared to central systems.
3. Close control of space humidity is generally difficult.
4. Noise level in the conditioned space could be higher.
5. Limited ventilation capabilities.
6. Systems are generally designed to meet the appliance standards, rather than the building
standards.
7. May not be appealing aesthetically.
8. The space temperature may experience a swing if on-off control is used as in room air
conditioners.
9. Limited options for controlling room air distribution.
10. Equipment life is relatively short.

Applications of unitary refrigerant based systems:


Unitary refrigerant based systems are used where stringent control of conditioned space
temperature and humidity is not required and where the initial cost should be low with a small
lead time. These systems can be used for air conditioning individual rooms to large office
buildings, classrooms, hotels, shopping centers, nursing homes etc. These systems are
especially suited for existing building with a limitation on available floor space for air
conditioning systems.

Horizontal distribution of services for large buildings


Under-floor distribution
Air-conditioning system distribution and terminal equipment is generally located overhead in the
ceiling void with the cool supply air entering the room from ceiling diffusers. However, the
supply of conditioned air from under the floor is a design option. In this case, the air or water
distribution and terminal devices are located in the floor void, and hence the overhead services
are reduced to only lighting and sprinklers.
By making the floor void deep enough, the power, telecommunications and computer wireways
may be incorporated into the one plenum, all being easily accessible by merely opening up the
raised floor. Under-floor cooling is particularly beneficial for spaces such computer rooms, as air
velocities from floor grilles and resultant noise levels are both much higher for cooling of
equipment than those which would be acceptable for people.
Internal distribution of services
For many reasons, there is pressure to minimise the space allocated to the building services.
Therefore, it is necessary to ensure an efficient use of space for the service distribution system in
the vertical and horizontal directions and in the plant rooms. The following sections review the
spatial aspects of the vertical and horizontal service distribution.
Conventionally, the horizontal distribution of services is arranged within a horizontal layer
which is generally located below the structure and above the suspended ceiling. This layer
accommodates the distribution system (ducts, pipes, etc), the terminal units and lighting units.
The raised floor is placed on the floor slab and accommodates the electrical and communication
cabling. The lighting units are often located within the ceiling depth.
To determine the spatial allowance for these elements, three design cases may be envisaged
corresponding to different structural configurations:
1. A flat slab with flexibility of service routing.
2. A slab and down stand beam arrangement.
3. A long span beam system with facility for service integration in the structural depth.
In case 1, the ducts pass below the floor within the depth allowed for the terminal units.
However, cross-overs of ducts must be avoided in order to minimize this depth. In cases 2 and
3, the terminal units may be located between the beams, which means that additional space
below the beams is required only for the major ducts, ceiling and lighting units. In case 3, the
ducts are located entirely within the structural zone as they pass through large openings in the
deep beams. Typically, the diameter of these openings is 400mm, and the duct size is 300 or
350mm allowing for insulation etc.
Vertical distribution of services
The following recommendations apply to the vertical distribution of services:
Provide continuous and uninterrupted vertical service routes
Maintain a constant cross-section of the service route
Position the plant room so that it is as close as possible to the centre of the plan area it serves
Consider the connection between horizontal services and vertical services routes
Provide separate routes for different services. The minimum is two; one for electrics and one
for water pipes, etc., although most buildings require more service routes
Horizontal distribution should ideally not extend more than 25 m from a vertical service
route. Longer distances will impose penalties on the system design and increase the depth of
horizontal service ducts
Position plant rooms at no more than 10 storeys apart vertically.
The figure shows typical arrangements of vertical service routes. Vertical ducts which transfer
air from the roof-top plant to each floor can often be concentrated in a relatively small riser,
as shown below.

Horizontal distribution of services


Conventionally, the horizontal distribution of services is arranged within a horizontal layer
which is generally located below the structure and above the suspended ceiling. This layer
accommodates the distribution system (ducts, pipes, etc), the terminal units and lighting units.
The raised floor is placed on the floor slab and accommodates the electrical and
communication cabling. The lighting units are often located within the ceiling depth.
To determine the spatial allowance for these elements, three design cases may be envisaged
corresponding to different structural configurations:
1. A flat slab with flexibility of service routing.
2. A slab and down stand beam arrangement.
3. A long span beam system with facility for service integration in the structural depth.
In case 1, the ducts pass below the floor within the depth allowed for the terminal units.
However, cross-overs of ducts must be avoided in order to minimize this depth. In cases 2 and
3, the terminal units may be located between the beams, which means that additional space
Typical dimensional allowances for service zones in typical modern air-conditioned buildings
are shown in the table for these three cases. It can be seen that ceiling-floor depths of 1,100 to
1,200 mm are commonly required. The difference between the overall ceiling-floor depths for
the case of flat soffit and the long-span systems with integrated services is relatively small. Also,
in modern long span construction, intumescent coatings are used for fire protection and so the
allowance for the thickness of fire protection can be neglected. A raised floor of 150 or 200mm
depth is required in all systems.
It is possible to reduce these ceiling-floor depths, but the cost of the structure, and services
(due to inefficient duct shapes, or number of separate ducts) may increase.
PRIME COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

Unit 3 : Design issues and Horizontal Distribution system


2 Marks

1.Selection criteria for air conditioning systems for large buildings? (AU May 2014 )
Selection of a suitable air conditioning system depends on:
 Capacity, performance and spatial requirements
 Initial and running costs
 Required system reliability and flexibility
 Maintainability
 Architectural constraints
2. Classification of air conditioning systems for larger buildings? (AU May 2014 )
1. All air systems
2. All water systems
3. Air- water systems
4. Unitary refrigerant based systems
3. Explain all air system?
As the name implies, in an all air system air is used as the media that transports energy from
the conditioned space to the A/C plant. In these systems air is processed in the A/C plant and
this processed air is then conveyed to the conditioned space through insulated ducts using
blowers and fans. This air extracts (or supplies in case of winter) the required amount of
sensible and latent heat from the conditioned space. The return air from the conditioned space
is conveyed back to the plant, where it again undergoes the required processing thus
completing the cycle. No additional processing of air is required in the conditioned space.
4.What is the Advantages of all air systems?
1. All air systems offer the greatest potential for energy conservation by utilizing the outdoor
air effectively.
2. By using high-quality controls it is possible to maintain the temperature and relative
humidity of the conditioned space within ± 0.15 o C (DBT) and ± 0.5%, respectively.
3. Using dual duct systems, it is possible to provide simultaneous cooling and heating.
Changeover from summer to winter and vice versa is relatively simple in all air systems.
4. It is possible to provide good room air distribution and ventilation under all conditions of
load.
5. What is the Disadvantages of all air systems?
1. They occupy more space and thus reduce the available floor space in the buildings. It could be
difficult to provide air conditioning in high-rise buildings with the plant on the ground floor or
basement due to space constraints.
2. Retrofitting may not always be possible due to the space requirement.
3. Balancing of air in large and particularly with variable air volume systems could be difficult.
6. Explain All water systems?
In all water systems the fluid used in the thermal distribution system is water, i.e., water
transports energy between the conditioned space and the air conditioning plant. When cooling is
required in the conditioned space then cold water is circulated between the conditioned space and
the plant, while hot water is circulated through the distribution system when heating is required.
PRIME COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

7. Explain Advantages of all water systems?


1. The thermal distribution system requires very less space compared to all air systems. Thus
there is no penalty in terms of conditioned floor space. Also the plant size will be small due to
the absence of large supply air fans.
2. Individual room control is possible, and at the same time the system offers all the benefits of a
large central system.
3. Since the temperature of hot water required for space heating is small, it is possible to use
solar or waste heat for winter heating.
8. What is the Disadvantages of all water systems?
1. Requires higher maintenance compared to all air systems, particularly in the conditioned
space.
2. Draining of condensate water can be messy and may also create health problems if water
stagnates in the drain tray. This problem can be eliminated, if dehumidification is provided by a
central ventilation system, and the cooling coil is used only for sensible cooling of room air.
9. What is an Air Curtain? (AU NOV 2013)
An air door or air curtain is a device used for separating two spaces from each other, usually at
the exterior entrance. Normally the opening is an entrance to a building, or opening between two
space conditioned at different temperatures. They can be intended to help keep flying insects out
by creating forceful turbulence. It helps keep out outside air, reducing infiltration though the
opening. They can also be used to avoid cold drafts by mixing in warm air heated by the air
curtain.
16 MARKS:
1. Explain in detail about the following system in air – Conditioning(AU May 2014 )(AU
NOV 2013)
(1) All Air system
(2) All Water system
(3) Air Water system
(4) Unitary based System
2. Explain in detail about the horizontal distribution of air – Conditioning services in a multi
storeyed office Complex? (AU NOV 2013)
3. Role of Fillters in air Conditioning and needs of Ducts in Air Conditioning? (AU May
2014 )
UNIT IV : FIRE SAFETY : DESIGN AND GENERAL GUIDELINES OF EGRESS
DESIGN – FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE FIGHTING AND INSTALLATION

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE BEHAVIOUR:

Transmission of Heat
Heat is transferred from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature. This
transmission or transfer of heat is achieved through three methods
(i) Conduction,
(ii) Convection or
(iii) Radiation.
Transfer of heat governs all aspects of fire, from ignition through to extinguishment.

(a) Conduction
(i) Solids are better heat conductors than liquids or gases. Thermal conductivity, or the ability to
conduct heat, varies between materials. Most metals are good conductors, the best conductors
being silver and copper. Generally, good conductors of electricity are good conductors of heat
also, and vice-versa.
(ii) In fires, thermal conductivity is relevant in terms of the danger of fire spread. A steel beam
passing through a wall can be the cause of fire spread from one room to another. A plain metal
door can conduct heat from one side to another, whereas a wooden door will not, since wood is a
poor conductor. The conductivity of building materials has an important role in the fire
resistance capability of elements of structure.
(b) Convection
(i) Convection requires a circulating medium for transmission of heat and occurs only in liquids
and gases. It transports the enormous amount of chemical energy released during a fire to the
surrounding environment by the movement and circulation of hot gases. Convection is used in
domestic heating systems or radiators. Convection also causes the up-draft in chimneys or the
.stack effect..
(ii) In a multi-storey building fire, convection currents can convey hot gases and smoke towards
through stairwells and open lift shafts, spreading the fire to the upper floors
through open doors and false ceilings.
c) Radiation
(1)Radiation is a form of energy that travels through a space without an intervening medium,
such as a solid or a fluid. It is through the same method by which heat from the sun passes
through the empty space to warm the earth. It travels as electromagnetic waves, similar to light,
radio waves, and x-rays. In a vacuum, all electro-magnetic waves travel at the speed of light
(300,000 km/sec.). When it falls on a body, it can be absorbed, reflected and / or transmitted.
(2)In a fire, the hot gases rise vertically upwards in a plume that carries with it most of the heat
(70% - 90%) released in the combustion process, depending upon the fuel. The rest of the heat is
transmitted as radiation. Some radiation also comes from the gaseous combustion products, H2O
and CO2. Roughly, about 10% of the heat of combustion is lost upward travel of hot gases from
the flame by radiation in these cases. However, larger fires involving ordinary fuels may release
30 to 50 percent of the total amount of energy as radiation, exposing nearby surfaces to high
levels of radiant heat transfer. Water vapour and CO2 in the atmosphere, which will generally
be present in fires, absorb appreciable amount of thermal radiation emitted from large fires. This
is the reason why forest fires or large LNG fires are relatively less hazardous when humidity is
high. Water droplets are capable of absorbing almost all the incident infra-red radiation thereby
cooling to surroundings. This is the reason why fire fighters normally enter a burning building or
room with hose hand lines fitted with water spray/fog nozzles.
All forms of radiant energy travel in straight lines. But the intensity of radiation decreases
with distance. Twice the distance, intensity becomes one quarter; at three times the distance,
the intensity is one-ninth, and so on. This is known as the inverse square law of radiation.
Radiation has been the cause for many fires. A common cause of home fires is clothing
getting ignited by radiant heat when it is placed too close to a source of radiation. Similarly,
radiant heat from the sun passing through a glass window or a bottle, which acts as a lens, had
also been the cause of fires.
Constituents of Fire
Combustion Process
An understanding of the basic principles of combustion or fire, causes and sources of ignition,
fire growth and fire spread is necessary for understanding the principles of fire control and
extinguishment. Combustion usually involves an exothermic chemical reaction between a
substance or fuel and oxygen. Unlike slow oxidation, a combustion reaction occurs so rapidly
that heat is generated faster than it is dissipated, causing a marked

increase of temperature, even upto a few hundreds of degrees. Very often, the temperature
reaches so high that visible light or flame is generated.
Triangle of fire
One way of discussing fire or combustion is in terms of the .triangle of fire. or combustion. It has
been seen that for combustion to occur three factors are essential; heat, oxygen (or air) and a
combustible substance (or fuel). Fire or combustion will continue as long as these three factors
are present. Removal of one of them leads to the collapse of the triangle and the combustion
process stops.
Fire Extinction Methods
 It has been shown from the triangle of fire that three factors are essential for combustion,
namely;
 The presence of a fuel, or combustible substances;
 The presence of oxygen (usually as air) or other supporter of combustion; and
 The attainment and maintenance of a certain minimum temperature.
 Fire extinction, in principle, consists in the limitation or elimination of one ore more of
these factors and the methods of extinguishing fire may be classified conveniently under
the following headings:
o Starvation (or the limitation of fuel);
o Smothering / Blanketing (or the limitation of oxygen); and
o Cooling (or the limitation of temperature).
 In practice, specific methods of fire extinction often embody more than one of these
principles, but it will be convenient to consider them according to the main principle
involved.
Starvation
 The extinction of fire by starvation is applied in three ways:
 By removing combustible material from the neighbourhood of the fire. Examples of these
are, the drainage of fuel from burning oil tanks; the working out of cargo at a ship fire,
the cutting of trenches in peat, heath, and forest fires; the demolition of buildings to
create a fire stop; counter-burning in forest fires;
 By removing the fire from the neighbourhood of combustible material as, for instance,
pulling apart a burning haystack or a thatched roof;
 By sub-dividing the burning material, when the smaller fires produced may be left to
burn out or to be extinguished more easily by other means. A typical example is the
emulsification of the surface of burning oil, whilst the beating out of a heath fire owes
much of its effectiveness to this.
Smothering
 If the oxygen content of the atmosphere in the immediate neighbourhood of burning
material can be sufficiently reduced combustion will cease. The general procedure in
methods of this type is to prevent or impede the access of fresh air to the seat of the fire,
and allow the combustion to reduce the oxygen content in the confined atmosphere until
it extinguishes itself.
 An important practical application of the smothering method is the use of foam. This
forms a viscous coating over the burning material and limits, in so far as it is complete,
the supply of air. It also tends to prevent the formation of flammable vapour.
 Another method of smothering is by the application of a cloud of finely divided particles
of dry powder, usually sodium bicarbonate, from a pressurized extinguisher.
 A further development in the smothering method has been the discovery of a powdered
compound for use on metal fires, such as uranium and plutonium, thorium and
magnesium. This powder (ternary eutectic chloride)is applied by means of a gas cartridge
pressurised extinguisher. As the fusing temperature of the powder is in the region of
580oC it forms a crust over the burning metal and this excludes the oxygen of the air. The
vigorous discharge of an inert gas in the immediate vicinity of the fire may so reduce the
oxygen content of the atmosphere for the time being that combustion cannot be
maintained. Carbon-di-oxide and nitrogen are familiar examples of this.
 A group of extinguish ants consisting of volatile liquids based on the halogenated
hydrocarbons are also in use. These evaporating liquids act partly as inverting
blankets similar to those mentioned in the preceding section, and partly by
chemical interference with the chain reaction of flame propagation.
 Cooling
 If the rate at which heat is generated by combustion is less than the rate at which it is
dissipated through various agencies, combustion cannot persist.
 The application of a jet or spray of water to a fire is invariably based on this simple but
fundamental principle. There are many variations. Another example is the emulsification
of the surface of oil by means of the emulsifying type of spray nozzle producing an oil-
in-water-emulsion,
 The cooling principle in fire extinction is the one most commonly employed, forming as
it does the basis of the application of water and other liquids to burning materials.
 The action of water depends predominantly on its thermal capacity and latent heat of
vaporisation, the latter being by far the more important. Thus it takes about six times as
much heat to convert a certain weight of water at its boiling point into steam as is
required to raise the temperatures of the same amount of water from the usual
atmospheric temperature to its boiling point. In fact, while changing from liquid (water)
to vapour state (steam) water expands about 1760 times which also contributes to its
smothering effect.
 In the interests of efficiency, it is clearly desirable that water should be applied to a fire in
the liquid condition and in such a way that as much as possible is converted to steam. The
smothering effects of the steam produced at the seat of the fire are thought to play a part
in assisting in the extinguishing process.
 On the basis of thermal capacity and latent heat of vaporisation, water is an excellent fire
extinguishing agent since both figures are high. This fact, combined with its availability
in large quantities, makes it by far the most useful fire extinguishing agent for general
purposes.


NATIONAL BUILDING CODE (PART 4) – FIRE PROTECTION FOR BUILDINGS
As a major development, BIS has published NBC (Part 4) Fire Protection which includes
comprehensive recommendation of minimum standards of fire protection. It specifies the
demarcation of fire zones, restrictions on construction of buildings in each fire zone,
classification of buildings based on occupancy, types of building construction according to fire
resistance of the structural and non-structural components and other restrictions and
requirements necessary to minimize danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes or panic before the
building can be evacuated. The Code recognizes that safety of life is more than a matter of means
of exits and accordingly deals with various matters which are considered essential to the safety
of life.
Additional Fire Protection Requirements for High Rise Buildings – 15 Metre in height or above
In addition to the general provisions given in this part, the Authority may insist on suitable
protection measures should be provided in a building 15 m in height or above.
CONSTRUCTION
All materials of constructions in load bearing elements, stairways and corridors and facades shall
be non-combustible.
LIFTS
Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2 h; lifts shafts shall have a vent at the top of
area not less than 0.2 sq.m.
FIRE LIFTS
To enable fire services personnel to reach the upper floors with the minimum delay, one fire lift
per 1200 sq.m of floor area shall be provided and shall be available for the exclusive use of the
firemen in an emergency.
BASEMENTS
Each basement shall be separately ventilated. Vents with cross-sectional area (aggregate) not
less than 2.5 percent of the floor area spread evenly round the perimeter of the basement shall be
provided in the form of grills, or breakable stall board lights or pavement lights or by way of
shafts. Mechanical extractors shall be designed to permit 30 air changes per hour in case of fire
or distress call. However, for normal operation, air changes schedule shall be as given in IS
1642. All floors shall be compartmented with area not exceeding 750sq.m by a separation wall
with 2 h fire rating, for floors with sprinklers the area may be increased by 50 percent.
SERVICE DUCTS/SHAFTS
Service ducts and shafts shall be enclosed by walls of 2 h and doors of 1 h, fire rating. All such
ducts/shafts shall be properly sealed and fire stopped at all floor levels.
REFUGE AREA
Provisions contained in IS 1644 shall apply for all buildings except multi-family dwellings,
refuge area of not less than 15sq.m shall be provided on the external walls.
ELECTRICAL SERVICES
The electric distribution cables/wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. The duct shall be sealed at
every floor with non-combustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct.
Low and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate
conduits;
GAS SUPPLY
Provisions for gas pipe installations, given in codes to be followed.
ILLUMINATION OF MEANS OF EXIT
Staircase and corridor lights shall conform to the requirements of IS 1644. A stand-by generator
shall be installed to supply power to staircase and corridor lighting circuits, fire lifts, the stand-by
fire pump, pressurization fans and blowers, smoke extraction and damper systems in case of
failure of normal electric supply.

TRANSFORMERS
It shall conform to the requirements of IS 1646.
AIR-CONDITIONING
The ducting shall be constructed of substantial gauge metal in accordance with good practice IS
9583.
PROVISION OF FIRST-AID FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES
The first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be provided on all floors, including basements, lift
rooms, etc, in accordance with relevant Indian Standards in consultation with the Authority.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
All buildings with heights of 15 m or above shall be equipped with manually operated electrical
fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system in accordance with IS 2189.
LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
The lightning protection for buildings shall be provided as given in Part 8 Building services,
Section 2 Electrical installations of NBC.
FIRE CONTROL ROOM
For all buildings 15 m in height or above and apartment buildings with a height of 30 m and
above, there shall be a control room on the entrance floor of the building with communication
system (suitable public address system) to aid floors and facilities for receiving the message from
different floors.
COMPARTMENTATION
The building shall be suitably compartmentalized so that fire/smoke remain confined to the area
where fire incident has occurred and does not spread to the remaining part of the building.
MATERIALS FOR INTERIOR DECORATION/FURNISHING
The use of materials which are combustible in nature and may spread toxic fume/gases should
not be used for interior decoration/furnishing, etc.
In the formulation of Indian standards, the approach adopted is as follows:
1)Fire Prevention —Covering aspects of fire prevention pertaining to planning, design and
construction of buildings on passive fire protection measures, also describing the various types of
building materials and their fire rating.
2)Life Safety —Covering life safety provisions in the event of fire and similar emergencies, also
addressing construction and occupancy features that are necessary to minimize danger to life
from fire, smoke, fumes or panic.
3)Fire Protection — covering the significant appurtenances and their related components and
guidelines for selecting the correct type of equipment and installation meant for fire protection of
the building, depending upon the classification and type of the building.
FIRE PREVENTION
IS 1641 `Code of Practice for Fire Safet y of Buildings (General):General Principles of Fire
Grading and Classification‟
A series of Indian Standards covering fire safety of buildings in general principles of fire grading
details of construction, exit requirements and exposure hazards have been formulated. This
Indian Standard covers general principles of fire grading and classification, which has been
adopted in v arious Indian standards in respect to fire safety aspects.For determination of fire
loads and fire load density for arriving at the classification of occupancy hazard, guidance
including the calorific values of some common materials and a broad classification of industrial
and non-industrial occupancies into low, moderate and high hazard classes is given.
IS 1642 „Fire Safety of Buildings (General): Details of Construction - Code of Practice‟
The provisions given in this standard are those which are necessary at the time of construction of
building new or addition or alterations for adopting fire safety measures. The provisions are
applicable for all types of buildings including high rise buildings (above 15 m in height).The
essential requirements for fire safety in so far as materials and details of construction are
concerned, are that the flame smoke and hot gases shall not spread so rapidly as to give the
occupants insufficient time to escape. In the event of a fire, the construction shall not further tend
to spread the fire. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE (PART 4) – FIRE PROTECTION IS 1643
„Fire Safety of Buildings (General): Exposure Hazard - Code of Practice‟ A series of Indian
Standards covering the fire safety of buildings in general, principles of fire grading, details of
construction, exit requirements and exposure hazard have been formulated. This Indian Standard,
covering the last aspect, includes the values in respect of floor area ratio, and open space to
provide adequate safety against exposure hazard.
LIFE SAFETY
IS 1644 „Fire Safety of Buildings (General) : Exit Requirements and Personal Hazard - Code of
Practice‟
This standard covers requirements regarding fire safety of buildings with respect toexit
requirements and personal hazard. The exit requirements and personal hazard dealt with in this
standard is considered as at least of equal importance to all other aspects; in fact in most cases, it
is paramount because of the density of population associated with particular occupancy; an
example is that of a cinema or similar densely occupied building when constructed with a
godown of similar occupancy. Requirements for stair case, horizontal exit, compartmation as per
degree of hazard are given.
IS 949 „Functional Requirements for Emergency (Rescue) Tender‟ The tender covered in this
standard is designed both for use for fires and special service work, such as:
a) large fires in cities or large towns, difficult or special fires requiring the use of breathing
apparatus, special equipment or illumination;
b) major electrical fires, for example, in power stations and transformers;
c) house collapse, lift, road transport, railway and machine accidents, etc, for which special
equipment is required and is not available locally; and
d) major leakages of toxic or dangerous gases or gaseous liquids.
e) ship fires This standard lays down the requirements regarding material, design and
construction, workmanship and finish, accessories and equipment of emergency (rescue) tender.
IS 950 „Functional Requirements for Water Tender, Type B for Fire Brigade use‟ Water tender,
Type B are used in towns or parts of town and industries where the fire risk is such that high rate
of discharge of water is necessary for fire fighting and a high degree of maneuverability is also
desired of the fire appliance at the same time. Details pertaining to body work, storage, pipe lines
and valves have been covered in the standard. Provisions of water/foam monitor, telescopic light
mast and alternator unit have been also included.
IS 15105 „Design and Installation of Fixed Automatic Sprinkler Fire Extinguishing Systems -
Code of Practice‟ A sprinkler system consists of a water supply (or supplies) and one or more
sprinkler installations; each installation consists of a set of installation control valves and a pipe
array fitted with sprinkler heads. A sprinkler has two functions to perform. It must detect a fire,
and must then provide an adequate distribution of water to control or extinguish it. Each func
tion is performed separately and one is independent of the other except insofar as early detection
makes extinction easier because the fire has not grown large. The classic use of the sprinkler is in
the hot gas layer which forms beneath the ceiling of anenclosure in which a fire is developing.
Classification of fires
Internationally accepted classification of fires is as follows.
Class A.
These are fires involving solid materials normally of an organic nature (compounds of carbon),
in which combustion generally occurs with the formation of glowing embers. Class .A. fires are
the most common. Effective extinguishing agent is generally water in the form of a jet or spray.
Class B.
These are fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids. For the purpose of choosing effective
extinguishing agents, flammable liquids may be divided into two groups:
i) Those that are miscible with water, and
ii) Those that is immiscible with water.
Depending on (i) and (ii), the extinguishing agents include water spray, foam, vaporizing liquids,
and carbon dioxide and chemical powders.
Class C.
These are fires involving gases or liquefied gases in the form of a liquid spillage, or a liquid or
gas leak, and these include methane, propane, butane, etc. Foam or dry chemical powder can
be used to control fires involving shallow liquid spills. (Water in the form of spray is generally
used to cool the containers.)
Class D.
These are fires involving metals. Extinguishing agents containing water are ineffective, and even
dangerous. Carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate classes of dry chemical powders may also be
hazardous if applied to most metal fires. Powdered graphite, powdered talc, soda ash, limestone
and dry sand are normally suitable for class .D. fires. Special fusing powders have been
developed for fires involving some metals, especially the radioactive ones. Presently special dry
chemical powders have been developed for extinguishing metal fires.
Electrical fires
It is not considered, according to present-day ideas, that electrical fires constitute a separate
class, since any fire involving, or started by, electrical equipment, must, in fact, be a fire of class
A, B or D. The normal procedure in such circumstances is to cut off the electricity and use any
extinguishing method appropriate to what is burning. Only when this cannot be done with
certainty will special extinguishing agents be required which are non-damaging to equipment.
These include vaporising liquids, dry powders carbon-di-oxide, and other gaseous extinguishing
agents.
FIRE PROTECTION
FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT FOR VARIOUS CLASSES OF OCCUPANCIES
Fire Protection Management
Experience has proved that it will be too ambitious and impractical to expect that prevention of
fires can be achieved 100% in all types of occupancies and situations, when several
unpredictable factors, including vagaries of nature and acts of human commission and omission
are bound to occur.
Nevertheless, all those concerned and responsible for enhancement of building fire safety
standards continue their untiring effects to mitigate losses of lives and property due to fires. The
best possible way to achieve this laudable objective is to develop an integrated system of
balanced fire protection that combines the best of different design features of both active and
passive fire protection systems for the buildings. This is what all framers and implementing
agencies of national and local level Building Codes and Regulations, as well as the entire
building construction community should aspire for.
Classes of Occupancies
All buildings, whether existing or hereafter created shall be classified according to the use or
the character of occupancy in one of the following groups:
Group A Residential
Group B Educational
Group C Institutional
Group D Assembly
Group E Business
Group F Mercantile
Group G Industrial
Group H Storage
Group J Hazardous
Multiplexes
In many of our major cities, multiple occupancies, or what are commonly known as multiplexes
are coming up, which are buildings having independent occupancies like Shopping Centre,
Cinemas, Restaurants etc., simultaneously in one building complex. These multiple occupancies
contain high fire and life hazard potential, and hence call for stringent fire prevention and fire
protection measures.
Occupancy or Use Group:
In the case of mixed occupancy, the actual occupancy classification of the building or premises
will be on the basis of the principal occupancy class. A building need not necessarily be
inhabited. Temporary structures need not be construed as buildings.
Change of Occupancies
Owner or the occupier shall apply in writing to the local authorities concerned for any alteration,
modification, extension etc, of the building along with necessary drawings; specifications etc.,
and obtain necessary clearance for the same from the authorities concerned.
Unsafe Buildings:
Unsafe Buildings are those which are:
Deficient in means of egress;
has a potential hazard from fire or natural or man-made threats;
Dangerous to human life or public welfare by reasons of illegal
or improper use, occupancy or maintenance;
Non-compliance with the provisions of the applicable Codes:
Significantly damaged by fire or explosion or other natural or man-made cause;
Incomplete buildings for which building permits have expired;
Buildings having deteriorated structural elements or partially
destroyed buildings;
Unsanitary buildings
General Guidelines for Good Fire Safety Management:
Good Fire Safety Management involves and implies Good Life Safety Management also.
Essentially Life Safety implies keeping the harmful effects of fire away from the occupants of
the building, or vice versa, by keeping the occupants segregated from the harmful effects of fire,
by adopting methods based on time, distance or shielding. Life Safety also depends to a large
extent on the physical and mental characteristics of the occupants, as individuals and as a
group.
Fire Prevention, wherever and whatever is possible can also, to a great extent,
make positive contributions to fire and life safety. However, it will be prudent to
bear in mind that no fire prevention strategy can be totally effective.
Good Fire Safety Management takes note of all these factors and adopts an
integrated systems approach so as to achieve optimum results.
Staircases/Means of Egress
In all cases the leading edges of all treads should be readily visible during both
descent and ascent;
Means of egress must permit unobstructed travel at all times;
Hand-rails: It is worth noting that handrails are one of the most important
components of a staircase, and therefore, its design should be such as to enable a
comfortable grip and also to facilitate the hand to be slid along the rail
without encountering obstructions while negotiating the stairs;
One or two steps at a doorway are considered to constitute an accident hazard in
emergency use, and hence should be avoided.
Smoke Control/Smoke Management
Smoke Management includes all methods which are resorted to, either singly or in
combination, to control smoke movement for assisting easier and speedier means of egress for
occupants, for assisting fire fighting operations, and for reducing property damage.
Compartmentation, dilution, airflow control pressurisation, and buoyancy of smoke can be
utilised alone or in combination for smoke management, to minimise the smoke hazard in
building fires; For ensuring that products of combustion in a fire do not enter a
smoke proof stair enclosure, the following guidance is provided;
the smoke control system should ensure on a 97 percent basis for the geographical location of
the building, that the atmosphere of the smoke proof enclosure will not, during a period of 2
hours, including a quantity of air emanating from the fire area that is more than
1 percent of the volume of the stair enclosure (NFPA 101)
Atrium Buildings:
Need special attention with regard to design, fire protection and smoke control. Fire protections
in such buildings are usually provided by combination of methods like compartmentation,
ventilation, automatic suppression and smoke control. Products of combustion from a fire get
diluted with air in large volume atria, and with proper ventilation their flow can be safety
directed to the outside.
Where vision panels and fire windows are provided, it has to be remembered that
they may transmit heat by both conduction and radiation.
Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings:
Special structures, including open structures, towers, underground and windowless structures,
high-rise buildings, multiplexes etc; pose special problems with regard to fire and life safety
requirements, and hence call for special considerations in design, lay-out and construction
aspects. Best results are achieved by sound design and engineering judgement and common
sense.
Special attention needs to be given on component elements such as concealed combustible
paces, remoteness of exits, enclosure, illumination and marking of exits, controlled interior
finishes, automatic suppression systems, smoke control systems, fire detection and alarm
systems, containment of hazardous areas etc;
These complex occupancies call for a well thought out fire engineering approach to achieve a
satisfactory standard of fire and life safety.
Means of Escape Requirements
Safe exit for the occupants in a building on fire, requires a safe path of escape from the
fire in the shortest possible time. This path, which should be as short as possible, and easily
negotiable, should be ready for use in case of emergency For ensuring the life safety of
occupants from a fire, the following are the requirements in general:
Provision of adequate No. of properly designed, unobstructed means of exit of adequate
capacity which are available at all times;
Availability of alternative means of exit for use, if the already chosen one is inaccessible due to
fire, heat, smoke and toxic gases;
Protection of the entire rescue path against fire, heat, smoke and toxic gases during the egress
time based on occupant load, travel distance and exit capacity;
Adoption of compartmentation and other adequate passive fire protection measures to ensure
the safe egress/evacuation of the occupants in case of fire;
Provision of adequate and reliable fire alarm system in the building to alert the occupants;
Provision of refuge areas where total evacuation of occupants is not contemplated;
Adequate illumination and marking of the means of egress;
Formulation organisation and practice of effective evacuation drill procedures.
Means of Escape Design:
The design of a building shall be such that in an emergency the occupants in any part of the
building should be able to escape safely without any external assistance, except in the case of
physically challenged (disabled) people who have to be rendered assistance.
It is the responsibility of the management of the premises to ensure that necessary facilities are
provided in the building so that the occupants can evacuate the building in reasonable time in
case of fire or other emergency.
Provision of barrier free environment for physically challenged people (physically disabled
people) has been made mandatory in some of the Building Bye-laws and Development Control
Regulations in the country. Provision for movement of disabled persons to areas of safety within
the building (Refuge Areas) has also been included in these Regulations.
Certification Scheme: Since the fire performance of a system, products, components or
structure is dependent on satisfactory site installation and maintenance, independent schemes for
certification/accreditation and registration of installers and maintenance firms will have to be
introduced in our country so as to ensure conformity with approved standards and codes, as well
as for elimination of use of sub-standard products.
Fire Safety Management as applied to different occupancy groups are discussed below:
Residential Buildings (Group A)
Good Fire Safety Management in homes call for strict and constant observance of all the
common home fire safety rules for kitchen fire safety, gas fire safety, electrical fire safety etc;
Every Residential occupancy, including residential homes and flats, should formulate a suitable
fire escape plan so that every occupant in the building can promptly and safely evacuate the
premises in the event of a fire or any other emergency. In the case of Dormitories, Hostels,
Hotels etc., the evacuation plans have to be made out with extreme care as more number of
occupants are involved;
The fire escape plans have to be practised periodically by the occupants in the form of mock
fire drills so that the evacuation of the occupants in the building can be carried out promptly,
smoothly and in an orderly manner avoiding panic and confusion which can lead to accidents
and injuries;
It has to be ensured that the exits and stairways of the building are always kept clear of all
obstructions or hazardous materials;
Where Residential and Non-Residential Occupancies co-exist, extreme care has to be taken in
the design and construction of the premises so as to ensure that all essential fire and life safety
requirements as per Codes are incorporated in the building;
No dwelling unit of a Residential occupancy shall have its sole means of egress pass through
any part of non-Residential occupancy in the same building;
Interior finishes, including floor finishes in Residential occupancies, shall be of approved
classes as per relevant Codes/ standards;
Building Services, including lifts/escalators shall be of standard approved types as per relevant
Codes/Standards.
Rooms containing A/C plants, high-pressure boilers, transformers etc, having fire and
explosion hazards, shall not be located directly under or adjacent to exits. Walls of enclosure for
such rooms shall have minimum 4 hrs. Fire resistance.
Flammable liquids for household purposes shall be kept in tightly stopped or sealed containers.
Particular care has to be taken to avoid storage of low flash point flammable liquids like petrol in
residential accommodation.
No stove or combustion heater shall be located directly under or immediately at the foot of
stairs or otherwise so located as to block escape.
Kitchen exhaust ducts are hazardous since they convey hot and flammable gases and vapours.
All kitchen exhaust fans shall be fixed to an outside wall or to a duct of non-combustible
material, which leads directly to the outside.
All outdoor antennae shall be properly grounded and protected from lightning.
Doors leading to rooms in which flammable liquids are stored or used shall be posted with a
sign on each side of the door in 50mm high block letters stating - fire door-Keep closed In
addition, they must have the required fire resistance also.
Educational Buildings (Group-B)
Educational occupancy is distinguished from Assembly occupancy in that in the former the
same occupants are regularly present, and they are subject to discipline and control;
All educational buildings of permanent nature shall be of Type I construction having external
shell and load bearing elements of 4 hrs. Fire resistance rating, while internal / non-load bearing
walls shall have 2 hrs. fire resistance;
All educational buildings not of permanent nature, may be of Type II or Type III construction
as per IS 1642. All such semi-permanent buildings shall be restricted to ground and one upper
floor only, and the floor area not exceeding 1000 m2 on each floor;
Type IV construction, as well as temporary structures, such as tents or with thatched
construction, shall not be allowed for housing educational institutions;
Basement, if constructed, should not be used for classrooms, laboratories, libraries or for
assembly halls;
Every clasroom with a capacity of 45 persons or more should have minimum two door exits;
The occupant load of educational buildings or any individual story or section for determining
the exits required shall be not less than one person per 4m2 of net area;
There shall be at least two exits available from every floor area; All internal staircases, lift,
lobbies and corridors should be adequately ventilated and illuminated;
Emergency lighting in accordance with approved standards must be provided for all interior
stairs and corridors and normally occupied areas;
NO exit doorway shall be less than 1m. The height of door shall not be less than 2m;
The doors shall open inwardly wherever the doors lead to corridors or open on landings leading
to flight of stairs;
Any building having area more than 500 m2 on each floor, and 15 m or more in height, shall
have minimum two staircases of enclosed type;
Internal stairs shall be constructed of non-combustible materials throughout;
The width of staircases shall not be less than 1.5 m for building up to a height of 30m;
Educational buildings above 30 m in height are not permitted;
Minimum width of treads for stairs shall not be less than 300 mm. The treads shall be
constructed and maintained properly so as to avoid slipping during use;
Maximum height of riser shall not be more than 150 mm and number shall be limited
to 15 per flight;
No living space, store or other fire risk shall open directly into the staircases;
The main staircase and external staircase shall be continuous from ground floor to the
terrace level;
No combustible material (interior finish) shall be used for decoration/wall panelling in
the staircase;
Floor indication boards shall be prominently indicated on the wall facing the staircases
near to the landing. It shall be of size not less than 0.5 x 0.5 m;
All exit marking signs shall be prominently indicated showing the way to the escape route, and
the same shall be illuminated by electric light connected to corridor/staircase circuits along with
emergency lighting, which should be designed to come on withinone second of the failure of the
normal lighting supply, and to remain on continuous operation for a minimum duration of 1 hour
and 30 minutes;
If external stairs are provided, care has to be taken to ensure that no wall opening or window
opens on to or close to an external staircase;
No combustible material of any kind shall be stored or used in any building or section thereof;
Bare minimum quantities of flammable materials such as chloroform, ethyl alcohol, spirit, etc
shall be allowed to be handled or stored;
Doors in fire resistant walls shall be so installed that these may normally be kept in open
position, but will close automatically when required;
Corridor door openings in smoke barriers shall be not less than 1500 mm in width. Provision
shall also be made for double swing single/double leaf type doors;
Any room in which volatile flammable substances are used or stored, shall be provided with a
suitably designed exhaust ventilation system. Proper care shall be taken in providing electrical
installations in such rooms, which should conform to approved standards;
Ventilators should be provided near ceiling level for lighter than air vapours, and near the floor
for heavier than air vapours like LPG;
Fire Protection and Life Safety requirements as stipulated in National Building Code Part 4,
latest version, as well as IS 14435 1997, fire Safety in Educational Institutions- Code of Practice
should be complied with for all Educational Buildings;
Portable fire extinguishers as per scales recommended in IS 2190-1992, ëCode ofPractice for
Selection, Installation and Maintenance of First Aid Fire Extinguishersíshould be installed in all
Educational Buildings;
Teachers and other staff of the Educational Institutions should be sensitised to their
responsibilities for the safety and well being of the students. They and selected Senior Students
should also be trained in the use of first aid fire fighting equipment in case of fire emergency;
Cooking of food, where carried out in Schools, should be done at a safe place, in a detached
building, away from the main building where class rooms are located;
If gas or electricity is used for the kitchen, proper safety measures have to be exercised in the
handling of the connected equipment, and the ovens/burners should be kept at an elevated
surface compared to the cylinders;
Educational Institutions having auditorium should have fire protection and means of exit
arrangements as required for similar capacity Assembly occupancies;
Laboratories in the Educational Institutions shall comply with all the fire safety measures as
stipulated in relevant standards, like IS 4209-1987, code of Safety for Chemical Laboratories;
Computer Rooms, where provided in Educational Buildings should have the fire protection
arrangements as prescribed in IS-12456-1988, code of Practice for fire protection of electronic
data processing installations;
Educational Buildings having height 15m or more should comply with fire protection and life
safety norms for high rise buildings as prescribed in NBC Part 4;
Emergency Plan should be made by all Educational Institutions, and evacuation drills should
be organised at regular intervals, which should be not less than once a quarter;
Along with the evacuation drills, it will be desirable to organise short duration special training
programmes on any safety subject, so that the students from their very young age will be suitably
trained in inculcating safety habits;
Fire Prevention/Fire Safety Measures in Health Care Facilities
Potential fire and explosion hazards associated with medical gas piping systems shall be taken
into account in the design,installation, testing, operation and maintenance of these systems;
All stipulated safety precautions should be observed in the storage and handling of various
types of gas cylinders which are usually found in such occupancies;
Similarly, all necessary precautions should be observed in the storage and handling of bulk
cryogenic liquid systems (generally liquid oxygen);
Specific precautions are to be taken to protect oxygen cylinders, containers and associated
equipment from abnormal mechanical shock and heat;
Full cylinders shall be stored/kept segregated from empty cylinders;
The floors of operation rooms, anaesthetising locations and such other rooms/locations and
contiguous areas where hazardous gases/vapours are likely to be present should have conductive
floors to equalise/dissipate possible static charges.
A resistance not exceeding 50 mega ohms is generally sufficient to prevent accumulation of
dangerous electrical charges. Personnel entering such hazardous areas shall wear shoes having
soles and heels of conductive rubber;
As a general guidance, the under mentioned anaesthetic agents are considered flammable
during conditions of clinical use: Cyclopropane, Ethylene, Ethyl Ether, Divinyl Ether, Ethyl
Chloride etc;
The following anaesthetic agents are considered non-flammable during conditions of clinical
use: Chloroform, Nitrous Oxide, Halothane, Trichloroethylene, Methoxyfluorane, Enfluorane;
Wherever clinical procedures are performed like operation rooms, delivery rooms etc., special
mechanical ventilation arrangements are required. It will be desirable to maintain slight positive
pressure in such areas to prevent infiltration of contaminated air into such sensitive areas;
While plastic containers are preferred to glass containers to avoid breakage problems, care has
to be exercised in the choice of plastic containers in their compatibility with the liquid to be
contained;
The relevant pollution control rules regarding the safe disposal of hospital wastes, which may
contain various hazardous materials, have to be scrupulously complied with(Bio-medical Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 refers);
It is essential that core personnel employed in hospital facilities like doctors, nurses, aides,
wards, attendants, etc, shall be indoctrinated in all aspects of fire prevention, fire safety,
evacuation procedures, etc. in case of emergencies. To ensure this, regular instructional
programmes and fire drills should be conducted and records maintained;
However, it has to be remembered that life safety of all the patient occupants in health care
facilities cannot be adequately assured by evacuation procedures alone. It is, therefore, necessary
that the fire protection measures incorporated and maintained for such occupancies should be of
the highest standards so as to ensure maximum life safety opportunities for the occupants.
Assembly Buildings (Group-D)
Mixed Occupancies are predominantly life hazard occupancies;
Places of assembly in buildings of other occupancy, shall be so located, separated or protected
as to avoid any undue danger to the occupants of the place of assembly from a fire originating in
the other occupancy or smoke there from;
Canteens in auditoriums pose substantial fire and life safety hazards, and are not recommended
to be located in the basements. In any case, they must be sprinklered;
All rooms or areas used for storage of any combustible materials or equipment, or for painting,
refurbishing, repair or similar purposes shall be effectively cut off from assembly areas. They
shall be located away from staircases. Besides installation of sprinklers, it will be necessary for
provision of fire barriers (fire resistant separating walls) also to segregate the fire hazardous
areas from Assembly areas;
Rooms containing equipments subject to possible explosion shall be effectively cut off from
other parts of the building, and provided with adequate vents to the outside air; The proscenium
wall of every theatre using movable scenery or decorations shall have exclusive of the
proscenium opening, not more than two openings entering the stage, each not to exceed 2m2 and
fitted with self-closing fire resistant doors;
The decoration of places of assembly shall be of non-flammable materials. Fabrics and papers
used for such purposes shall be treated with an effective flame retardant material. Stage settings
made of combustible materials shall likewise be treated with fire retardant materials of Class 1
flame spread;
Decoration materials and stage settings of combustible nature have been the cause of several
theatre fires, which have resulted in total losses;
The curtain shall have an emergency closing device capable of causing the the curtain to close
without the use of power, and when so closed, it shall be reasonably tight against the passage of
smoke;
The stage roof of every theatre shall have a ventilator or ventilators in or above it, operable
from the stage floor by hand, and also opening by fusible links or some other approved automatic
heat/smoke actuated device, to give a free opening equal to at least one-eighth the area of the
floor of the stage;
The handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and other flammable liquids shall not be permitted.
Underground Shopping centres and larger Shopping Malls/Centres.
Department Stores and Super-markets contain different kinds of merchandise, which together
can constitute high fire load.
Generally, these buildings may be multi-storeyed ones, with customer movement patterns
permitting both vertical and horizontal movements. Storied buildings have open stairs and
sometimes escalators also. Their peculiar design, layout and high fire density, along with a large
number of floating customer population as well as staff, all in combination virtually make these
premises highly vulnerable from fire and life safety point of view; It follows from the above, as
well as from the world-wide experience gained in the past through major fires in Department
stores, that a lot of careful thought and planning have to be addressed in the design and
construction of the buildings, and the fire protection and means of exit arrangements required to
be incorporated in such buildings must also be of the highest standards. Stringent Code
implementation is a must in such occupancies;
Mixed Occupancies of this nature are quite hazardous and quite a few fire incidents had
occurred in different cities / towns in India and abroad in such premises causing fatalities,
especially in big Departmental Stores. Hazardous areas shall be segregated.
In some of the cities in India (like Surat for instance) there are huge multi-storey (high-rise)
complexes such as Textile Market, where bulk quantities of textile materials are stored, along
with retail outlets also. The high fire hazard potential in such complexes necessarly call for high
standards of fire protection also.
In the case of Underground Shopping Complexes, the hazards are much more multifarious with
more serious evacuation problems. Therefore, such complexes also shall scrupulously comply
with all the fire and life safety protection requirements as stipulated in the Codes.
Apart from covered roof mercantile operations, mercantile units o function in basements and
sub basements levels also in our cities. These below grade shop complexes are quite fire
hazardous and warrant due fire protection measures, like mandatory sprinkler protection.
Apart from what has already been stated, all Building Codes should address the problems
relating to covered mall shopping centres also, particularly the life safety concerns.
Occupancies where goods of a highly hazardous nature are predominant shall be considered
under Hazardous buildings.
Industrial Buildings (Group G)
Subdivisions: Buildings under this Group are subdivided according to hazard categories:
Subdivision G-1: Buildings used for low hazard industries in which the contents are of
low combustibility;
Subdivision G-2: Buildings used for moderate hazard industries in which there are possibilities
of fires which may burn with moderate rapidity, and may give off large volumes of smoke;
Subdivision G-3: Buildings used for housing high hazard industries, which are liable to give
rise to fires which will burn with extreme
rapidity, and from which poisonous fumes or explosions are also likely.
Guidance with regard to the classification of Industrial Buildings into low, moderate and high
hazard classes and the types of industrial buildings coming under this subdivisions can be
obtained from Annex-B to Part 4, NBC;
In case of mixed occupancies of G-1, G-2, and G-3 classes of industries in one building, where
no partition walls are provided between the various classes of occupancies, the entire building
will have to be considered as a G-3 premises, and the fire protection requirements which are
commensurate with high hazard class industry will have to be provided.
General Global statistics bear out the fact that fires and explosions in industrial and
manufacturing facilities, which come under this Group of Occupancies, account for the major
portion of direct material losses as well as indirect losses (such as production losses) in a
country. In the matter of loss of lives also this Occupancy Group is one among the front ranking
Groups like Assembly. The large number of such occupancies which abound in urban and rural
areas in the country, as well as the innumerable types of hazardous materials handled and
processed in these promises, and human factors are generally responsible for such heavy losses;
The hazards involved in industrial occupancies vary greatly and, therefore, an integrated
approach has to be followed in the matter of provision of adequate fire and life safety
requirements for such premises;
Factors to be considered for evaluation of life safety risks are materials used for interior finish,
rate of fire spread, burn rate, and evaluation of toxic fumes, potential ignition sources, fire load
and smoke generation. Property protection follows employees evacuation;
Industrial occupancies which come under the purview of Industrial legislation of the Central /
State Government, for starting, siting, operating etc. of the industry, have to comply with the
relevant provisions of the same, apart from complying with the requirements specified in
relevant Parts of NBC as well as local Codes/Byelaws/ Regulations regarding design, and
construction of the buildings and for incorporation of the fire and life safety requirements in the
buildings;
Hazardous, pollution-prone etc. industries, as designated by the authorised legislation, are
required to formulate and submit their On-site and Off-site Emergency Plans to the concerned
authorities on specified time schedules. The details of these requirements, including the details of
information to be furnished on various documents/forms (to be submitted to appropriate
authorities) like Safety Report, Safety Data Sheet, On-site Emergency Plan, Off-site Emergency
Plan etc., are given in various Schedules under the Manufacture, Storage and Import of
Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989, issued by Govt. of India.
Whenever flammable vapours/ gases are present within their flammable limits, the slightest
spark created by the operation of electrical equipment like switches or spark producing tools
(friction sparks) can give rise to fire or explosion. While safety from electrical sparks can be
achieved by safe electrical equipment/apparatus as already mentioned, spark from tools can be
avoided by use of non-sparking tools.
If Petroleum liquids are stored or handled at temperatures at or above their flash point, they
should be treated with extreme caution (as for class-1 flammable liquids). Hazardous area
normally covers an area extending upto 15m from equipment handling flammable/combustible
liquids, or 30m from equipment handling flammable gases;
In appropriate cases, clearance from the Chief Controller of Explosives (Explosives Dept.) will
also be necessary;
FIRE SAFETY IN BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION BASIC PRINCIPLES
General
The design of any building and the type of materials used in its construction are important
factors in making the building resistant to a complete burn-out, and in preventing the rapid
spread of fire and smoke which may otherwise contribute to the loss of lives and property.
Fire Load is the measure of the maximum heat that will be released if all the combustibles in a
fire area burned, including wall linings, wooden or combustible partitions, coverings on floors
and ceilings.
The fire resistance of a building or its structural and non-structural elements is expressed in
hours against a specified fire load which is expressed in kcal/m2, and against a certain intensity
of fire. The fire - resistance test for structural elements shall be done in accordance with good
practice.
Fire Resistance Rating is at times referred to as fire Endurance Rating also. While the actual
time is recorded in the nearest integral minutes, fire resistance ratings are given in standard
intervals. The usual fire resistance ratings for all types of structural members, doors and windows
are 15 mins., 30 mins., 45 mins., 1hr., 11/2 hrs., 2 hrs., 3 hrs., and 4 hrs.
The fire resistance of an element is the time in minutes from the start of the test until failure
occurs under any one of the criteria set out below:
(a) Resistance to collapse (stability)
(b) Resistance to penetration of flame (integrity)]
(c) Resistance to temp. rise on unexposed face (insulation)
Types of construction
According to fire resistance, buildings shall be classified into four
categories, namely,
Type 1 construction,
Type 2 construction,
Type 3 construction and
Type 4 construction.
The fire resistance ratings for various types of construction for structural and non-structural
members shall be as given in standard Tables in NBC Part-4 IS:1809-1979 deals with methods of
testing structural members of different material for their fire safety. For fire resistance ratings
required for various structural and non-structural members to be used for different classes of
construction, please refer to standard Tables in NBC. Part-4.
The fire resistance is the time duration the member or assembly can withstand the fire test
without failure. The usual fire resistance ratings for structural assemblies, members, doors tc.
are: 1/2 hr., 1hr., 2 hrs., 3hrs. & 4 hrs. A 1hr. rating indicates that the assembly/ member can
ithstand the standard test for minimum 1 hr. without failure by any one of the failure criteria
listed in the fire test protocol i.e. stability. Integrity and Insulation. Perfect party walls have
minimum fire resistance of 4 hrs. Combustible materials on the other side of the fire seperating
wall can be segregated before the wall collapses, and the fire enters the segregated compartment.
This reduces the overall damage and material losses.
Fire damage assessment / post fire structural safety assessment of various structural elements
of the building and adequacy of the structural repairs can be done using the fire resistance ratings
mentioned in the tables. Uses of these Tables is to assess the stability of building damaged by
fire; before declaring a building damaged by fire which has undergone repairs, as safe For
buildings 15 m in height or above, non combustible materials should be used for construction
and the internal walls of staircase enclosures should be of brick work or reinforced concrete or
any other material of construction with minimum of 2h rating. The walls for the chimney shall
be of Type 1 and Type 2 construction depending on whether the gas temperature is above 200 c
or less.
Steel Construction
Bare steel members if provided would collapse under fire conditions much earlier than other
structural elements like walls, slabs etc. All supporting structural beams and columns of steel
should therefore be enclosed in 5 cms (2 in) thick concrete or equivalent fire proofing material.
Encasement of structural steel members has been a very common and satisfactory method of
insulating steel to increase its fire resistance. Encasement of structural steel members can be
done utilizing concrete, lath and plaster, gypsum board or sprayed mineral fibres Load bearing
steel beams and columns shall be protected against failure / collapse of structure in case of fire.
This could be achieved by use of appropriate methodology using suitable fire resistance rated
materials.
Maximum Height
Every building shall be restricted in its height above the ground level and the number of storeys,
depending upon its occupancy and the type of construction. The maximum permissible height for
any combination of occupancy and types of construction should be necessarily be related to the
width of street fronting the building, or floor area ratios and the local fire fighting facilities
available.
Buildings above 15m. : Not permitted for occuppancies A1, A2, G3, Groups H & J
Buildings above 30 m: not permitted for Groups B, C, D & F
Buildings above 18 m: Not permitted for G-1 & G-2 Occupancies. Buildings above 60 m:
Not permitted for A3 & A4 Occupancies. No height restrictions for buildings in A5, A6 &
group E
Note: Classification of Occupancies and Groups under them are as given in NBC Part-4.
Open Spaces
The open spaces around or inside a building shall conform to the requirements of Part 3,
NBC, Development Control Rules and General Building Requirements.
For high rise buildings, the following additional provisions of means of access to the building
shall be ensured:
The width of the main street on which the building abuts shall not be less than 12 m and one
end of this street shall join another street not less than 12 m in width;
The road shall not terminate ina dead end ; except in the case of residential building, up to a
height of 30 m.
The compulsory open spaces around the building shall not be used for parking; and Adequate
passageway and clearances required for fire fighting vehicles to enter the premises shall be
provided at the main entrance; the width of such entrance shal lbe not less than 4.5m. If an arch
or covered gate is constructed, it shall have a clear headroom of not less than 5m.
The approach to the building and open spaces on all its sides upto 6m width and the same all be
of hard surface capable of taking the mass of fire engine weighing upto 45 tonnes. The said open
space shall be kept free of obstructions and shall be motor able The main entrance to the plot
shall be of adequate width to allow easy access to the fire engine and in no case shall it mea sure
less than 6 m. If the main entrance at the boundary wall is built over, the minimum clearance
shall be 4.5m. Turning radium of 9m. Shall be provided for fire tender movement. If entrance
gate is of lesser dimension, fire engine with their ladders cannot negotiate them in case of
emergency.
Mixed Occupancy
When any building is used for more than one type of occupancy in so far as fire safety is
concerned, it shall conform to the requirements for the occupancies of higher hazard. Unless the
high hazard area is separated by separating walls of 4th rating, the occupancies shall not be
treaded individually.
A typical example of a mixed occupancy is a covered mall building, which is a single building
enclosing a number of tenants and occupancies such as mercantile units, restaurants,
entertainments and amusement facilities, offices, clinical laboratories etc. This can be a high rise
building also.
In many of our cities, the number and variety of such mixed or multiple occupancies are
increasing fast. A recent development is the growth of so-called multiplexes, which are in fact
one multi-level building complex, having multiple occupancies like cinema theatre, shopping
complex, hotel/restaurants, and may be a few other ancillary occupancies. The unusually high
fire and life hazards in such multiplexes can well be imagined. Consequently, the design and
construction of the building, as well as the fire protection and life safety measures incorporated
in the building.
Exposure Protection
Any neighbouring buildings, particularly those of more than one storey, will be subject to some
degree of exposure hazard either from flying brands or radiation, or both, as a result.
Normally, window and ventilator openings in the higher building are protected by 6.25 mm
(1/4 in) thick wired glasses in steel frames
Fire seals
This is a seal provided to close the opening or imperfection of fit or design between
elements or components to eliminate the possibility of fire and smoke passing through them.
These fire stops fill the openings around penetrating items such as cable trays, conduits, ducts,
pipes etc. through the wall or floor openings.
Provision of non- combustible sleeking is also resorted to as an alternative to proprietary seals
for penetration of pipes. Fire stopping materials include:
l cement mortar
l gypsum-based plaster
l cement or gypsum vermiculite/perlite mixes
l glass fibre, crushed rock, blast furnace slag, or ceramic based products (with or without resin
binders), and +. intumescent mastics Not all of them will be suitable in every situation.
Openings in separating Walls and Floors.
A doorway or opening in a separating wall on any floor shall be limited to 5.6 m2 in area with
a maximum height/width of 2.75 m. Every wall opening shall be protected with fire-resisting
doors having fire rating of not less than 2 h in accordance with accepted standards.
Opening in walls or floors which are necessary to be provided to allow passages of all building
services like cables, electrical wirings, telephone cables, plumbing pipes etc hall be protected by
enclosure in the form of ducts/ shafts having a fire resistance of not less than 2 h. The inspection
door of all service shafts except electrical shafts shall have fire resistance of not less than 1 h.
For electrical shafts they shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours (Bus-bar system shall
be desirable.) Medium and low voltage wiring running in shafts/ducts shall either be armoured
type or run through metal conduits/pipes. Further, the space between the conduits and the walls/
slabs shall be filled in by a filler material having fire resistance rating of not than one hour.
In case the opening size exceeds 5.6m2, fire resisting doors designed to protect them need to be
adequately strengthened. Normally doors with larger panel areas, tend to buckle in fire
conditions.
Concealed spaces
Such spaces within a building such as space between ceiling and false ceiling, horizontal and
vertical ducts, etc, tend to act as flues/ tunnels during a fire. Provision should, therefore, be
made to provide fire stopping within such spaces.
Vertical Opening
In a building fire vertical openings like stairs and lift shafts acts as flues or chimneys
conveying flames, hot gases and smoke vertically and serve as channels for easy spread to the
upper levels. Hence, the need for enclosure or protection of such vertical shafts to prevenet fire
spread to other areas and floors served by them.
Door openings at every floor level leading to staircases or lifts/lift lobbies should be protected
by single fire doors for safe evacuation of occupants in case of fire emergency.
Every vertical opening between the floors of a building shall be suitably enclosed or protected,
as necessary, to provide the following :
Reasonable safety to the occupants while using the means of egress by preventing spread of
fire, smoke, or fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor to allow occupants to
complete their use of the means of egress. Further it shall be ensured to provide a clear height of
2100 mm in the passage/ escape path of the occupants.
Compartmentation
Helps in limitation to the damage of building and its contents :
Fires on one or two floors, or when spread over a large floor area, are extremely difficult t o
control and extinguish by manual fire fighting methods. Building designs with unprotected
vertical openings, like open stairwells, large floor areas without separation walls, A/c duct work
without dampers etc. provide avenues for fire spread vertically as well as sideways. Fire fighting
operations become difficult and prolonged as the fire propagation continues upwards as well as
horizontally.
Judicious compartmentation of a building is considered as a primary method among passive
fire protection measures. It helps to segregate a space that has a higher fire or life hazard than the
surrounding area;
Limit the size of the fire, thereby limiting the smoke generation and also facilitate fire
suppression;
To protect high value or critical areas or operations from a fire in the surrounding area (Eg:
Computer rooms, control rooms, safe vaults, records room etc.)
Service Ducts/Shafts.
Service ducts and shafts shall be enclosed by waiis of 2 h and doors of 2 h, fire rating. All such
ducts/shafts shall be property sealed and fire stopped at all floor levels.
A vent opening at the top of the service shaft shall be provided having between onefourth
and one-half of the area of the shaft. Natural venting of service shafts helps in smoke disposal
thus making fire fighting and rescue operations easier.
Refuse chutes which are used for collection and disposal of the waste from the various floors
constitute a potential source of fire due to accumulation of combustible waste. Provision of fire
resistant doors at every floor level helps prevention of fire spread from floor to floor. Refuse
chutes shall have openings at least 1 m above roof level forventing purpose Inspection panels
and doors shall be tight fitting with 2 hours fire resistance.
Drains
Many a time, damage caused by water used in fire fighting has proved costlier than the fire
damage itself, possibly because of the nature of the materials involved. It is therefore important
that they have proper drainage arrangements in all the areas of the building. Similarly, it is
equally important to have non combustible drain pipes for obvious reasons. The drain pipes
should be provided on the external wall for drainage of water from all floors.
Fire stop or enclosure of openings in external walls
Total areas of windows and door openings in external walls of a building should not exceed
75% of wall area for stability of structure and for reducing exposure hazards to adjoining
property.
Certain aspects, applicable to particular occupancies only, which may affect the spread of
fumes and thus the safe evacuation of the building in case of fire are :
Service equipment and storage facilities in buildings other than storage buildings;
Residence or shop, when partly used as godown assumes altogether different proportion from
fire safety point of view and needs to be dealt with differently.
Interior finish and decoration;
Interior finish materials like wall panelling, wooden floorings, or false ceilings play equally
destructive role in aggravating loss of human lives and property in case of fire, and hence these
must conform to class-1 flame spread characteristics. Generation of large volumes of smoke and
toxic gases seriously affect the life safety of the occupants.
The use of combustible surface finishes on walls (including facade of the building) and ceilings
affects the safety of occupants of a building. Such finishes tend to spread the fire even though the
structural elements may be adequately fire resistant, serious danger to life may result .It is
therefore essential to take adequate precautions to minimize spread of flame on such walls,
facade of building and ceiling surfaces.
The finishing materials used for various surfaces and decor shall be such that it shall not
generate toxic smoke/fumes.
Interior finishes or linings, also provide a large unbroken surface over which flame spreads.
The flame from the interior finish may release sufficient thermal energy for the formation of hot
gas layer which may become thick, attaining a temperature around 600oC, and starts descending
from the top. At this stage, all the combustible contents as well as the furnishings in the room
may simultaneously get ignited, which is known as flash-over or full fire involvement. This can
happen even in a few minutes.
Use of combustible interior finishes (interior linings) such as low density fibre board ceilings,
wood panelling textile wall coverings, vinyl wall coverings, cellular polyurethane and
polystyrene materials, and combustible floor coverings, had resulted in several heavy death toll
fires in the past.
Interior finish affects the fire in four ways: (i) It affects the rate of heat build-up to a ëflash-
overí condition (ii) It contributes to flame spread over the surface, (iii) It adds to the intensity of
fire by contributing additional fuel, and (iv) It produces toxic gases and smoke that adds to life
hazard and property damage. The fourth factor is the most important since it affects occupant life
safety seriously.
The susceptibility to fire of various types of wall surfaces is determined in terms of the rate of
spread of flame. Based on the rate of spread of flame, surfacing material shall be considered as
divided into four classes as follows.
Class 1 surfaces of very low flame spread Class 2 Surfaces of low flame spread.
Class 3 Surfaces of medium flame spread Class 4 Surfaces of rapid flame spread
Class 1 may be used in any situation.
Class 2 may be used in any situation, except on walls, facade of the building, staircase
and corridors.
Class 3 may be used only in living rooms and bed rooms (but not in rooms on the
roof) and only as a lining to solid walls and partitions; not on staircases or corridors
or facade of the building.
Note- Panelling (lining) shall be permitted in a limited area. It shall not be permitted
in a vestibule.
Materials of class-4 flame spread are the worst ones for use in buildings, and hence their use is
to be strictly prohibited unless they are given proper fire retardant treatment. This is equally true
for false ceilings and false floors also.
Class 4 materials shall not be used in kitchens, corridors and staircases. Some materials contain
bitumen and, in addition to risk from spread of fire, emit dense smoke on burning. Such
materials shall be excluded from use under these conditions and shall also not be used for
construction of ceiling where the plenum is used in6return air in air-conditioned buildings Class
4 materials shall not be used in kitchens, corridors and staircases.
When frames, walls, partitions or floors are lined with combustible materials, the surfaces on
both sides of the materials shall conform to the appropriate class.
Wired Glass
The wired glass shall be of minimum half hour fire resistance rating.
Sashes and Frames- The Sashes or Frames or both shall be entirely of iron or other suitable
metal such as stainless steel, securely bolted or keypad into the wall, except in case of panels in
internal doors.
Setting of Glass- The panels of glass shall be set in rebates or grooves not less than 6.0 mm in
width or depth, with due allowance for expansion, and shall be secured by hard metal fastenings
to the sashes or frames independently of any cement or putty used for weather proofing purposes.
If the supporting frame work to hold wired glasses is of combustible nature, eg. Of wood, the
support would be lost in case of a fire .at a very early stage, and the wired glasses would fall off
defeating the very purpose for which they are provided.
If the opening protected is more than 5m2 the glass loses its fire resisting property. It will give
way soon, nullifying the very purpose for which it is installed.
Skylights
Wired glass for skylights or monitor lights shall comply with the following requirements:
Wired Glass for skylights or Monitor Lights- The wired glass for skylights or monitor lights
shall be of minimum half hour fire resistance rating.
Frames and Glazing - The frames shall be continuous and divided by bars spaced at not more
than 700 mm centers. The frames and bars shall be of iron or other hard material and supported
on the curb either of metal or of wood covered with sheet metal. The toughened glass shall be
secured by hard metal fastenings to the frame and bars independently of any lead, cement or
putty used for weather-proofing purposes.
Materials used in louvers wherever provided shall be of minimum half hour fire resistance
rating.
Glasses used in facade of high rise buildings
These shall have minimum of 1 hr fire resistance. If this is not observed, glasses will shatter
and fly off in case of a fire, injuring pedestrians passing by on the surrounding streets.
HIGH RISE BUILDINGS-15 M IN HEIGHT OR ABOVE.
The definition of high rise building, viz., 15m in height or above, should be read in conjunction
with the definition for Building Height
Some of the outstanding problems which had been experienced by the fire services during fire
fighting operations in high rise buildings are:
External fire fighting and rescue difficult; l Evacuation prolonged/difficult;
Rescue and fire fighting mainly from within the building;
Being fully air-conditioned, traps heat and smoke during fires, l Danger of flash vers;
Smoke venting problems;
Large number of occupants. Incase of fire, human behaviour unpredictable;
Special care for physically handicapped; Special care to keep escape routes clear;0
Hazards from increasing use of plastic materials, interior finish decoration;
Multi occupancy hazards, high fire loads; l Inadequate water supplies;
Indequatc/unserviceable fire protection systems and equipment.
Basements
Occupancies which are prohibited from being located in basements are either of high risk
category, or Assembly occupancy, making their evacuation in case of fire difficult due to smoke
logging and also possible impediments to fire fighting operations.
Departmental stores, shops, storage of flammable oils and gases, banquet hall, auditorium,
discotheque, restaurants etc, shall not be permitted in basements.
Basement shall not be permitted below the ward block of a hospital/ nursing home unless it is
fully sprinklered.
A system of air inlets shall be provided at basement floor level and smoke outlets at basement
ceiling level. The staircase of basements situated at the periphery of the basement to be entered
at ground level only from the open air. It shall communicate with basement through a lobby
provided with fire resisting self closing doors of one hour resistance. If the travel distance
exceeds the desired level, additional staircases shall be provided at proper places.
Each basement and basement compartment shall have separate smoke outlet duct or ducts.
Mechanical extractors for smoke venting system from lower basement levels shall also be
provided. It shall also have an arrangement to start it manually. Mechanical extra ctors shall be
designed to permit 30 air changes per hour in case of fire or distress call;
In ventilating ducts crossing the transformer area or electrical switchboard, fire dampers shall
be provided. All floors shall be compartmented with area not exceeding 750 m2 by a separation
wall with 2 h fire rating.
High rise buildings shall be provided with lightning protection.
Fire Control Room
For all buildings 15m in height and above, there shall be a control room on the entrance floor of
the building with communication system (suitable public address system) to all floors and
facilities for receiving the message from different floors. Details of all floor plans along with the
details of fire fighting equipment and installations shall be displayed in the fire control room.
The fire control room shall also have facilities to detect the fire on any floor through indicator
board connection to fire detection and alarm systems on all floors. The fire staff in charge of the
fire control room shall be responsible for maintenance of the various services and the fire
fighting equipment It should have an area of 16m2 to 20m2, preferably on ground floor; The
Control and Indicating Equipment(Control Panel of the AFA system), power supply units and the
fire protection ancillary panels(for automatic sprinkler system or other fixed fire protection
system etc.) should be installed in the room; It should have intercom and direct telephone
facilities. Where possible, a direct hot line to local fire brigade should be provided; It should
have a mimic panel of the premises protected and details of all the fire protection systems
installed; The room should be air-conditioned and should have emergency lighting system.
MEANS OF ESCAPE /EGRESS / EXIT1
Nature of Fire in Buildings
Every building shall be so constructed, equipped, maintained and operated as to avoid undue
danger to life and safety of the occupants from fire, smoke, fumes or panic during the survival
time available for escape.
Growth and Spread of Fire and Smoke
The fire growth stage is the most important to life safety. It is in this stage that the space or room
of fire origin eventually becomes uninhabitable, making human survival difficult. It is for this
reason that fire detection and action to protect or rescue the occupants have to be speedily
initiated during this stage itself. Materials burning near a wall will have a faster rate of fire
growth than materials burning in the centre of the room. This is because of the reradiation from
the heated walls to back to the burning fuel. When a fire spreads across the ceiling heat build up
throughout the room becomes faster, eventually leading to ëflashoverí. Occupants’ survivability
becomes impossible at this point. The spread of smoke and fire to the other parts of the building
exposes the occupants inthese areas also to survival problems. Building features such as vertical
shafts, ducts, plenums, void spaces and even windows can all contribute to spread of fire and
smoke. Large complex structures such as multi-storeyed shopping malls, atrium buildings etc.
require thorough planning and design for smoke control measures.
Means of Escape Requirements
Safe exit for the occupants in a building on fire requires a safe path of escape from the fire in
the shortest possible time. This path, which should be as short as possible, and easily negotiable,
should be ready for use in case of emergency
For ensuring the life safety of occupants from a fire, the following are the requirements in
general:
Provision of adequate No. of properly designed, unobstructed means of exit of adequate
capacity which are available at all times;
Availability of alternative means of exit for use, if the already chosen one is inaccessible due to
fire, heat, smoke and toxic gases;
Protection of the entire rescue path against fire, heat, smoke and toxic gases during the egress
time based on occupant load, travel distance and exit capacity;
Adoption of compartmentation and other adequate passive fire protection measures to ensure
the safe egress/evacuation of the occupants in case of fire;
Provision of adequate and reliable fire alarm system in the building to alert the occupants;
Provision of refuge areas where total evacuation of occupants is not contemplated;
Adequate illumination and marking of the means of egress;
Formulation organisation and practice of effective evacuation drill procedures.
Design Considerations of Means of Exit
Designing a means of egress involves more than numbers, flow rates and densities. Good exits
facilitate everyone to leave the fire area in the shortest possible time by prompt and efficient use
of them. If the fire is discovered promptly and occupants alerted also equally promptly, early
evacuation can be done. However, evacuation times are directly related to the fire hazard; higher
the hazard, shorter the exit time.
Provision of two separate means of exits for every floor including basements is a fundamental
requirement, except in very few deserving cases.
Sufficient number of unobstructed exits of adequate capacity and properly designed, with easy
access;
Safeguarding of exits against fire and smoke during the length of time they are designed for
use;
Availability of alternate exit and means of access to it, in case one exit is unusable due to fire;
Sub division of areas to provide sufficient areas of refuge for occupants where evacuation may
be delayed;
Adequate protection of vertical openings to minimize hazards from fire and smoke;
Efficient fire alarm systems for alerting occupants and others concerned in case of fire;
Adequate lighting of exits and rescue paths;
Adequate exit indication signs to help evacuation;
Ensuring trouble free evacuation through the escape route by safeguarding of equipment and
vulnerable areas from fire and smoke hazards;
Fully rehearsed exit drill procedures to ensure orderly and smooth exit;
Institution of panic control measures;
Control fire hazards from interior finish material
Internal Staircases
The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing with a vent at the top; the
vent opening shall be of 0.5 m2 in the external wall and the top. If the staircase cannot be
ventilated, because of location or other reasons, a positive pressure 50 pa shall be maintained
inside. The mechanism for pressurizing the staircase shall operate automatically with the fire
alarm. The roof of the shaft shall be 1 m above the surrounding roof. Glazing or glass bricks if
used in staircase shafts shall have fire resistance rating of minimum 2 hours.
Venting or pressurisation of staircases provide smoke-free passage to people being evacuated
who face danger of suffocation by smoke inhalation.
All buildings, which are 15 m in height or above, and all buildings used as educational,
assembly, institutional, industrial, storage and hazardous occupancies aving area more than 500
sq. m on each floor shall have a minimum of two staircases. They shall be of enclosed type; at
least one of them shall be on external wall of building and shall open directly to the
exterior/interior open space or to an open place of safety. Further, the provision or otherwise of
alternative staircases shall be subject to the requirements of travel distance being complied with.
Smoke moves from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure. Pressure differences
may be caused by buoyancy from the fire. Every internal escape stair should therefore be a
protected stairway.
Internal Stairs shall be constructed of non-combustible materials throughout.
In case internal stairs form a part of the escape route, they have to be treated as escape stairs
and as a protected stairway to enable them fulfil their role for safe evacuation of occupants
during fire emergencies.
A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft. Lift shafts tend to carry smoke and fire
upwards People escaping through stairs downwards must be safe from such smoke and fire.
No combustible material shall be used for decoration / wall panelling in the staircase.
The exit sign with arrow indicating the way to the escape route shall be provided at a suitable
height from the floor level on the wall and shall be illuminated by electric light connected to
corridor circuits.
Floor indicator boards in the staircases help people getting down the stairs to know on which
floor they are, and how far they are from the ground level where they will be safe from the fire.
This also helps in reducing psychological pressure on them whilst being evacuated in case of a
fire emergency.
No gas piping, ducting or electrical panels shall be laid in the stair way. These have fire hazard
potential.
The lobby should have not less than 4 sq.m permanent ventilation, or protected from the
ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
Width of Staircase
Following minimum width shall be provided for staircases:
a) Residential buildings (dwellings) 1.0m
b) Residential hotel buildings 1.5 m
c) Assembly buildings like auditorium, theatres and cinemas 2.0m
d) Educational buildings up to 30 m in height 1.5 m
e) Institutional buildings like hospitals 2.0 m
f) All other buildings 1.5 m
Fire Lifts
This lift can be used even by building occupants except during fire emergencies. This is a lift
designed to have additional protection with controls to enable it to be used under the direct
control of the fire service during fires.
For fire fighting operations in high rise buildings, it will be almost impossible for fire fighters
to carry their equipments to the upper floors of a tall building without the use of lift, which is
much easier and quicker than carrying them up through stairs.
Fully automated fire lifts having minimum capacity for 8 passengers with emergency switch on
ground level shall be provided. In general, buildings 15m in height and above shall be provided
with fire lifts.
In case of fire only fireman shall operate the fire lift. In normal course, lift may be used by
other persons.
In case of fire, firemen can commandeer the lift for their exclusive use. A switch in a glass
fronted box marked Fireman’s Switch placed at ground level and by operation of this switch
firemen can recall the lift if it is in normal operation and utilise the lift for their use.
Each fire lift shall be equipped with suitable intercommunication equipment for
communicating with the control room on the ground floor of the building One fire lift per 2000
m 2 of floor area shall be provided.
Fire lift should be provided with a ceiling hatch for use in case of emergency, so that when the
car gets stuck up, it shall be easily operable.
By opening the hatch, fire brigade may be able to rescue people trapped in lifts which have
suddenly stopped in case of a fire. The lift shall be so wired that in case of power failure, it
comes down at the ground level and comes to stand-still with door open.
Automatic changeover from normal supply to generator supply is very important because the
generator room may not easily be accessible in case of a severe fire.74
The speed of the fire lift shall be such that it can reach the top floor from ground level within
one minute
External Stairs
It is desirable to provide external staircases in case of high-rise buildings. External stairs, when
provided shall comply with the following:
The flights and landings of an external escape stair should be of fire resisting construction;
All external stairs shall be directly connected to the ground;
No wall opening or window opens on to or close to an external stairs. Flames can leap out of
such doors and windows in external walls of affected building hampering evacuation and fire
fighting operations.
The route to the external stairs shall be free of obstructions at all time.
Horizontal Exits:
(a) Horizontal exits are particularly useful during fire emergencies in hospitals (health care
occupancies) for evacuation of bedridden patients or patients suffering from immobility.
Adjoining compartments into which horizontal evacuation is done should also have a floor area
sufficient to accommodate evacuees from the adjoining compartment.
(b) Sometimes, progressive horizontal evacuation may also have to be adopted depending on
the emergency situation and the facilities available.
Illumination of means of exit
Staircase and corridor lights shall conform to the following.
(a) The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently
connected so that it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily
accessible to fire fighting staff at any time irrespective of the position of the individual control
of the light points, if any. It should be miniature circuit breaker type of switch so as to avoid
replacement of fuse in case of crises
(b) Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply. The alternative
source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric
mains. One control switch at the ground level will help in putting on emergency lights for
prompt illumination of escape routes. Miniature circuit breakers avoid frequent fuse replacement.
Refuge Areas
In addition to the requirements set out, multi-storey buildings must be provided with fire
enclosures to enable refuge areas to be provided in approved staircase enclosures. Wherever
practicable refuge areas these should be designed in accordance standards.
Refuge areas in new and refurbished buildings must be equipped with a communications
system approved, that will enable any disabled person in the refuge to communicate with the
Security Services control room.
All refuges must be provided with appropriate signage.
Designers should consult the Fire Safety Adviser about the numbers and locations of refuges to
be provided. In some circumstances it may be appropriate to restrict refuges to one staircase, in
order avoid confusion for building evacuation officers (and the emergency services attending an
incident.
Refuge areas must be provided in Halls where accommodation for disabled persons is provided
above ground floor level. They must also be provided in Halls where disabled people can access
the upper floors by means of a lift, unless another means of providing 30 minute protection from
the effects of fire can be provided.
For buildings more than 24m in height, refuge area of 15 sq.m or an area equivalent to 0.3 sq.m
per person to accommodate the occupants of two consecutive floors, whichever is higher, shall
be provided as under.
For floors above 24 mt and up to 39 m - One refuge area on the floor immediately above 24 m.
For floors above 39 m- One refuge area on the floor immediately above 39 m and so on after
every 15 m. Refuge area provided in excess of the requirements shall be counted towards FAR.
The refuge area shall be provided on the periphery of the floor and open to air, at-least on one
side, protected with suitable railings.
Visual and hearing impairment – visual and vibrating fire alarm
Fire alarm systems must incorporate a means of alerting deaf and blind persons to the alarm,
where such people might be expected to be present and without the support of able-bodied
persons who can alert them to the alarm. This will apply in buildings accessible to the general
public, where the
In other buildings it may be sufficient for the system as built to be capable of a future upgrade,
either across the system or in discrete areas such a single offices, if there is no immediate need
for such a system at the time of construction/refurbishment.
Doors
Designers should consider the direction that doors open with respect to the direction of escape
for disabled people. The use of electromagnetic hold open devices linked to the fire alarm system
can assist disabled people in normal usage of the building, but their automatic release in a fire
situation can form a barrier for disabled people who may be unable to open the door to evacuate.
The Fire Safety Adviser must therefore be consulted on the use of such devices. Designers
should also specify door furniture that will make it easier for disabled people to open doors
without assistance.
Ramps
Ramps shall comply with all the applicable requirements of stairways regarding enclosure
capacity and limiting dimensions.
The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1 in 10. Ramps with slopes greater than those
recommended render them difficult to be used, particularly by physically handicapped elderly
people and children, and hence this requirement. Ramps in means of egress are required to be
enclosed or protected. Further, they must have landings located at the top, at the bottom and at
doors opening into the ramp.
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
General sprinklers are devices for a distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantity to
extinguish it completely or to prevent its spread, by keeping the fire under control, by the water
discharged from the sprinklers. The water for fire fighting is fed to the sprinklers throu gh a
system piping, normally suspended from the ceiling, with the sprinklers installed at intervals
along the pipes. The orifice of the sprinkler head, incorporating the fusible link or fusible bulb of
the automatic sprinkler, is normally kept closed, which is thrown open on the actuation of the
temperature sensitive fusible link or fusible bulb.
Automatic sprinkler systems are quite effective for ensuring life safety, since they give early
warning of the existence of fire and simultaneously start application of water on to the fire which
will help control and extinguishment of the fire. The downward force of the water spray from the
sprinklers also helps minimise the smoke accumulation in the room of fire besides cooling the
environment and promoting survival of the occupants.
BC Part-4, Fire and Life Safety, also recognises the importance of sprinklers for achieving fire
and life safety. The provision of the sprinkler system in buildings helps to offset deficiencies in
fire protection requirements in existing buildings and the Code provides trade-off in the matter of
various fire protection requirements when automatic sprinkler systems are provided. For eg.,
longer travel distances to exits, higher fire load density etc. are allowed with the provision of
sprinklers.4
However, it has to be mentioned that partial coverage of the buildings by sprinkler protection is
neither advisable from fire protection point of view nor from cost effectiveness. In case
a fire originates from an unprotected area and after growing into a well developed fire spreads to
the protected area, it would have generally developed sufficient intensity to verpower the
sprinklers.
Types of Sprinkler Systems:
There are four main types of sprinkler systems:
Wet - The pipes are permanently charged with water and used for all locations except where
freezing temperatures are likely to occur or special conditions exist.
Dry - The pipes are normally charged with air under pressure.
Alternate - Can be arranged to be either wet or dry depending upon ambient temperature
conditions.
Pre-action - The pipes are normally charged with air, and get filled with water when a fire
actuates a separate detection system. Sprinkler heads then operate individually.
Sprinkler Heads:
Their operation can be divided into two main types:
Those in which the operating medium is fusible solder; and
Those in which the operating medium is a glass bulb (quartzoid bulb).
Fusible solder type: In this type the body of the sprinkler is held in place by two yokes and a
flexible metal diaphragm into which a valve is fitted. Three parts, viz., the strut, the hook, and
the key are held together by a special fusible solder. In a fire condition the fusible solder (or link)
melts and the component members are thrown clear of the head, allowing the water to flow out in
the form of spray after hitting the deflector.
The solders used with automatic sprinklers are made of alloys of metals like tin, lead, cadmium
etc.
Fusible bulb type: The second type of operating element of the sprinkler head utilises a
frangible bulb. In this, a small bulb of special glass contains a liquid leaving a small air bubble
entrapped in it. When exposed to heat from fire, the liquid expands and the bubble disappears.
Due to increase of pressure the bulb shatters, releasing the water in the form f spray. The
operating temperature is regulated by adjusting the amount of liquid, the nature of the liquid
itself, as well as the size of the bubble.
Temperature Ratings of Automatic Sprinklers:
Automatic Sprinklers have various temperature ratings that are based on standardised tests in
which a sprinkler is immersed in a liquid, and the temperature of the liquid raised slowly until
the sprinkler operates. All heads are marked with their operating temperature ratings, and are
colour coded for easy identification.
Sprinkler Water Supplies:
The water supplies for the sprinkler system must have adequate and reliable pressure and flow as
per Sprinkler System Codes / Rules. Use of salt or brackish water is not permitted. The supplies
may be by (i) Town mains, (ii) Elevated reservoirs, (iii) Gravity tanks, (iv) Automatic pump
supply or (v) Pressurised tanks. Apart from primary water supply, secondary water supply
arrangements should also be made as stand by.
Types of Sprinklers
The following are the types of sprinklers which are accepted for general use:
(a) Conventional Sprinkler: These produce a spherical type of discharge with a portion of the
water directed upwards to the ceiling. They may be of upright or pendent type.
(b) Spray pattern: This operates with a hemispherical discharge pattern below the deflector with
no water being directed upwards.
(c) Ceiling flush pattern: The heads are installed with the base flush to the ceiling, and heat
sensitive elements facing downwards. The pipe work remains concealed
above the ceiling.
(d) Side wall pattern: These are installed along the walls of a room close to the ceiling, and
produce a horizontal pattern of spray. These are commonly used for guest
room fire protection in hotels.
(e) Dry upright pattern: These are the same as pendent type sprinklers.
Other important facts / features regarding Sprinkler Systems:
(i) Design density of the system means the minimum density of discharge (in mm/min.) of water,
for which a sprinkler installation is designed, determined from the discharge of a specified group
of sprinklers in lpm divided by the area covered in m2 .
(ii) Each system has to be hydraulically designed to provide an approx.density of ischarge over
an assumed maximum area of operation.(no. of sprinklers likely to operate) in the highest and
remote areas to be protected.
(iii) High rise system: Is a sprinkler system in which the highest sprinkler is more than 45 m
above the lowest sprinkler/sprinkler pumps, whichever is lower.
(iv) Low rise system: Is one in which the highest sprinkler is 45 m or less from ground level or
sprinkler pumps.
(v) Design point: A sprinkler installation is planned on the basis of a design point. This means
the maximum number of sprinklers that may be operated at one time in case of fire. Though an
installation may have 500 or even 1000 sprinklers, the design point may be only 25. This
practically means that the installation is capable of dealing with a fire where pto 25 heads are
operated.
(vi) Work done at Factory Mutual showed that convective heat generally supplies more than 80%
of the heat sprinklers need for activation.
(vii) Sprinklers can only be effective if they activate before the fire gets past them.
(viii) It has been reported that in buildings where sprinkler systems have been installed the
chances of fatal occupant casualties and property losses per fire are reduced to about twothirds,
compared to buildings where sprinklers have not been installed.
Automatic Sprinklers shall be installed in (as stipulated in Part-4, NBC):
(a) basements used as car parks or storage occupancy, if the area exceeds 200 m2;
(b) multi-level basements, covered upper floors used as car parks, and for housing essential
services ancillary to a particular occupancy or for storage occupancy, excluding any area to be
used for sub-station, A.C. plant and DG set;
(c) any room or other compartment of a building exceeding 1 125m2 in area except as in (g) (see
Note), if so advised by local authority.
(d)departmental stores or shops, if the aggregate covered area exceeds 750 m2;
(e) all non-domestic floors of mixed occupancy which constitute a hazard and are not provided
with staircases independent of the remainder of the buildings;
(f) godowns and warehouses, as considered necessary;
(g) on all floors of the buildings other than residential buildings, if the height of the building
exceeds 30 m (45 m in case of group housing and apartments)
(h)dressing room, scenery docks, stages and stage basements of theatres;
(j) in hotels, hospitals, industries low and moderate hazard, mercantile buildings of height 15
m or above;
(k) in hotels below 15 m, if covered area at each floor is more than 1000 m2;
(l) false ceiling voids which are used for storage or as return air plenums exceeding 800 mm in
height in sprinklered buildings and
(m) Canteen provided in upper floors of D-1 and D-2 occupancies shall be sprinklered.
NOTES
1. It is desirable that all high rise buildings should be fully sprinklered irrespective of their height
and occupancy. If selective sprinklering is adopted, there is a real danger of a fire starting on one
of the lower unsprinklered floors gathering momentum, spreading upwards from floor to floor
through the un sprinklered floor and reaching the first sprinklered floor as a fully developed fire.
In such an event, the sprinklers can be rendered useless or ineffective.
2. Use of false ceiling voids for storage or as return air plenums should be discouraged.
AUTOMATIC DELUGE INSTALLATIONS:
These are installations fitted with open spray nozzles, controlled by a single deluge valve and
operated on the actuation of automatic fire detectors, or sprinkler heads, so that the entire area to
be protected is sprayed with water. The installation can be controlled manually also. These
systems are provided where there is a concentration of highly flammable liquids like aircraft
hangars, tank farms filling gantries etc. and for cooling purposes. The deluge system primarily
caters for special hazards where intensive fires with a very fast rate of fire propagation are
expected, and it is desirable to apply water simultaneously over complete area.
FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT
General
(a) All fires start small, and if immediately tackled with proper type and amount of extinguishing
medium, can be easily extinguished.
(b) In the earlier days, in the absence of any other present day equipment, portable buckets filled
with water and sand were used for tackling incipient fires - water buckets for tackling ordinary
fires, and sand buckets for oil fires. Even now, in rural areas, as well as railway and other
remotely located public premises, water and sand buckets could be seen distributed for tackling
small fires.
(c) Portable fire extinguishers are specially designed for the purpose of tackling fires in their
incipient stage, and they are now very commonly used for the same purpose. In fact, they are
now considered as the first line of defence in fire fighting operations, and has assumed the front
position among the fire protection measures for all types of occupancies as well as fire risks.
(d) The term portable when applied to fire extinguishers, implies that they can be carried
manually to any desired fire scene and operated by one person. In some of the foreign standards,
including European standards, the maximum weight of portable extinguishers has been specified
as 23 kg.
(e) Apart from portable extinguishers, which are of comparatively smaller size, there are bigger
size of extinguishers which are trolley-mounted and could be pulled to the desired spot. These
bigger sizes of extinguishers also come under the broad term of first aid fire fighting equipment.
Extinguishing Agent Principle Use
Water wood and paper fires - not electrical
Foam flammable liquid fires - not electrical
Carbon dioxide electrical fires
Dry Chemical flammable liquids and electrical fires
Wet chemical fat fires - not electrical
Special Purpose various (eg metal fires)
Types of Extinguishers:
(a) Portable fire extinguishers can be divided into 5 categories according to the extinguishing
agent they contain:
(i) Water type extinguishers;
(ii) Foam extinguishers;
(iii)Dry powder extinguishers;
(iv)CO2 extinguishers; and
(v) Halon / Halon alternative type extinguishers.
(b) They can also be grouped into categories according to their method of operation.
Extinguishers can be operated by the use of air or gas pressure in the upper part of the container,
which forces the extinguishing medium out through a nozzle. They can also be operated using a
cartridge containing an inert gas (nor-mally CO2) under pressure. When the cartridge is pierced,
the gas which comes out of the cartridge drives out the extinguish-ing medium. In other types,
the pressurising agent (air or inert gas) is stored inside the upper portion of the extinguisher
itself, and therefore the body of the extinguisher remains permanently pressurised. The first one
is known by the name, gas cartridge
type of extinguisher, and the second one is known by the name stored pressure type of
extinguisher
(c) Water (gas cartridge) type extinguisher:
(i) In this pressure is released from a cartridge which is stored inside the body of the
extinguisher. The cartridge is pressurised with CO2 gas (to a pressure of approx. 35 bars). On
puncturing the cartridge, by striking the knob on the top, the gas is released, and on coming out
of the cartridge, it expels the water from the body of the extinguisher. The expelled water comes
out through the nozzle of the extinguisher in the form of a small jet, which can be projected on to
the fire.
(ii) The liquid capacity of the extinguisher, when filled to the specified level, is 9 litres.
(iii) The gas cartridge is screwed on to a holder which is fitted on to the cap of the extinguisher.
The maximum size of the gas cartridge is 60 g for a 9 litre extinguisher.
(iv) On operation, the water jet should give an effective throw of not less than 6m for a minimum
period of 60 sec., and at least 95 % of water in the extinguisher should be discharged.
(d) Water (Stored Pressure) Extinguisher:
(i) The extinguisher is filled with water and dry air pressurized up to 10 bars. The air can be
supplied by compressed air cylinders or by certain type of pump.
(ii) Operation is performed by withdrawing the safety pin, depressing the valve lever and
directing the water jet by means of the hose.
(iii) As this type of extinguisher is permanently pressurised, it can only be opened for inspection
after discharged.
(iv) The normal capacity of this extinguisher is also 9 litres.
(e) Mechanical Foam Extinguisher (9 L):
(i) The extinguisher is filled with pre-mixed foam solution (AFFF)
(ii) Foam extinguisher can either be of the stored pressure type, or gas cartridge type.
(iii)The operation of these types is similar to what has been stated under the water type
extinguishers.
(iv) The figures of the two types are shown below:

Dry Powder Extinguisher:


(i) Various types of dry powder extinguishers are available in the market. Some of them are
filled with dry powders suitable for class B & C fires, and some suitable for class A B C fires.
(ii) As already stated under Extinguishing Media chapter, dry chemical powders have excellent
fire knocking down properties. However, for permanent extinguishment, more often, their use
will have to be followed with discharge of extinguishing media like foam or water. (iii) Dry
Powder Extinguisher (stored pressure type): The construction of this type of extinguisher is
similar to that of water (stored pressure type). The pressure maintained insidethe extinguisher is
about 10 bars. It is normally fitted with a pressure gauge and a fan-shaped nozzle. The throw of
jet, and duration of discharge for extinguishers of different capacities are given overleaf:
(iv) Dry Powder Extinguisher (Gas Cartridge) type: 4 sizes of extinguishers of this type are
available in the market - 1kg, 2kg, 5kg & 10 kg capacities. The sizes of the gas cartridges also
vary according to the extinguisher size. This type of extinguisher is quite common as a
requirement for various type of occupancies.
DRY CHEMICAL POWDERS
On most fires involving burning metals, the result of applying water can be explosively
disastrous, and so new methods of extinction have been evolved.
The base chemical of most dry chemical powders is sodium bicarbonate. This, with the
addition of a metallic serrate as a waterproofing agent, is widely used as an extinguish ant, not
only importable extinguishers, but also for general application in large quantities. Apart from
stearates, other additives like silicones are also used to decrease the bulk density, and to reduce
packing in the cylinder.
Dry chemical is expelled from containers by gas pressure and, by means of specially designed
nozzles, and is directed at the fire in a concentrated cloud. This cloud also screens the operator
from the flames, and enables a relatively close attack to be made.
Dry chemical powder can also be supplied in polythene bags for metal fires, as it is more
effective to bury the fire under a pile of bags which melt and allow the contents to smother the
fire.
Special powders have been developed for some metal fires, especially for the radioactive metals
such as uranium and plutonium. These are known as the ternary eutectic chloride group,
(Chlorides of Sodium) (Na), Potassium (K) and Barium (Ba) in the proportions of 20%, 29% and
51% respectively for the three chlorides). These powders contain an ingredient which melts, then
flows a little and forms a crust over the burning metal, effectively sealing it from the surrounding
atmosphere and isolating the fire. Dry chemical powders are also tested for their compatibility
with foam, as it was discovered that the early powders tended to break down foam, and the two
should complement each other on fires where foam is the standard extinguishant.
These powders which are 10 to 75 microns in size are projected on the fire by an inert
gas (usually CO2 or N).
(g) CO2 Extinguisher:
The main features of this extinguisher are:
It consists basically of a high pressure cylinder;
The CO2 is retained mostly in a liquid condition at about 51 bars pressure (at a
temperature of 15oC)
Different capacities are available, viz., 2kg, 3kg and 4.5 kg (portable types). Trolley
mounted types are of capacities 6.5kg, 9kg and 22.5kg.
Hazards of CO2 extinguishers:
Although not itself toxic, CO2 will not support life when used in large quantities to
extinguish a fire.
If used in an unventilated area, it dilutes the oxygen supply and makes human survival
difficult.
A thick cloud of CO2 gas may cause disorientation
Halon Extinguishers:
In India Halon 1211 extinguishers are still available although they are- getting phased out;
The standard capacities of these extinguishers are 1.25 kg, 2.5 kg, 4 kg, 5 kg & 6.5 kg;
They are quite effective on fires in electrical / electronic equipment;
They are getting replaced gradually by other extinguishers containing Halon alternatives.
Soda Acid & Chemical Foam Extinguishers have already been phased out, and there IS
withdrawn.
Selection and Installation of Extinguishers:
The most important considerations while selecting extinguishers are the nature of the area to be
protected, and the nature of the hazard involved. Another factor to be considered is the human
element involved. An individualís reaction to a fire will be largely influenced by his familiarity
with the extinguishers, his training and experience in its operation and his self-confidence.
Training, therefore, is very important.
Detailed instructions regarding selection, installation and maintenance of first-aid fire
extinguishers are contained in IS:2190 - 1992 (which is under revision). It is essential that all
users (at least organisations) should be quite familiar with these instructions, so that maximum
advantage can be gained for promotion of fire safety standards for their own benefit.
Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Extinguishers:
An inspection is a quick check that visually determines that the fire extinguisher is properly
placed and will operate
Maintenance, as distinguished from inspection, means a complete and thorough examination of
each extinguisher. A maintenance check involves opening the extinguisher, examining all its
parts, cleaning, replacing defective parts, reassembling, recharging and repress rising the
extinguisher, where necessary.
Detailed instructions regarding periodical maintenance, hydrostatic pressure testing, and
refilling of extinguishers are given in IS:2190-1992 which should be scrupulously followed.
Definitions
1. Extinguishing agent: The substance contained in a fire-extinguishing system, when discharged
on to the fire, is intended to produce extinction.
2. Risk: A measure of an insurer probable liability, determined by the standard of a building, its
usage and the quality of its fire protection.
3. Hazard: A particular area or activity in which a danger of fire can occur, e.g. pain praying
plant, cotton pickings and carding machinery or heat-treatment bath.
4. Storage hazard: The general dangers of storage of goods, having regard to their fire grading,
flammability, method of packing, storage etc.
5. Underground fire hydrant: An assembly contained in a pit or box below ground level, and
comprising a valve and outlet connection from a water supply main.
6. Pillar fire hydrant: A fire hydrant whose outlet connection is fitted to a vertical component
projecting above ground level.
7. Foam inlet: Fixed equipment consisting of an inlet connection, fixed piping and a discharge
assembly, enabling the Fire Service to introduce foam into an enclosed compartment.
8. Ring main system: A water main that encircles a building, or series of buildings or other
associated fire risks, and that feeds hydrants, internal rising mains, etc.
9. Dry rising main: A vertical pipe installed in a building for fire-fighting purposes, fitted with
inlet connections at Fire Service access level and landing valves at specified
points, which is normally dry but is capable of being charged with water, usually by pumping
rom Fire Service appliances.
10. Wet rising main: A vertical pipe installed in a building for fire-fighting purposes that is
permanently charged with water from a pressurized supply and fitted with landing valves at
specified points.
11. .Landing valve: An assembly comprising a valve and outlet connection from a wet rising
main or dry rising main.
12. Sprinkler: A device that seals an aperture in the pipe work of a sprinkler system, that
operates automatically at a predetermined temperature and discharges water in a regular pattern
over the area below it.
13. Wet system: A sprinkler system that is intended for use in locations where the ambient
temperature is always above the freezing point of water. The sprinkler pipe work is charged with
water in the operational condition.
14. Dry system: A sprinkler system that is capable of being used in any normal ambient
temperature. The sprinkler pipe work is charged with air in the operational condition.
15. Alternate system: A sprinkler system that may be used either as a wet system, where freezing
temperatures do not occur, or as a dry system in conditions where freezing temperatures may
occur, or where part of the system may be exposed to them.
16. Water spray system: A system, similar in principle to a sprinkler system, that is designed to
extinguish flammable liquid risks, or to provide cooling to an exposed. area likely to be
subjected to intense heat radiation from a neighbouring fire. Spray systems range in size from
very small to very large.
17. Deluge system / Installation: An installation fitted with open spray nozzles controlled by a
single deluge valve and operated on the actuation of automatic fire detectors so that the entire
area is sprayed with water or foam as the case may be. The installation can be controlled
manually also. This is generally used to protect large buildings against large flammable liquid
spillages, eg., Aircraft hangars, Oil processing areas, Tanker loading bays etc.
18. Engineered total flooding systems: Those piped systems fed from a centralised tank or
cylinder storage tank to give a known total rate of discharge and concentration of the gaseous
extinguishing agent within the enclosure.
19. NOTE: They require individual design and calculation to determine flow rates, total
discharge time and the nozzle locations and nozzle pressures to ensure the best arrangement to
suit the type and distribution of combustibles within the enclosure.
20. 35.Local application systems: Those systems in which the gaseous extinguishing agent is
retained in a centralized supply tank or cylinder bank, and is fed through a piped system to
nozzles located to discharge simultaneously on to specific areas of risk.
21. 36. Manual hose-reel systems: Those systems in which the gaseous extinguishing
agent is retained in a centralised supply tank or cylinder bank, and is fed through a
piped system to manual hose reels located at specific points adjacent to the main
areas of risk.
22. 44. Modular systems: Systems that comprise one or more storage units that all
discharge simultaneously through their own outlet nozzle, the pressure and flow rate
of which is predetermined. They may or may not be piped systems.
23. NOTE. If they are piped systems, the permissible pipe sizes and pipe lengths, and the
number and type of fittings and nozzles have to be specified by the manufacturer for
each unit.
HYDRANT SYSTEMS / INSTALLATIONS
Water being the main extinguishing medium, major fires has to be controlled and extinguished
by the use of water from fire fighting hoses operated by the regular fire services. This fire
fighting water is usually obtained from hydrants installed on public mains or other premises.
Hydrant Systems can be of two types:
(a)External Hydrant System, where the hydrants are installed in the open, like the city or town
water mains, or hydrant systems installed in the open areas in industrial or such other
occupancies; and (b)Internal Hydrant System, installed in buildings or structures to be protected.
The basic requirements of any hydrant systems are:
(a)Water reservoir or source of water supply (for supply of water for fire fighting purposes);
(b)Pump(s) for imparting energy to the water (for conveying water through pipe lines, and to
make water available at the required pressures for fire fighting purposes);
(c)Pipelines, which may be laid underground or above ground, for conveying water under
pressure to the required places;
(d) Hydrants (which are the outlets installed on the pipelines at strategic locations on the water
mains for drawing water, using delivery hoses, for fire fighting purposes.
External Hydrant Systems:
(a) These systems are essential and important requirements for fighting fires in cities, towns and
individual occupancies or premises. The guidelines for provision, installation, inspection and
maintenance of these systems are given in IS:13039-1991, Code of Practice for Provision, and
Maintenance of External Hydrant System.
(b) The guidelines regarding the water reservoirs and such other details for water supply are
given in IS:9668-1991, Code of Practice for Provision and Maintenance of Water Supplies for
Fire Fighting
(c) The capacity of pumps required for these systems have to be worked out based on
requirements of output and pressure for the systems. Provision has to be made for standby pumps
fed from a different source of power at the rate of 50% of total number of pumps, and subject to
a minimum of one. The static fire fighting pumps should conform to the requirements given in
IS:12469-1988, Pumps for Fire Fighting Applications
(d) Pressure requirements of systems The pressure for systems is normally designed based on
practical considerations and specific needs. A minimum residual pressure 1.5kg/cm2 (20psi)
should usually be maintained at hydrants delivering the required fire flow.
Other factors to be taken into consideration in the provision and use of external hydrant
systems:
Minimum size of mains should be not less than 150 mm;
Underground mains should be laid not less than 1m below ground level;
Above ground mains should be adequately supported at regular intervals not exceeding 3.5m;
The fire hydrant mains should always be laid in rings or loops;
Adequate number of shut-off valves (isolation valves) should be provided at strategic locations
in the system for the purpose of isolating any portion for maintenance,
repairs etc.
Fire fighting mains in industrial premises should not be utilised for any other purpose such as
process use etc.,
Normally in cities and towns, hydrants should be provided at intervals of 100m, but this can be
varied according to the risks in the area;
In case of industrial premises, the intervals for hydrants can be 30m for high hazard
occupancies, 45m for moderate hazard occupancies and 60m for light hazard occupancies.
Hydrants should be readily accessible to fire appliances and for fire fighting operations;
No portion of a protected building should be more than 45 m from an external hydrant;
For systems in cities and towns hydrant inspection should be carried out at intervals not
exceeding one month, and for industrial establishments, once every week;
Internal Hydrant Systems
These systems are generally installed for fire protection of buildings or special
structures. An internal hydrant installation comprises of the following elements:
(i) Static or terrace tank for storing water for fire fighting purposes;
(ii) Rising mains, down comer mains or external mains to feed water from the
source to the required point under pressure;
(iii) Fire fighting pump(s) with all fitments and components; and
(iv) Other necessary components like internal hydrants (also called as landing valves, external
hydrants (also called as yard hydrants), hose reels, hoses and branch pipes, in cabinets.
The main features and requirements for the internal hydrant systems are listed below:83
The capacities of the underground static water tanks/ terrace tanks vary according to
the fire risks involved in the occupancy;
Internal hydrants form part of any of the following systems-
(i) Dry-riser system,
(ii) Wet-riser system,
(iii) Wet-riser-cum
(iv) Down-comer-system
Dry riser system is not normally charged with water but could be charged either
through the fire service inlet provided at the bottom, or through an installed pump
when required, or directly from a fire appliance;
A wet riser system remains charged throughout so that by connecting delivery hoses, fire
fighting operations could be carried out immediately. Generally, hose reels are also connected to
this system alongside landing valves. The landing valves provided in the system are required to
be sited so as to ensure that no part of the building protected is more than 30m from the landing
valve. This system is normally charged by the operation of the static fire fighting pump installed
in the building. However, a fire service inlet is also provided for charging it from fire service
appliances. The fire service inlet for 100mm internal dia rising main should have a collecting
head with 2 nos. of 63mm inlets, and for 150mm rising main, should have a collecting head with
4 nos. of 63mm inlets.
heat smoke system
Designed to sense the presence of smoke.Commonly found in school, hospital, business, and
commercial occupancies with fire alarm system.Most common are ionization and photoelectric
detectors.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
All buildings of 15 m. and above in height shall be equipped with fire alarm system, and also
residential buildings (Dwelling House, Boarding House and Hostels) above 24 m. height. All
residential buildings like dwelling houses (including flats) boarding houses and hostels shall be
equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm system with one or more call boxes located
at each floor. The location of the call boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration their
floor without having to travel more than 22.5 m.
b) The call boxes shall be of the break glass type without any moving parts, where the call is
transmitted automatically to the control room without any other action on the part of the person
operating the call boxes.
c) All call boxes shall be wired in a closed circuit to a control panel in a control room, located as
per Bye-Laws so that the floor number from where the call box is actuated is clearly indicated on
the control panel. The circuit shall also include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours
normal working at full load. The battery shall be arranged to be a continuously trickle charged
from the electric mains.
d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders so as to ensure that all
occupants of the floor shall be warned whenever any call box Is actuated.
e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the exit ways and yet their
location can easily be noticed from either direction. The base of the call box shall be at a height
of 1.5 m. from the floor level.
f) All buildings other than as indicated above shall, in addition to the manually operated
electrical fire alarm system, be equipped with an automatic fire alarm system.
g) Automatic detection system shall be installed in accordance with the relevant standard
specifications. In buildings where automatic sprinkler system is provided, the automatic
detection system may not be insisted upon unless decided otherwise by the Chief Fire Officer.
Note: Several type of fire detectors are available in the market but the application of each type
is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the type of risk and the
structural
features of the building where they are to be installed.
Audible Devices
•Bells: Used if they are only for fire, or have a distinctive sound from other bell signaling
evices. Often used as an external gong to indicate the flow of water in the sprinkler system.
•Horns: Loud and distinctive output. Often used in high-noise environments, such as
manufacturing plants.
Sounders: Electronic or mechanical audible devices, which are capable of producing a variety of
tones. Often, the tone is selectable during installation of the device.

Chimes: Soft-toned appliances used where loud noises could be disruptive to other operations.
Generally used where qualified personnel are continuously in attendance.

Sirens: Extremely loud devices generally limited in use to outdoor or heavy industrial areas.

Speakers: Audible devices used in conjunction with voice evacuation messages. Life-Safety
speakers are not generally associated with Muzak systems.
Visual signaling appliances are used in high-noise environments, in areas occupied by hearing-
impaired individuals, or in areas where audible devices may not be desired .
The Fire Alarm Systems Conventional “Hard Wired” System

•Simplest type of control unit.

•Generally, a single circuit board contains power supply, control, initiating and notification
circuitry.

•Some models use auxiliary circuit boards to perform special functions.

•Input/output devices connect to dedicated circuits.

•Designated outputs occur when initiating signals are received.

•Limited special functions and capabilities.


UNIT IV : FIRE SAFETY : DESIGN AND GENERAL GUIDELINES OF EGRESS
DESIGN – FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE FIGHTING AND INSTALLATION

2 Marks

1.What is the principle of fire behavior?

Transmission of Heat
Heat is transferred from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature. This
transmission or transfer of heat is achieved through three methods. (i) Conduction, (ii)
Convection, (iii) Radiation.

2. List Down the Sources of ignition in building fires? (AU NOV 2013) (AU MAY 2015)
1)Electrical Wiring faults
2)LPG gas leakage
3. What are the Sprinklers? (AU NOV 2013)
sprinklers are devices for a distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantity to extinguish it
completely or to prevent its spread, by keeping the fire under control, by the water discharged
from the sprinklers. The water for fire fighting is fed to the sprinklers through a system
piping, normally suspended from the ceiling, with the sprinklers installed at intervals along the
pipes. The orifice of the sprinkler head, incorporating the fusible link or fusible bulb of the
automatic sprinkler, is normally kept closed, which is thrown open on the actuation of the
temperature sensitive fusible link or fusible bulb. Other Wise,
A system of water pipes fitted with sprinkler heads at suitable intervals and heights
and designed to control and extinguish a fire by the discharge of water for fire safety in
buildings
4. Classify the buildings based on occupancy? (AU NOV 2013)
Group A Residential
Group B Educational
Group C Institutional
Group D Assembly
Group E Business
Group F Mercantile
Group G Industrial
Group H Storage
Group J Hazardous
5.Brief about fire alarm Systems? (AU NOV 2013)
All buildings of 15 m. and above in height shall be equipped with fire alarm system, and also
residential buildings (Dwelling House, Boarding House and Hostels) above 24 m. height. All
residential buildings like dwelling houses (including flats) boarding houses and hostels shall be
equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm system with one or more call boxes located
at each floor. The location of the call boxes shall be decided after taking into consideration their
floor without having to travel more than 22.5 m.
6. Write Short notes on halon system of fire Protection? (AU NOV 2013)
In India Halon 1211 extinguishers are still available although they are- getting phased out;
The standard capacities of these extinguishers are 1.25 kg, 2.5 kg, 4 kg, 5 kg & 6.5 kg;
They are quite effective on fires in electrical / electronic equipment;
They are getting replaced gradually by other extinguishers containing Halon alternatives.
Soda Acid & Chemical Foam Extinguishers have already been phased out, and there IS
withdrawn.
7. Maximum TRAVEL DISTANCE? (AU May 2014)
The distance to be travelled from any point in a building to a protected escape route,
external escape route or final exit.
8.What is MEANS OF EGRESS?
A continuous and unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building or structure
to a place of comparative safety
9. What is DRY RISER?
An arrangement of fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains
not less than 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor landing
which is normally dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping
from fire service appliances.
10. What is WET RISER?
An arrangement for fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising
Mains not less than 100 mm nominal diameter with landing valves on each floor
landing for fire fighting purposes and permanently charged with water from a
pressurized supply
11. What is SNORKEL LADDER (AU May 2014)
Uses basket with articulating booms. Capable of placing bucket into hard to reach
places during fire. Also known as snorkel ladder. They basically seen in fire engines
for reuse the victims.
16 Marks
1. What is a fire Extingusher? What is the role of fire Extinguisher in fire fighting Systems?
(AU NOV 2013)
2. Discuss about the various types of Fire Extingushers. (AU NOV 2013) (AU May2013)
3. Discuss in Detail about the various detectors. (AU NOV 2013)
4. Elaborate about Fire Alarm Systems. (AU NOV 2013)
5. Discuss in Detail about the fire safety consideration and NBC Planning principles to be
followed in a shopping Complex. (AU NOV 2013)
6. Explain in detail about Sprinkler System. (AU May 2014)
7. Explain in Detail about Fire Alarm System? (AU May 2014)
8. Explain in Detail about Fire Protection System? (AU May 2014)