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Anda di halaman 1dari 119

El-Zoughiby, 2015

Associate Professor, Structural Engrg. Dept.,

Director of SREC Center,

Faculty of Engineering,

Mansoura University,

Mansoura, Egypt.

m_elzoughiby@yahoo.com

2015

1

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 7: "REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS"

CHAPTER 8: "WALLS AND SHEAR WALLS"

CHAPTER 9: "WORKING-STRESS DESIGN METHOD"

EXAMS

Exam_2011

Exam_2012

Exam_2013

Exam_2014

ASSIGNMENTS

Assignment_1

Assignment_2

2

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 6

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

Structural Plan:

0.125 5.0 2.0

a b

5.0

c d e

5.0 mm b=250mm

180

f 250×500mm g h

0.125

Structural Plan

Beam Type:

0.125 5.0

0.125

1.Simple

t=500mm

2.Continuous (2spans or more)

5.0 5.0 0.125

0.125

3.Beam w/ cantilever

5.0 2.0

0.125

5.0 2.0

0.125

Y = the greatest of:

t

0.50t

φ tb

φ ≤ 1:3

3

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

3

5.0 1.875

0.125 0.125

1 a b 1

5.0 2.0

5.0

Sec. 1-1

c d e

2 2

5.0 2.0

5.0 mm

180

Sec. 2-2

f 250×500mm g h

0.125

3

5.0 5.0

Sec. 3-3

5.0 x Mu

x Sec. x-x

Beam a-b Mu=WuL2/8

L=???=Leff

1 2 3

Beam f-c-a

1 2 3

5.0 5.0

Mu1-1 Mu3-3

Mu2-2

4

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. Simple

Lc/c = 5.0m

Leff

t = 0.5m

Ln = 4.75m

Mu = Wu(Leff)2/8

Leff = the lealest of:

2. Continuous 1.05Ln

Ln+t

5.0 5.0

Lc/c

Monolithic Bearing

action Wall

1.05Ln Ln+t

Lc/c Lc/c

3. Beam w/ cantilever

5.0 Lc/c = 2m

Ln=1.875m

Ln+t

Lc/c

Load Path:

Slab

thick.

Slab Slab

ts

1m×1m

Beam

(If any)

Plan view

Column

Beam

Beam

Column 3D view

5

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Loads:

Dead Loads: DL (Self-weight + Super-imposed dead loads)

Live Loads: LL (as per the Egyptian Code for loads)

Slab Loads:

LL ﺑﻼط thick.

رﻣﻞ Slab

ts

Loads

ﻣﻮﻧﺔ

ts

ﻋﺎزل RC slab

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 1.0m×1.0m×0.18m×25kN/m3+ 1.50 kN/m2 (given) = 4.50+1.50 = 6.0kN/m2

LL = 2.0kN/m2 (given; refer to the Egyptian Code for Loads)

Beam Loads:

Overlap

Slab S1 Slab S2 Slab S1 Slab S2

t-ts t

Wall

1.0m

t = 500mm

Width

Height

Beam

B = 250mm 1.0m

Block wall = width×height×1.0m×block wall density = ? kN/m

6

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #1:

Finish = 1.5kN/m2

LL = 2.50kN/m2

1m

200×500mm 2m

1m

1m

1m 1m

mm

1m 140 4m 6m

2m

200×200mm 1m

6m 2m

1m

Str. plan 1m

6m

Slab Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 1.0×1.0×0.14×25 + 1.50 = 3.50+1.50 = 5.0 kN/m2

LL = 2.50 kN/m2

Beam Loads:

Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50 kN/m

DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 2.50 + 5.0×2.0 = 12.50 kN/m

LL = LL from slab = 2.50×2.0 = 5.0 kN/m

WU = WUD + WUL = 1.40 WD + 1.60 WL = 1.40×12.50 + 1.60× 5.0 = 25.50 kN/m

Leff = the least of: 1.05Ln = 6.10m or Ln + t = 6.3m or Lc/c = 6.0m

Leff = 6.0m

Wu=25.50kN/m

6m

Mu=114.75kN-m

Qu=67.50kN

7

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. Solid Slab:

L

φ φ/2

Axis of

rotation

Axis of

rotation

Axis of

rotation

L L

L L

Axis of

rotation

0.5L 0.5L

0.5L

0.5L

8

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

3. Exercise:

L 2L

L L

L L L

L L L

L = a

x

2x = b

45o

x L – 2x x

If r ≤ 2.0 (Two-way Action)

If r > 2.0 (One-Way Action)

L

2x

L L

2x 2x

9

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

5.0 5.0

Finish = 1.5kN/m2

a b c LL = 2.0kN/m2

mm

160

6.0 200×600mm

a b 200×500mm c

5.0 5.0

2.50

6.0

2.50

Slab Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 0.16×25+ 1.50 = 4.0+1.50 = 5.50 kN/m2

LL = 2.0 kN/m2

Beam loads:

Beam a-a (simple):

Self-weight = 0.20×0.60×1.0×25 = 3.0 kN/m

DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 3.0 kN/m + 5.50×2.50 = 3 kN/m + 13.75 kN/m

LL = LL from slab = 2.0×2.50 = 5.0 kN/m

WU = 1.40×3 + 1.40×13.75 + 1.60× 5.0 = 4.20 kN/m + 27.25kN/m

Here, r = 6/5 = 1.20. From Table: αb = 0.769 and βb = 0.582.

( ﻟﻠﻛﻣرات ﻟﺗﻘدﯾر اﻷﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﻣﻧﺗظﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺋﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻣﺎل اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻔروﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻛﻣراتαb and βb) ﺟدول اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت

αb 2/3 -- 0.769 -- -- -- -- -- 0.917

βb 1/2 -- 0.582 -- -- -- -- --

Loads for Moment

WU = 4.20 + α×27.25 = 4.20 + 0.769×27.25 = 25.20kN/m

Loads for Shear

WU = 4.20 + β ×27.25 = 4.20 + 0.582×27.25 = 20.0kN/m

10

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

4.20kN/m 4.20kN/m

27.25kN/m 27.25kN/m

Moment Shear

Wu=25.20kN/m Wu=20.0kN/m

6m 6m

Assume Leff = Lc/c Assume Leff = Lc/c

Mu = 113.40kN-m Qu = 60.0kN

Beam a-b-c (Continuous):

Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50 kN/m

DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 2.50 + 5.50×2.50 = 2.50kN/m + 13.75 kN/m

LL = LL from slab = 2.0×2.50 = 5.0 kN/m

WU = 1.40×2.50 + 1.40×13.75 + 1.60× 5.0 = 3.50kN/m + 27.25 kN/m

For the triangle: αb = 2/3 and βb = 1/2.

Loads for Moment

WU = 3.50 + αb × 27.25 = 3.50 + (2/3) × 27.25 = 21.67kN/m

Loads for Shear

WU = 3.50 + βb ×27.25 = 3.50 + (1/2) × 27.25 = 17.13kN/m

3.50kN/m 3.50kN/m

27.25kN/m 27.25kN/m

Moment Shear

Wu=21.67kN/m Wu=17.13kN/m

5m 5m 5m 5m

Symm.

11

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Maximum Positive and Negative Moments:

WuL

WuD Case 1

WuL

WuD

Case 2

WuL

WuD

Case 3

Absolute BMD

2 1

3

Maximum Shear:

WuL

WuD

Case 1

WuL

WuD

Case 2

Absolute SFD

1

2

Deflected Shape:

WuL WuL WuL

WuD

Max. +ve

WuL WuL

WuD

Max. -ve

12

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Egyptian Code:

24 9 24 8

11 11 8

0.40

0.60

0.60

0.40

Fixed

P P

Strut Tie

P P

Rebar = Reinforcing bars

Reinf’t = Reinforcement

Add’l = Additional

Pin-Ended = Hinged

Restrained = Fixed (Totally) or Partially Fixed

13

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 7

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

What is a Column?

Pu

Column:

• Vertical member

• Usually under x x

compression

Pu Sec. x-x

Is it Column or Wall?

Column:

t b Wall:

H > 5b t

b >120mm

and

and

t ≤ 5b

t > 5b

Story b1t1 b

Height Weak

= H H axis

Strong

B2t2 axis

Is it Short or Long?

Pu

Pu

Madd = Pu×δ

Pu

Pu

Member stability (P-δ Effect)

14

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Is it Braced or Unbraced?

∆ ∆

Pu

Wall ∆

∆ ≅ 0.0

Braced UnBraced Pu

Msway = Pu×∆

Structure stability (P-∆ Effect)

`

• Short (No Buckling, Madd = 0)

• Braced (No Sway, Msway = 0)

i. Tied Columns

ii. Spiral Columns

Pu cover

e = 0

Mu = 0 Sv Pitch

hz. “p”

vert. tie

Is it

bar Which

Axis Possible? Tied Spiral

is

Column column

Preferred?

Mu e

Pu

Pu Mu comes from:

1. Loads,

2. Buckling,

3. Sway,

4. Etc…

Axis Mu = Pu × e

15

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7.3 DESIGN

i. Short-Braced-Axially Loaded Tied Columns

a. Short,

b. Braced,

c. Axially loaded, and

d. Tied columns?

Pext. = Pint.

Pu = Pconcrete + Psteel

= (0.67fcu/γc)Ac + As fy/γs = (0.67fcu/1.5) Ac + As fy/1.15

= 0.45fcuAc+ 0.87As fy

Pu

Steel

Concrete Axis of

symmetry

fy

γs 0.67fcu

γc

But due to:

Misalignment of columns, uneven compaction, misalignment of

reinforcement, etc., minimum eccentricity (emin) to be considered.

e min 0.05b

b

Mu,min = Pu × emin Pu

emin = ()اﻷﻛﺑر ﻣن t

0.05b or 0.05t

and

20mm 0.05t

= 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy

16

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu

Pu,theoret.

(Mu,min,Pu,max) 3 Unknowns:

Axially

Loaded (b, t, and As)

Ac=b×t

1 Equation:

Pu,max = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy

Mu

7.4 REINFORCEMENT

Vertical Reinforcement (Rebar, Reinforcing Bars):

As,min = 0.80% Ac,req.

But not less than 0.60% Ac,act.

As,max = 4% Ac Interior columns

= 5% Ac Edge columns

= 6% Ac Corner columns

Min.

4φ12 Corner

column

Not less

250mm Edge

than 200mm column

300mm

Interior

column

A Tie (or stirrup) is generally under tension.

Sv,max = 15Φ (min. bar diameter of vert. bars) and

But not greater than 200mm

φmin = 0.25Φmax (max. bar diameter of vert. bars)

But not less than 8mm

Tie or

stirrup

Sv,max φmin

Tie

Cross-tie !!

17

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #1:

4.0m

Finish=1.5kN/m2

LL=2.0kN/m2

4.0m mm

140 200×500m

2.0m

Number of

B1

Stories

= 5

Slab Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 0.14×25+ 1.50 = 3.50+1.50 = 5.0kN/m2

LL = 2.0kN/m2

Beam loads:

Beam B1 (simple):

Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50kN/m

r = 4/4=1.0 (βb = ½)

Loads for shear:

WUD = 1.40[2.5+2×5× ½] = 10.5kN/m

WUL = 1.60[2×2× ½] = 3.2kN/m

WU = 10.5+3.2 = 13.7kN/m

RU = 13.7×4/2 = 27.4kN (each column has two reactions)

PU = 5×27.4×2×1.1 = 602.8kN (no. of stories n = 5 and 1.10 for column weight)

Wu=13.70kN/m

4m Ru=27.40kN

Example #2:

For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) square column,

it is required to:

1. Calculate Pu,max.

2. Check vertical reinforcement.

3. Check stirrups.

fy = 400MPa

300mm Str.φ10-200mm fcu = 25MPa

As = 4Φ25

300mm = 1964mm2

Pu,max:

Pu,max = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy = 0.35×300×300×25+ 0.67×1964×400

= 1313850N = 1313.850kN

18

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Vertical reinforcement:

𝐴𝑠 1964

𝜇= = × 100 = 2.2%

𝐴𝑐 300 × 300

where µ is the reinforcement ratio.

Here, µ is greater than µmin and less than µmax, Okay.

Stirrups:

φmin = 0.25Φmax = 0.25×25 = 6.25mm

But not less than 8mm

φmin = 8mm which is less than 10mm (given), Okay.

But not greater than 200mm

Sv,max = 200mm which is equal to 200mm (given), Okay.

0.25 0.25

Vol. of stirrups = Vol. of concrete = × 300 × 300 × 1000

100 100

2

0.25 𝜋𝜙𝑠𝑡𝑟 𝜋102

× 300 × 300 × 1000 = 𝑛 ×𝐿 =𝑛 (4 × 250)

100 4 4

n = 2.86 ≅ 3.0 which is less than 5 (Okay).

250

300mm 250

n

str./m 250 1.0m

250

1.0m

L = perimeter of stirrup

= 4(250)= 1000mm n str./m

Example #3:

For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) rectangle column,

it is required to calculate t , As, and stirrups.

fy = 240MPa

300mm fcu = 28MPa

Pu = 1900kN

t = ? b = 300mm

t = ?

t and As:

Here, at first, assume µ = 1.0%. Therefore, As = 0.01 Ac.

Pu,max = 1900×1000N

= 0.35×(300×t)×28+ 0.67×(0.01×300×t)×240

treq. = 555mm and tact. = 600mm (nearest to 50mm). Try 300×600mm

As = 0.01×300×600 = 1800mm2 (use 4φ16+4φ18)

19

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Stirrups (Ties):

φmin = 0.25φmax = 0.25×18 = 4.50mm

But not less than 8mm

φmin = 8mm

𝜋82 0.25

𝑛 (2500) = × 300 × 600 × 1000

4 100

n = 3.60 ≅ 4.0. This means φ8-250mm. That is, Sv = 250mm.

Check Sv with Sv,max as follows:

Sv,max = 15φ = 15×16 = 240mm

But not greater than 200mm

Sv,max = 200mm

As this the case, use φ8-200mm.

550

600mm

250 250

300mm 250

200

L = perimeter of stirrup

= 2(550+250)+2(250+200)

= 2500mm

t

b

≤ 250

If X2 X1

b=300mm

b>300mm ≤ 250 or less

add

Laterally supported

bars

To be checked:

New If x1 and x2 ≤ 150mm

bars 130

Bar to be laterally supported:

If x1 and/or x2 ≤ 150mm

300

t

Example 700 Exercis

b

Square

130 130 Column

1. b = t = 400mm

2. b = t = 600mm

20

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

e. Short,

f. Braced,

g. Axially loaded, and

h. Spiral columns?

Pu cover Spiral

Mu,min =

Pu×emin Pitch P =

(30-80mm) DC

Spiral

DK

DK

Min.

Dc ≥ 200mm Out-to-out

6φ12 of spiral

𝜋𝐷𝐶2 2

𝜋𝐷𝐾

𝐴𝐶 = and 𝐴𝐾 =

4 4

vol. of spiral reinforcement 𝐴𝑠𝑝 (𝜋𝐷𝐾 ) 𝐴𝑠𝑝 (𝜋𝐷𝐾 ) 4𝐴𝑠𝑝

𝜇𝑠𝑝 = = = 𝜋𝐷2

=

vol. of concrete for one pitch 𝐴𝐾 ×𝑝 𝐾 ×𝑝 𝐷𝐾 ×𝑝

4

𝐴𝑠𝑝 𝜋𝐷𝐾

𝑉𝑠𝑝 = vol. of spirals per pitch =( )

𝑝

Vertical Reinforcement: Horizontal Reinforcement:

Rebar (Reinforcing Bars) Spirals

As,min = the greater of: ∅𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑠𝑝 = 8mm

1.0% AC p = (30-80mm)

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴 𝑓

1.20% AK 𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � 𝐶 − 1� 𝑐𝑢

𝐴𝐾 𝑓𝑦𝑝

Where 𝑓𝑦𝑝 = Yield strength for hz. Reinforcement and

𝑓𝑦 = Yield strength for vert. reinforcement

end

3×0.5p

100mm and

10φsp

3×0.5p

start L

21

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

P Pu

Tied ∆

Spiral

At Point B

DK

shell spalls DC

out

P AC AK C,Pu2

B,Pu1

A

Spiral

Pu1= Brittle

1.14Pu,tied faiure

∆

For design purposes:

Tied column, Point A:

𝑃𝑢𝑇𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦

Spiral column, Points B and C:

𝑃𝑢1 = 1.14𝑃𝑢𝑇𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 0.40𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.76𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦

𝑃𝑢2 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 + 1.38𝑉𝑠𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝

Pu1 Pu2

Pu1 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜇𝑠𝑝 < 𝜇𝑠𝑝 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 𝜇𝑠𝑝

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝐴𝐶 𝑓𝑐𝑢

𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � − 1�

𝐴𝐾 𝑓𝑦𝑝

∆ ∆

P Pu2

Pu1

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜇𝑠𝑝 > 𝜇𝑠𝑝

22

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #4:

For the shown short-braced axially loaded spiral column,

it is required to calculate As and Asp.

fy = 240MPa

300mm fcu = 20MPa

DC = 300mm

Pu = 900kN

Rebar, As:

Pu1 = 900×1000 = 0.40×(π×3002/4)×20+ 0.76×As×240

As = 1834mm2, use 8φ18 (2034mm2)

Spirals, Asp:

DK = 300 - 2×20 = 260mm

AK = 53114mm2

Pu2 = 900×1000 = 0.35×(53114)×20+ 0.67×2034×240+1.38× Vsp×240

Vsp = 607mm2 = Asp πDK/p (1)

𝜋∅2𝑠𝑝

Knowing that 𝐴𝑠𝑝 =

4

And assuming φsp = 8mm, therefore, Asp = 50mm2

Substituting into Eq. 1

Pitch p = 67mm, use p = 60mm

𝑚𝑖𝑛 70714 20 4×50

𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � − 1� × 100 = 1% is less than 𝜇𝑠𝑝 = × 100 = 1.28% (Okay.

53114 240 260×60

Exercise #1:

For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) square column,

it is required to calculate As and stirrups.

square fy = 240MPa

550mm fcu = 20MPa

Pu = 200kN

Exercise #2:

For the shown short-braced axially loaded spiral column,

it is required to calculate Pu, check the vertical reinforcement and stirrups.

p = 50mm

fy = 240MPa

fcu = 20MPa DC =400mm φsp = 8mm

Pu = ?kN As = 8φ16

DK =330mm

23

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Case B: Combined Axial Load and Bending

e

Mu

Pu Pu

Mu comes from:

Mu a. Loads,

e = b. Buckling,

Pu

c. Sway,

d. emin

e. Etc…

Axis

Braced means no side-sway and, therefore, Msway = 0

Axially loaded means no eccentricity but, however, minimum eccentricity emin

to be considered. Thus, Mu,min = Pu × emin.

1. Gravity Loads

- Dead Load

- Live Load

2. Lateral Loads

- Wind Loads

- Earthquake Loads

DL+LL

Wind or

Quake

Loads Girder Moments Moments

(Beam) due to due to

Gravity Lateral

Column Loads Loads

If :

• Mu ≤ Mu,min

Use Pu = 0.35 Ac fcu + 0.67 As fy

• Mu > Mu,min

Use Interaction-Diagrams IDs.

24

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Interaction-Diagrams

Pu

Mu1

(Mu1,Pu1)

Pu1

Pu1

ρ=8

7

6

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

Mu µ=As/Ac

Mu1

(As)total = µ × b × t

µ = ρ × fcu × 10-4

Pu

(Mu1,Pu1)

Pu1

Four

ρ = ? Faces

Mu

Mu1

Rebar in Two Faces

𝐴′𝑠

As an example, for = 1.0

𝐴𝑠

From the Interaction Diagram, get ρ. Then, µ = ρ × fcu × 10-4 and 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡.

Pu

(Mu1,Pu1)

Two

Pu1

Faces

ρ = ?

𝐴′𝑠

= 1.00

𝐴𝑠

= 0.90

Mu = 0.80

Mu1

25

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. Concrete and reinforcement yield strengths, fcu and fy.

2. The dimensions b and t.

𝐴′𝑠

3. The ratio 𝛼 (where 𝛼 = )

𝐴𝑠

4. The parameter ζ where 𝜉 = =

𝑡 𝑡

For example, if t = 400mm, c = 25mm (to be assumed), φst = 8mm, and φ = 20mm. Then,

𝑡 − 2(𝑐 + 𝜙𝑠𝑡 + 0.5𝜙) 400 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)

𝜉= = = 0.875

𝑡 400

d’ Cover c

Pu

φst

t=400m ζt φ/2

d” ζ=0.90

=0.80

Mu =0.70

Pu Slope = P = 1

e

M 0.003

Balanced

(0,Pu,theo)

(Mu,min,Pu,max) Failure

Comp.

Column εy

Pu,max Tension

(Mub,Pub)

Mu

(Mu,0)

Mu,min Beam

Pu,max = 0.80 Pu,theo = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy

Mu,min = Pu,max × emin

26

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu

fcubt

Dimensionless A t

B

fy ρ = ?

fcu b

b,t

ζ C

Mu

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

As=µbt D fcubt2

Pu

fcubt Mu1

t

Pu Pu

t b Mu2

b

Mu

fcubt2

Show how you could set-up the ID for the shown section?

Mu

d’ b = 250mm

As’ t = 600mm

fcu = 25MPa

Pu

d d-d’ fy = 240MPa

t ζt

As = As of 3φ20 = 942.85mm2

As As’ = As’of 3φ20 = 942.85mm2

d” α = As’/As = 1.0

ζ = d-d’ b As = µ×b×t

t

d’ = d” = 50mm

Plastic Centroid: It is the location of the resultant axial force produced by the steel and the

concrete when 𝑓𝑐 = 0.67𝑓𝑐𝑢 and 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 .

27

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

As’ fy Fs2

t Fc

ypc

As fy

X X Fs1

b

0.67fcu

𝐹𝑐 = 0.67𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝐴𝑐 = 0.67 × 25 × 250 × 600 = 2512.5kN at 300mm from X-X

𝐹𝑠1 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 = 942.85 × 240 = 226.285kN

𝐹𝑠2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 = 942.85 × 240 = 226.285kN

2512.5 × 300 + 226.285 × 550 + 226.285 × 50

𝑦𝑝𝑐 = = 300mm (symm. sec.)

2512.5 + 226.285 + 226.285

Point A:

𝑃𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜. = 0.45 × 250 × 600 × 25 + 0.87 × 942.85 × 240 = 1884.37kN

𝑀𝑢 = 0.0kN-m

Point A (0.0kN-m, 1884.37kN)

Point B:

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.35 × 250 × 600 × 25 + 0.67 × 942.85 × 240 = 1464.11kN

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 × 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.05𝑡 = 30mm which is greater than 20mm

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1464.11 × 0.03 =43.90kN-m

Point B (43.90kN-m, 1464.11kN)

Point C:

𝑐𝑏 0.003 0.003 0.003

= = = = 0.7143mm

𝑑 0.003 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑓𝑦 240

0.003 + 0.003 +

𝐸𝑠 200000

𝑑 = 550mm

𝑐𝑏 = 392.85mm

𝑎𝑏 = 0.80𝑐𝑏 = 314.285mm

𝑓𝑐𝑢 25

𝐶𝑐 = 0.67 𝑏𝑎𝑏 = 0.67 × 250 × 314.285 = 877.37kN

𝛾𝑐 1.5

assume 𝜖𝑠′ > 𝜖𝑦 which means that 𝑓𝑠′ = 𝑓𝑦

𝑓′

′ 𝑠

𝑓𝑦 240

𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN

𝛾𝑠 𝛾𝑠 1.15

28

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑦 240

𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN

𝛾𝑠 1.15

𝑃𝑢𝑏 = 𝐶𝑐 + 𝐶𝑠 − 𝑇 = 877.37 + 196.77 − 196.77 = 877.37kN

Taking the moment about the plastic centroid gives:

𝑀𝑢𝑏 = 𝐶𝑐 �𝑡 − 𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 0.50𝑎� + 𝐶𝑠 �𝑡 − 𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 𝑑 ′ � + 𝑇�𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 𝑑 " �

𝑀𝑢𝑏 = 877.37(600 − 300 − 0.50 × 314.285) + 196.77(600 − 300 − 50)

+ 196.77(300 − 50) = 223.72kN-m

Point C (223.72kN-m, 877.37kN)

0.003

εs’

As’ Cs

cb ab Cc

t NA

As εs=εy T

b

Point D:

Here, 𝑒 > 𝑒𝑏 which means that 𝜖𝑠 > 𝜖𝑦 and, thus, 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦

50

𝑓𝑠′ = 600[1 − ]

𝑐

25

𝐶𝑐 = 0.67 × 250 × 0.80𝑐 = 2.23𝑐kN

1.5

𝑓′

′ 𝑠

600 50 50

𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 [1 − ] = 492[1 − ]kN

𝛾𝑠 1.15 𝑐 𝑐

𝑓𝑦 240

𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN

𝛾𝑠 1.15

𝑇 = 𝐶𝑐 + 𝐶𝑠

50

196.77 = 2.23𝑐 + 492[1 − ]

𝑐

𝑐 = 58mm

𝑎 = 0.80𝑐 = 46.4mm

𝑓𝑠′ = 82.75N/mm2

𝑀𝑢 = 𝐶𝑐 (𝑑 − 0.50𝑎) + 𝐶𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )

𝑀𝑢 = 129.34(550 − 0.50 × 46.4) + 67.85(550 − 50) = 102.10kN-m

Point D (102.10kN-m, 0.0kN)

29

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu e=emin

fcubt 0.003

εs<εy

A(0,Pu,theo) Compression

B(Mu,min,Pu,max) 0.003

εs=εy

e=eb

Balanced

Slope=[1/(e/t)]

C(Mub,Pub) 0.003

εs>εy

Mu

D(Mu,0) Tension

fcubt2

Reinf’t to be Checked

Given: Pu

b and t (or Ac) fcubt

As = µ×b×t

t

Pu1 and Mu1

fcu and fy C

OD

Utilization = Pu1 b

Factor U.F. OC D

UF < 1.0

UF = 1.0 Mu

UF > 1.0 O Mu1 fcubt2

Reinf’t to be Designed

Pu

Given:

fcubt

b and t (or Ac)

t

ρmax

As = ????

Pu1 and Mu1

fcu and fy

ρ b

Pu1

From ID Diagram:

Get ρ ρmin

µ = ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu

As = µbt fcubt2

Mu1

30

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Column Type:

e=0.10t

Pu Four faces:

fcubt

e=0.20t

Two faces:

(farthest

from the

axis of

bending)

Mu

fcubt2

As a first trial, use the following equation to estimate the column size.

𝐴𝑠

𝑃𝑢 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67 𝑓𝑦 )

𝐴𝑐

𝑃𝑢 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝜇𝑓𝑦 )

Which gives:

𝑃𝑢

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥

1 2

𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 𝜇𝑓𝑦

3 3

Why???

31

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #5:

It is required to design the shown short-braced (tied) square column. Given:

fy = 400MPa

fcu = 20MPa

b=?

Pu = 1600kN

Mu = 150kN-m

Ac = ?

t=? AS = ?

Column Size:

Here, at first, assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,

1600 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ or 150000mm2 or 387mm square

1 2 1.5

× 20 + × × 400

3 3 100

Use 400×400mm

𝑀𝑢 150 × 1000

𝑒= = = 93.75mm

𝑃𝑢 1600

𝑒 93.75

= = 0.234 which is greater than 0.20

𝑡 400

Bars in Two Faces.

400 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 25)

𝜉= = 0.7725 ≅ 0.80

400

𝑃𝑢 1600 × 1000

= = 0.50

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 400 × 400

𝑀𝑢 150 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.1172

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 400 × 4002

fy=400MPa Pu

fcu=20MPa fcubt 400mm

α=1.0

ζ=0.80 ρ=6.0

0.50 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

Mu

As=µbt and As’=αAs fcubt2

0.1172

32

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 6 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.2%

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.012 × 400 × 400 = 1920mm2

𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 = 1.0 × 1920 = 1920mm2

Use 4Φ25

4Φ25

400mm

4Φ25

400mm

From the ID, you will get:

𝜌 = 14.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.028 = 2.80%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.028 × 400 × 400 = 4480mm2

Use 12Φ22

Pu

fy=400MPa

fcubt 12Φ22

fcu=20MPa 400mm

ζ=0.80

ρ=14.0

0.50 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu

As=µbt fcubt2

0.1172

Exercise:

Show how you could set-up the ID for the shown section?

4Φ25

400mm fy = 360MPa

fcu = 30MPa

4Φ25

400mm

33

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

∆ ∆

Shear

Wall

δ δ

∆ ≅ 0.0

Braced UnBraced

Is it Braced or UnBraced?

A building can be considered Braced in one direction if:

1. It is provided with structural walls (shear walls and core-walls) extended to the full

height of the building and connected to the foundation and the following equations are

met:

For buildings that consist of 4 floors or more:

𝑁

𝛼 = 𝐻𝑏 � < 0.60

∑ 𝐸𝐼

For buildings that consist of less than 4 floors:

𝑁

𝛼 = 𝐻𝑏 � < 0.20 + 0.10𝑛

∑ 𝐸𝐼

Hb = Total height of building above the foundation level

N = Total unfactored (working) loads carried by all vertical elements

ΣEI = Summation of the flexural rigidities of the walls sharing in supporting the

building

n = Number of building floors

Exercise #1:

A structural plan for a 15 story residential building is shown below. The following

data are given:

Thickness of flat plate of all floors = 350mm

The floor cover = 1.50kN/m2

The equivalent wall loads = 3.50kN/m2

The live load = 3.0kN/m2

The height of the ground floor = 5m

Typical floor height = 3m

Assume Ec = 25000N/mm2

It is required to check the bracing condition of the building in both directions.

34

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8.0m 8.0m

2.0m

1.0×1.0m

8.0m

3.0m 3.0m

2.0m

4.0m

8.0m 8.0m

Stairs

4.0m well

0.40m

Lifts

well

Is it Short or Long?

𝐻𝑒

𝜆𝑏 =

𝑏

𝐻𝑒 = Effective (buckling length) = 𝑘𝐻𝑜

K depends on:

Column is Braced or UnBraced

Column’s End Conditions (Fixed, Partially Fixed, Hinged, Free)

H = story Ho = Hu

height Unsupported

length

X X

35

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

∆ ∆

Shear

Wall

δ Ho He = Ho

K = 1.0 Ho

He = Ho

Braced K = 1.0

He

UnBraced

0.5Ho Shear

Wall

δ

Ho He = 0.50Ho

Inflection

K = 0.50

point IP

Braced

Column Status 𝐻𝑒 � 𝐻𝑒 �𝐷 𝐻𝑒�

𝜆𝑏 or 𝜆𝑡 = 𝑏 or 𝑡 𝜆𝐷 = 𝜆𝑖 = 𝑖

Braced 15 12 50

UnBraced 10 8 35

Column Status 𝜆𝑏 or 𝜆𝑡 𝜆𝐷 𝜆𝑖

Braced 30 25 100

UnBraced 23 18 70

If 𝜆(Table 6-7) < 𝜆𝑏 ≤ 𝜆(Table 6-8) → Slender Column

If 𝜆𝑏 > 𝜆(Table 6-8) → Change Column Dimensions

t = larger dimension of the section

D = diameter of the section

i = radius of gyration = �𝐼�𝐴

36

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

K depends on:

Column is Braced or UnBraced

Column’s End Conditions (Fixed, Partially Fixed, Hinged, Free)

tb or ts

Fixed = case 1

tc ≤ tb or ts Fixed = case 2

tb or ts Hinged = case 3

tc Case 2: Case 4:

Free = case 4

tc > tb or ts

Table 6-9 The Factor K for Braced Columns

Top End Bottom End Condition

Condition 1 2 3

1 0.75 0.80 0.90

2 0.80 0.85 0.95

3 0.90 0.95 1.0

Top End Bottom End Condition

Condition 1 2 3

1 1.20 1.30 1.60

2 1.30 1.50 1.80

3 1.60 1.80 ---

4 2.20 --- ---

t b

t b

b

Story Weak

b Height axis

He H

t

t t

He He

Beam

b Strong

He axis

Column

37

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Additional Moments:

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏

δ=

2000

Example #8:

It is required to design the shown braced square column,

fy = 240MPa

fcu = 20MPa

b=? Square Pu = 2000kN

Pin-ended

Ho = He = 8m

b=? AS = ?

Pu Pu

δ Madd = Pu×δ

Pu Pu

Column Size:

Here, at first, assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,

2000 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ or 220588mm2 or 470mm square

1 2 1.5

× 20 + × × 240

3 3 100

Try (for example) 500×500mm. However, let us start with 400×400mm.

𝑏 = 𝑡=400mm

𝐻𝑒 8.0

𝜆𝑏 = =

𝑏 0.40

= 20 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.40

δ= = = 0.08m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 2000 × 0.08 = 160kN-m which is greater than 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000

𝑒= = = 0.08m

𝑃𝑢 2000

𝑒 0.080

= = 0.20

𝑡 0.40

38

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

400 − 2(20 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)

𝜉= = 0.81

400

𝑃𝑢 2000 × 1000

= = 0.625

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 400 × 400

𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.125

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 400 × 4002

Pu

fy=240MPa

fcubt 400mm

fcu=20MPa

ζ=0.80 ρ>ρmax

0.625 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu

fcubt2

0.125

Increase the section to reduce 𝜌 and repeat the solution.

Try (now) 500×500mm.

𝑏 = 𝑡=500mm

𝐻𝑒 8.0

𝜆𝑏 = =

𝑏 0.50

= 16 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 162 ×0.50

δ= = = 0.064m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 2000 × 0.064 = 128kN-m which is greater than 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

500 − 2(20 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)

𝜉= = 0.85

500

𝑃𝑢 2000 × 1000

= = 0.40

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 500 × 500

𝑀𝑢 128 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.0512

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 500 × 5002

39

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

fy=240MPa Pu

fcu=20MPa fcubt

400mm

ζ=0.85 ρ=7.0

0.40 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu

0.0512 fcubt2

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.014 × 500 × 500 = 3500mm2

Use 12φ20

500mm 12φ20

From the ID, you will get:

𝜌 = 3.70

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 3.7 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.0074

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.0074 × 500 × 500 = 1850mm2

𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 = 1.0 × 1850 = 1850mm2 → Use 5φ22

Since the buckling may occur in any one of the column two perpendicular axes, then the

additional moment may occur in one of those directions and consequently As = 5φ22 must

be put at the four sides as shown in the following cross section.

5φ22

500mm

5φ22

Note: if one choose section 550×550mm.

𝑏 = 𝑡=550mm

𝐻𝑒 8.0

𝜆𝑏 = = = 14.54 which is less than 15 → Short Column

𝑏 0.55

Pu,max = 2000×1000N

= 0.35×(550×550)×20+ 0.67As×240

As = -ve (???)

Use 𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑠 as given in the code.

𝑟𝑒𝑞.

𝐴𝑠 = 0.80%𝐴𝑐 but not less than 0.60%𝐴𝑎𝑐𝑡.

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑐

40

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑟𝑒𝑞.

𝐴𝑐 can be obtained using 𝜇 = 𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.80%.

𝑟𝑒𝑞.

2000 × 1000 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35 × 20 + 0.67 × 240 × 0.80

100

)

𝑟𝑒𝑞. 0.80

𝐴𝑐 = 241360mm2 and 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝐴𝑠 = × 241360mm2 = 1930mm2

100

0.60

or 𝐴𝑠 = × 550 × 550 = 1815mm2 → use 8∅18 for which 𝐴𝑠 = 2032mm2

100

3φ18

550mm 2φ18

3φ18

Exercise:

It is required to design the shown braced rectangular column,

fy = 240MPa

fcu = 20MPa

300 Pu = 2000kN

Pin-ended

Ho = He = 8m

t=? AS = ?

Design Moment MD (Braced Columns):

For Braced Slender Columns, Moments are due to:

1. Loads (DL, LL, Wind Load, and Quake Loads).

Greater Moment is M2 and +ve

Smaller Moment is M1

M2

Double

Single Curvature

M1 Curvature

M1 is +ve M1 is -ve

2. Buckling (Madd = Pu δ)

Pu Pu Pu

Madd Madd

2 2

Madd=Pu×δ Madd

Madd

Madd

2

Pu Pu Pu

41

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

MD:

a. Equal End Moments

Pu

M2=Mo

Mo Madd

M1=Mo

Mo due to Madd due to Design

Pu Loads Buckling Moment MD

MDesign = Mo + Madd

Pu

M2

M2 M2

Madd

Pu Mo due to Buckling Moment MD

Loads

M2

Mi=Cm M2 Madd

M1

Cm = [0.60+0.40M1/M2] ≥ 0.40

For Single Curvature: 0.0 ≤ (M1/M2) ≤ 1.0

For Double Curvature: -1.0 ≤ (M1/M2) ≤ 0.0

42

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Cm = 1.0 ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ أﻋﻤدة ﻤﻌرﻀﺔ ﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ أو ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم وﺠود ﻋزوم طرﻓﻴﺔ ﻨﺄﺨذ:ﻤﻼﺤظﺔ

(unbraced) ( ﻤﻊ اﻷﻋﻤدة ﻏﻴر اﻟﻤﻘﻴدةCm) ﻻﻴﺴﺘﺨدم اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل

MDesign = M2

= Mi + Madd

= Mu,min

Example #9:

It is required to design the shown braced square column,

e2=75m

Pu fy = 400MPa

fcu = 20MPa

Pu = 1200kN

Pin-ended

Ho = He = 6m

Ho=6m AS = ?

Square

Pu b=?

e1=50m

𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 = 1200kN

𝑇𝑜𝑝 75

𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒2 = 1200 × = 90kN-m

1000

50

𝑀𝑢𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒1 = 1200 × = 60kN-m

1000

𝑀2 = +90kN-m and 𝑀1 = +60kN-m Single curvature

𝑀1 60 2

= =

𝑀2 90 3

M2=90kN-m

Single

Curvature

M1=60kN-m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,

1200 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ or 112500mm2 or 335mm square

1 2 1.5

× 20 + × × 240

3 3 100

Try 350×350mm

c) Short or Long:

𝑏 = 𝑡=335mm

𝐻𝑒 𝑘𝐻𝑜 1.0 × 6.0

𝜆𝑏 = = =

𝑏 𝑏 0.35

= 17.14 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

Here

Both 𝑒1 and 𝑒2 > 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛

e) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑀𝑖 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑀2

𝑀1

𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 ≥ 0.40

𝑀2

60

𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 = 0.867 > 0.40

90

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 17.142 ×0.35

δ= = = 0.0514m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 1200 × 0.0514 = 61.70kN-m

𝑀𝑖 = 0.867 × 90 = 78kN-m

𝑀𝐷 = :اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ

𝑀2 = 90kN-m

𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 78 + 61.70 = 140kN-m

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1200 × 0.02 = 24kN-m

Therefore,

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝐷 = 140kN-m

𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000

𝑒= = = 0.08m

𝑃𝑢 2000

𝑒 0.080

= = 0.20

𝑡 0.40

350 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)

𝜉= = 0.74

350

𝑃𝑢 1200 × 1000

= = 0.40

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 350 × 350

𝑀𝑢 140 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.163

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 350 × 3502

fy=400MPa

fcu=20MPa 0.40 ρ=8

350mm

ζ=0.74

α=1.0

350mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.163

𝜌 = 8.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.016

𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.016 × 350 × 350 = 1960mm2

Use 4Φ25

4Φ25

350mm

350mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Madd Madd

M2 0.5Madd

Mi Madd

M2 0.5Madd

Madd

Mi

M1 0.5Madd

M1+Madd/2

• M2

• Mi + Madd

• M1+ Madd/2

• Mu,min

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

M2+Madd

M2 Madd

M2+Madd

M2 Madd

M1 Madd M1+Madd

• M2 + Madd

• Mu,min

∆avg = Σ∆i /n

n = number of columns

∆1 ∆2 ∆3 ∆n

UnBraced

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

ex

Mux

y y

Pu

0.67fcu/𝛾 c

Pu Muy ey

t

x x x

NA

y

b

Biaxial Bending + Axial Loads is difficult

Design?

1. Interaction Diagram

(As)total should be distributed equally on the four sides

(As)total-4Φ

4

2. Egyptian Code

Solution #1: Symmetrical Reinforcement

A’sx =3Φ

Asy =3Φ

=2Φ+0.5Φ+0.5Φ A’sy =3Φ

Asx =3Φ

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. Interaction Diagram

(As)total should be distributed equally on the 4-sides.

Failure Pu

Mux Surface fcubt

Pu

Rb=

Muy fcubt

t

Pu

b

Muy Mux

fcutb2 fcubt2

Muy

fy=? fcutb2

Rb=?

ζ =?

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

ρ=22

20

18 Mux

16

fcubt2

Example #10:

It is required to design the shown bi-axially loaded column,

Mux

fy = 360MPa

Pu fcu = 25MPa

600 Pu = 1800kN

Muy Mux = 400kN-m

Muy = 200kN-m

400

𝑃𝑢 1800 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

= = 0.11

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002

𝑀𝑢𝑦 200 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.083

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2 25 × 600 × 4002

assume that ξ = 0.90

𝜌 = 13.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 13.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.0325

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.0325 × 400 × 600 = 7800mm2

Use 16∯ 25

16∯ 25

600mm

?φ8/m

400mm

2. Egyptian Code

1. Symmetrical Reinforcement

The section in Example #10 will be designed (using the Egyptian Code; case of

unsymmetrical reinforcement) as if it is subjected to an increased moment about

one axis only.

Mux

fy = 360MPa

fcu = 25MPa a’ Pu

Pu = 1800kN 600 a=600 Muy

Mux = 400kN-m

Muy = 200kN-m

400 c b=400

c b’

𝑃𝑢 1800 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600

Assume c = 40mm

a’ = a-c = 600-40 = 560mm

b’ = b-c = 400-40 = 360m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

= > ′ =

𝑎′ 560 𝑏 360

′

′

𝑎

∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 𝑀𝑢𝑥 + 𝛽 � ′ � 𝑀𝑢𝑦

𝑏

The magnification factor β.

𝑅𝑏 ≤ 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 ≥ 0.60

𝛽 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60

′ 560

𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 400 + 0.75 � � 200 = 633kN-m

360

′

𝑀𝑢𝑥 633 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.176

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002

𝜌 = 13.50

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 13.50 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.033

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.033 × 400 × 600 = 7920mm2

Use 4∯ 28+12∯ 28

4∯ 28

0.30 ρ=13.5 +12∯ 25

600mm

?φ8/m

Uniaxial

ID

0.176

400mm

2. UnSymmetrical Reinforcement

Design the section shown below using the Egyptian Code (case of unsymmetrical

reinforcement).

Mux

fy = 360MPa

fcu = 25MPa Pu

Pu = 1125kN 600 Muy

Mux = 175kN-m

Muy = 34kN-m

250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

2-sides ﻧﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻛل ﻋزم ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣدة ﺑﻌد ﺗﻛﺑﯾره ﺑﻣﻌﺎﻣل ﺗﻛﺑﯾر 𝑏𝛼 وﻓﻲ ﻛل ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺣدﯾد ﻋﻠﻲ

𝐴𝑠𝑥 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑥 and 𝐴𝑠𝑦 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑦

A’sx A’sx

a’

a Asy A’sy Asy A’sy

c Asx Asx

b

c b’ 0.5Φ+0.5Φ

That is, 𝑀𝑢𝑥 and 𝑀𝑢𝑥 will be magnified by 𝛼𝑏 which depends on:

𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′

1. and

𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏′

2. 𝑅𝑏

𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′

𝑅𝑏 𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏 ′

∞ 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.50 0.33 0.0

≤ 0.10 1.00 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.20 1.00

0.20 1.00 1.35 1.50 1.75 1.50 1.35 1.00

0.30 1.00 1.25 1.35 1.40 1.35 1.25 1.00

0.40 1.00 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 1.00

0.50 1.00 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.70 0.65 1.00

𝑃𝑢 1125 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 250 × 600

Assume c = 30mm

a’ = a-c = 600-30 = 570mm

b’ = b-c = 250-30 = 220m

𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′ 175⁄570

= = 2.0

𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏 ′ 34⁄220

The magnification factor 𝛼𝑏 = 1.35

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

′

𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 𝑀𝑢𝑥 × 𝛼𝑏 = 236.6kN-m and 𝑃𝑢 = 1125kN

′

𝑀𝑢𝑦 = 𝑀𝑢𝑦 × 𝛼𝑏 = 45.9kN-m and 𝑃𝑢 = 1125kN

From the Interaction Diagrams (assume that ξ = 0.90), you will get:

𝐴𝑠𝑥 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑥 = 975mm2 =5∯16

𝐴𝑠𝑦 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑦 = 375mm2 =2∯16

ρx=2.6

0.30 5∯ 16

600mm 2∯ 16

0.105

ρy=1.0

0.30 5∯ 16

250mm

0.094

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 8

WALLS AND SHEAR WALLS

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Structural Wall:

Wall proportioned to resist combinations of:

• Shears,

• Moments, and

• Axial forces.

Lw Line

Area h ≥ 120mm

Lw > 5h

Lw

h

Weak

hw axis

Strong h

Column

axis

Major factors that affect the design of structural walls include the following:

a) The structural function of the wall relative to the rest of the structure

i. The wall is supported and braced by the rest of the structure

ii. The wall supports and braces the rest of the structure.

b) The types of loads the wall resists.

c) The location and amount of reinforcement.

ℎ𝑤

• The slenderness of a wall, , is generally > for columns.

ℎ

• The reinforcement ratio of a wall, 𝜇 , is generally < those for columns

Bearing Walls:

• Laterally supported and braced by the rest of the structure. That is, wall is

laterally supported and restrained against deflection along two opposite sides,

usually the top and bottom supports.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

hw

Lw Imaginary

h

• Resists primarily in-plane vertical loads acting downward on the top of the wall.

ℎ

The vertical load may act eccentrically (𝒆 = ) with respect to the wall thickness

6

h, causing weak-axis bending.

Lw e = h

Mu=Pu.e 6

Pu Pu

Weak

axis

Strong h

axis

h

h

e = h

Pu 6 Weak

axis

Comp.

zone Bearing

wall

fc

h/3 h/3

h/3

h

Mid-thickness

Shear Walls:

Resists primarily lateral loads (Wind or Earthquake Loads) acting parallel to the

plane of the wall in addition to the gravity loads (DL, LL, etc…) from the floors

and roof adjacent to the wall. Shear walls resists lateral loads (lateral shears) and

moments about the strong-axis of the wall.

Often provide lateral bracing for the rest of the structure.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Plane of

wall

Lw

hw Weak

axis

Strong h

axis

Elevation Plan

view view

We will assume the walls have a very low stiffness when bent about their WEAK-AXIS, and

thus, they are bent about their STRONG-AXIS.

Lw Lw

y h h

x x

Strong Weak

y Iy-y = axis Ix-x ≅ 0.0

axis

• 3D-Assemblies of planar walls (or wall segments)

Plane of 1

wall

2 3

• Elevator

shafts

• Stairs-well

PLANAR 3D-Assembly • Etc…

Do not support gravity in-plane loads other than their own weight.

Resists shears and moments due to pressure or loads acting on one or two (both)

sides of the wall. That is, they are used to resist the horizontal soil pressure where

the surface of the ground is higher on one side of the wall than on the other.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Cantilever

Soil

Basement Retaining

Soil Pressure

Wall Wall

Pressure Basement

to resist lateral soil pressure

Short Walls:

• One- or two-story shear walls with(𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) ≤ 𝟐. 𝟎.

• The strength and behavior generally are dominated by shear action.

Slender or Flexural Walls:

• If the wall is more than three or four stories in height and (𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) ≥ 𝟑. 𝟎, lateral

loads are resisted mainly by flexural action of the vertical cantilever wall rather

than shear action.

Shear Walls exhibit a combination of Shear and Flexural Behavior:

• Shear walls with 𝟐. 𝟎 < (𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) < 3.0 exhibit a combination of shear and

flexural behavior.

∆ ∆

Short Slender

Shear Walls Shear Walls

Moment-Resisting Frames:

• Made up of reinforced concrete interconnected beams and columns.

• 8 to 10 stories

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Rigid Joint

Beam

Column

Frame

L

Shear Walls:

• The walls resist lateral loads by flexural action and deflect as vertical

cantilevers.

Shear

Walls Plan

Shear-Wall-Frame Buildings:

• Are used in buildings ranging from about 8 to 30 stories. The lateral load is

resisted in part by WALL and in part by the FRAME.

Wall

Frame

• Structural systems for very tall concrete buildings will be discussed later.

Two or more shear walls in the same plane (or two wall assemblies) are sometimes connected

at floor levels by coupling beams, so that the walls act as a unit when resisting lateral loads.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Wall #2

(planar)

Wall

Coupling

assemblies

Wall #1 Hinged beam

Coupling Beam

Stiff

Coupling Beam

Wall #1

CM = Center of Mass (geometric centroid of the floor plate).

CR = Center of lateral resistance (rigidity) provided by the (isolated) shear walls.

L2/2

CM

Vx

ey CR

ex

L1/2

Vy

Because lateral loads are assumed to act through the center of mass (CM), any

eccentricity between the CM and CR will result in the generation of torsional moments. A

central-core wall system commonly is used to minimize eccentricity between the CM and

CR.

When a building structure is subjected to large lateral displacements due to

earthquake ground motions, the stiffnesses of the lateral-load resisting members are likely to

change in a non-uniform fashion. As a result, the CR is likely to be relocated and the

eccentricity between the CM and CR may increase. To account for this, Building Codes

specify a minimum eccentricity in the two principal directions that must be added to any

calculated eccentricity.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

distribution of shear walls around the perimeter of the floor plan would be most efficient for

resisting that torsion.

If lateral displacements are to be calculated, the moment of inertia values should be

reduced by 30% to correspond to those recommended in the Code. Thus,

Walls un-cracked: 0.70 Ig

Walls cracked: 0.35 Ig

If there is an eccentricity between the CM and CR or a minimum eccentricity is

specified by a design code, then the effects of torsion must be considered.

Torsion:

𝐌𝐓𝐱 = 𝐕𝐱 × 𝐞𝐲

𝐌𝐓𝐲 = 𝐕𝐲 × 𝐞𝐱

Required Size of Wall:

In choosing a structural wall section for a given building, the wall must

(a) Have enough strength to resist the factored moments, shears, and axial loads.

(b) Have enough stiffness to limit the lateral deflections.

The Code limits the maximum story drift under unfactored (service) loads to less than 1/500

of the story height.

∆B ∆s

Hs

HB

Distributed and Concentrated Reinforcement

The reinforcement in a shear wall is generally made up of:

(a) Distributed horizontal and vertical reinforcement spread uniformly over the

length between the boundary elements and over the height of the wall.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Plan

0.50As(hz.)

S1

0.50As(vert.)

Rebar in two S2

Layers S1

Each Face

E.F.

S2

the edges of the wall and is tied in much the same way that column cages are.

Reinf’t

concentrated in

flanges

Web

Boundary

element

within

dimensions

of wall

Enlarged boundary

element

together at intervals,

but not enclosed in

Ties

every Second (or third) bar each way in

both faces

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

It is good practice to

at least use larger

bars at the extreme

ends of the wall.

2Φ16

2Φ20 or more

ﻏﯿﺮ ﻛﺎف ﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔuniformly distributed اﻟﻤﻮزع

wind or earthquake اﻟﺮﯾﺎح واﻟﺰﻻزل

in boundary elements at the ends of the walls

as shown

dimensions of wall Enlarged boundary

element

h

S1

Vert.

S2

Hz.

S2

S1

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Minimum and Maximum Wall Reinforcement:

Vertical Reinforcement

𝐀𝐬,𝐦𝐚𝐱 ≤ 𝟒. 𝟎%𝐀𝐜

𝐀𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 ≥ 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎%𝐀𝐜

2Φ (2-layers)

h

Two 𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭

𝐬

𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 =

layers S1 ≤ 250mm 𝐒𝟏 𝐡

Horizontal Reinforcement

𝐀𝐡𝐳.

𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟓%𝐀 𝐜 for HGS

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.

𝐬

𝛍𝐡𝐳. =

𝐒𝟐 𝐡

S2

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧

𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two

layers

h

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. For the shown structural wall (a planar shear wall), it is required to:

• Check the adequacy of the shown structural (shear) wall for the combined gravity and

lateral loads applied to the wall. A uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal

reinforcement is used in two layers.

PDL=150kN

Given:

110kN PLL = 0.50PDL

U = 1.6WL+0.90DL

250kN DL = Dead Load

3.0m

LL = Live Load

100kN WL = Wind Load

250kN 3.0m

fcu= 40MPa

80kN hw = 16m

fy = 400MPa

250kN 3.0m ζ = 0.90

60kN

250kN 3.0m 5500mm

250mm

FWL=30kN hz.

5.50m 4.0m Φ12-200mm EF

vert.

Φ16-250mm EF

h = 0.25m

The gravity loads applied at each floor level, as shown above, are due to dead load. The

live loads are not shown but are assumed to be equal to 0.50 of the dead loads. The

lateral wind loads are based on service-level (unfactored) wind forces.

Horizontal Reinforcement

𝛑(𝟏𝟐)𝟐

𝐀𝐡𝐳. 𝟐

𝛍𝐡𝐳. =

𝐬

= 𝟒 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟓% which is greater than 0.25%, Okay.

𝐒𝟐 𝐡 𝟐𝟓𝟎 × 𝟐𝟎𝟎

This satisfies the minimum requirement in the Egyptian Code, so it should be

acceptable unless a larger amount is required to satisfy shear requirements.

𝟏𝟓 × 𝟏𝟔

𝐒𝟐,𝐦𝐚𝐱 = the smallest of � � = 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm

𝟐𝟎𝟎

Thus, the provided spacing S2 for the horizontal reinforcement is Okay.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Vertical Reinforcement

Although it is good practice to use larger vertical bars at the

edges of the wall, say Φ20 or Φ22 bars, we will calculate 𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭

assuming only Φ16 bars are used.

𝛑(𝟏𝟔)𝟐

𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. 𝟐

𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. =

𝐬

= 𝟒 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟒% which is greater than 0.50%, Okay.

𝐒𝟏 𝐡 𝟐𝟓𝟎 × 𝟐𝟓𝟎

The minimum given by the Egyptian Code is 0.50% which is less than what is

provided. The spacing limit for the vertical reinforcement is:

𝐒𝟏,𝐦𝐚𝐱 ≤ 𝟐𝟓𝟎mm

Thus, the provided spacing S1 (250mm) of the vertical reinforcement is Okay.

PDL=150kN

110kN 150 110

250kN

250kN

250kN

250kN

5.50m

NFD SFD BMD 4400

𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 = 𝟏𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐤𝐍

Load Combinations:

𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎𝐌𝐰𝐢𝐧𝐝 + 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎 × 𝟒𝟒𝟎𝟎 = 𝟕𝟎𝟒𝟎𝐤𝐍 − 𝐦

𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟏𝟏𝟓𝟎 = 𝟏𝟎𝟑𝟓𝐤𝐍

assume 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑁𝑢 1035 × 1000

= = 0.019

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 250 × 5500

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

= = 0.023

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 250 × 55002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa ρ=ρmin

ζ=0.90

0.019

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.023

𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

Because As provided is larger than As required by Mu and Nu (from the Interaction

Diagram), the wall has adequate flexural strength.

One can, also, check the adequacy (flexural strength) of the wall as follows:

𝟎. 𝟔𝟒

𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝟎. 𝟔𝟒 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝟏𝟎𝟎

𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. = which gives 𝛒𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. = = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎

𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟒𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟒

𝑁𝑢 1035×1000

Knowing that = = 0.019

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40×250×5500

From the Interaction Diagram, we get

𝑀𝑢

= 0.04 which gives 𝑀𝑢 = 12100kN-m

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2

Because the value of 𝑀𝑢 (from I.D.) = 12100 kN-m is larger than (due to loads) = 7040 kN-m,

the wall has adequate flexural strength.

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa ρ=2

ζ=0.90 ρ=1

0.019

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.04

Check Shear:

The factored shear at the base of the wall is:

𝑄𝑢 = 1.60(30 + 60 + 80 + 100 + 110) = 608kN

𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 5500 = 4400mm

𝑏 = ℎ = 250mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

110kN

Lw = 5500mm

100kN

Qu=608kN

80kN 250mm

60kN d = 0.80Lw

30kN

Q=380kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 608 × 1000

𝑞𝑢 = = = = 0.55N/mm2

𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 250 × 4400

𝑁𝑢

𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �

𝐴𝑐

1035 × 1000

= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.30N/mm2

250 × 5500

Here,

𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢

𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = which is less than 𝐀 𝐬,𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 , Okay.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 9

WORKING-STRESS DESIGN METHOD

9.1 INTRODUCTION

Working, Ultimate, and Limit-States Design Methods:

Working Ultimate

at SERVICE level at STRENGTH level

W = WD+WL Wu = 1.4WD+1.6WL

M = WL2/8 Mu = WuL2/8

fc’ fc fc’

fc

fc 6.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 10 10.5N/mm2

fy fs fy

fs

fs 140 160 200 220 160 plain 220 deformed

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Working Ultimate

at SERVICE level at STRENGTH level

Mu 0.003 Cu

f = M.y/I c a

1. Linear-Elastic Material NA yct

2. Homogenous Section

Tu

>εy/γs

fc

stress c b

NA

E a = 0.80c

t-c

1 yct = lever arm = [d-0.5a]

strain ft Cu = [0.67fcu/γc]b.a

Tu = As.fy/γs

M Cu = Tu …………………………………………Eq.(1)

c c Mu = Tu.yct = Cu.yct … Eq.(2)

t As =

d-c NA NA

nAs

b b

Cracked Transformed

Section Section

between steel and

concrete

2. For the concrete element,

at the same level:

εc = εs

σc/Ec=σs/Es

Knowing that n = Es/Ec

σs = n.σc

c = concrete

s = steel

∆ P

c

NA

fs=n.fc t-c

fc

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Singly Reinforced rectangular Sections:

c/3

M εc fc C

c NA c

d d-c NA yct

As t

T

nAs εs fs/n

b b

Cracked Transformed Strain Stress

Section Section

𝑏𝑐 2

= 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)

2

You will get c and the virtual moment of inertia Iv about NA is given by:

𝑏𝑐 3

𝐼𝑣 = + 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)2

3

𝑀

Using the formula𝑓 = 𝑦:

𝐼

𝑀 𝑀

𝑓𝑐 = 𝑐 and 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑛 (𝑑 − 𝑐)

𝐼𝑣 𝐼𝑣

The resultant forces C and T are:

1

𝐶= 𝑓 × 𝑏 × 𝑐 and 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠

2 𝑐

Knowing that

𝑐

𝑦𝑐𝑡 = [𝑑 − 3]

Use

𝐶=𝑇

and

𝑀 = 𝑇. 𝑦𝑐𝑡 = 𝐶. 𝑦𝑐𝑡

To get 𝐴𝑠 .

𝑀

𝑑 = 𝐾1 �

𝑏

and

𝑀

𝐴𝑠 =

𝐾2 𝑑

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(n-1)As’≅ nAs’

εc

M d’

As’ fc

εs’

Cs

c c fs’/n

NA

C

d d-c NA

As t T

nAs εs fs/n

b b

Cracked Transformed Strain Stress

Section Section

𝑏𝑐 2

+ 𝑛𝐴′𝑠 (𝑐 − 𝑑′ ) = 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)

2

You will get c and the virtual moment of inertia Iv about NA is given by:

𝑏𝑐 3

𝐼𝑣 = + 𝑛𝐴′𝑠 (𝑐 − 𝑑′ )2 + 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)2

3

The resultant forces are:

1

𝐶𝑐 = 𝑓𝑐 × 𝑏 × 𝑐, 𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 𝑓𝑠′ , and 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠

2

Here, also, you can simply use Design Tables to get 𝐴𝑠 and 𝐴′𝑠 knowing that 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 .

𝑀

𝑑 = 𝐾1 �

𝑏

and

𝑀

𝐴𝑠 = and 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠

𝐾2 𝑑

Example #1

Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =

260kN-m. Use fcu = 20MPa and fy = 360MPa.

d = ?

As

b = 300mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑦 = 360MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 200MPa = 2000kg/cm2

𝑀 = 260kN-m = 26t-m

From the Design Tables, you will get:

𝐾1 = 0.276 and 𝐾2 = 1750 at 𝛼 = 0.0 and for 𝑓𝑐 = 80kg/cm2 and 𝑓𝑠 =

2000kg/cm2

𝑀 26 × 105

𝑑 = 𝐾1 � = 0.276� = 81.30cm → use t = 90cm

𝑏 30

∴ 𝑑𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 90 − 5 = 85cm

𝑀 26×105

∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 17.50cm2

𝑘2 𝑑 1750×85

Use 9∯16

𝐴′𝑠 = 0.10𝐴𝑠 or more = 1.75cm2

Use 2∯16

2∯16

900mm

Shrinkage

Reinforcement

9∯16

300mm

Example #2

Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =

260kN-m. Use fcu = 20MPa and fy = 360MPa.

As’

t = 800mm

As

b = 300mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑦 = 360MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 200MPa = 2000kg/cm2

𝑀 = 260kN-m = 26t-m

𝑑 = 𝑡 − 5 = 80 − 5 = 75cm

26 × 105

𝑑 = 75 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.254

30

From the Design Tables, at 𝑓𝑐 = 80kg/cm2

𝐾2 = 1795 and 𝛼 = 0.40

𝑀 26×105

∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 19.30cm2

𝑘2 𝑑 1785×75

Use 10∯16

𝐴′𝑠 = 0.40𝐴𝑠 = 7.72cm2

Use 4∯16

4∯16

800mm

Shrinkage

Reinforcement

10∯16

300mm

9.3 FLANGED SECTIONS

Position of NA:

z B B Br

M M

NA z

d ts d NA ts

As As

b b Br = r.B

NA is inside NA is outside

the flange, z ≤ ts the flange, z > ts

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

First calculate the term 𝑧 from:

𝑀

𝑧 = 𝐾𝑧 �

𝐵

The values of 𝐾𝑧 are as shown

fs = 1200 1400 1600 …..

fc = 30 0.141 0.133 0.126

40 0.137 0.129 0.122

50 0.133 0.126 0.119

1. If

𝑧 ≤ 𝑡𝑠

The NA is inside the flange. Design the section as a rectangular section, width = B.

2. If

𝑧 > 𝑡𝑠

The NA is outside the flange. Design the section as an equivalent rectangular section,

width = Br. Where

𝐵𝑟 = 𝐵 × 𝑟

The values of 𝑟 are as shown

𝑡𝑠 ⁄𝑧 = 1.0 0.90 0.80 0.70 ……. 0.20

𝐵⁄𝑏 = 2.0

2.50 r values

3.00

3.50

Example #3

Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown Tee section for M = 183kN-m. Use

fcu = 20MPa and fy = 240MPa.

B

M

t=800mm ts = 80mm

As

b = 250mm

2

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 20MPa→𝑓𝑐 (rectangular) = 8MPa →𝑓𝑐 (Tee) = 3 × 8 ≅ 5MPa

= 50kg/cm2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀 = 183kN-m = 18.3t-m

𝑑 = 𝑡 − 5 = 80 − 5 = 75cm

𝐵 = 16𝑡𝑠 + 𝑏 = 16 × 8 + 25 = 153cm

𝐵⁄𝑏 = 153⁄25 = 6.12

𝐾𝑧 ≅ 0.13

5

𝑍 = 𝐾𝑧 �𝑀

𝐵

= 0.13 � 18.30×10

153

= 14.22cm >𝑡𝑠 (NA is outside the flange)

𝑡𝑠 8 𝐵

= = 0.56 and = 6.12 → 𝑟 = 0.84

𝑧 14.22 𝑏

𝐵𝑟 = 153 × 0.84 = 128.50cm

5

𝑑 = 75 = 𝐾1 �𝐵𝑀𝑟 = 𝐾1 �18.30×10

128.5

→ 𝐾1 = 0.629

From the Design Tables, 𝑓𝑐 < 45kg/cm2

𝐾2 = 1248 at 𝛼 = 0.0

𝑀 18.3×105

∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 19.55cm2

𝑘2 𝑑 1248×75

Use 3φ18 + 3φ20

𝐴′𝑠 = 0.10𝐴𝑠 or more = 1.955cm2

Use 2φ16

2∅16

80mm

800mm

Shrinkage

Reinforcement

3∅18 + 3∅20

250mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

Structural Engrg. Dept. May, 2011

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

A Pin-Ended square column 10.0m tall supports Pu = 4000kN. The loads act at an eccentricity of

62.50mm at top and at bottom. Use fcu = 40MPa and fy = 400MPa. It is required to:

1. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 2.5%).

2. Check if the column is slender?

3. Check if the moments are less than the minimum.

4. Compute the design moment, MD.

5. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces to be used and assume ζ = 0.90).

6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

e2=62.5mm fy = 400MPa

Pu fcu = 40MPa

PD = 2000kN

PL = 750kN

Pin-ended

Ho = He = 10m

Ho=10m

Square

Pu b=?

e1=62.5mm

Solution:

𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 = 4000kN

𝑇𝑜𝑝 62.5

𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒2 = 4000 × = 250kN-m

1000

𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡

62.5

𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒1 = 4000 × = 250kN-m

1000

𝑀2 = +250kN-m and 𝑀1 = −250kN-m Double curvature

𝑀1 −250

= = −1.0

𝑀2 250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

M2=250kN-m

Double

Curvature

M1=-250kN-m

Assume µ = 2.50% (given). Therefore,

4000 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ or 447mm square

1 2 2.5

× 40 + × × 400

3 3 100

Try 500×500mm

c) Short or Long:

𝑏 = 𝑡=500mm

𝐻𝑒 𝑘𝐻𝑜 1.0 × 10

𝜆𝑏 = = =

𝑏 𝑏 0.50

= 20 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

Here

Both 𝑒1 and 𝑒2 > 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛

e) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑀𝑖 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑀2

𝑀1

𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 ≥ 0.40

𝑀2

−250

𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 = 0.20 < 0.40. Therefore, 𝐶𝑚 = 0.40

250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

δ= = = 0.10m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 4000 × 0.10 = 400kN-m

𝑀𝑖 = 0.40 × 250 = 100kN-m

𝑀𝐷 = :اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ

𝑀2 = 250kN-m

𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 100 + 400 = 500kN-m

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 4000 × 0.025 = 100kN-m

Therefore,

𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m

𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000

𝑒= = = 125mm

𝑃𝑢 4000

𝑒 125

= = 0.25

𝑡 500

𝜉 (given) = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 4000 × 1000

= = 0.40

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500

𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.10

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa ρ=9 500mm

0.40

ζ=0.90

500mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.10

𝜌 = 9.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 9.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.036 = 3.60%

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.036 × 500 × 500 = 9000mm2

Use 12Φ32

12Φ2

500mm

500mm

A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.

Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials

b = 0.30m ts = 0.18m LL = 4.50kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa

t = 0.50m flooring = 1.50kN/m 2 fy = 360MPa

For the square column C1 at the ground floor, it is required to:

1. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 2-floors).

2. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.5%).

3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

4. Check if the column is slender?

5. Compute the additional moment, Madd.

6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).

7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.50m 0.18m

C1 2m

B1 B1

B1

B B H = 4.5m

A B1 B1 6m

0.18m A

0.50m

B1 ﺳﻤﻞ

Footing Footing

0.15m 6m 2m 0.15m

Solution:

1. Ultimate Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 0.18×25+ 1.50 = 4.0+1.50 = 6.0 kN/m2

LL = 4.50 kN/m2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Beam loads:

Loads from Beam B1:

Self-weight = 0.30×0.50×1.0×25 = 3.75 kN/m

Here, r = 6/6 = 1.0. From Table: αb = 2/3 and βb = 0.50.

Loads for Shear

WUD = 1.40[3.75+0.5×3×6+2.33×6] = 37.45kN/m

WUL = 1.60[0.5×3×4.5+2.33×4.5] = 27.60kN/m

WU = 37.45 + 27.60 = 65.05kN/m

2m 2m

2m 2.33m

Wu=65.05kN/m

6m

Assume Leff = Lc/c

Ru=195.15kN

PU = 1.10×195.15×2×2 = 858kN

2. Column Size:

Assume µ = 1.50% (given). Therefore,

858 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ or 251.20mm square

1 2 1.5

× 30 + × × 360

3 3 100

Try 300×300mm

3. Braced or Unbraced:

Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

4. Short or Long:

X-dir and Z-dir

He = k Ho = 1.20 × 4 = 4.80m

𝐻𝑒 4.80

𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =

𝑏 0.30

= 16 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

0.50m 0.18m

Case 1 B1 B1

H = 4.5m

Ho = 4m

0.50m 0.30m

Unbraced

Fixed-Fixed ﺳﻤﻞ

K = 1.20 Case 1

Footing Footing

5. 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 :

𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 162 × 0.30

δ= = = 0.0384m

2000 2000

20

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 858 × 0.0384 = 32.95kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 858 = 17.16kN-m

1000

6. Column Reinforcement:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 32.95kN-m

𝑀𝑢 32.95 × 1000

𝑒= = = 0.0384m

𝑃𝑢 858

𝑒 0.0384

= = 0.128

𝑡 0.30

Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 858 × 1000

= = 0.318

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 300 × 300

𝑀𝑢 32.95 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.04

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 300 × 3002

fy=360MPa

fcu=30MPa ρ=2 300mm

0.318

ζ=0.90

300mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.04

𝜌 = 2.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 2.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.006 = 0.60%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.006 × 300 × 300 = 540mm2

Use 4∯ 16

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7. Reinforcement Detailings:

2∯ 16

300mm

2∯ 16

1. A spiral column is used when ductility is required, True or False?

2. Which column section is more efficient for Zone B? and Why?

e = 0.10t

A e = 0.20t

B

I II

C

3. For the shown shear wall, it is required to calculate the minimum tie size and the maximum vertical

spacing of ties. Use fcu = 40MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of

200mm vertical

bars = 12mm

2000mm

4. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =

125kN-m. Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

As’

d = 500mm

As

b = 200mm

5. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:

a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.

b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).

c. Check the adequacy of the column section if:

Pu = 1225kN and Mux = Muy = 110kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90).

d. Use the Interaction Diagrams to calculate Pu and Mu for the column section if the

eccentricity e = 175mm (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of

vertical

350mm bars = 16mm

82

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Solution:

1. True or False:

True

2.Which column is better for Zone B? and Why?

Column II is more efficient for Zone A than Column I. Square columns can carry M better than

circular columns.

3.Minimum Tie Size and Maximum Vertical spacing:

0.25

2𝐴𝑠𝑡 = ℎ × 𝑠2

100

𝜋∅2𝑠𝑡 0.25

2 = × 200 × 𝑠2

4 100

assume ∅𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑠𝑡 = 8mm

2

𝜋×8 0.25

2 = × 200 × 𝑠2

4 100

𝑠 ≤ 15 × 12 = 180mm

𝑠2 = 200mm, But � 2 �

𝑠2 ≤ 200mm

𝑠𝑡 = 8mm

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.

𝐬

𝛍𝐡𝐳. =

𝐒𝟐 𝐡 2000mm

S2

200mm

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧

𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 hz.

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two Φ?-?mm EF

vert.

layers Φ12-?mm EF

h

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa

𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 220MPa

𝑀 = 125kN-m = 12.5t-m

12.5 × 105

𝑑 = 50 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.20

20

From the Design Tables, you will get:

𝐾2 = 1932, 𝛼 = 0.60, and 𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa

83

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

12.5×105

𝐴𝑠 = = 12.94cm2

1932×50

Use 5Φ18

𝐴′𝑠 = 0.6 × 𝐴𝑠 = 7.76mm2

Use 3Φ18

3Φ18

5Φ18

Vertical bars are Okay (spacing is less than 250mm).

Horizontal ties are Okay (both X1 and X2 are less than 150mm).

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 1500kN

𝑃𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⁄0.80 = 1875kN

5c. The adequacy of the column section:

1225 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = = 0.40

25 × 350 × 350

𝑀𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑦

= = 0.10

𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 2 𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑡 × 𝑏 2

𝜉 = 0.90 (given)

From the ID, you will get:

𝜌 = 14.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 3.50%

Given 𝜇 = 1.30% which is less than 3.5% (Inadequate)

Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa

𝑒 = 175mm

Then,

𝑒⁄𝑡 = 175⁄350 = 0.50

𝑀𝑢

= 0.105 → 𝑀𝑢 = 112.5kN-m

𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 2

𝑃𝑢

= 0.105 → 𝑃𝑢 = 634kN

𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡

84

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

Structural Engrg. Dept. May, 2012

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:

a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).

b. Check if the column is slender?

c. Compute the design moment, MD.

d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).

e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m

3500kN

Ho=8.3333m = 40MPa

fcu

fy= 400MPa

ζ = 0.90

100kN-m

Pu Mu

Solution:

Assume µ = 1.0% (given). Therefore,

3500 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ = 218750mm2 or 468mm square

1 2 1

× 40 + × × 400

3 3 100

Try 500×500mm

b) Short or Long:

Unbaced Fixed-Fixed Column

𝐻𝑒 = 𝐾𝐻𝑜 = 1.20 × 8.333 = 10m

𝑏 = 𝑡 = 500mm

𝐻𝑒 10

𝜆𝑏 = =

𝑏 0.50

= 20 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

c) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = :اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ

𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.50

δ= = = 0.10m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 3500 × 0.10 = 350kN-m

𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 150 + 350 = 500kN-m

85

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Therefore,

𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m

M2=۱50kN-m Madd=350kN-m

M1=۱۰0kN-m Madd=350kN-m

𝑃𝑢 3500 × 1000

= = 0.35

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500

𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.10

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa ρ=8 500mm

0.40

ζ=0.90

500mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.10

𝜌 = 8.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.032 = 3.20%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.032 × 500 × 500 = 8000mm2

Use 8Φ28+4Φ32

2Φ32+2Φ28

2Φ28

500mm

2Φ28

2Φ32+2Φ28

86

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.

Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials

2

b = 0.30m ts = 0.20m LL = 3.50kN/m fcu = 30MPa

t = 0.60m flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

For the square column C1 (300×300mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:

1. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 3-floors).

2. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

3. Check if the column is slender?

4. Compute the design moment, MD.

5. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).

6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.20m

3m

B1 C1 B1 B1

0.60m

A A B B H=4.6m

6m B1 0.20m B1

0.50m

0.30m ﺳﻤﻞ

Footing Footing

B1

3m 3m 6m 3m

Plan B-B

Sec. Elev. A-A

3m 6m 3m

Solution:

1. Ultimate Loads:

Slab Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 0.20×25+ 2.0 = 7.0 kN/m2

LL = 3.50 kN/m2

Beam loads:

Loads from Beam B1:

Self-weight = 0.30×0.60×1.0×25 = 4.50 kN/m

Here, r = 6/6 = 1.0. From Table: αb = ⅔ and βb = ½.

WUD = 1.40[4.50+½×2×3×7] = 35.70kN/m

WUL = 1.60[½×2×3×3.5] = 16.80kN/m

WU = 35.70 + 16.80 = 52.50kN/m

PU = 1.10×3×157.50×2 = 1040kN

87

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

3m

3m

Wu=52.50kN/m

6m

Assume Leff = Lc/c

Ru=157.50kN

2. Braced or Unbraced:

Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

3. Short or Long:

X-dir and Z-dir

He = k Ho = 1.20 × 4 = 4.80m

𝐻𝑒 4.80

𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =

𝑏 0.30

= 16 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

0.20m

B1 B1

Case 1

0.60m

H=4.6m

Ho=4m

Ho = 4m 0.50m

Unbraced ﺳﻤﻞ

Fixed-Fixed Footing Footing

K = 1.20 Case 1

4. 𝑀𝐷 :

𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 162 × 0.30

δ= = = 0.0384m

2000 2000

20

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 1040 × 0.0384 = 40kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1040 = 20.8kN-m

1000

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 0 + 40 = 40kN-m

5. Column Reinforcement:

𝑀𝑢 = 𝑀𝐷 = 40kN-m

88

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢 40 × 1000

= 𝑒= = 0.0384m

𝑃𝑢 1040

𝑒 0.0384

= = 0.128

𝑡 0.30

Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 1040 × 1000

= = 0.385

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 300 × 300

𝑀𝑢 40 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.0494

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 300 × 3002

fy=360MPa

fcu=30MPa ρ=4 300mm

0.385

ζ=0.90

300mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 0.0494

𝜌 = 4.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 4.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.20%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.012 × 300 × 300 = 1080mm2 →Use 4∯ 20

6. Reinforcement Detailings:

2∯ 20

300mm

2∯ 20

300mm

89

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. For the shown structural wall (a planar shear wall), it is required to:

b. Show that the given horizontal and vertical reinforcement satisfies all of the Egyptian

Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum spacing.

c. Check the adequacy of the wall at its base.

PDL=200kN Given:

PLL = 0.50PDL

200kN

U = 1.6WL+0.90DL

DL = Dead Load

LL = Live Load

3.0m

300kN WL = Wind Load

200kN

fcu= 40MPa

3.0m fy = 400MPa

300kN ζ = 0.90

FWL=100kN

3000mm

3.0m 300mm

4.0m hz.

Φ10-200mm EF

vert.

Φ16-200mm EF

h = 0.30m

a. Calculate Pu.

b. Determine the coordinates (Mux , Muy) of points A, B, and C.

Muy

Given:

2Φ? Rb = 0.40

A

Astotal = 2000mm2

250mm

B

2Φ? fcu= 32MPa

fy = 400MPa

45o Mux ζ = 0.90

C

Solution:

1a. Flexural action because

ℎ𝑤 10

= = 3.33 > 3.0 Okay

𝑙𝑤 3

90

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Vertical Reinforcement

2

𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡

𝑠 2𝜋×16

4

𝜇𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 = = × 100 = 0.67% > 0.50%, Okay.

𝑠1 × ℎ 200 × 300

𝑠1 = 200mm which is less than 250mm, Okay.

Horizontal Reinforcement

2

𝐴ℎ𝑧

𝑠 2𝜋×10

4

𝜇ℎ𝑧 = = × 100 = 0.262% > 0.250%, Okay for HGS.

𝑠2 × ℎ 200 × 300

𝑠 ≤ 15 × 16 = 240mm

𝑠2 = 200mm, which is less than � 2 �

𝑠2 ≤ 200mm

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.

𝐬

𝛍𝐡𝐳. =

𝐒𝟐 𝐡 3000mm

S2

300mm

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧

𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 hz.

𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two Φ10-200mm EF

vert.

layers Φ16-200mm EF

h

1c. The Adequacy of the Wall at its Base:

PDL=200kN

300kN

300kN

3.0m

NFD SFD BMD 3800

𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟑𝟎𝟎 + 𝟑𝟎𝟎 = 𝟖𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

𝐐𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

91

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Load Combinations:

𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 + 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎𝐌𝐰𝐢𝐧𝐝 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎 × 𝟑𝟖𝟎𝟎 = 𝟔𝟎𝟖𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦

𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟖𝟎𝟎 = 𝟕𝟐𝟎𝐤𝐍

assume 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑁𝑢 720 × 1000

= = 0.02

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 300 × 3000

𝑀𝑢 6080 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.056

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 300 × 30002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa 0.02 ρ=3

ζ=0.90

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.056

𝜌 = 3.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 3.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.20%

𝜇𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 1.20% which is greater than 𝜇𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 = 0.67%, Inadequate.

Check Shear:

The factored shear at the base of the wall is:

𝑄𝑢 = 1.60(500) = 800kN

𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 3000 = 2400mm

𝑏 = ℎ = 300mm

200kN

Lw = 3000mm

200kN

Qu=800kN

100kN 300mm

d = 0.80Lw

Q=500kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 800 × 1000

𝑞𝑢 = = = = 1.11N/mm2

𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 300 × 2400

92

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑁𝑢

𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �

𝐴𝑐

720 × 1000

= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.31N/mm2

300 × 3000

Here, 𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢

𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = which is less than 𝐀 𝐬,𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 , Okay.

𝑃𝑢 𝑃𝑢 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = 0.40 = = → 𝑃𝑢 = 800kN

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 32 × 250 × 250

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 2000

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 2000mm2 and 𝜇 = 𝑠 = = 0.032

𝑏×𝑡 250×250

𝜇 = 0.032 = 𝜌 × 32 × 10−4 → 𝜌 = 10

𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.11

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002

From the ID (given: 𝜌 = 10, 𝑅𝑏 = 0.40, 𝜉 = 0.90, and 𝑓𝑦 = 400) you will get:

Point A:

𝑀𝑢𝑦

= 0.114

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2

0.114×32×2502 ×250

∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑦 = = 57kN-m and 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 0.0kN-m

106

Point A (0,57) and Point C (57,0)

Point B:

𝑀𝑢𝑥

= 0.07

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2

0.07×32×250×2502

∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = = 35kN-m and 𝑀𝑢𝑦 = 35kN-m

106

Muy

A(0,57)

B(35,35)

45o Mux

C(57,0)

93

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

Structural Engrg. Dept. June 01, 2013

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:

a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).

b. Check if the column is slender?

c. Compute the design moment, MD.

d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).

e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m

3500kN fcu = 40MPa

Ho=6.25m

fy = 400MPa

ζ = 0.90

Pu Mu

Problem No. 5 (20%):

A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.

Input Data: Slab Loads Materials

2

ts = 0.30m LL = 3.50kN/m fcu = 30MPa

flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

For the square column C1 (500×500mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:

1. Show how concrete slab distribute the load to columns?

2. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).

3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

4. Check if the column is slender?

5. Compute the design moment, MD.

6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).

7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

Slab

4m

C1

A A 0.50 H=5.30m

C1 0.60

4m Raft

4m 4m

Plan B-B Sec. Elev. A-A

4m 4m

94

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. The planar structural shear wall shown below is subjected to gravity loads G (Dead load D

= 5000kN and Live load L = 2500kN) and an equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load, E =

1000kN. It is required to:

b. Sketch the deformed shape under the given Gravity and lateral Loads.

c. Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the wall.

Given:

U = 0.90D+1.0E

D = 5000kN

E L = 2500kN

E = 1000kN

36m

6.0m

fcu = 40MPa

fy = 400MPa

ζ 0 90

⅔hw 6000mm

G 300mm

hz.

Φ?-? EF vert.

h = 0.30m Φ?-? EF

2. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown section for M = 320kN-m.

M

Given:

As’ fcu = 25MPa

d = 800mm fy = 400MPa

fc = 9.5MPa

As fs = 220MPa

150mm

3. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the

required reinforcement if Pu = 2100kN, Mux = 400kN-m, and Muy = 200kN-m.

Mux

Given:

600mm Muy fcu = 25MPa

fy = 360MPa

ζ = 0.90

400mm

Best Wishes

Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

95

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:

a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).

b. Check if the column is slender?

c. Compute the design moment, MD.

d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).

e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m

3500kN fcu = 40MPa

Ho=6.25m

fy = 400MPa

ζ = 0.90

Pu Mu

Solution:

Assume µ = 1.0% (given). Therefore,

3500 × 1000

𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑐 ≥ = 218750mm2 or 468mm square

1 2 1

× 40 + × × 400

3 3 100

Try 500×500mm

b) Short or Long:

Unbaced Fixed-Pinned Column

𝐻𝑒 = 𝐾𝐻𝑜 = 1.60 × 6.25 = 10m

𝑏 = 𝑡 = 500mm

𝐻𝑒 10

𝜆𝑏 = =

𝑏 0.50

= 20 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

c) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = :اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ

𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.50

δ= = = 0.10m

2000 2000

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 3500 × 0.10 = 350kN-m

𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 150 + 350 = 500kN-m

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3500 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 87.5kN-m

Therefore,

𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m

96

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

M2=150kN-m Madd=350kN-m

M1=0.0kN-m

𝑃𝑢 3500 × 1000

= = 0.35

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500

𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.10

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa ρ=8 500mm

0.40

ζ=0.90

500mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.10

𝜌 = 8.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.032 = 3.20%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.032 × 500 × 500 = 8000mm2

Use 8Φ28+4Φ32

2Φ32+2Φ28

2Φ28

500mm

2Φ28

2Φ32+2Φ28

97

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.

Input Data: Slab Loads Materials

ts = 0.٣0m LL = 3.50kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa

flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

For the square column C1 (500×500mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:

1. Show how concrete slab distribute the load to columns?

2. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).

3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

4. Check if the column is slender?

5. Compute the design moment, MD.

6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).

7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

Slab

4m

C1

A A 0.50 H=5.30m

C1 0.60

4m Raft

4m 4m

Plan B-B Sec. Elev. A-A

4m 4m

Solution:

1. Load distribution:

4m

4m

4m 4m

2. Ultimate Loads:

Slab Loads:

DL = Self-weight + Finish

= 0.30×25+ 2.0 = 9.50 kN/m2

LL = 3.50 kN/m2

98

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

WUL = 1.60[3.50] = 5.60kN/m2

WU = 13.30 + 5.60 = 18.90kN/m2

PU = 1.10×5× (½×8×8×18.90) = 3326.40kN

3. Braced or Unbraced:

Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

4. Short or Long:

X-dir and Z-dir

He = k Ho = 1.30 × 5 = 6.50m

𝐻𝑒 6.50

𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =

𝑏 0.50

= 13 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

Case 1

0.30 Col.

C1

Ho = 5m

Unbraced 0.50 H=5.30m

0.60

Fixed-

Partially Case 2

Raft

Fixed

K = 1.30 4m 4m

5. 𝑀𝐷 :

𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 132 × 0.50

δ= = = 0.04225m

2000 2000

25

𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 140.50kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3326.40 = 83.20kN-m

1000

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 0 + 140.50 = 140.50kN-m

6. Column Reinforcement:

𝑀𝑢 = 𝑀𝐷 = 140.50kN-m

𝑀𝑢 140.50 𝑒 0.04225

𝑒= = = 0.04225m and = = 0.0845

𝑃𝑢 3326.40 𝑡 0.50

Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 3326.40 × 1000

= = 0.444

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 500 × 500

𝑀𝑢 140.50 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.0375

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 500 × 5002

99

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

fy=360MPa

fcu=30MPa ρ=6 500mm

0.444

ζ=0.90

500mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.0375

𝜌 = 5.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 5.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.015 = 1.50%

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.015 × 500 × 500 = 3750mm2 →Use 12∯ 20

6. Reinforcement Detailings:

4∯ 20

500mm 2∯ 20

2∯ 20

4∯ 20

1. The planar structural shear wall shown below is subjected to gravity loads G (Dead load D =

5000kN and Live load L = 2500kN) and an equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load, E =

1000kN. It is required to:

a. Specify the wall action (flexural, shear, or combined-action).

b. Sketch the deformed shape under the given Gravity and lateral Loads.

c. Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the wall.

Given:

U = 0.90D+1.0E

D = 5000kN

E L = 2500kN

E = 1000kN

36m

6.0m

fcu = 40MPa

fy = 400MPa

ζ 0 90

⅔hw 6000mm

G 300mm

hz.

Φ?-? EF vert.

h = 0.30m Φ?-? EF

100

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Solution:

6.1a. Flexural action because

ℎ𝑤 36

= = 6.0 > 3.0 Okay

𝑙𝑤 6

Slender

Shear Walls

Vertical Reinforcement

E=1000kN

E

6.0m

24.0m

D=5000kN

D

1000kN

5000kN

24000kN-m

𝟐 𝟐

𝐌𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐄 × 𝟑𝐡𝐰 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 𝟑 × 𝟑𝟔 = 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦

𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐃 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

𝐐𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐄 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

Load Combinations:

𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐃 + 𝟏. 𝟎𝐌𝐄 = 𝟎. 𝟎 + 𝟏. 𝟎 × 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦

𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐃 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟒𝟓𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

assume 𝜉 = 0.90

101

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑁𝑢 4500 × 1000

= = 0.0625

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 300 × 6000

𝑀𝑢 24000 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.056

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 300 × 60002

fy=400MPa

fcu=40MPa

0.0625 ρ=3

ζ=0.90

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 0.056

From the ID, you will get:

𝜌 = 2.0

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 2.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.008 = 0.80%

𝜇𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 0.80% which is greater than 𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.50%, Okay.

2

𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡

𝑠 2𝜋×16

4

𝜇𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 = 0.008 = =

𝑠1 × ℎ 𝑠1 × 300

→ 𝑠1 =166mm which is less than 250mm, Okay.

Use 6Φ16/m or simply Φ16-166mm EF

Horizontal Reinforcement

The factored shear at the base of the wall is:

𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 6000 = 4800mm

𝑏 = ℎ = 300mm

Lw = 6000mm

1000kN

Qu=1000kN

300mm

d = 0.80Lw

Q=1000kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 1000 × 1000

𝑞𝑢 = = = = 0.70N/mm2

𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 300 × 4800

𝑁𝑢

𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �

𝐴𝑐

102

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1000 × 1000

= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.288N/mm2

300 × 6000

Here, 𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢 . Provide 𝐀𝐡𝐳.

𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 .

2

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴ℎ𝑧

𝑠 2𝜋×10

4

𝜇ℎ𝑧 = 0.0025 = =

𝑠2 × ℎ 𝑠2 × 300

→ 𝑠2 = 210mm which is greater than 200mm, not okay.

Therefore, use 5Φ10/m or simply Φ10-200mm EF

6000mm

300mm

hz.

Φ10-200mm EF vert.

Φ16-166mm EF

6.2Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown section for M = 320kN-m.

M

Given:

As’ fcu = 25MPa

d = 800mm fy = 400MPa

fc = 9.5MPa

As fs = 220MPa

150mm

Working-Stress design Method:

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa

𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 220MPa

𝑀 = 320kN-m = 32t-m

32 × 105

𝑑 = 80 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.173

15

From the Design Tables, you will get:

𝐾2 = 1932, 𝛼 = 0.60, and 𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa

32×105

𝐴𝑠 = = 20.70cm2 Use 3Φ22+3Φ20

1932×80

′

𝐴𝑠 = 0.6 × 𝐴𝑠 = 12.42mm2 Use 2Φ22+2Φ20

2Φ22

2Φ20

3Φ20

3Φ22

103

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

6.3For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the

required reinforcement if Pu = 2100kN, Mux = 400kN-m, and Muy = 200kN-m.

Mux

Given:

600mm Muy fcu = 25MPa

fy = 360MPa

ζ = 0.90

400mm

𝑃𝑢 2100 × 1000

𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.35

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600

𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.11

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002

𝑀𝑢𝑦 200 × 1000 × 1000

= = 0.083

𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2 25 × 600 × 4002

assume that ξ = 0.90

Since the biaxial interaction diagrams do not have a value of𝑅𝑏 = 0.35, interpolation

will be performed between 𝑅𝑏 = 0.30 and𝑅𝑏 = 0.40.

For𝑅𝑏 = 0.30, the index 𝜌 = 13.0.

For𝑅𝑏 = 0.40, the index 𝜌 = 15.0.

Therefore, for𝑅𝑏 = 0.35, the index 𝜌 = 14.0.

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.035

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.035 × 400 × 600 = 8400mm2

Use 4 ∯ 28 + 12 ∯ 25

The 4 ∯ 28 bars will be placed in the corners and the 12 ∯ 25 bars will be distributed

equally in the four sides.

𝟐∯28 + 3∯25

600mm

?φ8/m

𝟐∯28 + 3∯25

400mm

104

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

Structural Engrg. Dept. June, 2014

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4:

1. A stirrup is generally under …………. .

2. On a column section, sketch a tie and a cross-tie.

3. Why does the Egyptian Code require µsp(min) in spiral columns?

4. A …………. column is used where ductility is important.

5. A bar is adequately supported against lateral movement if it is located at a corner of a ……….. .

6. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, zone.

7. For the shown Interaction Diagram, state the coordinates of A, B, C, D, and E.

Pu

A

B

C

Mu

D E

8. The shown beam has five equal spans. Draw the cases of loadings for max. +ve M at Section 1-1

and max. –ve M at section 2-2 and sketch the corresponding deflected shapes.

1 2

1 2

9. Which is preferred, Type a or b of a stirrup? and Why?

a b

10. Which column section is more efficient for Zone C? and Why?

e = 0.10t

Circular Rectangular

A e = 0.20t

B

I II

C

Problem No. 5:

3. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the

required reinforcement if Pu = 2250kN and Mux = 450kN-m.

Mux

Given:

fcu = 25MPa

600mm

fy = 360MPa

ζ = 0.90

300mm

105

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6:

Input Data: Slab Loads Materials

2

ts = 0.20m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa

flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.

2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,

it is required to:

b. Select the column reinforcement (Vertical Rebar and Horizontal Ties).

c. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

2m

0.20×0.60

B1

C1

0.20m

4m

B1

0.20×0.60

2m

2m 4m 2m

Structural Plan

Best Wishes

Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

106

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

BCE Dept. June, 2014

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4: (15 points)

1. A stirrup is generally under …………. .

2. State the beam section that correspond to each strain distribution.

As 0.003

As As A B

Beam I Beam II

3. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, zone.

4. For the shown Interaction Diagram, Why Points B and D (and not A and E) are considered?

Pu

A

B

C

Mu

D E

5. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:

a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.

b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).

Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of

vertical

350m

bars = 16mm

i. µ sp = µ sp (min) ii. µ sp > µ sp (min) iii. µ sp < µ sp (min)

Load, P (c)

(b)

(a)

Deflection,

7. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?

e = 0.10t

Tied Spiral

A e = 0.20t

B

I II

C

107

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the

required reinforcement if Pu = 2000kN and Muy =200kN-m.

Given:

fcu = 25MPa

600mm Muy fy = 360MPa

ζ = 0.90

300mm

A structural plan of a building is shown below.

Input Data: Slab Loads Materials

2

ts = 0.30m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa

flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.

2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,

it is required to:

b. Select the column reinforcement (Vertical Rebar and Horizontal Ties).

c. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

B1 (0.20×0.60)

6m B1 0.30 B1

B1 C1

6m

Structural Plan

Best Wishes

Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

108

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering RC Structures

BCE Dept. August 30, 2014

Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4:

6. A stirrup is generally under tension, True or False?

7. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?

e = 0.10t

Spiral col.

A e = 0.20t

B

I II

C

8. For the short-braced square column section shown below, it is required to:

a. Check the arrangement of vertical bars.

b. Check the arrangement of horizontal ties.

c. Calculate Pu (theoretical).

d. Calculate Pu (maximum) and Mu (minimum).

e. Check the adequacy of the given column section if:

Pu = 1600kN and Mu = 160kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of

vertical

400mm bars = 25mm

400mm

Problem No. 5:

1. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the

required reinforcement if:

Mux

Given:

fcu = 25MPa

600mm

fy = 360MPa

ζ = 0.90

300mm

109

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6:

A structural plan of a building is shown below.

2

ts = 0.30m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa

flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.

2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,

it is required to:

B1 (0.20×0.60)

6m 0.30

B1

C1

6m

Structural Plan

Best Wishes

Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

110

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering Assignment_1 Second Year Civil

Structural Engrg. Dept. 2015

The roof shown below carries a live load of 3.0kN/m2 and covering materials of 1.50kN/m2. The

slab thickness is 150 mm and all the beams have the same width b of 250mm and total depth t of

500mm. Assume f cu = 30MPa and steel 400/600. For all beams, it is required to:

1. Compute the ultimate loads for both shear and moment.

2. Draw the absolute shear and moment diagrams.

3. Design the critical sections for moment.

4. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).

5. Draw the details of the reinforcement to scale 1:50 (utilizing the moment resistance

diagram, M uR ) and details of the critical sections to scale 1:10.

4.50

3.0

150

3.0

4.0

0.125

111

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Faculty of Engineering Assignment_2 Second-Year Civil

Structural Engrg. Dept. 2015

Problem No. 1:

Answer the following by the True or False only.

9. A spiral column is used when ductility is not required.

2. A bar is adequately supported against lateral movement if it is located at a corner of a stirrup.

3. Spiral columns are ductile than tied columns

4. A stirrup is generally under tension.

5. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the tension zone.

Problem No. 2:

Answer the following.

1. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?

e = 0.10t

A e = 0.20t

B

I II

C

2. The three load-deflection curves shown below correspond to three values of µ sp of a spiral column,

State the spiral reinforcement ratio that correspond to each curve.

Load, P (c)

(b)

(a)

Deflection,

As 0.003

As As A B

Beam I Beam II

4. Why does the Egyptian Code require a minimum amount of spiral reinforcement in spiral columns?

112

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

5. Sketch the probable fracture lines (crack patterns) for the two slabs shown below under

uniformly distributed loads.

a a

a a

a 2a a

a a a

6. Sketch the deflected shapes and the corresponding BM diagrams for the structural plans shown below

under uniformly distributed loads (Strips: I-I and II-II).

II ts

5a

B1

I a

I very large depth

B1

b B1

II

II 5a a ts

B1

I a

I very big depth

B1

II b B1

7. The three load-deflection curves shown in Fig. 3a correspond to three values of compression

reinforcement of the beam in Fig. 3b, namely;

1. As′ = As

2. As′ = 0.50 As

3. As′ = 0.0

Load, P P

(c) As

(b)

(a) As

(a)

L

(b)

Deflection,

Figure 3

113

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8. The beam shown below has five equal spans. It is required to draw the cases of loadings for

maximum positive moment at 1-1 and maximum negative moment at 2-2 and sketch the corresponding

deflected shapes.

1 2

1 2

Flat Flat

plate slab

Beam Haunched

beam

kN kN

P P

Problem No. 3:

Calculate the ultimate axial load carried by each of the column sections shown below.

Given: fcu = 40Mpa and Steel 400/600.

2φ16

50 5 φ 8/m'

2φ16

8 φ16 8 19

2φ16

30 Dc = 40 Dc = 40

Problem No. 4:

Design a square column to resist Pu = 2000kN, if the column clear height Ho = 8.0 ms. Consider that the

column is braced and that the effective height He = Ho. Given: fcu = 25Mpa and Steel 360/520.

114

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 5:

Re-do Problem no. 4 for: (1) a circular column, (2) a spiral column and (3) a rectangular column with b =

300mm.

Problem No. 6:

Figure 3 shows a doubly reinforced concrete section. Determine the coordinates of points A, B, C, and D of the

shown Interaction Diagram. Use fcu = 3025 N/mm2 and steel 400/600.

50 mm

4 18

700 mm

50 mm

4 18

300 mm

Pu

f cu bt

e=e min

A

e = 0.5e b

B

e=e b

C

D Mu

f cu bt 2

Figure 3

Problem No. 7:

Utilizing the Design Interaction-Diagrams, compute the necessary reinforcement for a rectangular column

(300×1200mm) to carry the following loads. Given: fcu = 30Mpa and fy= 400Mpa.

a. Mu = 500kN-m Pu = 1000kN

b. Mu = 1000kN-m Pu = 500kN

115

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 8:

A Pin-Ended square column 10.0m tall supports PDL = 2000kN and PLL = 1000kN. The loads act at an

eccentricity of 62.50mm at top and at bottom. Use fcu = 430Mpa and fy = 360Mpa. It is required to:

1. Compute the ultimate loads and moments and the ratio (M1 / M2).

2. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 2.5%).

3. Check if the column is slender?

4. Check if the moments are less than the minimum.

5. Compute the design moment, MD.

6. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces to be used and assume ζ = 0.90).

7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

e = 62.5mm

P

10m

e = 62.5mm P

Problem No. 9:

The Figure below shows an exterior column in a multistory frame. The dimensions are center to center of

joints. All the beams are as shown in section x-x. The floor slab is 0.15 m thick. The building includes a Service

Core which resists the majority of the lateral loads. Use fcu = 25 Mpa and steel 400/600. The loads and moments

on column AB are as shown in the figure. For the column AB, it is required to:

1. Compute the ultimate loads and moments and the ratio M1 / M 2 .

2. Estimate the column size.

3. Check if the column is slender?

4. Compute the design moment.

5. Select the column reinforcement.

6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.15 m

0.50 m

kN-m kN-m kN kN 4.0 m

40 40 500 500 A x 0.35 m

x Sec. x-x

8.0 m

kN-m kN-m x

30 30 B 0.15 m

ML MD PL PD x

4.0 m 0.50 m

BMD NFD

0.35 m

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:

a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.

b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).

c. Check the adequacy of the column section if:

Pu = 1200kN and Mux = Muy = 100kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90).

d. Use the Interaction Diagrams to calculate Pu and Mu for the column section if the

eccentricity e = 200mm (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 30Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

Diameter Of

vertical

350m

bars = 16mm

350mm

Figure 1 shows a structural plan of a building. The columns are assumed square and assuming that the building

consists of 6 floors and the height of the floor is 4.50 m.

Input Data:

Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials

b = 0.30 m ts = 0.20 m LL = 5.0 kN/m2 fcu = 30 MPa

t = 0.60 m flooring = 1.50 kN/m2 fy = 400 MPa (long. st)

fy = 240 MPa (stirrups)

1. For the beam B1, it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads for both moment and shear.

b. Draw the absolute BM and SF diagrams.

c. Design the critical section for moment.

d. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).

e. Draw on a half elevation view (to scale 1:25) and on a cross section

(to scale1:10) the details of reinforcement (straight bars only).

Assume that Mu = MuR.

2. Design the slab and on a structural plan draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:50.

3. For the column C1, it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads.

b. Estimate the column size.

c. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

d. Check if the column is slender?

d. Compute the additional moment, Madd.

e. Select the column reinforcement.

f. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

117

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

2.0 m

B1

B1 0.20 m B1

6.0 m

B1

C1 2.0 m

Figure 1

A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.

Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials

b = 0.30m ts = 0.18m LL = 5.0kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa

t = 0.50m flooring = 1.50kN/m 2 fy = 400MPa

1. For the beam B1, it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads for both moment and shear.

b. Draw the absolute BM and SF diagrams.

c. Design the critical sections for moment.

d. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).

e. Draw on an elevation view (to scale 1:50) and on cross sections

(to scale1:10) the details of reinforcement (straight bars only). Assume that Mu = MuR.

2. Design the slab and on a structural plan draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:50.

3. For the square column C1 at the ground floor, it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 3-floors).

b. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.5%).

c. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?

d. Check if the column is slender?

e. Compute the additional moment, Madd.

f. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).

g. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

118

Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

0.50m 0.18m

C1 2m

B1 B1

B1

B B H = 4.5m

A B1 B1 6m

0.18m A

0.50m

B1 ﺳﻤﻞ

Footing Footing

0.15m 6m 2m 0.15m

1. For the shown shear wall, it is required to calculate the minimum tie size and the maximum vertical

spacing of ties. Use fcu = 30Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

Diameter Of

200mm vertical

bars = 12mm

2000mm

2. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for Mu

= 150kN-m. Use fcu = 25Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

As’

d = 500mm

As

b = 200mm

119

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