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Dr. Mohamed E.

El-Zoughiby, 2015

Dr. MOHAMED EL-ZOUGHIBY


Associate Professor, Structural Engrg. Dept.,
Director of SREC Center,
Faculty of Engineering,
Mansoura University,
Mansoura, Egypt.
m_elzoughiby@yahoo.com
2015
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 6: "REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS"


CHAPTER 7: "REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS"
CHAPTER 8: "WALLS AND SHEAR WALLS"
CHAPTER 9: "WORKING-STRESS DESIGN METHOD"

EXAMS
Exam_2011
Exam_2012
Exam_2013
Exam_2014

ASSIGNMENTS
Assignment_1
Assignment_2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 6
REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
 Structural Plan:
0.125 5.0 2.0

a b
5.0

c d e

5.0 mm b=250mm
180

f 250×500mm g h
0.125
Structural Plan

 Beam Type:

0.125 5.0
0.125
1.Simple

t=500mm
2.Continuous (2spans or more)
5.0 5.0 0.125
0.125

3.Beam w/ cantilever
5.0 2.0
0.125

5.0 2.0
0.125
Y = the greatest of:
t
0.50t
φ tb
φ ≤ 1:3

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Beam section (concrete):

3
5.0 1.875
0.125 0.125

1 a b 1
5.0 2.0
5.0
Sec. 1-1

c d e
2 2
5.0 2.0
5.0 mm
180
Sec. 2-2

f 250×500mm g h
0.125
3
5.0 5.0

Sec. 3-3

 Bending Moment Diagram and Beam section (Design):

5.0 x Mu

x Sec. x-x
Beam a-b Mu=WuL2/8
L=???=Leff
1 2 3
Beam f-c-a
1 2 3
5.0 5.0

Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2 Sec. 3-3

Mu1-1 Mu3-3

Mu2-2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

6.2 EFFECTIVE SPAN, LEFF


1. Simple
Lc/c = 5.0m

Leff
t = 0.5m

Ln = 4.75m
Mu = Wu(Leff)2/8
Leff = the lealest of:

2. Continuous 1.05Ln
Ln+t
5.0 5.0
Lc/c

Monolithic Bearing
action Wall

Leff = the lealest of: Leff = the lealest of:


1.05Ln Ln+t
Lc/c Lc/c

3. Beam w/ cantilever
5.0 Lc/c = 2m

Ln=1.875m

Leff = the lealest of:


Ln+t
Lc/c

6.3 HOW CONCRETE SLABS DISTRIBUTE THE LOAD TO THE BEAMS?


 Load Path:

Slab
thick.
Slab Slab
ts

1m×1m
Beam
(If any)
Plan view
Column
Beam
Beam

Column 3D view

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Loads:
Dead Loads: DL (Self-weight + Super-imposed dead loads)
Live Loads: LL (as per the Egyptian Code for loads)

 Slab Loads:

Live Load Slab


LL ‫ﺑﻼط‬ thick.
‫رﻣﻞ‬ Slab
ts
Loads
‫ﻣﻮﻧﺔ‬
ts
‫ﻋﺎزل‬ RC slab

‫ﺑﯿﺎض‬ 1.0m 1.0m

DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 1.0m×1.0m×0.18m×25kN/m3+ 1.50 kN/m2 (given) = 4.50+1.50 = 6.0kN/m2
LL = 2.0kN/m2 (given; refer to the Egyptian Code for Loads)

 Beam Loads:

Overlap
Slab S1 Slab S2 Slab S1 Slab S2

t-ts t

5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

Wall
1.0m
t = 500mm

Width

Height
Beam

B = 250mm 1.0m

Self-weight = 0.25m×0.50m×1.0m×25kN/m3 = 3.125 kN/m


Block wall = width×height×1.0m×block wall density = ? kN/m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Example #1:

Finish = 1.5kN/m2
LL = 2.50kN/m2
1m
200×500mm 2m
1m
1m
1m 1m
mm
1m 140 4m 6m
2m
200×200mm 1m
6m 2m
1m
Str. plan 1m

6m
Slab Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 1.0×1.0×0.14×25 + 1.50 = 3.50+1.50 = 5.0 kN/m2
LL = 2.50 kN/m2

Beam Loads:
Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50 kN/m
DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 2.50 + 5.0×2.0 = 12.50 kN/m
LL = LL from slab = 2.50×2.0 = 5.0 kN/m
WU = WUD + WUL = 1.40 WD + 1.60 WL = 1.40×12.50 + 1.60× 5.0 = 25.50 kN/m
Leff = the least of: 1.05Ln = 6.10m or Ln + t = 6.3m or Lc/c = 6.0m
Leff = 6.0m

Wu=25.50kN/m

6m

Mu=114.75kN-m

Qu=67.50kN

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Crack Patterns and Tributary Area:


1. Solid Slab:
L

φ φ/2

Axis of
rotation

Axis of
rotation

2. Flat Plate Slab:

Axis of
rotation
L L

L L

Axis of
rotation

0.5L 0.5L

0.5L

0.5L

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

3. Exercise:
L 2L

L L

L L L

L L L

4. One- and Two-Way Action:


L = a

x
2x = b
45o

x L – 2x x

r = rectangularity ratio = (a/b) = (L/2x)


If r ≤ 2.0 (Two-way Action)
If r > 2.0 (One-Way Action)
L

2x

Two-Way Action (r ≤ 2.0)


L L

2x 2x

One-Way Action (r > 2.0)

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

5. Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Loads:


5.0 5.0

Finish = 1.5kN/m2
a b c LL = 2.0kN/m2
mm
160
6.0 200×600mm

a b 200×500mm c

5.0 5.0

2.50
6.0

2.50

Slab Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 0.16×25+ 1.50 = 4.0+1.50 = 5.50 kN/m2
LL = 2.0 kN/m2
Beam loads:
Beam a-a (simple):
Self-weight = 0.20×0.60×1.0×25 = 3.0 kN/m
DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 3.0 kN/m + 5.50×2.50 = 3 kN/m + 13.75 kN/m
LL = LL from slab = 2.0×2.50 = 5.0 kN/m
WU = 1.40×3 + 1.40×13.75 + 1.60× 5.0 = 4.20 kN/m + 27.25kN/m
Here, r = 6/5 = 1.20. From Table: αb = 0.769 and βb = 0.582.
‫( ﻟﻠﻛﻣرات ﻟﺗﻘدﯾر اﻷﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﻣﻧﺗظﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺋﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻣﺎل اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻔروﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻛﻣرات‬αb and βb) ‫ﺟدول اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت‬

r = L/2x 1.0 1.10 1.20 1.30 -- -- -- -- 2.0


αb 2/3 -- 0.769 -- -- -- -- -- 0.917
βb 1/2 -- 0.582 -- -- -- -- --
Loads for Moment
WU = 4.20 + α×27.25 = 4.20 + 0.769×27.25 = 25.20kN/m
Loads for Shear
WU = 4.20 + β ×27.25 = 4.20 + 0.582×27.25 = 20.0kN/m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

4.20kN/m 4.20kN/m
27.25kN/m 27.25kN/m

Moment Shear

Wu=25.20kN/m Wu=20.0kN/m

6m 6m
Assume Leff = Lc/c Assume Leff = Lc/c

Mu = 113.40kN-m Qu = 60.0kN
Beam a-b-c (Continuous):
Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50 kN/m
DL = Self-weight + DL from slab = 2.50 + 5.50×2.50 = 2.50kN/m + 13.75 kN/m
LL = LL from slab = 2.0×2.50 = 5.0 kN/m
WU = 1.40×2.50 + 1.40×13.75 + 1.60× 5.0 = 3.50kN/m + 27.25 kN/m
For the triangle: αb = 2/3 and βb = 1/2.
Loads for Moment
WU = 3.50 + αb × 27.25 = 3.50 + (2/3) × 27.25 = 21.67kN/m
Loads for Shear
WU = 3.50 + βb ×27.25 = 3.50 + (1/2) × 27.25 = 17.13kN/m

3.50kN/m 3.50kN/m
27.25kN/m 27.25kN/m

Moment Shear

Wu=21.67kN/m Wu=17.13kN/m

5m 5m 5m 5m

It should be noted that:

C.L. Max Max


Symm.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

6.4 MOMENT AND SHEAR


 Maximum Positive and Negative Moments:

WuL
WuD Case 1
WuL
WuD
Case 2
WuL
WuD
Case 3

Absolute BMD
2 1
3

 Maximum Shear:
WuL
WuD
Case 1
WuL
WuD
Case 2

Absolute SFD
1
2
 Deflected Shape:
WuL WuL WuL
WuD

Max. +ve
WuL WuL
WuD

Max. -ve
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Egyptian Code:

24 9 24 8

11 11 8
0.40
0.60

0.60
0.40

Fixed Hinged Partially


Fixed

P P

Strut Tie

P P
Rebar = Reinforcing bars
Reinf’t = Reinforcement
Add’l = Additional
Pin-Ended = Hinged
Restrained = Fixed (Totally) or Partially Fixed

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 7
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
 What is a Column?

Pu

Column:
• Vertical member
• Usually under x x
compression

Pu Sec. x-x

 Is it Column or Wall?
Column:
t b Wall:
H > 5b t
b >120mm
and
and
t ≤ 5b
t > 5b

Story b1t1 b
Height Weak
= H H axis
Strong
B2t2 axis

 Is it Short or Long?

Pu
Pu

Short Long Buckling

Madd = Pu×δ
Pu
Pu
Member stability (P-δ Effect)

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Is it Braced or Unbraced?

∆ ∆
Pu

Wall ∆
∆ ≅ 0.0
Braced UnBraced Pu
Msway = Pu×∆
Structure stability (P-∆ Effect)
`

7.2 SHORT-BRACED COLUMNS


• Short (No Buckling, Madd = 0)
• Braced (No Sway, Msway = 0)

Case A: Axially Loaded Columns (No eccentricity, e = 0)


i. Tied Columns
ii. Spiral Columns

Pu cover
e = 0
Mu = 0 Sv Pitch
hz. “p”
vert. tie
Is it
bar Which
Axis Possible? Tied Spiral
is
Column column
Preferred?

Case B: Combined Axial Load and Bending

Mu e
Pu
Pu Mu comes from:
1. Loads,
2. Buckling,
3. Sway,
4. Etc…
Axis Mu = Pu × e

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7.3 DESIGN
i. Short-Braced-Axially Loaded Tied Columns

What is meant by:


a. Short,
b. Braced,
c. Axially loaded, and
d. Tied columns?

Pext. = Pint.
Pu = Pconcrete + Psteel
= (0.67fcu/γc)Ac + As fy/γs = (0.67fcu/1.5) Ac + As fy/1.15
= 0.45fcuAc+ 0.87As fy
Pu

Steel
Concrete Axis of
symmetry

fy
γs 0.67fcu
γc
But due to:
Misalignment of columns, uneven compaction, misalignment of
reinforcement, etc., minimum eccentricity (emin) to be considered.

e min 0.05b
b
Mu,min = Pu × emin Pu
emin = (‫)اﻷﻛﺑر ﻣن‬ t
0.05b or 0.05t
and
20mm 0.05t

Pu,max = 0.80×[0.45fcuAc+ 0.87As fy]


= 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu
Pu,theoret.
(Mu,min,Pu,max) 3 Unknowns:
Axially
Loaded (b, t, and As)
Ac=b×t
1 Equation:
Pu,max = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy

Mu

7.4 REINFORCEMENT
Vertical Reinforcement (Rebar, Reinforcing Bars):
As,min = 0.80% Ac,req.
But not less than 0.60% Ac,act.
As,max = 4% Ac Interior columns
= 5% Ac Edge columns
= 6% Ac Corner columns

Min.
4φ12 Corner
column
Not less
250mm Edge
than 200mm column
300mm
Interior
column

Horizontal Reinforcement (Stirrups or Ties):


A Tie (or stirrup) is generally under tension.
Sv,max = 15Φ (min. bar diameter of vert. bars) and
But not greater than 200mm
φmin = 0.25Φmax (max. bar diameter of vert. bars)
But not less than 8mm

Min. vol. of stirrups = 0.25% Volume of concrete

Tie or
stirrup
Sv,max φmin
Tie
Cross-tie !!

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #1:
4.0m

Finish=1.5kN/m2
LL=2.0kN/m2
4.0m mm
140 200×500m
2.0m
Number of
B1
Stories
= 5
Slab Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 0.14×25+ 1.50 = 3.50+1.50 = 5.0kN/m2
LL = 2.0kN/m2
Beam loads:
Beam B1 (simple):
Self-weight = 0.20×0.50×1.0×25 = 2.50kN/m
r = 4/4=1.0 (βb = ½)
Loads for shear:
WUD = 1.40[2.5+2×5× ½] = 10.5kN/m
WUL = 1.60[2×2× ½] = 3.2kN/m
WU = 10.5+3.2 = 13.7kN/m
RU = 13.7×4/2 = 27.4kN (each column has two reactions)
PU = 5×27.4×2×1.1 = 602.8kN (no. of stories n = 5 and 1.10 for column weight)

Wu=13.70kN/m

4m Ru=27.40kN

Example #2:
For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) square column,
it is required to:
1. Calculate Pu,max.
2. Check vertical reinforcement.
3. Check stirrups.

fy = 400MPa
300mm Str.φ10-200mm fcu = 25MPa
As = 4Φ25
300mm = 1964mm2
Pu,max:
Pu,max = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy = 0.35×300×300×25+ 0.67×1964×400
= 1313850N = 1313.850kN
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Vertical reinforcement:
𝐴𝑠 1964
𝜇= = × 100 = 2.2%
𝐴𝑐 300 × 300
where µ is the reinforcement ratio.
Here, µ is greater than µmin and less than µmax, Okay.

Stirrups:
φmin = 0.25Φmax = 0.25×25 = 6.25mm
But not less than 8mm
φmin = 8mm which is less than 10mm (given), Okay.

Sv,max = 15Φ = 15×25 = 375mm


But not greater than 200mm
Sv,max = 200mm which is equal to 200mm (given), Okay.
0.25 0.25
Vol. of stirrups = Vol. of concrete = × 300 × 300 × 1000
100 100
2
0.25 𝜋𝜙𝑠𝑡𝑟 𝜋102
× 300 × 300 × 1000 = 𝑛 ×𝐿 =𝑛 (4 × 250)
100 4 4
n = 2.86 ≅ 3.0 which is less than 5 (Okay).

300mm 0.3m 0.3m

250
300mm 250
n
str./m 250 1.0m
250
1.0m
L = perimeter of stirrup
= 4(250)= 1000mm n str./m

Example #3:
For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) rectangle column,
it is required to calculate t , As, and stirrups.

fy = 240MPa
300mm fcu = 28MPa
Pu = 1900kN
t = ? b = 300mm
t = ?
t and As:
Here, at first, assume µ = 1.0%. Therefore, As = 0.01 Ac.
Pu,max = 1900×1000N
= 0.35×(300×t)×28+ 0.67×(0.01×300×t)×240
treq. = 555mm and tact. = 600mm (nearest to 50mm). Try 300×600mm
As = 0.01×300×600 = 1800mm2 (use 4φ16+4φ18)

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Stirrups (Ties):
φmin = 0.25φmax = 0.25×18 = 4.50mm
But not less than 8mm
φmin = 8mm

𝜋82 0.25
𝑛 (2500) = × 300 × 600 × 1000
4 100
n = 3.60 ≅ 4.0. This means φ8-250mm. That is, Sv = 250mm.
Check Sv with Sv,max as follows:
Sv,max = 15φ = 15×16 = 240mm
But not greater than 200mm
Sv,max = 200mm
As this the case, use φ8-200mm.
550
600mm
250 250
300mm 250
200
L = perimeter of stirrup
= 2(550+250)+2(250+200)
= 2500mm

Vert. Bars: Hz. Ties or Stirrups:


t

b
≤ 250

If X2 X1
b=300mm
b>300mm ≤ 250 or less
add
Laterally supported
bars
To be checked:

A bar is laterally supported:


New If x1 and x2 ≤ 150mm
bars 130
Bar to be laterally supported:
If x1 and/or x2 ≤ 150mm
300
t
Example 700 Exercis

b
Square
130 130 Column

1. b = t = 400mm
2. b = t = 600mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

ii. Short-Braced-Axially Loaded Spiral Columns

What is meant by:


e. Short,
f. Braced,
g. Axially loaded, and
h. Spiral columns?

emin clear φsp


Pu cover Spiral
Mu,min =
Pu×emin Pitch P =
(30-80mm) DC
Spiral
DK
DK
Min.
Dc ≥ 200mm Out-to-out
6φ12 of spiral

DK = DC - 2 cover (cover = 20-25mm)


𝜋𝐷𝐶2 2
𝜋𝐷𝐾
𝐴𝐶 = and 𝐴𝐾 =
4 4
vol. of spiral reinforcement 𝐴𝑠𝑝 (𝜋𝐷𝐾 ) 𝐴𝑠𝑝 (𝜋𝐷𝐾 ) 4𝐴𝑠𝑝
𝜇𝑠𝑝 = = = 𝜋𝐷2
=
vol. of concrete for one pitch 𝐴𝐾 ×𝑝 𝐾 ×𝑝 𝐷𝐾 ×𝑝
4
𝐴𝑠𝑝 𝜋𝐷𝐾
𝑉𝑠𝑝 = vol. of spirals per pitch =( )
𝑝
Vertical Reinforcement: Horizontal Reinforcement:
Rebar (Reinforcing Bars) Spirals
As,min = the greater of: ∅𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑠𝑝 = 8mm
1.0% AC p = (30-80mm)
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴 𝑓
1.20% AK 𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � 𝐶 − 1� 𝑐𝑢
𝐴𝐾 𝑓𝑦𝑝
Where 𝑓𝑦𝑝 = Yield strength for hz. Reinforcement and
𝑓𝑦 = Yield strength for vert. reinforcement

end
3×0.5p

p L = the greater of:


100mm and
10φsp
3×0.5p
start L

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

P Pu

Tied ∆

Spiral

At Point B
DK
shell spalls DC
out
P AC AK C,Pu2
B,Pu1

0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy Tied


A
Spiral
Pu1= Brittle
1.14Pu,tied faiure


For design purposes:
Tied column, Point A:
𝑃𝑢𝑇𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦
Spiral column, Points B and C:
𝑃𝑢1 = 1.14𝑃𝑢𝑇𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 0.40𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.76𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦
𝑃𝑢2 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 + 1.38𝑉𝑠𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝

P P Here, Pu1= Pu2


Pu1 Pu2
Pu1 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜇𝑠𝑝 < 𝜇𝑠𝑝 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 𝜇𝑠𝑝

𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝐴𝐶 𝑓𝑐𝑢
𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � − 1�
𝐴𝐾 𝑓𝑦𝑝
∆ ∆

P Pu2
Pu1

𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜇𝑠𝑝 > 𝜇𝑠𝑝

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #4:
For the shown short-braced axially loaded spiral column,
it is required to calculate As and Asp.

fy = 240MPa
300mm fcu = 20MPa
DC = 300mm
Pu = 900kN

Rebar, As:
Pu1 = 900×1000 = 0.40×(π×3002/4)×20+ 0.76×As×240
As = 1834mm2, use 8φ18 (2034mm2)

Spirals, Asp:
DK = 300 - 2×20 = 260mm
AK = 53114mm2
Pu2 = 900×1000 = 0.35×(53114)×20+ 0.67×2034×240+1.38× Vsp×240
Vsp = 607mm2 = Asp πDK/p (1)
𝜋∅2𝑠𝑝
Knowing that 𝐴𝑠𝑝 =
4
And assuming φsp = 8mm, therefore, Asp = 50mm2
Substituting into Eq. 1
Pitch p = 67mm, use p = 60mm
𝑚𝑖𝑛 70714 20 4×50
𝜇𝑠𝑝 = 0.36 � − 1� × 100 = 1% is less than 𝜇𝑠𝑝 = × 100 = 1.28% (Okay.
53114 240 260×60

Exercise #1:
For the shown short-braced axially loaded (tied) square column,
it is required to calculate As and stirrups.

square fy = 240MPa
550mm fcu = 20MPa
Pu = 200kN
Exercise #2:
For the shown short-braced axially loaded spiral column,
it is required to calculate Pu, check the vertical reinforcement and stirrups.

p = 50mm
fy = 240MPa
fcu = 20MPa DC =400mm φsp = 8mm
Pu = ?kN As = 8φ16

DK =330mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7.2 SHORT-BRACED COLUMNS


Case B: Combined Axial Load and Bending

e
Mu
Pu Pu
Mu comes from:
Mu a. Loads,
e = b. Buckling,
Pu
c. Sway,
d. emin
e. Etc…
Axis

Short means no buckling and, therefore, Madd = 0


Braced means no side-sway and, therefore, Msway = 0
Axially loaded means no eccentricity but, however, minimum eccentricity emin
to be considered. Thus, Mu,min = Pu × emin.

Moments Mu due to Loads:


1. Gravity Loads
- Dead Load
- Live Load
2. Lateral Loads
- Wind Loads
- Earthquake Loads
DL+LL
Wind or
Quake
Loads Girder Moments Moments
(Beam) due to due to
Gravity Lateral
Column Loads Loads

If :
• Mu ≤ Mu,min
Use Pu = 0.35 Ac fcu + 0.67 As fy

• Mu > Mu,min
Use Interaction-Diagrams IDs.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Interaction-Diagrams

Pu
Mu1
(Mu1,Pu1)
Pu1
Pu1
ρ=8
7
6

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
Mu µ=As/Ac
Mu1

Rebar in Four Faces (Uniform)

(As)total = µ × b × t
µ = ρ × fcu × 10-4

Pu
(Mu1,Pu1)
Pu1
Four
ρ = ? Faces

Mu
Mu1
Rebar in Two Faces
𝐴′𝑠
As an example, for = 1.0
𝐴𝑠
From the Interaction Diagram, get ρ. Then, µ = ρ × fcu × 10-4 and 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡.

Pu
(Mu1,Pu1)
Two
Pu1
Faces
ρ = ?
𝐴′𝑠
= 1.00
𝐴𝑠
= 0.90
Mu = 0.80
Mu1

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Data required for entering the Interaction Diagram


1. Concrete and reinforcement yield strengths, fcu and fy.
2. The dimensions b and t.
𝐴′𝑠
3. The ratio 𝛼 (where 𝛼 = )
𝐴𝑠

𝑑−𝑑′ 𝑡−2(𝑐+𝜙𝑠𝑡 +0.5𝜙)


4. The parameter ζ where 𝜉 = =
𝑡 𝑡
For example, if t = 400mm, c = 25mm (to be assumed), φst = 8mm, and φ = 20mm. Then,
𝑡 − 2(𝑐 + 𝜙𝑠𝑡 + 0.5𝜙) 400 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)
𝜉= = = 0.875
𝑡 400
d’ Cover c
Pu
φst
t=400m ζt φ/2

d” ζ=0.90
=0.80
Mu =0.70

Pu Slope = P = 1
e
M 0.003
Balanced
(0,Pu,theo)
(Mu,min,Pu,max) Failure
Comp.
Column εy
Pu,max Tension
(Mub,Pub)
Mu
(Mu,0)
Mu,min Beam

Pu,theo = 0.45fcuAc+ 0.87As fy


Pu,max = 0.80 Pu,theo = 0.35Acfcu+ 0.67As fy
Mu,min = Pu,max × emin

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu
fcubt

Dimensionless A t
B
fy ρ = ?
fcu b
b,t
ζ C
Mu
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
As=µbt D fcubt2

Pu
fcubt Mu1
t

Pu Pu
t b Mu2

b
Mu
fcubt2

Setting-up an Interaction Diagram ID


Show how you could set-up the ID for the shown section?
Mu
d’ b = 250mm
As’ t = 600mm
fcu = 25MPa
Pu
d d-d’ fy = 240MPa
t ζt
As = As of 3φ20 = 942.85mm2
As As’ = As’of 3φ20 = 942.85mm2
d” α = As’/As = 1.0
ζ = d-d’ b As = µ×b×t
t
d’ = d” = 50mm

Plastic Centroid: It is the location of the resultant axial force produced by the steel and the
concrete when 𝑓𝑐 = 0.67𝑓𝑐𝑢 and 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦 .

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

As’ fy Fs2

t Fc
ypc
As fy
X X Fs1
b
0.67fcu
𝐹𝑐 = 0.67𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝐴𝑐 = 0.67 × 25 × 250 × 600 = 2512.5kN at 300mm from X-X
𝐹𝑠1 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 = 942.85 × 240 = 226.285kN
𝐹𝑠2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 = 942.85 × 240 = 226.285kN
2512.5 × 300 + 226.285 × 550 + 226.285 × 50
𝑦𝑝𝑐 = = 300mm (symm. sec.)
2512.5 + 226.285 + 226.285
Point A:
𝑃𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜. = 0.45 × 250 × 600 × 25 + 0.87 × 942.85 × 240 = 1884.37kN
𝑀𝑢 = 0.0kN-m
Point A (0.0kN-m, 1884.37kN)
Point B:
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.35 × 250 × 600 × 25 + 0.67 × 942.85 × 240 = 1464.11kN
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 × 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.05𝑡 = 30mm which is greater than 20mm
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1464.11 × 0.03 =43.90kN-m
Point B (43.90kN-m, 1464.11kN)
Point C:
𝑐𝑏 0.003 0.003 0.003
= = = = 0.7143mm
𝑑 0.003 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑓𝑦 240
0.003 + 0.003 +
𝐸𝑠 200000
𝑑 = 550mm
𝑐𝑏 = 392.85mm
𝑎𝑏 = 0.80𝑐𝑏 = 314.285mm
𝑓𝑐𝑢 25
𝐶𝑐 = 0.67 𝑏𝑎𝑏 = 0.67 × 250 × 314.285 = 877.37kN
𝛾𝑐 1.5
assume 𝜖𝑠′ > 𝜖𝑦 which means that 𝑓𝑠′ = 𝑓𝑦
𝑓′
′ 𝑠
𝑓𝑦 240
𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN
𝛾𝑠 𝛾𝑠 1.15

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑦 240
𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN
𝛾𝑠 1.15
𝑃𝑢𝑏 = 𝐶𝑐 + 𝐶𝑠 − 𝑇 = 877.37 + 196.77 − 196.77 = 877.37kN
Taking the moment about the plastic centroid gives:
𝑀𝑢𝑏 = 𝐶𝑐 �𝑡 − 𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 0.50𝑎� + 𝐶𝑠 �𝑡 − 𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 𝑑 ′ � + 𝑇�𝑦𝑝𝑐 − 𝑑 " �
𝑀𝑢𝑏 = 877.37(600 − 300 − 0.50 × 314.285) + 196.77(600 − 300 − 50)
+ 196.77(300 − 50) = 223.72kN-m
Point C (223.72kN-m, 877.37kN)
0.003
εs’
As’ Cs
cb ab Cc
t NA
As εs=εy T

b
Point D:
Here, 𝑒 > 𝑒𝑏 which means that 𝜖𝑠 > 𝜖𝑦 and, thus, 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦
50
𝑓𝑠′ = 600[1 − ]
𝑐
25
𝐶𝑐 = 0.67 × 250 × 0.80𝑐 = 2.23𝑐kN
1.5
𝑓′
′ 𝑠
600 50 50
𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 [1 − ] = 492[1 − ]kN
𝛾𝑠 1.15 𝑐 𝑐
𝑓𝑦 240
𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 = 942.85 = 196.77kN
𝛾𝑠 1.15
𝑇 = 𝐶𝑐 + 𝐶𝑠
50
196.77 = 2.23𝑐 + 492[1 − ]
𝑐
𝑐 = 58mm
𝑎 = 0.80𝑐 = 46.4mm
𝑓𝑠′ = 82.75N/mm2
𝑀𝑢 = 𝐶𝑐 (𝑑 − 0.50𝑎) + 𝐶𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
𝑀𝑢 = 129.34(550 − 0.50 × 46.4) + 67.85(550 − 50) = 102.10kN-m
Point D (102.10kN-m, 0.0kN)

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Pu e=emin
fcubt 0.003
εs<εy
A(0,Pu,theo) Compression
B(Mu,min,Pu,max) 0.003

εs=εy
e=eb
Balanced
Slope=[1/(e/t)]
C(Mub,Pub) 0.003
εs>εy
Mu
D(Mu,0) Tension
fcubt2

Reinf’t to be Checked
Given: Pu
b and t (or Ac) fcubt
As = µ×b×t
t
Pu1 and Mu1
fcu and fy C
OD
Utilization = Pu1 b
Factor U.F. OC D
UF < 1.0
UF = 1.0 Mu
UF > 1.0 O Mu1 fcubt2

Reinf’t to be Designed
Pu
Given:
fcubt
b and t (or Ac)
t
ρmax
As = ????
Pu1 and Mu1
fcu and fy
ρ b
Pu1
From ID Diagram:
Get ρ ρmin
µ = ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu
As = µbt fcubt2
Mu1

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Column Type:

e=0.10t

Pu Four faces:
fcubt
e=0.20t

Two faces:
(farthest
from the
axis of
bending)

Mu
fcubt2

Estimating Column Size:


As a first trial, use the following equation to estimate the column size.

𝑃𝑢 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦


𝐴𝑠
𝑃𝑢 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67 𝑓𝑦 )
𝐴𝑐
𝑃𝑢 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝜇𝑓𝑦 )

Which gives:
𝑃𝑢
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥
1 2
𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 𝜇𝑓𝑦
3 3

Assuming µ, this equation underestimates Ac.


Why???

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example #5:
It is required to design the shown short-braced (tied) square column. Given:

fy = 400MPa
fcu = 20MPa
b=?
Pu = 1600kN
Mu = 150kN-m
Ac = ?
t=? AS = ?
Column Size:
Here, at first, assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,
1600 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ or 150000mm2 or 387mm square
1 2 1.5
× 20 + × × 400
3 3 100
Use 400×400mm
𝑀𝑢 150 × 1000
𝑒= = = 93.75mm
𝑃𝑢 1600
𝑒 93.75
= = 0.234 which is greater than 0.20
𝑡 400
Bars in Two Faces.
400 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 25)
𝜉= = 0.7725 ≅ 0.80
400
𝑃𝑢 1600 × 1000
= = 0.50
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 400 × 400
𝑀𝑢 150 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.1172
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 400 × 4002

fy=400MPa Pu
fcu=20MPa fcubt 400mm
α=1.0
ζ=0.80 ρ=6.0
0.50 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
Mu
As=µbt and As’=αAs fcubt2
0.1172

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

From the ID, you will get: 𝜌 = 6.0


𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 6 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.2%
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.012 × 400 × 400 = 1920mm2
𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 = 1.0 × 1920 = 1920mm2
Use 4Φ25

4Φ25
400mm
4Φ25
400mm

Re-solve the problem using bars in Four Faces


From the ID, you will get:
𝜌 = 14.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.028 = 2.80%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.028 × 400 × 400 = 4480mm2
Use 12Φ22

Pu
fy=400MPa
fcubt 12Φ22
fcu=20MPa 400mm
ζ=0.80
ρ=14.0
0.50 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu
As=µbt fcubt2
0.1172

Exercise:
Show how you could set-up the ID for the shown section?

4Φ25
400mm fy = 360MPa
fcu = 30MPa
4Φ25
400mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7.3 SLENDER (LONG) COLUMNS


∆ ∆

Shear
Wall
δ δ
∆ ≅ 0.0
Braced UnBraced

Is it Braced or UnBraced?
A building can be considered Braced in one direction if:
1. It is provided with structural walls (shear walls and core-walls) extended to the full
height of the building and connected to the foundation and the following equations are
met:
For buildings that consist of 4 floors or more:

𝑁
𝛼 = 𝐻𝑏 � < 0.60
∑ 𝐸𝐼
For buildings that consist of less than 4 floors:

𝑁
𝛼 = 𝐻𝑏 � < 0.20 + 0.10𝑛
∑ 𝐸𝐼
Hb = Total height of building above the foundation level
N = Total unfactored (working) loads carried by all vertical elements
ΣEI = Summation of the flexural rigidities of the walls sharing in supporting the
building
n = Number of building floors

Examples #6 and #7:


Exercise #1:
A structural plan for a 15 story residential building is shown below. The following
data are given:
Thickness of flat plate of all floors = 350mm
The floor cover = 1.50kN/m2
The equivalent wall loads = 3.50kN/m2
The live load = 3.0kN/m2
The height of the ground floor = 5m
Typical floor height = 3m
Assume Ec = 25000N/mm2
It is required to check the bracing condition of the building in both directions.
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8.0m 8.0m
2.0m

1.0×1.0m
8.0m

3.0m 3.0m
2.0m

4.0m
8.0m 8.0m
Stairs
4.0m well

0.40m
Lifts
well

Is it Short or Long?
𝐻𝑒
𝜆𝑏 =
𝑏
𝐻𝑒 = Effective (buckling length) = 𝑘𝐻𝑜
K depends on:
Column is Braced or UnBraced
Column’s End Conditions (Fixed, Partially Fixed, Hinged, Free)

H = story Ho = Hu
height Unsupported
length

X X

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

∆ ∆
Shear
Wall
δ Ho He = Ho
K = 1.0 Ho
He = Ho
Braced K = 1.0
He

UnBraced
0.5Ho Shear
Wall
δ
Ho He = 0.50Ho
Inflection
K = 0.50
point IP
Braced

Table 6-7 Limits of Slenderness Ratio for Short Columns


Column Status 𝐻𝑒 � 𝐻𝑒 �𝐷 𝐻𝑒�
𝜆𝑏 or 𝜆𝑡 = 𝑏 or 𝑡 𝜆𝐷 = 𝜆𝑖 = 𝑖
Braced 15 12 50
UnBraced 10 8 35

Table 6-8 Limits of Slenderness Ratio for Slender Columns


Column Status 𝜆𝑏 or 𝜆𝑡 𝜆𝐷 𝜆𝑖
Braced 30 25 100
UnBraced 23 18 70

If 𝜆𝑏 ≤ 𝜆(Table 6-7) → Short Column


If 𝜆(Table 6-7) < 𝜆𝑏 ≤ 𝜆(Table 6-8) → Slender Column
If 𝜆𝑏 > 𝜆(Table 6-8) → Change Column Dimensions

b = smaller dimension of the section


t = larger dimension of the section
D = diameter of the section
i = radius of gyration = �𝐼�𝐴

i = 0.25D circular section i = 0.30b rectangular section

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

K depends on:
Column is Braced or UnBraced
Column’s End Conditions (Fixed, Partially Fixed, Hinged, Free)

tb or ts
Fixed = case 1

tc Case 1: Case 3: Partially


tc ≤ tb or ts Fixed = case 2

tb or ts Hinged = case 3

tc Case 2: Case 4:
Free = case 4
tc > tb or ts
Table 6-9 The Factor K for Braced Columns
Top End Bottom End Condition
Condition 1 2 3
1 0.75 0.80 0.90
2 0.80 0.85 0.95
3 0.90 0.95 1.0

Table 6-10 The Factor K for Unbraced Columns


Top End Bottom End Condition
Condition 1 2 3
1 1.20 1.30 1.60
2 1.30 1.50 1.80
3 1.60 1.80 ---
4 2.20 --- ---

t b
t b
b
Story Weak
b Height axis
He H
t
t t
He He
Beam
b Strong
He axis
Column

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Additional Moments:
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏
δ=
2000

Example #8:
It is required to design the shown braced square column,

fy = 240MPa
fcu = 20MPa
b=? Square Pu = 2000kN
Pin-ended
Ho = He = 8m
b=? AS = ?
Pu Pu

Short Long Buckling

δ Madd = Pu×δ

Pu Pu

Column Size:
Here, at first, assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,
2000 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ or 220588mm2 or 470mm square
1 2 1.5
× 20 + × × 240
3 3 100
Try (for example) 500×500mm. However, let us start with 400×400mm.
𝑏 = 𝑡=400mm
𝐻𝑒 8.0
𝜆𝑏 = =
𝑏 0.40
= 20 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.40
δ= = = 0.08m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 2000 × 0.08 = 160kN-m which is greater than 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000
𝑒= = = 0.08m
𝑃𝑢 2000
𝑒 0.080
= = 0.20
𝑡 0.40
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Try bars in Four Faces (uniform).


400 − 2(20 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)
𝜉= = 0.81
400
𝑃𝑢 2000 × 1000
= = 0.625
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 400 × 400
𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.125
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 400 × 4002

Pu
fy=240MPa
fcubt 400mm
fcu=20MPa
ζ=0.80 ρ>ρmax
0.625 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu
fcubt2
0.125

From the ID, you will get: 𝜌 > 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥


Increase the section to reduce 𝜌 and repeat the solution.
Try (now) 500×500mm.
𝑏 = 𝑡=500mm
𝐻𝑒 8.0
𝜆𝑏 = =
𝑏 0.50
= 16 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 162 ×0.50
δ= = = 0.064m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 2000 × 0.064 = 128kN-m which is greater than 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
500 − 2(20 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)
𝜉= = 0.85
500
𝑃𝑢 2000 × 1000
= = 0.40
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 500 × 500
𝑀𝑢 128 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.0512
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 500 × 5002

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

fy=240MPa Pu
fcu=20MPa fcubt
400mm
ζ=0.85 ρ=7.0
0.40 400mm

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 Mu
0.0512 fcubt2

𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 7 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.014 = 1.4%


𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.014 × 500 × 500 = 3500mm2
Use 12φ20

500mm 12φ20

Re-solve the problem using bars in Two Faces


From the ID, you will get:
𝜌 = 3.70
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 3.7 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.0074
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.0074 × 500 × 500 = 1850mm2
𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 = 1.0 × 1850 = 1850mm2 → Use 5φ22
Since the buckling may occur in any one of the column two perpendicular axes, then the
additional moment may occur in one of those directions and consequently As = 5φ22 must
be put at the four sides as shown in the following cross section.
5φ22

500mm

5φ22
Note: if one choose section 550×550mm.
𝑏 = 𝑡=550mm
𝐻𝑒 8.0
𝜆𝑏 = = = 14.54 which is less than 15 → Short Column
𝑏 0.55
Pu,max = 2000×1000N
= 0.35×(550×550)×20+ 0.67As×240
As = -ve (???)
Use 𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑠 as given in the code.
𝑟𝑒𝑞.
𝐴𝑠 = 0.80%𝐴𝑐 but not less than 0.60%𝐴𝑎𝑐𝑡.
𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑐
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑟𝑒𝑞.
𝐴𝑐 can be obtained using 𝜇 = 𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.80%.
𝑟𝑒𝑞.
2000 × 1000 = 𝐴𝑐 (0.35 × 20 + 0.67 × 240 × 0.80
100
)
𝑟𝑒𝑞. 0.80
𝐴𝑐 = 241360mm2 and 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝐴𝑠 = × 241360mm2 = 1930mm2
100
0.60
or 𝐴𝑠 = × 550 × 550 = 1815mm2 → use 8∅18 for which 𝐴𝑠 = 2032mm2
100

3φ18

550mm 2φ18

3φ18
Exercise:
It is required to design the shown braced rectangular column,
fy = 240MPa
fcu = 20MPa
300 Pu = 2000kN
Pin-ended
Ho = He = 8m
t=? AS = ?
Design Moment MD (Braced Columns):
For Braced Slender Columns, Moments are due to:
1. Loads (DL, LL, Wind Load, and Quake Loads).
Greater Moment is M2 and +ve
Smaller Moment is M1
M2

Double
Single Curvature
M1 Curvature
M1 is +ve M1 is -ve
2. Buckling (Madd = Pu δ)
Pu Pu Pu
Madd Madd
2 2

Madd=Pu×δ Madd
Madd

Madd
2
Pu Pu Pu

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

MD:
a. Equal End Moments

Pu
M2=Mo

Mo Madd

M1=Mo
Mo due to Madd due to Design
Pu Loads Buckling Moment MD

MDesign = Mo + Madd

b. Unequal End Moments

Pu
M2
M2 M2

Madd

M1 M1 Madd due to Design


Pu Mo due to Buckling Moment MD
Loads

M2

Mi=Cm M2 Madd

M1

Cm = [0.60+0.40M1/M2] ≥ 0.40
For Single Curvature: 0.0 ≤ (M1/M2) ≤ 1.0
For Double Curvature: -1.0 ≤ (M1/M2) ≤ 0.0
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Cm = 1.0 ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ أﻋﻤدة ﻤﻌرﻀﺔ ﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ أو ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم وﺠود ﻋزوم طرﻓﻴﺔ ﻨﺄﺨذ‬:‫ﻤﻼﺤظﺔ‬
(unbraced) ‫( ﻤﻊ اﻷﻋﻤدة ﻏﻴر اﻟﻤﻘﻴدة‬Cm) ‫ﻻﻴﺴﺘﺨدم اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬
MDesign = M2
= Mi + Madd
= Mu,min
Example #9:
It is required to design the shown braced square column,

e2=75m
Pu fy = 400MPa
fcu = 20MPa
Pu = 1200kN
Pin-ended
Ho = He = 6m
Ho=6m AS = ?

Square

Pu b=?
e1=50m

a) Ultimate Loads and M1/M2:


𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 = 1200kN
𝑇𝑜𝑝 75
𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒2 = 1200 × = 90kN-m
1000
50
𝑀𝑢𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒1 = 1200 × = 60kN-m
1000
𝑀2 = +90kN-m and 𝑀1 = +60kN-m Single curvature
𝑀1 60 2
= =
𝑀2 90 3
M2=90kN-m

Single
Curvature

M1=60kN-m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

b) Estimate Column Size:


Assume µ = 1.50%. Therefore,
1200 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ or 112500mm2 or 335mm square
1 2 1.5
× 20 + × × 240
3 3 100
Try 350×350mm

c) Short or Long:

𝑏 = 𝑡=335mm
𝐻𝑒 𝑘𝐻𝑜 1.0 × 6.0
𝜆𝑏 = = =
𝑏 𝑏 0.35
= 17.14 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

d) Check Mu with Mu,min:

𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.05 × 350 = 17.5mm which is less than 20mm


Here
Both 𝑒1 and 𝑒2 > 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛
e) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑀𝑖 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑀2
𝑀1
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 ≥ 0.40
𝑀2
60
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 = 0.867 > 0.40
90
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 17.142 ×0.35
δ= = = 0.0514m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 1200 × 0.0514 = 61.70kN-m
𝑀𝑖 = 0.867 × 90 = 78kN-m
𝑀𝐷 = :‫اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
𝑀2 = 90kN-m
𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 78 + 61.70 = 140kN-m
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1200 × 0.02 = 24kN-m
Therefore,

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝐷 = 140kN-m

𝑀𝑢 160 × 1000
𝑒= = = 0.08m
𝑃𝑢 2000
𝑒 0.080
= = 0.20
𝑡 0.40

f) Select the Column Reinforcement:

Bars in Two Faces


350 − 2(25 + 8 + 0.5 × 20)
𝜉= = 0.74
350
𝑃𝑢 1200 × 1000
= = 0.40
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 20 × 350 × 350
𝑀𝑢 140 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.163
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 20 × 350 × 3502

fy=400MPa
fcu=20MPa 0.40 ρ=8
350mm
ζ=0.74
α=1.0
350mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.163

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 8.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 20 × 10−4 = 0.016
𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.016 × 350 × 350 = 1960mm2
Use 4Φ25

4Φ25

350mm

4Φ25 Add Rebars

350mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

(Braced) ً ‫اﻟﻌزوم اﻟﻣؤﺛرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻋﻣدة اﻟﻧﺣﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻰ اﻟﻣﻘﯾدة ﺟﺎﻧﺑﯾﺎ‬

Column MLoads Madd MDesign

Madd Madd

M2 0.5Madd

Mi Madd

M2 0.5Madd

Madd
Mi

M1 0.5Madd
M1+Madd/2

Mdesign = ‫اﻷﻛﺑر ﻣن ﺑﯾن‬

• M2

• Mi + Madd

• M1+ Madd/2

• Mu,min

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

(UnBraced) ً ‫اﻟﻌزوم اﻟﺗﺻﻣﯾﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﻣدة اﻟﻧﺣﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﻘﯾدة ﺟﺎﻧﺑﯾﺎ‬

Column MLoads Madd MDesign

M2+Madd
M2 Madd

M2+Madd
M2 Madd

M1 Madd M1+Madd

Mdesign = ‫اﻷﻛﺑر ﻣن ﺑﯾن‬

• M2 + Madd

• Mu,min

Here, Madd = Pu ∆avg


∆avg = Σ∆i /n
n = number of columns

∆1 ∆2 ∆3 ∆n

UnBraced

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7.4 BIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS


ex
Mux
y y
Pu
0.67fcu/𝛾 c
Pu Muy ey
t
x x x
NA
y
b

Designing a rectangular section subjected to:


Biaxial Bending + Axial Loads is difficult

Design?
1. Interaction Diagram
(As)total should be distributed equally on the four sides

(As)total-4Φ
4

2. Egyptian Code
Solution #1: Symmetrical Reinforcement

Solution #2: UnSymmetrical Reinforcement

A’sx =3Φ

Asy =3Φ
=2Φ+0.5Φ+0.5Φ A’sy =3Φ

Asx =3Φ

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1. Interaction Diagram
(As)total should be distributed equally on the 4-sides.

Failure Pu
Mux Surface fcubt
Pu
Rb=
Muy fcubt
t
Pu

b
Muy Mux
fcutb2 fcubt2

Muy
fy=? fcutb2
Rb=?
ζ =?
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
ρ=22

20
18 Mux
16
fcubt2

Example #10:
It is required to design the shown bi-axially loaded column,

Mux
fy = 360MPa
Pu fcu = 25MPa
600 Pu = 1800kN
Muy Mux = 400kN-m
Muy = 200kN-m

400

𝑃𝑢 1800 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 × 1000 × 1000


= = 0.11
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002
𝑀𝑢𝑦 200 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.083
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2 25 × 600 × 4002
assume that ξ = 0.90

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 13.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 13.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.0325
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.0325 × 400 × 600 = 7800mm2
Use 16∯ 25

16∯ 25

600mm
?φ8/m

400mm
2. Egyptian Code
1. Symmetrical Reinforcement
The section in Example #10 will be designed (using the Egyptian Code; case of
unsymmetrical reinforcement) as if it is subjected to an increased moment about
one axis only.
Mux
fy = 360MPa
fcu = 25MPa a’ Pu
Pu = 1800kN 600 a=600 Muy
Mux = 400kN-m
Muy = 200kN-m
400 c b=400
c b’

𝑃𝑢 1800 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600
Assume c = 40mm
a’ = a-c = 600-40 = 560mm
b’ = b-c = 400-40 = 360m
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 𝑀𝑢𝑦 200


= > ′ =
𝑎′ 560 𝑏 360


𝑎
∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 𝑀𝑢𝑥 + 𝛽 � ′ � 𝑀𝑢𝑦
𝑏
The magnification factor β.
𝑅𝑏 ≤ 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 ≥ 0.60
𝛽 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60

′ 560
𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 400 + 0.75 � � 200 = 633kN-m
360

𝑀𝑢𝑥 633 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.176
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 13.50
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 13.50 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.033
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.033 × 400 × 600 = 7920mm2
Use 4∯ 28+12∯ 28

4∯ 28
0.30 ρ=13.5 +12∯ 25
600mm
?φ8/m
Uniaxial
ID

0.176
400mm

2. UnSymmetrical Reinforcement
Design the section shown below using the Egyptian Code (case of unsymmetrical
reinforcement).
Mux
fy = 360MPa
fcu = 25MPa Pu
Pu = 1125kN 600 Muy
Mux = 175kN-m
Muy = 34kN-m
250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

2-sides ‫ﻧﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻛل ﻋزم ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣدة ﺑﻌد ﺗﻛﺑﯾره ﺑﻣﻌﺎﻣل ﺗﻛﺑﯾر 𝑏𝛼 وﻓﻲ ﻛل ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺣدﯾد ﻋﻠﻲ‬
𝐴𝑠𝑥 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑥 and 𝐴𝑠𝑦 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑦

A’sx A’sx

a’
a Asy A’sy Asy A’sy

c Asx Asx
b
c b’ 0.5Φ+0.5Φ

That is, 𝑀𝑢𝑥 and 𝑀𝑢𝑥 will be magnified by 𝛼𝑏 which depends on:
𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′
1. and
𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏′
2. 𝑅𝑏

The magnification factor𝛼𝑏 .


𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′
𝑅𝑏 𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏 ′
∞ 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.50 0.33 0.0
≤ 0.10 1.00 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.20 1.00
0.20 1.00 1.35 1.50 1.75 1.50 1.35 1.00
0.30 1.00 1.25 1.35 1.40 1.35 1.25 1.00
0.40 1.00 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 1.00
0.50 1.00 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.70 0.65 1.00

𝑃𝑢 1125 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.30
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 250 × 600
Assume c = 30mm
a’ = a-c = 600-30 = 570mm
b’ = b-c = 250-30 = 220m
𝑀𝑢𝑥 ⁄𝑎′ 175⁄570
= = 2.0
𝑀𝑢𝑦 ⁄𝑏 ′ 34⁄220
The magnification factor 𝛼𝑏 = 1.35

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015


𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 𝑀𝑢𝑥 × 𝛼𝑏 = 236.6kN-m and 𝑃𝑢 = 1125kN

𝑀𝑢𝑦 = 𝑀𝑢𝑦 × 𝛼𝑏 = 45.9kN-m and 𝑃𝑢 = 1125kN

From the Interaction Diagrams (assume that ξ = 0.90), you will get:
𝐴𝑠𝑥 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑥 = 975mm2 =5∯16
𝐴𝑠𝑦 = 𝐴′𝑠𝑦 = 375mm2 =2∯16

ρx=2.6
0.30 5∯ 16

600mm 2∯ 16
0.105

ρy=1.0
0.30 5∯ 16

250mm

0.094

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 8
WALLS AND SHEAR WALLS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
 Structural Wall:
Wall proportioned to resist combinations of:
• Shears,
• Moments, and
• Axial forces.

Lw Line
Area h ≥ 120mm
Lw > 5h

Lw
h
Weak
hw axis
Strong h
Column
axis

A shear wall is a structural wall.


Major factors that affect the design of structural walls include the following:
a) The structural function of the wall relative to the rest of the structure
i. The wall is supported and braced by the rest of the structure
ii. The wall supports and braces the rest of the structure.
b) The types of loads the wall resists.
c) The location and amount of reinforcement.

 Walls versus Columns:


ℎ𝑤
• The slenderness of a wall, , is generally > for columns.

• The reinforcement ratio of a wall, 𝜇 , is generally < those for columns

8.2 TYPES OF WALLS


 Bearing Walls:

Wall proportioned to resist combinations of:


• Laterally supported and braced by the rest of the structure. That is, wall is
laterally supported and restrained against deflection along two opposite sides,
usually the top and bottom supports.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

hw

Lw Imaginary
h

• Resists primarily in-plane vertical loads acting downward on the top of the wall.

The vertical load may act eccentrically (𝒆 = ) with respect to the wall thickness
6
h, causing weak-axis bending.

Lw e = h
Mu=Pu.e 6
Pu Pu
Weak
axis
Strong h
axis
h
h
e = h
Pu 6 Weak
axis
Comp.
zone Bearing
wall
fc
h/3 h/3
h/3
h
Mid-thickness

 Shear Walls:
 Resists primarily lateral loads (Wind or Earthquake Loads) acting parallel to the
plane of the wall in addition to the gravity loads (DL, LL, etc…) from the floors
and roof adjacent to the wall. Shear walls resists lateral loads (lateral shears) and
moments about the strong-axis of the wall.
 Often provide lateral bracing for the rest of the structure.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Plane of
wall
Lw

hw Weak
axis
Strong h
axis
Elevation Plan
view view

We will assume the walls have a very low stiffness when bent about their WEAK-AXIS, and
thus, they are bent about their STRONG-AXIS.

Lw Lw
y h h
x x

Strong Weak
y Iy-y = axis Ix-x ≅ 0.0
axis

Shear Walls may be:

• Planar (standing in one vertical plane) or


• 3D-Assemblies of planar walls (or wall segments)

Plane of 1
wall
2 3

• Elevator
shafts
• Stairs-well
PLANAR 3D-Assembly • Etc…

 Non Bearing Walls:


 Do not support gravity in-plane loads other than their own weight.
 Resists shears and moments due to pressure or loads acting on one or two (both)
sides of the wall. That is, they are used to resist the horizontal soil pressure where
the surface of the ground is higher on one side of the wall than on the other.
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Cantilever
Soil
Basement Retaining
Soil Pressure
Wall Wall
Pressure Basement

Basement walls and retaining walls are used


to resist lateral soil pressure

 Other Types of Walls:

8.3 SHEAR WALLS


 Short Walls:
• One- or two-story shear walls with(𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) ≤ 𝟐. 𝟎.
• The strength and behavior generally are dominated by shear action.
 Slender or Flexural Walls:
• If the wall is more than three or four stories in height and (𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) ≥ 𝟑. 𝟎, lateral
loads are resisted mainly by flexural action of the vertical cantilever wall rather
than shear action.
 Shear Walls exhibit a combination of Shear and Flexural Behavior:
• Shear walls with 𝟐. 𝟎 < (𝐡𝐰 ⁄𝐥𝐰 ) < 3.0 exhibit a combination of shear and
flexural behavior.

∆ ∆

Short Slender
Shear Walls Shear Walls

8.4 LATERAL LOAD-RESISTING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDINGS


 Moment-Resisting Frames:
• Made up of reinforced concrete interconnected beams and columns.
• 8 to 10 stories

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Rigid Joint

Beam

Column
Frame
L
 Shear Walls:
• The walls resist lateral loads by flexural action and deflect as vertical
cantilevers.

Shear
Walls Plan

 Shear-Wall-Frame Buildings:
• Are used in buildings ranging from about 8 to 30 stories. The lateral load is
resisted in part by WALL and in part by the FRAME.

Hinged Link Beam

Wall

Frame

 Very Tall Concrete Buildings:


• Structural systems for very tall concrete buildings will be discussed later.

8.5 COUPLED SHEAR WALLS


Two or more shear walls in the same plane (or two wall assemblies) are sometimes connected
at floor levels by coupling beams, so that the walls act as a unit when resisting lateral loads.
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Wall #2
(planar)
Wall
Coupling
assemblies
Wall #1 Hinged beam
Coupling Beam
Stiff
Coupling Beam

Wall #1 Wall #2 Wall #2


Wall #1

8.6 DISTRIBUTION OF WALLS IN A BUILDING FLOOR PLAN


CM = Center of Mass (geometric centroid of the floor plate).
CR = Center of lateral resistance (rigidity) provided by the (isolated) shear walls.

L2/2

CM
Vx
ey CR

ex

L1/2

Vy

Because lateral loads are assumed to act through the center of mass (CM), any
eccentricity between the CM and CR will result in the generation of torsional moments. A
central-core wall system commonly is used to minimize eccentricity between the CM and
CR.
When a building structure is subjected to large lateral displacements due to
earthquake ground motions, the stiffnesses of the lateral-load resisting members are likely to
change in a non-uniform fashion. As a result, the CR is likely to be relocated and the
eccentricity between the CM and CR may increase. To account for this, Building Codes
specify a minimum eccentricity in the two principal directions that must be added to any
calculated eccentricity.
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

For structures where substantial torsional moments may be generated, a wide


distribution of shear walls around the perimeter of the floor plan would be most efficient for
resisting that torsion.
If lateral displacements are to be calculated, the moment of inertia values should be
reduced by 30% to correspond to those recommended in the Code. Thus,
Walls un-cracked: 0.70 Ig
Walls cracked: 0.35 Ig
If there is an eccentricity between the CM and CR or a minimum eccentricity is
specified by a design code, then the effects of torsion must be considered.
Torsion:
𝐌𝐓𝐱 = 𝐕𝐱 × 𝐞𝐲
𝐌𝐓𝐲 = 𝐕𝐲 × 𝐞𝐱
Required Size of Wall:
In choosing a structural wall section for a given building, the wall must
(a) Have enough strength to resist the factored moments, shears, and axial loads.
(b) Have enough stiffness to limit the lateral deflections.

8.7 STORY DRIFT


The Code limits the maximum story drift under unfactored (service) loads to less than 1/500
of the story height.
∆B ∆s

Hs

HB

8.8 REINFORCEMENT IN SHEAR WALLS


Distributed and Concentrated Reinforcement
The reinforcement in a shear wall is generally made up of:
(a) Distributed horizontal and vertical reinforcement spread uniformly over the
length between the boundary elements and over the height of the wall.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Plan

0.50As(hz.)
S1
0.50As(vert.)

Rebar in two S2
Layers S1

Hz. And vert.


Each Face
E.F.
S2

(b) Concentrated vertical reinforcement is located in boundary elements at or near


the edges of the wall and is tied in much the same way that column cages are.

Reinf’t
concentrated in
flanges

Web
Boundary
element
within
dimensions
of wall
Enlarged boundary
element

Two layers tied


together at intervals,
but not enclosed in
Ties

It is customary for such ties to engage


every Second (or third) bar each way in
both faces

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

It is good practice to
at least use larger
bars at the extreme
ends of the wall.

2Φ16
2Φ20 or more

vertical ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻت ﻛﺜﯿﺮة ﯾﻜﻮن اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪ اﻟﺮأﺳﻲ‬


‫ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻛﺎف ﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬uniformly distributed ‫اﻟﻤﻮزع‬
wind or earthquake ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح واﻟﺰﻻزل‬

If not, concentrated reinforcement is provided


in boundary elements at the ends of the walls
as shown

Boundary element within


dimensions of wall Enlarged boundary
element

h
S1

Vert.
S2
Hz.

S2
S1

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8.9 EGYPTIAN CODE


Minimum and Maximum Wall Reinforcement:
Vertical Reinforcement
𝐀𝐬,𝐦𝐚𝐱 ≤ 𝟒. 𝟎%𝐀𝐜
𝐀𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 ≥ 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎%𝐀𝐜

2Φ (2-layers)
h

Two 𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭
𝐬
𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 =
layers S1 ≤ 250mm 𝐒𝟏 𝐡
Horizontal Reinforcement
𝐀𝐡𝐳.
𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟓%𝐀 𝐜 for HGS

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.
𝐬
𝛍𝐡𝐳. =
𝐒𝟐 𝐡
S2
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧
𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two
layers
h

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Example No. 11:


1. For the shown structural wall (a planar shear wall), it is required to:
• Check the adequacy of the shown structural (shear) wall for the combined gravity and
lateral loads applied to the wall. A uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal
reinforcement is used in two layers.

PDL=150kN
Given:
110kN PLL = 0.50PDL
U = 1.6WL+0.90DL
250kN DL = Dead Load
3.0m
LL = Live Load
100kN WL = Wind Load
250kN 3.0m
fcu= 40MPa
80kN hw = 16m
fy = 400MPa
250kN 3.0m ζ = 0.90
60kN
250kN 3.0m 5500mm
250mm
FWL=30kN hz.
5.50m 4.0m Φ12-200mm EF
vert.
Φ16-250mm EF

h = 0.25m

The gravity loads applied at each floor level, as shown above, are due to dead load. The
live loads are not shown but are assumed to be equal to 0.50 of the dead loads. The
lateral wind loads are based on service-level (unfactored) wind forces.

Make an initial check of wall reinforcement:

Horizontal Reinforcement
𝛑(𝟏𝟐)𝟐
𝐀𝐡𝐳. 𝟐
𝛍𝐡𝐳. =
𝐬
= 𝟒 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟓% which is greater than 0.25%, Okay.
𝐒𝟐 𝐡 𝟐𝟓𝟎 × 𝟐𝟎𝟎
This satisfies the minimum requirement in the Egyptian Code, so it should be
acceptable unless a larger amount is required to satisfy shear requirements.
𝟏𝟓 × 𝟏𝟔
𝐒𝟐,𝐦𝐚𝐱 = the smallest of � � = 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm
𝟐𝟎𝟎
Thus, the provided spacing S2 for the horizontal reinforcement is Okay.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Vertical Reinforcement
Although it is good practice to use larger vertical bars at the
edges of the wall, say Φ20 or Φ22 bars, we will calculate 𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭
assuming only Φ16 bars are used.

𝛑(𝟏𝟔)𝟐
𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. 𝟐
𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. =
𝐬
= 𝟒 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟒% which is greater than 0.50%, Okay.
𝐒𝟏 𝐡 𝟐𝟓𝟎 × 𝟐𝟓𝟎
The minimum given by the Egyptian Code is 0.50% which is less than what is
provided. The spacing limit for the vertical reinforcement is:
𝐒𝟏,𝐦𝐚𝐱 ≤ 𝟐𝟓𝟎mm
Thus, the provided spacing S1 (250mm) of the vertical reinforcement is Okay.

Check Moment Capacity:

PDL=150kN
110kN 150 110
250kN

100kN 400 210 330

250kN

80kN 650 290 990

250kN

60kN 900 350 1830

250kN

FWL=30kN 1150 380 2880

5.50m
NFD SFD BMD 4400

𝐌𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟏𝟏𝟎 × 𝟏𝟔 + 𝟏𝟎𝟎 × 𝟏𝟑 + 𝟖𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟔𝟎 × 𝟕 + 𝟑𝟎 × 𝟒 = 𝟒𝟒𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍 − 𝐦


𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟓𝟎 = 𝟏𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐤𝐍

Load Combinations:
𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎𝐌𝐰𝐢𝐧𝐝 + 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎 × 𝟒𝟒𝟎𝟎 = 𝟕𝟎𝟒𝟎𝐤𝐍 − 𝐦
𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟏𝟏𝟓𝟎 = 𝟏𝟎𝟑𝟓𝐤𝐍
assume 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑁𝑢 1035 × 1000
= = 0.019
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 250 × 5500

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢 7040 × 1000 × 1000


= = 0.023
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 250 × 55002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa ρ=ρmin
ζ=0.90
0.019
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.023

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 < 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛
Because As provided is larger than As required by Mu and Nu (from the Interaction
Diagram), the wall has adequate flexural strength.

One can, also, check the adequacy (flexural strength) of the wall as follows:
𝟎. 𝟔𝟒
𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝟎. 𝟔𝟒 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝛍𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. = which gives 𝛒𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭. = = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎
𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟒𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟒
𝑁𝑢 1035×1000
Knowing that = = 0.019
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40×250×5500
From the Interaction Diagram, we get
𝑀𝑢
= 0.04 which gives 𝑀𝑢 = 12100kN-m
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2
Because the value of 𝑀𝑢 (from I.D.) = 12100 kN-m is larger than (due to loads) = 7040 kN-m,
the wall has adequate flexural strength.

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa ρ=2
ζ=0.90 ρ=1
0.019

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.04
Check Shear:
The factored shear at the base of the wall is:
𝑄𝑢 = 1.60(30 + 60 + 80 + 100 + 110) = 608kN
𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 5500 = 4400mm
𝑏 = ℎ = 250mm
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

110kN
Lw = 5500mm
100kN
Qu=608kN
80kN 250mm
60kN d = 0.80Lw
30kN
Q=380kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 608 × 1000
𝑞𝑢 = = = = 0.55N/mm2
𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 250 × 4400
𝑁𝑢
𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �
𝐴𝑐
1035 × 1000
= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.30N/mm2
250 × 5500
Here,
𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢

Provide 𝐀𝐡𝐳. 𝐡𝐳.


𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = which is less than 𝐀 𝐬,𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 , Okay.

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

CHAPTER 9
WORKING-STRESS DESIGN METHOD
9.1 INTRODUCTION
 Working, Ultimate, and Limit-States Design Methods:

Working Ultimate
at SERVICE level at STRENGTH level
W = WD+WL Wu = 1.4WD+1.6WL

M = WL2/8 Mu = WuL2/8

fc’ fc fc’
fc

Concrete,fc = fc’/nc Concrete,fc = fc’=0.67fcu/γc

fcu 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 27.5 30N/mm2


fc 6.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 10 10.5N/mm2

fy fs fy
fs

Steel,fs = fy/ns Steel,fs = fy

fy 240 280 360 400 450N/mm2


fs 140 160 200 220 160 plain 220 deformed

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Working Ultimate
at SERVICE level at STRENGTH level

Mu 0.003 Cu
f = M.y/I c a
1. Linear-Elastic Material NA yct
2. Homogenous Section
Tu
>εy/γs
fc
stress c b
NA
E a = 0.80c
t-c
1 yct = lever arm = [d-0.5a]
strain ft Cu = [0.67fcu/γc]b.a
Tu = As.fy/γs
M Cu = Tu …………………………………………Eq.(1)
c c Mu = Tu.yct = Cu.yct … Eq.(2)
t As =
d-c NA NA

nAs
b b
Cracked Transformed
Section Section

1. Assume complete bond


between steel and
concrete
2. For the concrete element,
at the same level:
εc = εs
σc/Ec=σs/Es
Knowing that n = Es/Ec
σs = n.σc
c = concrete
s = steel

∆ P
c
NA
fs=n.fc t-c
fc

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

9.2 RECTANGULAR SECTIONS


 Singly Reinforced rectangular Sections:
c/3
M εc fc C
c NA c
d d-c NA yct
As t
T
nAs εs fs/n
b b
Cracked Transformed Strain Stress
Section Section

Statical moment of area about NA:


𝑏𝑐 2
= 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)
2
You will get c and the virtual moment of inertia Iv about NA is given by:
𝑏𝑐 3
𝐼𝑣 = + 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)2
3
𝑀
Using the formula𝑓 = 𝑦:
𝐼
𝑀 𝑀
𝑓𝑐 = 𝑐 and 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑛 (𝑑 − 𝑐)
𝐼𝑣 𝐼𝑣
The resultant forces C and T are:
1
𝐶= 𝑓 × 𝑏 × 𝑐 and 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠
2 𝑐
Knowing that
𝑐
𝑦𝑐𝑡 = [𝑑 − 3]
Use
𝐶=𝑇
and
𝑀 = 𝑇. 𝑦𝑐𝑡 = 𝐶. 𝑦𝑐𝑡
To get 𝐴𝑠 .

You can simply use Design Tables to get 𝐴𝑠 .

𝑀
𝑑 = 𝐾1 �
𝑏
and
𝑀
𝐴𝑠 =
𝐾2 𝑑

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

 Doubly Reinforced rectangular Sections:

(n-1)As’≅ nAs’
εc
M d’
As’ fc
εs’
Cs
c c fs’/n
NA
C
d d-c NA
As t T
nAs εs fs/n
b b
Cracked Transformed Strain Stress
Section Section

Statical moment of area about NA:


𝑏𝑐 2
+ 𝑛𝐴′𝑠 (𝑐 − 𝑑′ ) = 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)
2
You will get c and the virtual moment of inertia Iv about NA is given by:
𝑏𝑐 3
𝐼𝑣 = + 𝑛𝐴′𝑠 (𝑐 − 𝑑′ )2 + 𝑛𝐴𝑠 (𝑑 − 𝑐)2
3
The resultant forces are:
1
𝐶𝑐 = 𝑓𝑐 × 𝑏 × 𝑐, 𝐶𝑠 = 𝐴′𝑠 𝑓𝑠′ , and 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠
2

Here, also, you can simply use Design Tables to get 𝐴𝑠 and 𝐴′𝑠 knowing that 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠 .

𝑀
𝑑 = 𝐾1 �
𝑏
and
𝑀
𝐴𝑠 = and 𝐴′𝑠 = 𝛼𝐴𝑠
𝐾2 𝑑

Example #1
Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =
260kN-m. Use fcu = 20MPa and fy = 360MPa.

d = ?

As

b = 300mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 20MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 8MPa = 80kg/cm2


𝑓𝑦 = 360MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 200MPa = 2000kg/cm2
𝑀 = 260kN-m = 26t-m
From the Design Tables, you will get:
𝐾1 = 0.276 and 𝐾2 = 1750 at 𝛼 = 0.0 and for 𝑓𝑐 = 80kg/cm2 and 𝑓𝑠 =
2000kg/cm2
𝑀 26 × 105
𝑑 = 𝐾1 � = 0.276� = 81.30cm → use t = 90cm
𝑏 30
∴ 𝑑𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 90 − 5 = 85cm
𝑀 26×105
∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 17.50cm2
𝑘2 𝑑 1750×85
Use 9∯16
𝐴′𝑠 = 0.10𝐴𝑠 or more = 1.75cm2
Use 2∯16

2∯16

900mm
Shrinkage
Reinforcement

9∯16

300mm

Example #2
Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =
260kN-m. Use fcu = 20MPa and fy = 360MPa.

As’
t = 800mm

As

b = 300mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 20MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 8MPa = 80kg/cm2


𝑓𝑦 = 360MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 200MPa = 2000kg/cm2
𝑀 = 260kN-m = 26t-m
𝑑 = 𝑡 − 5 = 80 − 5 = 75cm
26 × 105
𝑑 = 75 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.254
30
From the Design Tables, at 𝑓𝑐 = 80kg/cm2
𝐾2 = 1795 and 𝛼 = 0.40
𝑀 26×105
∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 19.30cm2
𝑘2 𝑑 1785×75
Use 10∯16
𝐴′𝑠 = 0.40𝐴𝑠 = 7.72cm2
Use 4∯16

4∯16

800mm
Shrinkage
Reinforcement

10∯16

300mm
9.3 FLANGED SECTIONS
 Position of NA:

z B B Br
M M
NA z
d ts d NA ts
As As

b b Br = r.B
NA is inside NA is outside
the flange, z ≤ ts the flange, z > ts

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Knowing that fc (flanged sections) = ⅔ fc (rectangular sections)


First calculate the term 𝑧 from:
𝑀
𝑧 = 𝐾𝑧 �
𝐵
The values of 𝐾𝑧 are as shown
fs = 1200 1400 1600 …..
fc = 30 0.141 0.133 0.126
40 0.137 0.129 0.122
50 0.133 0.126 0.119

1. If
𝑧 ≤ 𝑡𝑠
The NA is inside the flange. Design the section as a rectangular section, width = B.

2. If
𝑧 > 𝑡𝑠
The NA is outside the flange. Design the section as an equivalent rectangular section,
width = Br. Where
𝐵𝑟 = 𝐵 × 𝑟
The values of 𝑟 are as shown
𝑡𝑠 ⁄𝑧 = 1.0 0.90 0.80 0.70 ……. 0.20
𝐵⁄𝑏 = 2.0
2.50 r values
3.00
3.50

Example #3
Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown Tee section for M = 183kN-m. Use
fcu = 20MPa and fy = 240MPa.
B
M

t=800mm ts = 80mm
As

b = 250mm
2
𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 20MPa→𝑓𝑐 (rectangular) = 8MPa →𝑓𝑐 (Tee) = 3 × 8 ≅ 5MPa
= 50kg/cm2
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑓𝑦 = 240MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 140MPa = 1400kg/cm2


𝑀 = 183kN-m = 18.3t-m
𝑑 = 𝑡 − 5 = 80 − 5 = 75cm
𝐵 = 16𝑡𝑠 + 𝑏 = 16 × 8 + 25 = 153cm
𝐵⁄𝑏 = 153⁄25 = 6.12
𝐾𝑧 ≅ 0.13
5
𝑍 = 𝐾𝑧 �𝑀
𝐵
= 0.13 � 18.30×10
153
= 14.22cm >𝑡𝑠 (NA is outside the flange)
𝑡𝑠 8 𝐵
= = 0.56 and = 6.12 → 𝑟 = 0.84
𝑧 14.22 𝑏
𝐵𝑟 = 153 × 0.84 = 128.50cm
5
𝑑 = 75 = 𝐾1 �𝐵𝑀𝑟 = 𝐾1 �18.30×10
128.5
→ 𝐾1 = 0.629
From the Design Tables, 𝑓𝑐 < 45kg/cm2
𝐾2 = 1248 at 𝛼 = 0.0
𝑀 18.3×105
∴ 𝐴𝑠 = = = 19.55cm2
𝑘2 𝑑 1248×75
Use 3φ18 + 3φ20
𝐴′𝑠 = 0.10𝐴𝑠 or more = 1.955cm2
Use 2φ16

2∅16

80mm

800mm
Shrinkage
Reinforcement

3∅18 + 3∅20

250mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Second Year Civil


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
Structural Engrg. Dept. May, 2011
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4 (20%):


A Pin-Ended square column 10.0m tall supports Pu = 4000kN. The loads act at an eccentricity of
62.50mm at top and at bottom. Use fcu = 40MPa and fy = 400MPa. It is required to:
1. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 2.5%).
2. Check if the column is slender?
3. Check if the moments are less than the minimum.
4. Compute the design moment, MD.
5. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces to be used and assume ζ = 0.90).
6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

e2=62.5mm fy = 400MPa
Pu fcu = 40MPa
PD = 2000kN
PL = 750kN
Pin-ended
Ho = He = 10m
Ho=10m

Square

Pu b=?
e1=62.5mm

Solution:

a) Ultimate Loads and M1/M2:


𝑃𝑢 = 1.4𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 = 4000kN
𝑇𝑜𝑝 62.5
𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒2 = 4000 × = 250kN-m
1000
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡
62.5
𝑀𝑢 = 𝑃𝑢 × 𝑒1 = 4000 × = 250kN-m
1000
𝑀2 = +250kN-m and 𝑀1 = −250kN-m Double curvature
𝑀1 −250
= = −1.0
𝑀2 250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

M2=250kN-m

Double
Curvature

M1=-250kN-m

b) Estimate Column Size:


Assume µ = 2.50% (given). Therefore,
4000 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ or 447mm square
1 2 2.5
× 40 + × × 400
3 3 100
Try 500×500mm

c) Short or Long:

𝑏 = 𝑡=500mm
𝐻𝑒 𝑘𝐻𝑜 1.0 × 10
𝜆𝑏 = = =
𝑏 𝑏 0.50
= 20 which is greater than 15 and less than 30 → Long Column

d) Check Mu with Mu,min:

𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.05 × 500 = 25mm which is greater than 20mm


Here
Both 𝑒1 and 𝑒2 > 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑛
e) Design Moment:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑀𝑖 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑀2
𝑀1
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 ≥ 0.40
𝑀2
−250
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 + 0.40 = 0.20 < 0.40. Therefore, 𝐶𝑚 = 0.40
250

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.50


δ= = = 0.10m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 4000 × 0.10 = 400kN-m
𝑀𝑖 = 0.40 × 250 = 100kN-m
𝑀𝐷 = :‫اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
𝑀2 = 250kN-m
𝑀𝑖 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 100 + 400 = 500kN-m
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 4000 × 0.025 = 100kN-m
Therefore,
𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m

𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000
𝑒= = = 125mm
𝑃𝑢 4000
𝑒 125
= = 0.25
𝑡 500

Bars in Two Faces. But, as given, try Bars in Four Faces.

f) Select the Column Reinforcement:

Bars in Four Faces


𝜉 (given) = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 4000 × 1000
= = 0.40
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500
𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.10
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa ρ=9 500mm
0.40
ζ=0.90

500mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.10

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 9.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 9.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.036 = 3.60%
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.036 × 500 × 500 = 9000mm2
Use 12Φ32

12Φ2

500mm

500mm

Problem No. 5 (20%):


A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.
Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials
b = 0.30m ts = 0.18m LL = 4.50kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa
t = 0.50m flooring = 1.50kN/m 2 fy = 360MPa
For the square column C1 at the ground floor, it is required to:
1. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 2-floors).
2. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.5%).
3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
4. Check if the column is slender?
5. Compute the additional moment, Madd.
6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).
7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.50m 0.18m
C1 2m

B1 B1
B1
B B H = 4.5m
A B1 B1 6m
0.18m A
0.50m

B1 ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬

Footing Footing
0.15m 6m 2m 0.15m

Plan B-B Section Elevation A-A

Solution:
1. Ultimate Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 0.18×25+ 1.50 = 4.0+1.50 = 6.0 kN/m2
LL = 4.50 kN/m2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Beam loads:
Loads from Beam B1:
Self-weight = 0.30×0.50×1.0×25 = 3.75 kN/m
Here, r = 6/6 = 1.0. From Table: αb = 2/3 and βb = 0.50.
Loads for Shear
WUD = 1.40[3.75+0.5×3×6+2.33×6] = 37.45kN/m
WUL = 1.60[0.5×3×4.5+2.33×4.5] = 27.60kN/m
WU = 37.45 + 27.60 = 65.05kN/m

2m 2m

2m 2.33m

Wu=65.05kN/m

6m
Assume Leff = Lc/c

Ru=195.15kN

PU = 1.10×195.15×2×2 = 858kN

2. Column Size:
Assume µ = 1.50% (given). Therefore,
858 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ or 251.20mm square
1 2 1.5
× 30 + × × 360
3 3 100
Try 300×300mm

3. Braced or Unbraced:
Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

4. Short or Long:
X-dir and Z-dir
He = k Ho = 1.20 × 4 = 4.80m
𝐻𝑒 4.80
𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =
𝑏 0.30
= 16 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

0.50m 0.18m

Case 1 B1 B1

H = 4.5m
Ho = 4m
0.50m 0.30m
Unbraced
Fixed-Fixed ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬
K = 1.20 Case 1
Footing Footing

5. 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 :
𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 162 × 0.30
δ= = = 0.0384m
2000 2000
20
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 858 × 0.0384 = 32.95kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 858 = 17.16kN-m
1000
6. Column Reinforcement:
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 32.95kN-m
𝑀𝑢 32.95 × 1000
𝑒= = = 0.0384m
𝑃𝑢 858
𝑒 0.0384
= = 0.128
𝑡 0.30
Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90
𝑃𝑢 858 × 1000
= = 0.318
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 300 × 300
𝑀𝑢 32.95 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.04
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 300 × 3002
fy=360MPa
fcu=30MPa ρ=2 300mm
0.318
ζ=0.90

300mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
0.04

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 2.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 2.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.006 = 0.60%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.006 × 300 × 300 = 540mm2
Use 4∯ 16

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

7. Reinforcement Detailings:

2∯ 16
300mm

2∯ 16

Problem No. 6 (15%):


1. A spiral column is used when ductility is required, True or False?
2. Which column section is more efficient for Zone B? and Why?

e = 0.10t

A e = 0.20t
B
I II
C

3. For the shown shear wall, it is required to calculate the minimum tie size and the maximum vertical
spacing of ties. Use fcu = 40MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of
200mm vertical
bars = 12mm

2000mm

4. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for M =
125kN-m. Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

As’
d = 500mm

As
b = 200mm
5. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:
a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.
b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).
c. Check the adequacy of the column section if:
Pu = 1225kN and Mux = Muy = 110kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90).
d. Use the Interaction Diagrams to calculate Pu and Mu for the column section if the
eccentricity e = 175mm (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of
vertical
350mm bars = 16mm

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Solution:
1. True or False:
True
2.Which column is better for Zone B? and Why?
Column II is more efficient for Zone A than Column I. Square columns can carry M better than
circular columns.
3.Minimum Tie Size and Maximum Vertical spacing:
0.25
2𝐴𝑠𝑡 = ℎ × 𝑠2
100
𝜋∅2𝑠𝑡 0.25
2 = × 200 × 𝑠2
4 100
assume ∅𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑠𝑡 = 8mm
2
𝜋×8 0.25
2 = × 200 × 𝑠2
4 100
𝑠 ≤ 15 × 12 = 180mm
𝑠2 = 200mm, But � 2 �
𝑠2 ≤ 200mm

Use 𝑠2 = 180mm and ∅𝑚𝑖𝑛


𝑠𝑡 = 8mm

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.
𝐬
𝛍𝐡𝐳. =
𝐒𝟐 𝐡 2000mm
S2
200mm
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧
𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 hz.
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two Φ?-?mm EF
vert.
layers Φ12-?mm EF
h

4.Working Stress design Method:


𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa
𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 220MPa
𝑀 = 125kN-m = 12.5t-m
12.5 × 105
𝑑 = 50 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.20
20
From the Design Tables, you will get:
𝐾2 = 1932, 𝛼 = 0.60, and 𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa
83
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

12.5×105
𝐴𝑠 = = 12.94cm2
1932×50
Use 5Φ18
𝐴′𝑠 = 0.6 × 𝐴𝑠 = 7.76mm2
Use 3Φ18
3Φ18

5Φ18

5a. Arrangement of vertical bars and horizontal ties:


Vertical bars are Okay (spacing is less than 250mm).
Horizontal ties are Okay (both X1 and X2 are less than 150mm).

5b. Arrangement of vertical bars and horizontal ties:


𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.35𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑐𝑢 + 0.67𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 1500kN
𝑃𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⁄0.80 = 1875kN
5c. The adequacy of the column section:
1225 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = = 0.40
25 × 350 × 350
𝑀𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑦
= = 0.10
𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 2 𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑡 × 𝑏 2
𝜉 = 0.90 (given)
From the ID, you will get:
𝜌 = 14.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 3.50%
Given 𝜇 = 1.30% which is less than 3.5% (Inadequate)

5d. Mu and Pu:


Given: 𝜉 = 0.90
𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa
𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa
𝑒 = 175mm
Then,
𝑒⁄𝑡 = 175⁄350 = 0.50
𝑀𝑢
= 0.105 → 𝑀𝑢 = 112.5kN-m
𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 2
𝑃𝑢
= 0.105 → 𝑃𝑢 = 634kN
𝑓𝑐𝑦 × 𝑏 × 𝑡
84
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Second Year Civil


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
Structural Engrg. Dept. May, 2012
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4 (18%):


For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:
a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).
b. Check if the column is slender?
c. Compute the design moment, MD.
d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).
e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m
3500kN
Ho=8.3333m = 40MPa
fcu
fy= 400MPa
ζ = 0.90
100kN-m
Pu Mu
Solution:

a) Estimate Column Size:


Assume µ = 1.0% (given). Therefore,
3500 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ = 218750mm2 or 468mm square
1 2 1
× 40 + × × 400
3 3 100
Try 500×500mm

b) Short or Long:
Unbaced Fixed-Fixed Column
𝐻𝑒 = 𝐾𝐻𝑜 = 1.20 × 8.333 = 10m
𝑏 = 𝑡 = 500mm
𝐻𝑒 10
𝜆𝑏 = =
𝑏 0.50
= 20 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column
c) Design Moment:
𝑀𝐷 = :‫اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.50
δ= = = 0.10m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 3500 × 0.10 = 350kN-m
𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 150 + 350 = 500kN-m
85
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3500 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 87.5kN-m


Therefore,
𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m

M2=۱50kN-m Madd=350kN-m

M1=۱۰0kN-m Madd=350kN-m

d) Select the Column Reinforcement:

Bars in Four Faces (assumed). Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 3500 × 1000
= = 0.35
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500
𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.10
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa ρ=8 500mm
0.40
ζ=0.90

500mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
0.10

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 8.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.032 = 3.20%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.032 × 500 × 500 = 8000mm2
Use 8Φ28+4Φ32

2Φ32+2Φ28
2Φ28
500mm
2Φ28
2Φ32+2Φ28

86
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 5 (20%):


A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.
Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials
2
b = 0.30m ts = 0.20m LL = 3.50kN/m fcu = 30MPa
t = 0.60m flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa
For the square column C1 (300×300mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:
1. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 3-floors).
2. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
3. Check if the column is slender?
4. Compute the design moment, MD.
5. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).
6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.20m
3m
B1 C1 B1 B1
0.60m
A A B B H=4.6m
6m B1 0.20m B1
0.50m
0.30m ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬

Footing Footing
B1
3m 3m 6m 3m
Plan B-B
Sec. Elev. A-A
3m 6m 3m

Solution:

1. Ultimate Loads:
Slab Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 0.20×25+ 2.0 = 7.0 kN/m2
LL = 3.50 kN/m2
Beam loads:
Loads from Beam B1:
Self-weight = 0.30×0.60×1.0×25 = 4.50 kN/m
Here, r = 6/6 = 1.0. From Table: αb = ⅔ and βb = ½.

Loads for Shear


WUD = 1.40[4.50+½×2×3×7] = 35.70kN/m
WUL = 1.60[½×2×3×3.5] = 16.80kN/m
WU = 35.70 + 16.80 = 52.50kN/m
PU = 1.10×3×157.50×2 = 1040kN

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

3m

3m

Wu=52.50kN/m

6m
Assume Leff = Lc/c

Ru=157.50kN

2. Braced or Unbraced:
Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

3. Short or Long:
X-dir and Z-dir
He = k Ho = 1.20 × 4 = 4.80m
𝐻𝑒 4.80
𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =
𝑏 0.30
= 16 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column
0.20m

B1 B1
Case 1
0.60m
H=4.6m
Ho=4m
Ho = 4m 0.50m
Unbraced ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬
Fixed-Fixed Footing Footing
K = 1.20 Case 1

4. 𝑀𝐷 :
𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 162 × 0.30
δ= = = 0.0384m
2000 2000
20
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 1040 × 0.0384 = 40kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1040 = 20.8kN-m
1000
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 0 + 40 = 40kN-m

5. Column Reinforcement:
𝑀𝑢 = 𝑀𝐷 = 40kN-m

88
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑀𝑢 40 × 1000
= 𝑒= = 0.0384m
𝑃𝑢 1040
𝑒 0.0384
= = 0.128
𝑡 0.30
Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 1040 × 1000
= = 0.385
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 300 × 300
𝑀𝑢 40 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.0494
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 300 × 3002

fy=360MPa
fcu=30MPa ρ=4 300mm
0.385
ζ=0.90

300mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 0.0494

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 4.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 4.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.20%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.012 × 300 × 300 = 1080mm2 →Use 4∯ 20

6. Reinforcement Detailings:

2∯ 20
300mm

2∯ 20
300mm

89
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6 (17%):


1. For the shown structural wall (a planar shear wall), it is required to:

a. Are lateral loads resisted mainly by flexural- or shear-action? and Why?


b. Show that the given horizontal and vertical reinforcement satisfies all of the Egyptian
Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum spacing.
c. Check the adequacy of the wall at its base.

PDL=200kN Given:
PLL = 0.50PDL
200kN
U = 1.6WL+0.90DL
DL = Dead Load
LL = Live Load
3.0m
300kN WL = Wind Load

200kN
fcu= 40MPa
3.0m fy = 400MPa
300kN ζ = 0.90
FWL=100kN
3000mm

3.0m 300mm
4.0m hz.
Φ10-200mm EF
vert.
Φ16-200mm EF

h = 0.30m

2. For the shown short-braced square column section, it is required to:


a. Calculate Pu.
b. Determine the coordinates (Mux , Muy) of points A, B, and C.

Muy
Given:
2Φ? Rb = 0.40
A
Astotal = 2000mm2
250mm
B
2Φ? fcu= 32MPa
fy = 400MPa
45o Mux ζ = 0.90
C
Solution:
1a. Flexural action because
ℎ𝑤 10
= = 3.33 > 3.0 Okay
𝑙𝑤 3

90
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1b. Vertical and Horizontal Reinforcement:


Vertical Reinforcement
2
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡
𝑠 2𝜋×16
4
𝜇𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 = = × 100 = 0.67% > 0.50%, Okay.
𝑠1 × ℎ 200 × 300
𝑠1 = 200mm which is less than 250mm, Okay.

Horizontal Reinforcement
2
𝐴ℎ𝑧
𝑠 2𝜋×10
4
𝜇ℎ𝑧 = = × 100 = 0.262% > 0.250%, Okay for HGS.
𝑠2 × ℎ 200 × 300
𝑠 ≤ 15 × 16 = 240mm
𝑠2 = 200mm, which is less than � 2 �
𝑠2 ≤ 200mm

2Φ (2-layers)

𝐀𝐡𝐳.
𝐬
𝛍𝐡𝐳. =
𝐒𝟐 𝐡 3000mm
S2
300mm
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟏𝟓∅𝐦𝐢𝐧
𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐭 hz.
𝐒𝟐 ≤ 𝟐𝟎𝟎mm Two Φ10-200mm EF
vert.
layers Φ16-200mm EF
h
1c. The Adequacy of the Wall at its Base:

PDL=200kN

200kN 200 200


300kN

200kN 500 400 600


300kN

100kN 800 500 1800

3.0m
NFD SFD BMD 3800

𝐌𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎𝟎 × 𝟕 + 𝟏𝟎𝟎 × 𝟒 = 𝟑𝟖𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦


𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟑𝟎𝟎 + 𝟑𝟎𝟎 = 𝟖𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍
𝐐𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Load Combinations:
𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 + 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎𝐌𝐰𝐢𝐧𝐝 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎 × 𝟑𝟖𝟎𝟎 = 𝟔𝟎𝟖𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦
𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐝𝐞𝐚𝐝 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟖𝟎𝟎 = 𝟕𝟐𝟎𝐤𝐍
assume 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑁𝑢 720 × 1000
= = 0.02
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 300 × 3000
𝑀𝑢 6080 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.056
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 300 × 30002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa 0.02 ρ=3
ζ=0.90

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4

0.056

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 3.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 3.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.012 = 1.20%
𝜇𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 1.20% which is greater than 𝜇𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 = 0.67%, Inadequate.
Check Shear:
The factored shear at the base of the wall is:
𝑄𝑢 = 1.60(500) = 800kN
𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 3000 = 2400mm
𝑏 = ℎ = 300mm

200kN
Lw = 3000mm
200kN
Qu=800kN
100kN 300mm
d = 0.80Lw
Q=500kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 800 × 1000
𝑞𝑢 = = = = 1.11N/mm2
𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 300 × 2400

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑁𝑢
𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �
𝐴𝑐
720 × 1000
= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.31N/mm2
300 × 3000
Here, 𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢

Provide 𝐀𝐡𝐳. 𝐡𝐳.


𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 = which is less than 𝐀 𝐬,𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 , Okay.

2a. Calculate Pu:


𝑃𝑢 𝑃𝑢 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = 0.40 = = → 𝑃𝑢 = 800kN
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 32 × 250 × 250

2b. The coordinates of Points A, B, and C:


𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 2000
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 2000mm2 and 𝜇 = 𝑠 = = 0.032
𝑏×𝑡 250×250
𝜇 = 0.032 = 𝜌 × 32 × 10−4 → 𝜌 = 10
𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.11
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002
From the ID (given: 𝜌 = 10, 𝑅𝑏 = 0.40, 𝜉 = 0.90, and 𝑓𝑦 = 400) you will get:
Point A:
𝑀𝑢𝑦
= 0.114
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2
0.114×32×2502 ×250
∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑦 = = 57kN-m and 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = 0.0kN-m
106
Point A (0,57) and Point C (57,0)

Point B:
𝑀𝑢𝑥
= 0.07
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2
0.07×32×250×2502
∴ 𝑀𝑢𝑥 = = 35kN-m and 𝑀𝑢𝑦 = 35kN-m
106
Muy
A(0,57)

B(35,35)

45o Mux
C(57,0)

93
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Second Year Civil


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
Structural Engrg. Dept. June 01, 2013
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4 (15%):


For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:
a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).
b. Check if the column is slender?
c. Compute the design moment, MD.
d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).
e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m
3500kN fcu = 40MPa
Ho=6.25m
fy = 400MPa
ζ = 0.90
Pu Mu
Problem No. 5 (20%):
A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.
Input Data: Slab Loads Materials
2
ts = 0.30m LL = 3.50kN/m fcu = 30MPa
flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa
For the square column C1 (500×500mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:
1. Show how concrete slab distribute the load to columns?
2. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).
3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
4. Check if the column is slender?
5. Compute the design moment, MD.
6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).
7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

Slab

0.30 B 0.30 Col. B


4m
C1
A A 0.50 H=5.30m
C1 0.60

4m Raft

4m 4m
Plan B-B Sec. Elev. A-A
4m 4m

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6 (15%):


1. The planar structural shear wall shown below is subjected to gravity loads G (Dead load D
= 5000kN and Live load L = 2500kN) and an equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load, E =
1000kN. It is required to:

a. Specify the wall action (flexural, shear, or combined-action).


b. Sketch the deformed shape under the given Gravity and lateral Loads.
c. Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the wall.
Given:
U = 0.90D+1.0E
D = 5000kN
E L = 2500kN
E = 1000kN
36m
6.0m
fcu = 40MPa
fy = 400MPa
ζ 0 90
⅔hw 6000mm
G 300mm
hz.
Φ?-? EF vert.
h = 0.30m Φ?-? EF

2. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown section for M = 320kN-m.
M
Given:
As’ fcu = 25MPa
d = 800mm fy = 400MPa
fc = 9.5MPa
As fs = 220MPa
150mm

3. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the
required reinforcement if Pu = 2100kN, Mux = 400kN-m, and Muy = 200kN-m.

Mux
Given:
600mm Muy fcu = 25MPa
fy = 360MPa
ζ = 0.90
400mm
Best Wishes
Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

95
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 4 (15%):


For the shown unbraced square column, It is required to:
a. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.0%).
b. Check if the column is slender?
c. Compute the design moment, MD.
d. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces).
e. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

150kN-m
3500kN fcu = 40MPa
Ho=6.25m
fy = 400MPa
ζ = 0.90
Pu Mu
Solution:

a) Estimate Column Size:


Assume µ = 1.0% (given). Therefore,
3500 × 1000
𝐴𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑐 ≥ = 218750mm2 or 468mm square
1 2 1
× 40 + × × 400
3 3 100
Try 500×500mm

b) Short or Long:
Unbaced Fixed-Pinned Column
𝐻𝑒 = 𝐾𝐻𝑜 = 1.60 × 6.25 = 10m
𝑏 = 𝑡 = 500mm
𝐻𝑒 10
𝜆𝑏 = =
𝑏 0.50
= 20 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column
c) Design Moment:
𝑀𝐷 = :‫اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜆2𝑏 ×𝑏 202 ×0.50
δ= = = 0.10m
2000 2000
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 3500 × 0.10 = 350kN-m
𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 150 + 350 = 500kN-m
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3500 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 87.5kN-m
Therefore,
𝑀𝐷 = 500kN-m
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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

M2=150kN-m Madd=350kN-m

M1=0.0kN-m

d) Select the Column Reinforcement:

Bars in Four Faces (assumed). Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 3500 × 1000
= = 0.35
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 500 × 500
𝑀𝑢 500 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.10
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 500 × 5002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa ρ=8 500mm
0.40
ζ=0.90

500mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
0.10

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 8.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 8.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.032 = 3.20%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.032 × 500 × 500 = 8000mm2
Use 8Φ28+4Φ32

2Φ32+2Φ28
2Φ28
500mm
2Φ28
2Φ32+2Φ28

97
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 5 (20%):


A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.
Input Data: Slab Loads Materials
ts = 0.٣0m LL = 3.50kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa
flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa
For the square column C1 (500×500mm) at the ground floor, it is required to:
1. Show how concrete slab distribute the load to columns?
2. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).
3. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
4. Check if the column is slender?
5. Compute the design moment, MD.
6. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).
7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

Slab

0.30 B 0.30 Col. B


4m
C1
A A 0.50 H=5.30m
C1 0.60

4m Raft

4m 4m
Plan B-B Sec. Elev. A-A
4m 4m

Solution:
1. Load distribution:

4m

4m

4m 4m

2. Ultimate Loads:
Slab Loads:
DL = Self-weight + Finish
= 0.30×25+ 2.0 = 9.50 kN/m2
LL = 3.50 kN/m2

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

WUD = 1.40[9.50] = 13.30kN/m2


WUL = 1.60[3.50] = 5.60kN/m2
WU = 13.30 + 5.60 = 18.90kN/m2
PU = 1.10×5× (½×8×8×18.90) = 3326.40kN

3. Braced or Unbraced:
Column is unbraced (no shear walls).

4. Short or Long:
X-dir and Z-dir
He = k Ho = 1.30 × 5 = 6.50m
𝐻𝑒 6.50
𝜆 𝑏 = 𝜆𝑡 = =
𝑏 0.50
= 13 which is greater than 10 and less than 23 → Long Column
Case 1

0.30 Col.
C1
Ho = 5m
Unbraced 0.50 H=5.30m
0.60
Fixed-
Partially Case 2
Raft
Fixed
K = 1.30 4m 4m

5. 𝑀𝐷 :
𝜆2𝑏 × 𝑏 132 × 0.50
δ= = = 0.04225m
2000 2000
25
𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 𝑃𝑢 δ = 140.50kN-m>𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3326.40 = 83.20kN-m
1000
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑀2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑑𝑑 = 0 + 140.50 = 140.50kN-m

6. Column Reinforcement:
𝑀𝑢 = 𝑀𝐷 = 140.50kN-m
𝑀𝑢 140.50 𝑒 0.04225
𝑒= = = 0.04225m and = = 0.0845
𝑃𝑢 3326.40 𝑡 0.50
Bars in Four Faces. Given: 𝜉 = 0.90

𝑃𝑢 3326.40 × 1000
= = 0.444
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 30 × 500 × 500
𝑀𝑢 140.50 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.0375
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 30 × 500 × 5002

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

fy=360MPa
fcu=30MPa ρ=6 500mm
0.444
ζ=0.90

500mm
µ=ρ×fcu×10-4
0.0375

From the ID, you will get:


𝜌 = 5.0 and 𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 5.0 × 30 × 10−4 = 0.015 = 1.50%
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.015 × 500 × 500 = 3750mm2 →Use 12∯ 20

6. Reinforcement Detailings:

4∯ 20

500mm 2∯ 20
2∯ 20
4∯ 20

Problem No. 6 (15%):


1. The planar structural shear wall shown below is subjected to gravity loads G (Dead load D =
5000kN and Live load L = 2500kN) and an equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load, E =
1000kN. It is required to:
a. Specify the wall action (flexural, shear, or combined-action).
b. Sketch the deformed shape under the given Gravity and lateral Loads.
c. Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the wall.
Given:
U = 0.90D+1.0E
D = 5000kN
E L = 2500kN
E = 1000kN
36m
6.0m
fcu = 40MPa
fy = 400MPa
ζ 0 90
⅔hw 6000mm
G 300mm
hz.
Φ?-? EF vert.
h = 0.30m Φ?-? EF

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Solution:
6.1a. Flexural action because
ℎ𝑤 36
= = 6.0 > 3.0 Okay
𝑙𝑤 6

6.1b. Deformed shape

Slender
Shear Walls

6.1c. Vertical and Horizontal Reinforcement:


Vertical Reinforcement

E=1000kN
E
6.0m

24.0m
D=5000kN
D
1000kN
5000kN
24000kN-m

𝟐 𝟐
𝐌𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐄 × 𝟑𝐡𝐰 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 𝟑 × 𝟑𝟔 = 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦
𝐍𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐃 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍
𝐐𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝐄 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

Load Combinations:
𝐌𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐌𝐃 + 𝟏. 𝟎𝐌𝐄 = 𝟎. 𝟎 + 𝟏. 𝟎 × 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍-𝐦
𝐍𝐮,𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝐍𝐃 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 × 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟒𝟓𝟎𝟎𝐤𝐍

assume 𝜉 = 0.90

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

𝑁𝑢 4500 × 1000
= = 0.0625
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 40 × 300 × 6000
𝑀𝑢 24000 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.056
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 40 × 300 × 60002

fy=400MPa
fcu=40MPa
0.0625 ρ=3
ζ=0.90

µ=ρ×fcu×10-4 0.056
From the ID, you will get:
𝜌 = 2.0
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 2.0 × 40 × 10−4 = 0.008 = 0.80%
𝜇𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 0.80% which is greater than 𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.50%, Okay.
2
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡
𝑠 2𝜋×16
4
𝜇𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 = 0.008 = =
𝑠1 × ℎ 𝑠1 × 300
→ 𝑠1 =166mm which is less than 250mm, Okay.
Use 6Φ16/m or simply Φ16-166mm EF

Horizontal Reinforcement
The factored shear at the base of the wall is:

𝑄𝑢 = 1.0𝑄𝐸 = 1.0(1000) = 1000kN


𝑑 = 0.80𝐿𝑤 = 0.80 × 6000 = 4800mm
𝑏 = ℎ = 300mm
Lw = 6000mm
1000kN
Qu=1000kN
300mm
d = 0.80Lw
Q=1000kN

𝑄𝑢 𝑄𝑢 1000 × 1000
𝑞𝑢 = = = = 0.70N/mm2
𝑏𝑑 ℎ𝑑 300 × 4800
𝑁𝑢
𝑞𝑐𝑢 = 𝛿𝑐 �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 � = �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�𝑓𝑐𝑢 ⁄𝛾𝑐 �
𝐴𝑐

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

1000 × 1000
= �1 + 0.07 � �0.24�40⁄1.50� = 1.288N/mm2
300 × 6000
Here, 𝑞𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝑞𝑢 and 𝑞𝑢 < 𝑞𝑐𝑢 . Provide 𝐀𝐡𝐳.
𝐬,𝐦𝐢𝐧 .
2
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴ℎ𝑧
𝑠 2𝜋×10
4
𝜇ℎ𝑧 = 0.0025 = =
𝑠2 × ℎ 𝑠2 × 300
→ 𝑠2 = 210mm which is greater than 200mm, not okay.
Therefore, use 5Φ10/m or simply Φ10-200mm EF
6000mm

300mm
hz.
Φ10-200mm EF vert.
Φ16-166mm EF

6.2Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown section for M = 320kN-m.
M
Given:
As’ fcu = 25MPa
d = 800mm fy = 400MPa
fc = 9.5MPa
As fs = 220MPa
150mm
Working-Stress design Method:
𝑓𝑐𝑢 = 25MPa→𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa
𝑓𝑦 = 400MPa→𝑓𝑠 = 220MPa
𝑀 = 320kN-m = 32t-m
32 × 105
𝑑 = 80 = 𝐾1 � → 𝐾1 = 0.173
15
From the Design Tables, you will get:
𝐾2 = 1932, 𝛼 = 0.60, and 𝑓𝑐 = 9.5MPa
32×105
𝐴𝑠 = = 20.70cm2 Use 3Φ22+3Φ20
1932×80

𝐴𝑠 = 0.6 × 𝐴𝑠 = 12.42mm2 Use 2Φ22+2Φ20
2Φ22
2Φ20

3Φ20
3Φ22

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Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

6.3For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the
required reinforcement if Pu = 2100kN, Mux = 400kN-m, and Muy = 200kN-m.

Mux
Given:
600mm Muy fcu = 25MPa
fy = 360MPa
ζ = 0.90
400mm

𝑃𝑢 2100 × 1000
𝑅𝑏 = = = 0.35
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 25 × 400 × 600
𝑀𝑢𝑥 400 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.11
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑡 2 25 × 400 × 6002
𝑀𝑢𝑦 200 × 1000 × 1000
= = 0.083
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑡𝑏 2 25 × 600 × 4002
assume that ξ = 0.90

From the ID, you will get:


Since the biaxial interaction diagrams do not have a value of𝑅𝑏 = 0.35, interpolation
will be performed between 𝑅𝑏 = 0.30 and𝑅𝑏 = 0.40.
For𝑅𝑏 = 0.30, the index 𝜌 = 13.0.
For𝑅𝑏 = 0.40, the index 𝜌 = 15.0.
Therefore, for𝑅𝑏 = 0.35, the index 𝜌 = 14.0.
𝜇 = 𝜌 × 𝑓𝑐𝑢 × 10−4 = 14.0 × 25 × 10−4 = 0.035
𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑠 = 𝜇 × 𝑏 × 𝑡 = 0.035 × 400 × 600 = 8400mm2
Use 4 ∯ 28 + 12 ∯ 25
The 4 ∯ 28 bars will be placed in the corners and the 12 ∯ 25 bars will be distributed
equally in the four sides.

𝟐∯28 + 3∯25

600mm
?φ8/m

𝟐∯28 + 3∯25

400mm

104
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Second Year Civil


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
Structural Engrg. Dept. June, 2014
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours
Problem No. 4:
1. A stirrup is generally under …………. .
2. On a column section, sketch a tie and a cross-tie.
3. Why does the Egyptian Code require µsp(min) in spiral columns?
4. A …………. column is used where ductility is important.
5. A bar is adequately supported against lateral movement if it is located at a corner of a ……….. .
6. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, zone.
7. For the shown Interaction Diagram, state the coordinates of A, B, C, D, and E.
Pu
A
B
C

Mu
D E

8. The shown beam has five equal spans. Draw the cases of loadings for max. +ve M at Section 1-1
and max. –ve M at section 2-2 and sketch the corresponding deflected shapes.
1 2

1 2
9. Which is preferred, Type a or b of a stirrup? and Why?

a b

10. Which column section is more efficient for Zone C? and Why?
e = 0.10t
Circular Rectangular
A e = 0.20t
B
I II
C

Problem No. 5:
3. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the
required reinforcement if Pu = 2250kN and Mux = 450kN-m.
Mux
Given:
fcu = 25MPa
600mm
fy = 360MPa
ζ = 0.90
300mm

105
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6:

A structural plan of a building is shown below.


Input Data: Slab Loads Materials
2
ts = 0.20m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa
flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.
2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,
it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).


b. Select the column reinforcement (Vertical Rebar and Horizontal Ties).
c. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

2m

0.20×0.60
B1
C1
0.20m
4m

B1
0.20×0.60
2m

2m 4m 2m
Structural Plan

Best Wishes
Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

106
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Level 200


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
BCE Dept. June, 2014
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours
Problem No. 4: (15 points)
1. A stirrup is generally under …………. .
2. State the beam section that correspond to each strain distribution.
As 0.003

As As A B
Beam I Beam II
3. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, zone.
4. For the shown Interaction Diagram, Why Points B and D (and not A and E) are considered?
Pu
A
B
C

Mu
D E
5. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:
a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.
b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).
Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of
vertical
350m
bars = 16mm

6. State the spiral reinforcement ratio that correspond to each curve.


i. µ sp = µ sp (min) ii. µ sp > µ sp (min) iii. µ sp < µ sp (min)

Load, P (c)

(b)

(a)

Deflection,
7. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?
e = 0.10t
Tied Spiral
A e = 0.20t
B
I II
C

107
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 5: (10 points)


8. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the
required reinforcement if Pu = 2000kN and Muy =200kN-m.

Given:
fcu = 25MPa
600mm Muy fy = 360MPa
ζ = 0.90
300mm

Problem No. 6: (20 points)


A structural plan of a building is shown below.
Input Data: Slab Loads Materials
2
ts = 0.30m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa
flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa
1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.
2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,
it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).


b. Select the column reinforcement (Vertical Rebar and Horizontal Ties).
c. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

B1 (0.20×0.60)

6m B1 0.30 B1

B1 C1

6m
Structural Plan

Best Wishes
Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

108
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

University of Mansoura Level 200


Faculty of Engineering RC Structures
BCE Dept. August 30, 2014
Term # 2 Exam - Time allowed: 3 Hours

Problem No. 4:
6. A stirrup is generally under tension, True or False?
7. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?

e = 0.10t
Spiral col.
A e = 0.20t
B
I II
C

8. For the short-braced square column section shown below, it is required to:
a. Check the arrangement of vertical bars.
b. Check the arrangement of horizontal ties.
c. Calculate Pu (theoretical).
d. Calculate Pu (maximum) and Mu (minimum).
e. Check the adequacy of the given column section if:
Pu = 1600kN and Mu = 160kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 25MPa and fy = 400MPa.

Diameter Of
vertical
400mm bars = 25mm

400mm

Problem No. 5:
1. For the shown short-braced rectangular column section, it is required to determine the
required reinforcement if:

Pu = 2700kN and Mux = 675kN-m.


Mux
Given:
fcu = 25MPa
600mm
fy = 360MPa
ζ = 0.90
300mm

109
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 6:
A structural plan of a building is shown below.

Input Data: Slab Loads Materials


2
ts = 0.30m LL = 2.0kN/m fcu = 25MPa
flooring = 2.0kN/m2 fy = 360MPa

1. Sketch the probable crack patterns (Load distribution) for the shown structural plan.

2. For the assumed short-braced square column C1 (400×400mm) at the ground floor,
it is required to:

a. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 5-floors).

b. Select the column reinforcement (Vertical Rebar and Horizontal Ties).

c. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

B1 (0.20×0.60)

6m 0.30

B1
C1

6m
Structural Plan

Best Wishes
Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Zoughiby

110
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Mansoura University RC Structures


Faculty of Engineering Assignment_1 Second Year Civil
Structural Engrg. Dept. 2015

The roof shown below carries a live load of 3.0kN/m2 and covering materials of 1.50kN/m2. The
slab thickness is 150 mm and all the beams have the same width b of 250mm and total depth t of
500mm. Assume f cu = 30MPa and steel 400/600. For all beams, it is required to:
1. Compute the ultimate loads for both shear and moment.
2. Draw the absolute shear and moment diagrams.
3. Design the critical sections for moment.
4. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).
5. Draw the details of the reinforcement to scale 1:50 (utilizing the moment resistance
diagram, M uR ) and details of the critical sections to scale 1:10.

0.125 4.50 1.50 0.125

4.50

3.0
150

3.0

4.0

0.125

111
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Mansoura University RC Structures


Faculty of Engineering Assignment_2 Second-Year Civil
Structural Engrg. Dept. 2015

Problem No. 1:
Answer the following by the True or False only.
9. A spiral column is used when ductility is not required.
2. A bar is adequately supported against lateral movement if it is located at a corner of a stirrup.
3. Spiral columns are ductile than tied columns
4. A stirrup is generally under tension.
5. Stirrups must be properly anchored in the tension zone.

Problem No. 2:
Answer the following.
1. Which column section is more efficient for Zone A? and Why?

e = 0.10t

A e = 0.20t
B
I II
C

2. The three load-deflection curves shown below correspond to three values of µ sp of a spiral column,

namely; i. µ sp = µ sp (min) ii. µ sp > µ sp (min) iii. µ sp < µ sp (min)


State the spiral reinforcement ratio that correspond to each curve.

Load, P (c)

(b)

(a)

Deflection,

3. State the beam section that correspond to each strain distribution.

As 0.003

As As A B
Beam I Beam II

4. Why does the Egyptian Code require a minimum amount of spiral reinforcement in spiral columns?

112
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

5. Sketch the probable fracture lines (crack patterns) for the two slabs shown below under
uniformly distributed loads.
a a

a a

a 2a a

a a a

6. Sketch the deflected shapes and the corresponding BM diagrams for the structural plans shown below
under uniformly distributed loads (Strips: I-I and II-II).

II ts
5a

B1
I a
I very large depth
B1
b B1
II
II 5a a ts

B1
I a
I very big depth
B1

II b B1

7. The three load-deflection curves shown in Fig. 3a correspond to three values of compression
reinforcement of the beam in Fig. 3b, namely;

1. As′ = As
2. As′ = 0.50 As
3. As′ = 0.0

State the compression reinforcement value that correspond to each curve.

Load, P P

(c) As
(b)
(a) As
(a)
L
(b)
Deflection,
Figure 3
113
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

8. The beam shown below has five equal spans. It is required to draw the cases of loadings for
maximum positive moment at 1-1 and maximum negative moment at 2-2 and sketch the corresponding
deflected shapes.

1 2

1 2

9. Sketch the clear height Ho for the columns shown below.

Flat Flat
plate slab
Beam Haunched
beam

10. Sketch the BM diagram for the following two cases:

kN kN
P P

Problem No. 3:
Calculate the ultimate axial load carried by each of the column sections shown below.
Given: fcu = 40Mpa and Steel 400/600.

2φ16 5 φ 8/m' spirals φ8/6cm pitch

2φ16

50 5 φ 8/m'
2φ16
8 φ16 8 19

2φ16
30 Dc = 40 Dc = 40

(a) (b) (c)

Problem No. 4:
Design a square column to resist Pu = 2000kN, if the column clear height Ho = 8.0 ms. Consider that the
column is braced and that the effective height He = Ho. Given: fcu = 25Mpa and Steel 360/520.

114
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 5:
Re-do Problem no. 4 for: (1) a circular column, (2) a spiral column and (3) a rectangular column with b =
300mm.

Problem No. 6:
Figure 3 shows a doubly reinforced concrete section. Determine the coordinates of points A, B, C, and D of the
shown Interaction Diagram. Use fcu = 3025 N/mm2 and steel 400/600.

50 mm
4 18

700 mm

50 mm
4 18

300 mm
Pu
f cu bt
e=e min

A
e = 0.5e b

B
e=e b
C

D Mu
f cu bt 2
Figure 3

Problem No. 7:
Utilizing the Design Interaction-Diagrams, compute the necessary reinforcement for a rectangular column
(300×1200mm) to carry the following loads. Given: fcu = 30Mpa and fy= 400Mpa.

a. Mu = 500kN-m Pu = 1000kN
b. Mu = 1000kN-m Pu = 500kN

115
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 8:
A Pin-Ended square column 10.0m tall supports PDL = 2000kN and PLL = 1000kN. The loads act at an
eccentricity of 62.50mm at top and at bottom. Use fcu = 430Mpa and fy = 360Mpa. It is required to:
1. Compute the ultimate loads and moments and the ratio (M1 / M2).
2. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 2.5%).
3. Check if the column is slender?
4. Check if the moments are less than the minimum.
5. Compute the design moment, MD.
6. Select the column reinforcement (bars in 4-faces to be used and assume ζ = 0.90).
7. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

e = 62.5mm
P

10m

e = 62.5mm P

Problem No. 9:
The Figure below shows an exterior column in a multistory frame. The dimensions are center to center of
joints. All the beams are as shown in section x-x. The floor slab is 0.15 m thick. The building includes a Service
Core which resists the majority of the lateral loads. Use fcu = 25 Mpa and steel 400/600. The loads and moments
on column AB are as shown in the figure. For the column AB, it is required to:
1. Compute the ultimate loads and moments and the ratio M1 / M 2 .
2. Estimate the column size.
3. Check if the column is slender?
4. Compute the design moment.
5. Select the column reinforcement.
6. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

0.15 m

0.50 m
kN-m kN-m kN kN 4.0 m
40 40 500 500 A x 0.35 m
x Sec. x-x
8.0 m
kN-m kN-m x
30 30 B 0.15 m

ML MD PL PD x
4.0 m 0.50 m
BMD NFD
0.35 m

Elevation view Joints A and B


Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

Problem No. 10:


1. For the square column section shown below, it is required to:
a. Check the arrangement of both vertical bars and horizontal ties.
b. Calculate Pu (theoretical) and Pu (maximum).
c. Check the adequacy of the column section if:
Pu = 1200kN and Mux = Muy = 100kN-m (assume ζ = 0.90).
d. Use the Interaction Diagrams to calculate Pu and Mu for the column section if the
eccentricity e = 200mm (assume ζ = 0.90). Use fcu = 30Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

Diameter Of
vertical
350m
bars = 16mm

350mm

Problem No. 11:


Figure 1 shows a structural plan of a building. The columns are assumed square and assuming that the building
consists of 6 floors and the height of the floor is 4.50 m.
Input Data:
Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials
b = 0.30 m ts = 0.20 m LL = 5.0 kN/m2 fcu = 30 MPa
t = 0.60 m flooring = 1.50 kN/m2 fy = 400 MPa (long. st)
fy = 240 MPa (stirrups)
1. For the beam B1, it is required to:
a. Compute the ultimate loads for both moment and shear.
b. Draw the absolute BM and SF diagrams.
c. Design the critical section for moment.
d. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).
e. Draw on a half elevation view (to scale 1:25) and on a cross section
(to scale1:10) the details of reinforcement (straight bars only).
Assume that Mu = MuR.
2. Design the slab and on a structural plan draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:50.
3. For the column C1, it is required to:
a. Compute the ultimate loads.
b. Estimate the column size.
c. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
d. Check if the column is slender?
d. Compute the additional moment, Madd.
e. Select the column reinforcement.
f. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

117
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

2.0 m
B1

B1 0.20 m B1
6.0 m

B1

C1 2.0 m

2.0 m 6.0 m 2.0 m

Figure 1

Problem No. 12:


A cross-section elevation and a structural plan of a building are shown below.
Input Data: Beam B1 Slab Loads Materials
b = 0.30m ts = 0.18m LL = 5.0kN/m2 fcu = 30MPa
t = 0.50m flooring = 1.50kN/m 2 fy = 400MPa
1. For the beam B1, it is required to:
a. Compute the ultimate loads for both moment and shear.
b. Draw the absolute BM and SF diagrams.
c. Design the critical sections for moment.
d. Design the necessary web reinforcement (vertical stirrups only).
e. Draw on an elevation view (to scale 1:50) and on cross sections
(to scale1:10) the details of reinforcement (straight bars only). Assume that Mu = MuR.
2. Design the slab and on a structural plan draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:50.
3. For the square column C1 at the ground floor, it is required to:
a. Compute the ultimate loads (the building consists of 3-floors).
b. Estimate the column size (assume µ = 1.5%).
c. Check if the column is braced or unbraced?
d. Check if the column is slender?
e. Compute the additional moment, Madd.
f. Select the column reinforcement (assume ζ = 0.90).
g. Draw the reinforcement detailings to scale 1:10.

118
Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby, 2015

0.50m 0.18m
C1 2m

B1 B1
B1
B B H = 4.5m
A B1 B1 6m
0.18m A
0.50m

B1 ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬

Footing Footing
0.15m 6m 2m 0.15m

Plan B-B Section Elevation A-A

Problem No. 13:


1. For the shown shear wall, it is required to calculate the minimum tie size and the maximum vertical
spacing of ties. Use fcu = 30Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

Diameter Of
200mm vertical
bars = 12mm

2000mm

2. Using the Working stress (Elastic) Design Method, design the shown rectangular section for Mu
= 150kN-m. Use fcu = 25Mpa and fy = 360Mpa.

As’
d = 500mm

As

b = 200mm

119