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D E S I G N RECOMMENDATIONS Sheec

Edition 1
Reg. N o .

CONTENTS

GENERAL PHILOSOPHY

S H I P S BEHAVIOUR A T S E A

G U I D I N G AND S U P P O R T I N G P R I N C I P L E S

S H I P T O S H O R E RAMPS - HINGE FORCES

S H I P TO S H O R E RAMPS - T O R S I O N

S T R U C T U R E S WITHOUT T O P P L A T E

E F F E C T I V E T O P P L A T E WIDTH

L O C A L S T I F F E N E R - U N I F O R M LOAD

L O C A L S T I F F E N E R - WHEEL LOAD

T R I P P I N G ERACKETS

F I T T I N G RACK U P

L0P-D P A D S BETWEEN HATCH COAFlINGS AND C O V E R S

STRAPS

PINS

WHEELS

HATCH COVER DESIGN RULES


DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheer 10.1
I Edition 1 , HEI
Reg. No.

1 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY

1, The l i g h t e s t s t r u c t u r e i s s e l d o m t h e c h e a p e s t .

2. T r y t o k e e p t h e a m o u n t o f w e l d down, p a r t i c u l a r l y
manual w e l d , i . e . c o r n e r , c r o s s i n g s , b r a c k e t s ,
cut outs etc.

3. T r y t o k e e p t h e number o f i n t e g r a l p a r t s down.

4. T r y t o r e d u c e t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t p l a t e
t h i c k n e s s e s , a n g l e b a r s and f l a t b a r s needed.

CHECK LIST

1. Is t k e span/top p l a t e r a t i o c o r r e c t ?

2. Are 2 1 1 b r a c k e t s n e c e s s a r y .

3. Are c u t o u t s a n d c r o s s i n g s c o r r e c t l y s h a p e d .

4. I s i t e a s y t o make a l l w e l d s .

5. Is t ? e weld s i z e c o r r e c t .

6. Is it e a s y t o p a i n t and b l a s t a l l s u r f a c e s .

7. Are r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e h i n d f i t t i n g s a d e q u a t e
i n s i z e and s h a p e .
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheet

E d ~ t i o n1

Reg. No.

2 SHIPS BEHAVIOUR AT SEA

A s a consequence of t h e f a c t t h a t a S h i p i s a moving s t r u c t u r e
s u b j e c t t o f o r c e s from waves, c u r r e n t and wind, t h e S h i p and
a s s o c i a t e d e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s H a t c h C o v e r s , Ro-Ro e q u i p m e n t e t c
must b e d e s i g n a t e d t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s t a t i c and dynamic f o r c e s
w h i c h may o c c u r .

The s i z e o f t h e s e f o r c e s c a n e a s i l y b e f o u n d i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
S o c i e t i e s R u l e Books a n d d e p e n d m o s t l y on t h e S h i p s s i z e a n d
t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e equipment.

The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s c a n b e u s e d a s a G u i d e :

M = (Mass o f c o n s i d e r e d e q u i p m e n t + p o s s i b l e l o a d )

Longitudinal Force: 2 0,15 x M

V e r t i c a l F o r c e a t Fwd. End (1 2 0 , 7 ) M

V e r t i c a l F o r c e a t @ : (1 t 0 . 2 5 ) M

T r a n s v e r s e F o r c e a t W.L. : 2 G,5M

T r a n s v e r s e F o r c e a t upper deck : 2 0 . 7 M

A compact f o l d i n g p a n e l l o a d e d w i t h 2 t i e r s o f 20' C o n t a i n e r s of
20T/each, 5 rows. What w i l l t h e t r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l
f o r c e s be on t h e f i x a t i o n d e v i c e s ?

A ROUGH ESTIMATE:
-

LONG
= 0,15 x 2 , 20 x 5 = 30 TONNES

VERTICAL MAX = 1,7 x 2 x 20 x 5 = 3 4 0 TONNES


Kvaerner Ships Equipment AB Action

date Page
98.09 10.3.1
DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS HES

General rule for guiding principles

A
m V E R guide in such a way that DEFORiiIATION of structure, or uneven
OPERATION can cause the guides to JAIM.

I CORRECT
// /' // y ( c - - F l / - l /

NOT CORRECT
I

In cnss of cardscks. position euides close to liftingpoins.

'CTrh y 'l'?
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheet

I Reg. No.

5. SHIP TO SHORE RAMPS - TORSION

All ramps leading from Ship to shore are subject to torsion


due to Ships Heel and trim, and in some cases due to its
own geometrical properties.

The ability of a ramp to accomodate this torsion depends


mainly on two factors.

a) Length/Width ratio
5) Intsrnal structure
As the L/W ratio is normally pre-decided it is essential to
make sure that the following design aspects have been considered.

b. i) Open design structure


c j
T a b. ii) Flange crossings should be at different levels
2? 2
Z L 3 b. iii) Flange widths should be kept as small as possible
<:
.-

a.5 -
.e>
...a0 These points will have a positive influence on the ramps
2 -5
..-
- ability to twist.
.- "
-z.-y 5;
0 .z
"7

C L!
3 n-
z c ?; FLAX. ALLOTijAELE TWIST (DEGREES)
ia 2.;
U -
m .m c
.-c >> > GUIDELINE FIGURES
3 5 c a
yam:
n E E.,
a 0 'L
U'J C
r- g <
L2 2 -
0 en li -
L/W BOX FLANGE MAX
CROSSING WEAK

1 0" 1 - 2O 5"

2 0O w 2 - 4" 'Y lo0

-
d@
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheer (O,6

STRUCTURES WITHOUT TOP PLATE

The b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s u c h a s t r u c t u r e a n d t h o s e
with a t o p p l a t e i s t h e i r l a c k of racking r i g i d i t y .

T h i s w i l l p o s s i b l y have a n e f f e c t on t h e d e s i g n .

The f o l l o w i n g c a n b e d o n e i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e r i g i d i t y .

1. Increase t h e Flange width

2. Add c r o s s b r a c i n g s

EXAMPLE : PLYWOOD CARDECK

VERTICAL SUPPORTS

--
T?-%r\? SV E3 C F
SUPPORTS

TOTAL TRANSVERSE LOAD = ( 6 0 + 200) x 1 0 s TONS.


D E S I G N RECOMMENDATIONS
1 Sheer

Edition 1
\0.t2
HE
Reg. No.

EFFECTIVE TOP PLATE WIDTH:-

The f o r m u l a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s w i d t h c a n be f o u n d i n
H a n d b o o k s and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S o c i e t y ' s r u l e books.
T h e f o l l o w i n g g i v e s the r u l e s f o r L . R . , D . N . V . , and B . V .

EXAMPLE :

D.N.V. 0.84 x 5 = 2.10 M


2

B.V. 15(0.13 - 0.004 x 3) = 1.77 M


DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS f0.8-i
Sheet

Edition 1 . HE^
I
Reg. No.

8. LOCAL STIFFENERS - UNIFORM LOAD

Stiffeners fitted to a plate are basically there for two


reasons : -

a) To carry a local load from one Girder to another.


b) To prevent the plate from buckling.

A. LOCAL LOAD

The stiffeners are normally fitted continuously through


the girders and supported at each crossing.

The section modulus for the stiffeners are normally much


less than forthe girders.

As a consequence of the above, the basic design criteria


will be : -

i) Each stiffener is acting only as a local load carrying


element.

ii? Each stiffener tail be regarded 2s support against


deflection (relative to adjacent girder) at each crossing.

If we now look at a typical stiffener 13.0 m long supported


at 4 intermediate girders, what will be the design criteria
for this stiffener. .
i l n - N0
MacGREGBW
1M ~ W ~ ~ E I DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
Sheet 10.82

I Reg. NO.

B. BUCKLING.

I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e t o p p l a t e from b u c k l i n g t h e
s t i f f e n e r should be placed p a r a l l e l t o t h e d i r e c t i o n
of t h e main c o m p r e s s i v e t o p p l a t e s t r e s s e s .

-,-- I- -
^-i-----
I --I- t
' d= MAIN SlRESSES

I I

= CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS = 7.6 x106 ($1 2 [k~1cm2]

IF t = 8 & s = 800,
THEN = 76@ kp/r,,2

IF FITTED PERPENDICULAR TO MAIN STRESSES

IF t = 8 & s = 800,
THEN Cl;
= 190 kplcm*
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

Edition 1
I Rw. No.
-
-

9. LOCAL STIFFENER - WHEEL LOAD

Such a s t i f f e n e r c a n i n m o s t c a s e s b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a n
e n d l e s s beam s u p p o r t e d by r i g i d s u p p o r t s s p a c e d L .

The maximum b e n d i n g moment a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s o n t h i s


e n d l e s s beam s u b j e c t t o l o c a l w h e e l l o a d s i s shown
on t h e a t t a c h e d g r a p h .
P r o c e d u r e f o r d e t e r m i n i n s maximum b e n d i n a moment.

a) Assume o n e d r i v i n g d i r e c t i o n .
-1
L
-- .-------- -1
7

- --- I .

USE THE GRAPH TO DETERMINE /? AND f , v .


=-
L

13) C h e c k f o r p e r p e n d i c c l a r d r i x - ~ n gd i r e c t i o n
. -
S ~ I E E TT I U S E b e c h ~ s . < e a a s w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y s h e a r f o r c e a t
sect::-. A-A
DESIGN RECO-K"IENDATI0NS

1 0 . TRIPPING BRACKETS

A s a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e f a c e a n d web o f a l l t y p e s o f s e c t i o n s
must be s t a b l i z e d a g a i n s t t r i p p i n g .

Example o f t r i p p i n g p r e v e n t i n g c o n n e c t i o n s : -

5.E
C CL
:2
=
2.E- 3
I'D"$-
5%:
;'s>
f, L O

i-2
1 .= n
-5
3-2 5
.:,
: - U .
2 O Z 6
C D
3n .
: 3
f E $ 3 =
u 2
: :;2 0
i.2
~ . m
C z 2
.; E E,;
). g?jk
r!&s~:
f ,;s

-
'0
C
4.5 IYeb stal~ility
4.5.1 Primary members of asymmetrical section arc to be
supported by tripping brackcts at alternate secondary
nieinbess. If the section is symmetrical, the tripping
brackets may be four spaces apart.

4.5.2 Tripping brackets are also to be fitted at the toes of


end brackets and in way of heavy o r concentrntcd loads
such as the heels of pillars.

4.5.3 Where the ratio of unsupported width of face platc


(or flange) to its thickness exceeds 1G:l, thc trip?ing
brackets arc to be connected to the face plate and, on
members of synlmetrical section, the brackets are to be
fitted on both sides of the wcb.

2 - S t i f f e n i n g of t h e w e b

21 - Tripping brackets are r o b e provided at the toe of


tile e ~ brackets,
~ j at tile level of tile cross-ties, and or1 rile
span of the primary stiffeners, w i t h a spacing which, as
a rule, is not t o exceed three seconciary stiffener spacings
or 3 rn.

Tahlc C1 Spacing hct\\cen tripping brackets.

13ottom tr:tns\ crsc

0.011 b j
mas. S

0.0 I:! bf
0.02 b,
Illas. 4
No.

DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheet 10.I(p

1 R q . No.

1 1 . FITTING BACK UP

For f i t t i n g s and o t h e r ' l o a d b e a r i n g ' p o i n t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g


rules are generally applicable.

a) Check t h e w e l d s .
b) Check t h e b a c k u p s t r u c t u r e .
c) Make s u r e t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i t y f r o m t h e f i t t i n g
t o t h e back up s t r u c t u r e i n t h e form of weld and
material.
2 \
uI Avoid h a r d p o i n t s w h i c h g i v e s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n .

On t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s a r e shown some f i t t i n g s w i t h
a s s o c i a t e d back up s t r u c t u r e .

A p p l i c a t i o n s which s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d a r e d o u b l e c r o s s e d ,
l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s b u t s t i l l u s a b l e a r e shown
single crossed.

Some c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d b e c h e c k e d a r e a l s o
marked.
BETTER
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Sheer fo.fl, s

I R q . No.

END BPLACKET FOR STIFFENER

,. &
3
' C i
;c?$
, Z L 3
L E O L
w
M = bIaxinum bending moment which arises in the stiffener
g - js
i

:
.'- 0 0
at this particular joint.
i 3 g z
.9- - cm For Instance:-
I .IT '5
, 3.2 5
.-
. o r.z ;,
., - =- -v-'
7

, 0-a,
L. a

: y -20

l o o -,..
:5U z 0
; m u =
: z.52 2

, - I l l /

2,8 x 7allow

M= Bending moment (kpcm)


Kvaerner Ships Equipment AB Action

Date Page
DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS 9809 10.1211 -
From
HES

LOAD PADS BETWEEN HATCH COAVING AND COVER

Such pads are not only subject to vertical forces.


As a result of the horisontal movement which takes place between cover and coaminz
will the coefficent of friction between the pad and the coaming times the acting vertical
force , create a substantial horisontal force.
(S teel-S tee1 pads u=0.25),
This forces MUST always be checked for hatch covers subject to other loads than the
UDL as stated in the Load Line.
Below shows some example from different container covers. All of them are OK if only
consideringvertical load: all of them have cracked. (Frequently).

I
I
-.-.
. > KVERNER
I1
I
SUBJECT Page
'0.13-1
STRAPS S~gn No
HES/ID

I I
I
I

I
I
1
<-
I/ -
4
I,

I
I C
-R O-U-P-A
-- -

E y e p l a t e s f o r h y d r a u l ~ ccylinders a n d s i r n l l a r s u b j e c t o t a l t e r n a t i n g
load.

I Hinges f o r bridge p l a t e s .
; (F.O.S. 3,5)
I

D e v i c e s used in l i f t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , t y p e w i r e e y e p l a t e s , s h e a v e
1 eyeplates erc.

, GROUP
------C
-
H l n g e s f o r i n t e r n a l e q u l p r n e n t Type d o o r s .

I
I
Non s r r e n g t h m e m b e r s .

1
I
Eyeplates for hydraulic cylinders a r e s u b j e c t t o load in mainly o n e
d i r e c t i o n on]$.

(F.O.S. 3,j)
SUBJECT

STRAPS

GROUP

N O R M A L STRESS 1200 SO0 1200

TEAR OUT
-C;TR F 55

SURFACE
PRESSURE

Units = Force =
Length =
kp
crn 1
Above f o r m u l a s a r e valid f o r mild s t e e l s t r a p s , f o r HT 36 m a t e r i a l ,
values could be i n c r e a s e d w i t h 40% 1
I
I
i
I

iI
I
i
i
I
I
i
i
I

ii Ii
1
I
I
i I
I
j I
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i 1
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!
I

, i
i
I
1 I
i
i
/
I

I
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i

I I
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'
[tlaximurn shear force i n pin
I

i Maximum shear force in pin


I
SUBJECT

PINS - LIMITING STRESSES

5 F O L D SAFETY (LIFTING T A C K L E )
...........................
ALLOWED ALLOWED
MATEKIAL r~ Cs' NOTES

1000 570 Weldable, m e d i u m


srrength

Non w e l d a b l e , v e r y
high s t r e n g t h , v e r y h a r d

900 51 1 Weldable s t a i n l e s s s t e e l ,
low strength

1815 1035 Non w e l d a b l e s t a i n l e s s


s r e e l , v e r y high s t r e n g t h
very hard
/ SIJBJECT
Date 87.06.23175 15.1
I
I

T h e following p a g e s a r e a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a b o u t how t o design Plain


Bearings a n d Rims for wheels.

1 PLAIN BEARINGS

E x p e r i e n c e in t h e p a s t h a s s h o w n t h a t w h e e l s f i t t e d with plain bearings


I
a r e v e r y v u l n e r a b l e t o e d g e p r e s s u r e a n d e v e n if t h e w h e e l is n o t
d e s i g n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i d e - l o a d s , t h e y will a l w a y s o c c u r .

i T h e r e f o r e , a l l w h e e l b u s h e s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d w i t h r e s p e c t to a t l e a s t
I 2 5 % sideload.
SUBJECT

WHEELS

Following maximum s u r f a c e pressure ( P I ) is recommended f o r


d i f f e r e n t bush m a t e r i a l

"Pd
BRITISH COMMENTS
S T A N D A R D NAME

BS 1400 OILES 500 LIGHT T O MEDIUM L O A D KECOMMENDED


LG2-(3 500-JM I 85% C u , 5 % Sn, 5 % P b , 5 % Z n

BS 1400 HEAVY AND I M P A C T L O A D KECOMMENDED


PB2 500-JM3 88% C u , 1 2 % Sn

85 1400
AB2-C

BS 1452 CAST
OILES
500-3;\/17
1250
400
I1 HIGH S T K E N G T H P R O P E R T I E S
5 2 % C u , 4% Ni, 1 0 % Al, 4 % F e

N O T IIECOlvIllrlENDED F O R WHEELS
GR 14 IRON
Ph=0,3- 1 Y6
ANNEALLED
B150-lb5

i
T h e d i a m e i e r a n d t h i c k n e s s of t h e r i m should b e d e i e r r n i n e d by
i
i 1
1 checking t h e c o n t a c t pressure b e t w e e n t h e rail and t h e rim. I

I
1 T h e f o r m u l a f o r t h i s p r e s s u r e c o u l d b e f o u n d in t h e s t a n d a r d book
1
I
Xeg. 0437,lO N C G 1081 1 i t s h o u l d b e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e m a x i m u m
/ s u r f s c e p r e s s u r e which i s g i v e n s h o u l d N OT be exceeded.
---
'
I

F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e l e c t e d r a i l m a t e r i a l should b e slightly s o f t e r
t h a n t h e rim.
!
I

1 T h e o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r of t h e w h e e l MUST
--- -NOT
--- b e l e s s t h a n 3-4 t i m e s
I t h e pin d i a m e r e r .
; ( IF 7YeN 4 7 , ~ w f ~ ~ L € T ? - f i ~ q f L 6-
~+b
K v a e r n e r Ships Equipment A B Action

date Page
98.09 10.16, 1
DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS HES

HATCH COVER DESIGN RULES

1'. DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT C O A I N G DEFORMATION

Elongation /contraction of hatch opening due to ships hogginglsagging:


BASIC +I-1 m d m opening length.
CONTINUOS C O A V N G +/- 1.5 r n d m opening length.

Diagonal difference of opening increases for increased opening width (bj and length. (1).
Bulkcarrier b/B=0.5 Delta diagonal = +!- 10 mm
Cont vessel b/B=O.S4 Delta diagonal = +I- 40 mm
Coaster b/B =0.85 1=30m Delta diagonal = +I- 100 mm
Cont /Bulk b/B=O.SS 1=25m Delta Diagonal = +I- 100 mm

Venical deformation of coaming is caused by:


Bending of hull 3 - 7 m d 20 m opening length.
Torsion of hull Max. comer movements +I- 30mm
NOTE Box design is critical.

Transverse deformation of coaming increases for increased b/B and 1.


Bulkcarrier b/B=0.5 +/- 2 m d side.
Cont vessel b/B=O.S4 1= 12.5m +I- 15 m d s i d e .
Cont /Bulk b/B=O.SS 1=25m +I- 50 m d s i d e .
Coaster b/B=O.Sj 1=50m +I- 30 m d s i d e

Thermal deformation of covers causes movements.


+50degr--70 degr C +/- 4 m d m
sunheat on top of covers
NOTE Box design is critical
Kvaerner Ships Equipment AB Action

I date I Page
98.09 1 10.16. Z-
DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS HES

HATCH COVER DESIGN RULES


I

C
HATCHCOVERS MUST BE PREVENTED FROPI GOTNG OVEP3OAP.D
Tipping of containerloaded covers
Side force locators
Longitudinal locators
D
TAKE N T O ACCOUNT FRICTION FORCES BETWEEN :
Coaming-Restingpads.
Hinges-Hinges
NOTE Critical for containerloclded covers.

E
REMEMBER THE ENVIRONMENT:
In low temperature rubberpacking becomes hard.
"Green sea" on top of covers
Stainless Steel if things should be dismountable.