Anda di halaman 1dari 8

480 VOLT CORNER GROUNDED DELTA

FRIEND OR FOE
Copyright M a t e r i a l IEEE
Paper No. P C I C - 8 8 - 3 1

WILLIAM D. BOLIN CHARLES C. KUBIN


SUN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION COMPANY

ABSTRACT

Many power companies have been i n c r e a s i n g t h e I f j u s t two p r i m a r y s e r v i c e conductors a r e a v a i l -


useage o f 480 v o l t c o r n e r grounded d e l t a s e r v i c e a b l e , t h e o n l y way t o d i r e c t l y supply 480 v o l t
f o r secondar s e r v i c e t o t h e o i l f i e l d . Users s e r v i c e i s t o connect two t r a n s f o r m e r s "open
faced w i t h t i i s s e r v i c e v o l t a g e have a number o f delta". Open t r a n s f o r m e r connection d e l t a r e f e r s
o p e r a t i o n a l and s a f e t y q u e s t i o n s . Grounded phase o n l y t o t h e secondary connection as t h e p r i m a r y
conductors i n c r e a s e c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g i n grounds can be connected wye o r d e l t a . These two t r a n s -
and t h u s c r e a t e s a f e t y concerns. T h i s paper d i s - formers need n o t have equal impedances. This
cusses t h e advantages and disadvantages o f some o f system i s i n h e r e n t l y unbalanced which w i l l con-
the available l i t e r a t u r e . t r i b u t e t o i n y , y s e d motor l o s s e s and premature
motor f a i l u r e . Use o f open d e l t a t r a n s f o r -
Introduction m a t i o n should be l i m i t e d t o small t h r e e phase
motors. W i t h t h i s t y p e o f secondary t r a n s f o r m e r
Three phase 480 v o l t secondary s e r v i c e connected connection, i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o ground t h e secon-
c o r n e r grounded d e l t a (480V CG) i s n o t t h e most dary. On an ungrounded open-delta t r a n s f o r m e r
common secondary s e r v i c e used today. The s o l i d l y s t a t i o n , I measured o v e r 750 v o l t s t o ground.
grounded wye e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e (48OVY/277V) We i n s t a l l e d a c e n t e r busing ground which removed
l i s t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i c Code i s t h e most over v o l t a g e problem.
common 480V s e r v i c e used, e s p e c i a l l y where a s i g -
n i f i c a n t 277 v o l t l i g h t i n g l o a d can be balanced on With d e l t a secondary transformers, the common
a l l t h r e e phases. T h i s 48OVY/277V s e r v i c e r e q u i r e s connections are:
t h r e e s i n g l e phase t r a n s f o r m e r s o r one t h r e e phase
t r a n s f o r m e r connected wye on t h e secondary w i t h a Ungrounded: U s u a l l y 3 - w i r e ungrounded 480
s o l i d f o u r w i r e system. Today, t h e use o f s o l i d l y v o l t system
grounded p r i m a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n systems i s common.
T h i s (48OVY/277V) e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e arrangement Grounded:
performs w e l l when s u p p l y i n g l a r g e 480 v o l t l o a d s A. 240/480 v o l t 4 - w i r e system
on " s t i f f " f o u r w i r e p r i m a r y systems i f t h e t h i r d B. 480 v o l t c o r n e r grounded 3 - w i r e system
harmonic f r o m wye-wye t r a n s f o r m e r connection i s C. 480 v o l t w i t h z i g - z a g t r a n s f o r m e r ground-
t o l e r a b l e . Wye connected secondary t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ing
(48OVY/277V) i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l 480 v o l t
loads. D e l t a connected secondary t r a n s f o r m a t i o n Use o f 480 V o l t Three Phase Corner Grounded S e r v i c e
has been used many y e a r s and i s t h e p r e f e r r e d
connection s e r v i n g s m a l l e r loads. Since t h i s s e r v i c e i s n o t d i r e c t l y r e f e r e n c e d
i n t h e N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i c a l Code as an approved
480 V o l t E l e c t r i c S e r v i c e t y p e of s e r v i c e , t h e f i r s t encounter caused a
number of q u e s t i o n s . How should t h i s t y p e o f
E l e c t r i c s e r v i c e f o r t h e o i l f i e l d from a power s e r v i c e be w i r e d ? Do o b i e c t i o n a b l e around
company may n o t meet t h e requirements o f a t h r e e currents e x i s t ? Can o r shouid t h e r e be a' f u s e
t r a n s f o r m e r (48OVY/277V) s e r v i c e . Certain elec- i n a l l t h r e e phase w i r e s ?
t r i f i e d o i l f i e l d s t e n d t o have a l a r g e number o f
loads l o c a t e d a t w e l l s and t a n k b a t t e r i e s . If The Rural E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n REA)
l o a d s a r e l e s s than 75 HP and secondary s e r v i c e covers some o f these questions. Q u o t i n g from
i s provided, most power companies p r e f e r t o supply REA B u l l e t i n 161-19, March 24, 1977 l p t e r from
480 v o l t t h r e e phase s e r v i c e w i t h a d e l t a t r a n s - the Assistant Administrator - E l e c t r i c :
former secondary connection. Table # 1 i s a t e l e -
phone survey o f 480 v o l t t h r e e phase p r e f e r r e d "It should be emphasized t o consumers ( i r i g a -
secondary s e r v i c e . t o r s ) t h a t a l l m e t a l l i c p a r t s o f an i r r i g a t i o n
system which a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o c a r r y c u r r e n t
must be permanently bonded t o an unfused and un-
switched grounding conductor which extends back
t o t h e t r a n s f o r m e r bank secondary ground. It i s
n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o m e r e l y bond t h e equipment
t o a d r i v e n ground o r w e l l c a s i n g i f t h a t
ground r o d o r c a s i n g i s n o t i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h

88CH2661-7/88/0000-097$01.OO0 1988 IEEE


- 97 -
TABLE #1

PREFERRED 480V
THREE PHASE
COMPANY LOCATION SECONDARY SERVICE

Lee County E l e c t r i c Coop FL Grounded Wye


L o u i s i a n a Power & L i g h t LA Ungrounded D e l t a
Magnolia E l e c t r i c Power Assoc. MISS Corner Grounded D e l t a
M i s s i s s i p p i Power Company M I SS Grounded Wye
N o r t h e a s t L o u i s i a n a Power Coop LA Corner grounded D e l t a
Southwest Arkansas E l e c t r i c Co. ARK Corner grounded D e l t a
Texas Power & L i g h t TX 20HP Open D e l t a Ungrounded
20HP+ Ungrounded D e l t a
Upshur Rural E l e c t r i c Coop TX Corner grounded D e l t a
V a l l e y E l e c t r i c Members LA Corner grounded D e l t a
Wood County E l e c t r i c Coop TX Corner grounded D e l t a
Southwestern E l e c t r i c Co. TX-LA-ARK Corner Grounded D e l t a
Less than 150KVA

w i t h t h e t r a n s f o r m e r ground by a m e t a l l i c conduc- conductor t o be bonded t o t h e grounded phase con-


t o r . T h i s means t h a t i n a l l cases, t h e consumer's d u c t o r ahead (source s i d e ) o f t h e s e r v i c e d i s -
w i r i n g must c o n s i s t o f f o u r w i r e s . These w i r e s connect s w i t c h and t h a t t h i s f o u r t h (grounding)
a r e t h e t h r e e c u r r e n t - c a r r y i n g phase conductors conductor must be used t o i n t e r c o n n e c t a l l grounds
and a f o u r t h w i r e c a l l e d a grounding conductor. on t h i s three-phase c i r c u i t . Note t h a t no f u s e i s
p e r m i t t e d i n t h e grounded phase a t t h e s e r v i c e
A grounding conductor i s one which i s n o t i n t e n d e d equipment. Motor-running o v e r c u r r e n t p r o t e c t i o n
t o c a r r y load current, b u t instead provides the i s p r o v i d e d a t t h e motor l o c a t i o n . "
i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between t h e t r a n s f o r m e r bank
ground and a l l grounds on t h e consumer's equip- It i s important t o note t h a t n o t a l l a u t h o r i t i e s
ment. h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n agree w i t h t h e placement o f
fuses as e x p l a i n e d by t h e REA B u l l e t i n 161-19.
" F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s a c o r n e r grounded d e l t a T h i s i s one o f t h e c o n f u s i o n f a c t o r s o f c o r n e r
connection. T h i s shows t h e p r e f e r r e d method o i grounded d e l t a t r a n s f o r m e r connections. The NEC
grounding f o r s e r v i c e t o motors which a r e remote does n o t s t a t e a grounded phase conductor can be
from t h e t r a n s f o r m e r bank. One phase o f t h e used as an i n t e r c o n n e c t . Actyall;: this i s i n
t r a n s f o r m e r bank secondary i s grounded o n l y a t d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h NEC 250-21 : Objectionable
t h e t r a n s f o r m e r bank. A grounding conductor i s C u r r e n t over Grounding Conductors":
connected by t h e supply system (REA borrower)
from t h e secondary ground t o t h e ground t e r m i n a l "(A) Arrangement t o Prevent O b j e c t i o n a b l e
o f t h e meter. The consumer's f o u r t h (grounding) Current. The grounding o f e l e c t r i c system
conductor i s bonded t o t h e meter socket grounding c i r c u i t conductors, surge a r r e s t o r s , and
t e r m i n a l and i s c o n t i n u e d as t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n conductive non-current-carrying materials
between a l l grounds on t h e consumer's equipment. and equipment s h a l l be i n s t a l l e d and
Only two f u s e s a r e p e r m i t t e d by t h e NEC a t t h e arranged i n a manner t h a t w i l l p r e v e n t an
s e r v i c e equipment. No f u s e i s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e objectionable flow o f current over the
grounded phase unless t h e f u s e i s used f o r motor- grounding conductors o r grounding paths."
running overcurrent protection. I n these i n -
s t a l l a t i o n s , motor-running o v e r c u r r e n t p r o t e c t i o n "(B) A l t e r a t i o n s t o stop objectionable currents.
i s g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d by h e a t e r s ( o v e r l o a d s ) a t rents. I f t h e use o f m u l t i p l e grounding
t h e motor o r motor c o n t r o l l e r . connections r e s u l t s i n an o b j e c t i o n a b l e
* f l o w o f c u r r e n t , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w -
NOTE:
- Remote - Where motor i s l o c a t e d more t h a n i n g a l t e r a t i o n s s h a l l be made:
approximately 15 t o 30 meters (50 t o 100
f e e t ) from t r a n s f o r m e r bank. ( I ) D i s c o n t i n u e one o r more such grounding
connections.
" F i g u r e 4 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s equipment grounding f o r (2) Change t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e grounding
a c o r n e r grounded d e l t a t r a n s f o r m e r connection. connections.
I n t h i s case, t h e power s u p p l i e r f u r n i s h e s a (3) I n t e r r u p t t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e con-
t h r e e - w i r e w i r e s e r v i c e t o t h e meter. The con- ductor o r conductive path intercon-
sumer i s p e r m i t t e d by t h e NEC t o u t i l i z e t h e n e c t i n g t h e grounding connections.
grounded phase conductor as t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n (4) Take o t h e r s u i t a b l e remedial a c t i o n
between grounds up t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e a u t h o r i t y having
equipment. However, t h e consumer should be cau- j ur is d it t ion. 'I
t i o n e d t h a t t h e NEC r e q u i r e s a f o u r t h ( g r o u n d i n g )

- 98 -
Based on t h e NEC, i t i s c l e a r t h a t e x i s t e n c e o f - AC i n t e r f e r e n c e t o communication equipment
phase c u r r e n t s over grounding conductors i s a code - Higher d i e l e c t r i c s t r e s s on two phases
v i o l a t i o n and c o r r e c t i v e measures should be taken. - Higher magnitudes o f t r a n s i e n t o v e r v o l t a g e s
When power companies a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s i n -
c o n s i s t e n c y of 480 v o l t c o r n e r grounding, t h e o n l y The non-automatic i s o l a t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f a
e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h e NEC 90-2 scope. The e l e c t r i c phase t o ground s h o r t has calised many o p e r a t o r ' s
u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e n o t covered by t h e NEC. problems. One example i s t h e grounded phase
If the e l e c t r i c service supplied by the u t i l i t y s h o r t e d t o case ground i n a motor. Since t h e over
w i l l n o t p e r m i t t h e customer t o c l e a r o b j e c t i o n - c u r r e n t d i d n o t remove i t from o p e r a t i o n , i t con-
a b l e c u r r e n t s over grounding conductors, t h e t i n u e d t o operate. A p i p e on t h e l e a s e burned
u t i l i t y should work w i t h t h e customer t o a l l o w t h e metal arcund i t where i t p e n e t r a t e d a metal
compliance w i t h t h e NEC. building. T h i s i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e ground c u r r e n t .

A b u i l d i n g receiving 480-volt service i s 6 1 i m i t e d CONCLUSION


t o one l o c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e by t h e NEC . The
e x i s t e n c e o f m u l t i p l e s e r v i c e l o c a t i o n s can com- A f t e r e v a l u a t i o n o f c o r n e r grounded 480 v o l t
pound t h e problem o f c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g i n grounds. s e r v i c e , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r use i s
I n Appendix #1, an o i l w e l l i s 1000 f e e t from a ' l e s s expense'. Corner grounded 480 v o l t s e r v i c e
3 -25 KVA t r a n s f o r m e r bank which i s connected may n o t p r o v i d e 2 s a f e w o r k i n g environment i n an
c o r n e r grounded l i k e F i g u r e 4 o f REA 161-19. An o i l f i e l d environment. I f c o r n e r grounded 480
e l e c t r i c kwh meter i s 100 f e e t from t h e o i l w e l l . v o l t s e r v i c e i s t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e 48C v o l t s e r -
W i t h a 40 HP motor powering a r o d pump w i t h a max- v i c e , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o r e q u e s t s e r v i c e from a
imum normal c u r r e n t o f 50 amps, how much c u r r e n t f o u r w i r e system l i k e F i g u r e 3 ir: REP E u l l e t i n
w i l l f l o w i n t h e ground w i r e from t h e meter t o t h e 161-19. T h i s w i l l reduce t h e normal c u r r e n t s
w e l l c a s i n g ? T h i s a u e s t i o n does n o t have an e x a c t f l o w i n g i n grounds. Due t o o p e r a t i o n a l problems,
answer b u t a range. Since o i l w e l l casings a r e i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r types o f 480
t h e b e s t grounds i n t h e o i l f i e l d s , t h e y may be v o l t d e l t a groundicg o r s o l i c ' l y grounded wye
used as grounds. e l e c t r i c service.

With one s e r v i c e t o one w e l l , a 9-1/2 amp c u r r e n t Peferences


w i l l f l o w i n t h e ground w i r e . T h i s may be o b j e c -
t i o n a b l e ground c u r r e n t . Multiple electric 1. N a t i o n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l
s e r v i c e s can add a d d i t i o n a l grcund c u r r e n t s i n c e E l e c t r i c a l Code Handbook, NFPA 70, 19"
a l l grounds a r e i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e grounded t i o n , 1 C O - A D e f i n i t i o n s , P 26, V c l t a g e tc?
s e r v i c e conductor. The e x i s t e n c e o f c u r r e n t s Ground: P. 26. V o l t a c e Nominal: P. 25. V o l t a s e
f l o w i n g i n metal p i p e s and w e l l s can be a hazard o f s. C i r c u i t ; '70 - 1<81
t o o p e r a t i o n a l people w o r k i n g where hydrocarbons
may be p r e s e n t . We have experienced a ground w i r e 2. J . E . W i l l i a m s , "Operation o f 3-Phase I n d u c t i o n
t o an o i l w e l l h a v i n g enough c u r r e n t t o weld Motors on Unbalanced Voltages"; A I E E Transac-
i t s e l f back t o t h e o i l w e l l when removal was t i o n s (Power Apparatus & Systems), Volume 73
attempted. A p r i l 1954, PP 125-133

Why i s 480 V o l t Corner Grounded D e l t a Used? 3. P. G. Cummings, 2 . R. Dunki-Jacobs, R . k'. Kerr,


" P t-otec t ion o f i nduct ion K o t o r s Aga ins t
Metering: Two element meters a r e l e s s expensive Unbalanced Voltage Operation"; General E l e c t r i c
t h a n t h r e e element meters. Three Company, I E E E Paper No. P C I C 83-3, September
element meters r e q u i r e more main- 12-14, 1983, Page 17 - 30
tenance.
Service: T r i p l e x w i r e i s l e s s expensive than 4. Richard R i c h t e r , "Guide f o r E l e c t r i c S e r v i c e on
quad w i r e . Three-phase Motor I n s t a l l a t i o n s " ; REA E u l l e t i n
Meter Base: F i v e t e r m i n a l meter base i s l e s s ex- 161-19, March 24, 1977 L e t t e r
pensive than seven t e r m i n a l .
5. N a t i o n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n Association, National
A d d i t i o n a l Concerns o f 480 V o l t Corner Grounded E l e c t r i c a l Code Handbook; NFPA 70, 1981, P. 170
Systems - 171
Dangerous s t e p and touch p o t e n t i a l s can e x i s t . 6. N a t i o n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l
Non-automatic i s o l a t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f phase E l e c t r i c a l Code Handbook; NFPA 70, 1981, 230-2
t o ground s h o r t s . Number o f Services, P. 114
Ground c u r r e n t s o b j e c t i o n a l t o r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g
i n t h e area 7. E l e c t r i f i e d I n d u s t r y , Guide t o I n d u s t r Power
Ground p o t e n t i a l s have been known t o cause D i s t r i b u t i o n , 20 N o r t h W a c k e r D r i v e , c
yh
wi
s o l i d state starters t o s t a r t i n the " o f f "
p o s i ti o n
n m 15.
L i g h t n i n g a r r e s t o r a p p l i c a t i o n may be unsa-
tisfactory

- 99 -
WIRING DIAGRAM

SECTION X - X

II I Note'
I
[ I -1
For m e t e r i n g osiembly, r e f e r to
1 drawing MB-12

Notes:
I All t o n k i to be grounded
2. Secondory neutrals sholl be
disconnected from tonks and
not grounded
3. Grounded secondory phose wire
must bo idontified throughout
circuit run.
4 For transformers 3 7 1/2 KVA ond
lorger,use 1 1 0 cluster b r o c k e t s
* Specify these i t e m s to be furnished ond dimension o s shown o n G 3 I O
by the monufocfurer

J a n 1,1962 G 3 1 I-

- 100 -
- I
I
'.
/
CONNECTIONS

LIGHTNING r -
A R R E S T E R T
( I F USED) I
I
I

R-
I
SERVICE ENTRANCE
DISCONNECT -- RECOMMENDED

I
GROUNDED
CONDUCTOR

CONSUMERS
- L- --
c-MAY
FEEDERS TO PUMP "EL,
BE ANY LENGTH,
MAY BE UNDERGROUND
EQUIPMENT ,
GROUNDING /PUMP CONTROL PANEL
CONDUCTOR
r-
LIGHTNING I 8
A R R E S T E R V I
(IF USED) I I
I
I

NOTE : I
The minded phose conductor I
neegnot bo tho one on loft I
terrniiinl of dlrconnrctr. I
Any ono of tho p h a r r 1
conduotorr may bo
groundrd, but i t m u r t bo I
"IDENTIFIEd'in r o m o I UNDERGROUND FEEDERS
mannor. I TO CENTER PIVOT PANEL,
I /MAY BE ANY LENGTH
I
L-

CONTROL PANEL
WMP' MOTOR

LIGHTNING
ARRESTER I
(IF USED)

FIGURE 3 -RECOMMENDED EQUIPMENT AND GROUNDING FOR A GROUNDED, DELTA -


CONMCTED SECONDARY.

- 101 -
CORNER GROUNDED DELTA
TRANSFORMER SECONDARY
CONNECTIONS

- , /- METERING EQUIPMENT
BONDING JUMPER
AHEAD OF FIRST
DISCONNECT 7

LIGHTNING
ARRESTER SERVICE ENTRANCE
(IF USED) I --
RECOMMENDED
I
I
I
GROUNDED L-

-
CONDUCTOR-
CONSUMERS
EQUIPMENT
GROUNDING
CONDUCTOR PUMP CONTROL PANEL
-- -. /----
r
-
LIGHTNING i-- -I 1
ARRESTER
D
,J 1 I
( I F USED) \ I I I
I I
I
CENTER PIVOT
I
I
I
I
I
I
I UNDERGROUND FEEDERS
I
I
I
L-

I/ CONTROL PANEL
PUMP
LlOHTNlNQ
ARRESTER
(IF USED)
I I
L-----J
FIGURE 4-RECOMMENDED EQUIPMENT AND GROUNDING OF 3-PHASE ,3-WlRE SERVICE WHEN ONE
OF THE PHASE CONDUCTORS IS GROUNDED.

- 102 -
APPENDIX 1

Example 1

Transformer s t a t i o n connected a t f i g u r e 4 of REA B u l l e t i n 161-19. A 40 IiP motor has


a peak c u r r e n t o f 50 amps and served w i t h #2 t r i p l e x AL s e r v i c e t o t h e meter. How
much c u r r e n t w i l l f l o w i n t h e ground between t h e power meter and t h e e l e c t r i c motor?

C o n s i d e r i n g r e a c t i o n on AC c i r c u i t s 7 as w e l l as t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e w i r e t h e
e q u i v a l e n t r e s i s t a n c e a t 80% l a g g i n g power f a c t o r can be reduced t o :

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There w i l l be no e x a c t answer b u t an o r d e r o f magnitude depending on r e s i s t a n c e
t o ground. Since t h e e a r t h ground i s p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e s e r v i c e grounded conductor,
t h e c u r r e n t p a t h w i l l be i n t h e conductor and ground.

Rser = Resistance o f s e r v i c e
Rtr = E f f e c t i v e t r z n s f o r m e r r e s i s t a n c e t o ground
Rrod = E f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e ground r o d t o r e s i s t a n c e t o ground
Rgrw = Resistance o f ground w i r e
Rwell = Resistance o f w e l l t o ground

I n t h i s example 9-1/2 amps a r e f l o w i n g i n t h e ground w i r e between t h e e l e c t r i c


meter and o i l w e l l . The l o w e r t h e e f f e c t i v e system n e u t r a l grounding o f t h e
t r a n s f o r m e r s t a t i o n , t h e more c u r r e n t w i l l f l o w i n t h e ground conductor.

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