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Assignment 4

Please return by 18 December 2016.

Q1.

(a) Somebody claims to have developed a new reversible heat-engine cycle that has a higher
theoretical efficiency than the Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limit.
How do you evaluate this claim?
(b) Is there any way to increase the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine other than by increasing TH
or decreasing TL?
(c) A Carnot heat engine receives heat at 750 K and rejects the waste heat to the environment at
300 K. The entire work output of the heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator that
removes heat from the cooled space at -15°C at a rate of 400 kJ/min and rejects it to the same
environment at 300 K. Determine (a) the rate of heat supplied to the heat engine, (b) the total
rate of heat rejection to the environment, and (c) Maximum and actual COP of the refrigerator.

Q 2.
a. What is entropy? Is entropy increase and entropy generation same?
b. Entropy change may be negative but entropy generation never be negative? T/F
c. A piston–cylinder device contains nitrogen gas. During a reversible adiabatic process, the
entropy of the nitrogen will increase –never/sometimes/ always?
d. A piston–cylinder device contains superheated steam. During an actual adiabatic expansion
process, the entropy of the steam will –increase/ decrease/unchanged?
e. The entropy of steam will (increase/ decrease/ remain the same) as it flows through an
actual adiabatic turbine.
f. The entropy of the working fluid of the ideal Carnot cycle (increases/decreases/ remains
the same) during the isothermal heat addition process.
g. The entropy of the working fluid of the ideal Carnot cycle (increases/decreases/remains the
same) during the isothermal heat rejection process.
h. What three different mechanisms can cause the entropy of a control volume to change?
i. Steam is accelerated as it flows through an actual adiabatic nozzle. The entropy of the
steam at the nozzle exit will be (greater than/ equal to/less than) the entropy at the nozzle
inlet.
j. Steam at 6 MPa and 500°C enters a steady-flow turbine. The steam expands in the turbine
while doing work until the pressure is 10 kPa. The entire expansion process by the steam
through the turbine is reversible and adiabatic. (a) Sketch the process on a T-s diagram
with respect to the saturation lines. Be sure to label the data states and the lines of constant
pressure. (b) If the turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%, what is the work done by
the steam as it flows through the turbine per unit mass of steam flowing into the turbine, in
kJ/kg?