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1

Leading International Provider of Training Courses,


Seminars, Workshops, Conferences and Exhibitions
to the Oil, Gas and Energy Industry.

Fundamentals of FPSO
2

Let’s Talk About


Who We Are

Fundamentals of FPSO
About Us 3

PetroKnowledge is a global learning services and professional development solutions provider, established to support
organizations and their people in the global Oil, Gas, & Energy industries.

PetroKnowledge is confident in its delivery of learning solutions that support customers as they adapt to business
transformations and technological advancements. PetroKnowledge recognizes that these changes are key to ensure
progressive and thriving organizations.

We offer a comprehensive range of training courses; seminars and courses that cover Management and Leadership;
Finance and Accounting; Project Management; Contracts and Purchasing Management; Maintenance and Engineering
and Health and Safety – designed for the oil, gas and energy industry.

Our professional training courses; designed to provide organizations and individuals the skills needed in the ever evolving
oil, gas and energy industry – help ensure that businesses and individuals are prepared and fully equipped to play their
role in this ever changing industry.

PetroKnowledge offers only the most relevant and timely content delivered by the presenters who are leading
professionals in their field. Along with our internationally recognized accreditation, we provide client across the globe with a
choice of public training courses, bespoke private training and flexible delivery and scheduling options. This ensures that
whatever your needs, PetroKnowledge is confident in its delivery of world class training.

Fundamentals of FPSO
4

Our Mission

At PetroKnowledge, our mission is


to not only educate our clients with
the latest information in their chosen
subject, be it Subsea drilling or Oil,
Gas and Energy skills, but to impart
real life practical knowledge for them
to take back to their respective
organisations.

Fundamentals of FPSO
5

Our Vision
Our vision has always been to enhance the
calibre of training provided to Oil, Gas and
Energy professionals. We do this by creating
unique training programs taught by industry
leaders who impart not only their educational
knowledge, but their industry experience too.
We take pride in our ability to respond
quickly to market needs and provide our
clients with quality learning courses and
seminars that are dynamic, cutting edge and
up to date.

Fundamentals of FPSO
6

Why You Should Choose


PetroKnowledge
Reasons to use PetroKnowledge
to help unlock the power in
yourself, your colleagues and
your organization.

Fundamentals of FPSO
01 7

A Delegate
Focused Approach

• PetroKnowledge aims to unlock the


power in your people.

• An impressive 98% of the delegates


who attend PetroKnowledge training
seminars would recommend them to a
friend or colleague, proving that our
delegate focused approach to training
and development really does work.

Fundamentals of FPSO
02 8

High Quality
Trainers
All of our courses are run by industry renowned
trainers, giving you access to the best possible
help and advice throughout your training. All the
trainers that work with PetroKnowledge are
rigorously selected for combining brilliant and
passionate presentation skills with in-depth
industry experience and a thorough
understanding of learning and development
practice. All of our trainers and consultants are
constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure
that a consistently high standard of delivery and
service is achieved and that our customers
receive the quality they deserve.
Fundamentals of FPSO
03 • Energy Oil, Gas & Petrochemical
9

• Management, Leadership & Strategic Planning


Choice and Range • Finance, Budgeting & Accounting
• Project Management
• Contracts Management
PetroKnowledge training schedule • Purchasing & Procurement Management
consists of over 500 courses, making us • Electrical Engineering
the most comprehensive independent • Mechanical Engineering
face-to-face training provider. We are • Maintenance Management
constantly updating and enhancing our
programme of seminars to enable us to
• Instrumentation & Process Control
cater for changing needs of people and • Health, Safety & Security
organizations. As a result we are able to • Human Resources
offer you a wide range of relevant, up-to- • Sales & Marketing
date training and we are confident that you
will be able to find a seminar to suit you,
whatever your training need. The areas
covered by our courses are:

Fundamentals of FPSO
04 10

In House
Training Courses
As well as the option to attend public
courses at world class venues,
PetroKnowledge is also a leading
provider of In-house training. In-house
training offers a solution whereby groups of
people with the same training need can be
given a tailored or bespoke training course,
delivered at a site of your choice. This is a
cost effective alternative providing your
training budget with significant economies
of scale.
Fundamentals of FPSO
• Aberdeen, Scotland

05 • Abu Dhabi, U.A.E


• Abuja, Nigeria
• Almaty, Kazakhstan
11

• Amsterdam, Netherlands
• Barcelona, Spain
• Berlin, Germany
Easily Accessible • California, U.S.A
• Dubai, U.A.E
• Geneva, Switzerland
Locations • Houston, Texas
• Istanbul, Turkey
• Jakarta, Indonesia
• Kampala, Uganda
We realize our world wide clientele • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
• Kuwait City, Kuwait
do not always want to attend • Lagos, Nigeria
seminars in one single • London, England
location. Therefore, we have a full • Moscow, Russia
• Muscat, Oman
schedule of seminars running in the • New Delhi, India
following exciting cities: • Paris, France
• Doha, Qatar
• Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
• Sur, Oman
• Sydney, Australia
• Trinidad and Tobago
• Vienna, Austria
• Hanoi, Vietnam
Fundamentals of FPSO
06 12

ISO Certified
Company

PetroKnowledge has been awarded the


internationally recognized ISO 9001: 2015 and ISO
29990:2010 Quality Certification for the Global
Provision of Corporate Training.

This is a worldwide recognition of our consistent


and superior quality in customer service, which is
evident from our growing satisfied client base. We
strive to remain a leader in the industry by
continually improving our services, and we take
pride in our commitment to total customer
satisfaction.

Fundamentals of FPSO
07 13

Internationally
Accredited Courses

To offer training is one thing – To offer training


supported by worldwide accreditation bodies is
quite another which is exactly what we do in
PetroKnowledge.

PetroKnowledge has passed through


rigorous Quality Management Systems to
become accredited with some of the worlds
top accreditation bodies. Our credentials are
meticulously developed, globally accredited
The PMI ® Registered Education
and easily transferable across borders and Provider logo is a registered
industries. mark of the Project
Fundamentals
Management ofInc.
Institute, FPSO
08 14

Earn PDU for


PMI Accredited
Courses

PetroKnowledge is proud to be an
approved Registered Education Provider
(R.E.P.) with PMI. As an R.E.P.,
PetroKnowledge is qualified to issue
applicable Professional Development Units
(PDUs) to participants of any its PMI
registered/approved programs where one
(1) PDU is equivalent to one (1) contact
hour of training. Fundamentals of FPSO
09 15

Pursue ILM
endorsed courses &
qualifications leading to
ILM certification

PetroKnowledge is an ILM
(Institute of Leadership &
Management) Approved Centre
and offers a number of approved
Management and Leadership
programs fully endorsed by ILM as
well as ILM Qualifications or VRQs.
Fundamentals of FPSO
10 16

Expert Help
and Advice

If you have any questions about any of our


seminars, would like to discuss the best
way to meet your training needs, or would
just like further information about our
service and training options available, our
customer service team are available to
help. They can be contacted
on info@petroknowledge.com and will
use their expert knowledge to find the best
possible solution for you.
Fundamentals of FPSO
11 17

Outstanding
Track Record for
delivery of courses
PetroKnowledge has supported the
training needs of our clients for over a
decade.

PetroKnowledge has trained more


than 100,000 delegates and delivered
more than 5,000 courses to over
1,000 corporate clients. Fundamentals of FPSO
12 18

No. 1 For Quality,


Choice and Value

Guaranteed Quality, Wide Options


& Value for Money makes
PetroKnowledge the right choice
to support your employees and
maximise your return on the
investment

Fundamentals of FPSO
How does PetroKnowledge ensure 19

quality training is being delivered?

• Our course contents are quality checked and relevant to industry standards.
• Our consultants / trainers / instructors are subject experts & qualified.
• Our course materials are standardized and follow a quality standard.
• Our course venues and the meeting rooms carry a professional ambience.
• We monitor the participant’s attendance on the course and feedback the sponsors.
• Pre & Post course assessments are carried out to assess the impact of the
training.
• Feedbacks are collected from participants on a daily basis for complaints and
suggestions and necessary corrections done immediately.
• Strict policies on issuance of certificates.

Fundamentals of FPSO
20

Training Outlook 2016

As training spending recovers,


much about 2016 is uncertain.
Generally, we feel optimistic
that training will continue to be
at the forefront of the war for
talent, a reliance on
technology will increase
and ultimately training
will improve.

Fundamentals of FPSO
21

TOP 5 Activities
Expected in 2016

1. Leadership Training
2. Competencies Development
3. Instructor-led Training
4. Mentoring
5. Executive Coaching
Fundamentals of FPSO
22
New Training Strategies
What Tools Should
Learning Officers Focus on?

Pay LESS attention to


Wikis/blogs
Podcasting
Corporate University
Mobile learning technologies
Social networking

Fundamentals of FPSO
23

What sets PetroKnowledge apart

• Customer Focused Approach


• Flexibility to Match your Training Needs
• Resources to Deliver Results
• Efficient Back Office Support
• Pre and Post Workshop Activities
• Effective Evaluation of
Training Outcome
• Value for Money

Fundamentals of FPSO
24

Course Details
Course Schedule • Attendance

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25

Daily Agenda

08:15 - 08:30 1st Session


08:30 - 10:15 Break
10:15 - 10:45 2nd Session
10:45 - 12:30 Lunch Break
12:30 - 13:30 3rd Session
13:30 – 15:00 Break
15:00 – 15:15 Open Session
15:15 - 16:00
Welcome
Fundamentals of FPSO
26

Attendance
The daily course
schedule should be
accurately followed
to ensure undeterred
implementation of
our training.

Fundamentals of FPSO
27

Now you know who we are,


Let’s Start our Session.
Thank You!

Fundamentals of FPSO
28

Fundamentals of FPSO
29

Fundamentals of FPSO
Introductions
Dr. George Georgiadis

Born 1957 – Married Christina (We have 3 children).


Brunel University PhD Graduate 1988
Lived and worked in UK 1969 – 1992
Imperial College-Scientist/Junior Lecturer 1988-1992
Cyprus Petroleum Refining Technologist 1992 - 2000
Hijet International – Technical Manager – Houston
Glomacs & Oxford Management – Senior Consultant
Chartered Member of RSC and AIChE
Approved Safety Inspector
Lecturer – European University – Nicosia Cyprus
Associate Professor – Huddersfield University - UK
Course Instructor
Dr. George Georgiadis

George is a Senior Consultant with GloMacs specializing in


Oil and Gas; Process Technology, Safety and the
Environment.
He has graduated from Brunel University in West London
(Uxbridge) and holds a B.Sc. Degree in Industrial Chemistry
an M.Phil. in Catalysis and a Ph.D. degree in Surface
Science.
He is a Chartered Member of the Royal Society of
Chemistry (UK) and a Member of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers (USA).
George is an Approved Safety Inspector (ASI) – Cyprus
Petroleum Refinery Ltd.
George’s field of expertise includes:
Industrial Chemistry –
British Technology Group (UK),
Imperial College of Science and Technology London UK and
HIJET, Inc. Houston USA and Cyprus
Process Technologist – Cyprus Petroleum Refinery Ltd. Cyprus
Environmental Scientist – Municipality of Larnaca Cyprus
He has acted as a consultant to a number of industries in Cyprus and the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and delivers regular training seminars in the
Middle East, Gulf States namely UAE Oman and KSA.
His career is long and varied in the sectors of Science, Technology and
Consultancy Services.
He has held appointments as Technical Director, Board Member, Project
Manager and Senior Management.
Fire - Prometheus
• The energy that it brought changed our
ancestors lives.
• For the first time, our ancestors had the
power to produce heat and light whenever
and wherever needed.
• Creating fire was just the beginning of our
ongoing quest to use Earth’s energy
resources to make our lives better.
Our First Energy Sources
• Wood dominated energy use
• for shelter,
• for transportation on land and on water, and
• as a source of energy to burn for heat and light.
• Besides using wood and their own muscles, people took advantage of
the energy that the sun, wind, running water, hot springs and even
animals could provide;
• to do work,
• to travel, and
• for recreation.
Our First Energy Sources
• Around about 5,500 years ago
Egyptians made the earliest known
sailboats, harnessing the power of the
wind to travel faster and further
• 2500 years ago the Greeks were
building what we now call “passive
City of Olynthus
solar” homes to take better advantage
of the sun’s light and warmth.
• Around the same time, they also
developed waterwheels to grind grain,
a task previously done by hand or with
animal power.
Our First Energy Sources
• 2000 years ago the Romans were enjoying baths from
geothermal hot springs.
• 1500 years ago, the Persians ground grain, using mills with large
wooden blades to capture wind power.
Europeans adopted the
idea and used modified
versions of these windmills
throughout medieval
times.
• The most fundamental energy flow
for living creatures is sunlight,.
• Before oil was discovered 200 years
ago, the only source of energy came
from the sun and a solar collector!
• In simple terms a solar collector is a
piece of land with trees vegetables
and some animals.
• People worked on the land and
could feed their families.
Origin of Petroleum

• 3000 BC: Fertile Crescent & Baku Seeps


• Oil seeps noted along banks of Euphrates
• Azerbaijan – Persia’s land of fire
• Ancient Persians and Sumatrans also believed
petroleum had medicinal value.
• Boats along the Euphrates were constructed with
woven reeds and sealed with pitch.
Origin of Petroleum
• The Egyptians coated mummies and sealed their mighty Pyramids
with pitch.
• The Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians used it to pave their
streets and hold their walls and buildings together.
• The Chinese 600 BC also came across it while digging holes for brine
(salt water) and used the petroleum for heating.
• They burned the gas to evaporate brine for salt.
Origin of Petroleum
• The Bible even claims that Noah used it to make
his Ark seaworthy.
• American Indians used petroleum for paint, fuel,
and medicine.
• Desert nomads used it to treat camels for mange,
and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, used
petroleum it to treat his gout.
Origin of Distillation
1000 A.D. Arab scientists discovered distillation and were able to make kerosene.
Origin of Distillation
This was lost after the 12th century!
“Rediscovered” by a Canadian geologist
called Abraham Gesner in 1852
Origin of Petroleum

• 1291 AD: Marco Polo’s Journey


• Caspian oil produced for medicine, lamps
• Brought back sample of oil from Sumatra
• This seemed a popular idea, and up through the 19 th Century jars of
petroleum were sold as miracle tonic able to cure whatever ailed
you.
• People who drank this "snake oil" discovered that petroleum
doesn't taste very good!
Coal & Thomas Savery
• By the late 1600s coal had
become more popular
than wood in England.
• In fact, the British had lots
of coal.
• But they had flooding
problems deep in the coal
mines due to groundwater
flowing from the rock.
The Search for Oil
• Yet despite its usefulness, for thousands of years petroleum was
very scarce.
• People collected it when it bubbled to the surface or seeped into
wells.
• For those digging wells to get drinking water the petroleum was
seen as a nuisance.
• However, some thought the oil might have large scale economic
value.
Seneca Oil Company
• George Bissell had the innovative idea of using
this oil to produce kerosene, then in high
demand.
• In 1858 Bissell and his partner, Jonathan
Eveleth, hired an ex-railroad conductor named
Edwin Drake to drill for oil along a secluded
creek in Titusville Pennsylvania.
Colonel Drake
• In 1856, Bissell conceived of the idea of drilling for
oil, rather than mining it after seeing pictures of
derrick drilling for salt,.
• This was considered ludicrous at the time but on
August 27, 1859, the company succeeded in
striking oil, on a farm in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
• Bissell invested heavily in the surrounding region and ended up
becoming a wealthy business man.
• Edwin Drake, is credited with the "discovery" of oil.
• His determination and ingenuity saw the pioneer oil well undergo a
successful completion.
Pennsylvania's "Black Gold"
• Drake's well at 70 feet, produced only thirty-five barrels a day,
however he could sell it for $20 a barrel.
• News of the well quickly spread and brought droves of fortune seekers.
• Soon the hills were
covered with
prospectors some using
Y-shaped divining rods
to guide them.
• By 1865 wooden derricks
extracted 3.5 million
barrels a year out of the
ground.
• Such large scale production
caused the price of crude
oil to plummet to ten cents
a barrel.
The First Pipeline
• Transporting the oil was also a problem.
• In 1865 Samuel Van Syckel, an oil buyer, began
construction on a two-inch wide pipeline
designed to span the distance to the railroad
depot five miles away.
• The teamsters, who had previously transported
the oil, didn't take to kindly to Syckel's plan,
and they used pickaxes to break apart the line.
• Eventually Van Syckel brought in armed guards,
finished the pipeline, and made a ton-o-money.
How Much Oil?
• Andrew Carnegie was a large stockholder in the Columbia Oil
Company.
• Carnegie believed that the oil fields would quickly run dry because
of all the drilling.
• He persuaded Columbia Oil to dig a huge hole to store 100,000
barrels of oil so that they could make a killing when the country's
wells went dry.
• Luckily there was more oil than they thought!
• But don't feel too sorry for Carnegie, he didn't let the setback slow
him down very much, and went on to make his millions in the steel
industry.
Early Refining
• By 1860 there were 15 refineries in operation.
• Known as "tea kettle" stills, they consisted of a large iron drum and a
long tube which acted as a condenser.
• Capacity of these stills ranged from 1 to 100 barrels a day.
• A coal fire heated the drum, and three fractions were obtained
during the distillation process.
• The first component to boil off was the highly volatile naphtha.
• Next came the kerosene, or "lamp oil", and lastly came the heavy oils
and tar which were simply left in the bottom of the drum.
• These early refineries produced about 75%
kerosene, which could be sold for high
profits.
• Kerosene was so valuable because of a
whale shortage that had began in 1845 due
to heavy hunting.
• Sperm oil had been the main product of the
whaling industry and was used in lamps.
• Candles were made with another whale
product called "spermaceti".
• This shortage of natural sources meant that kerosene was in great
demand.
• Almost all the families across the country started using kerosene to
light their homes.
• However, the naphtha and tar fractions were seen as valueless and
were simply dumped into Oil Creek.
• By 1865 there were 194 refineries in operation.
John D. Rockefeller
• In 1862 John D. Rockefeller financed his first refinery as a side
investment.
• He soon discovered that he liked the petroleum industry, and
devoted himself to it full time.
• As a young bookkeeper Rockefeller had come to love the order of a
well organized ledger.
• However, he was appalled by the disorder and instability of the oil
industry.
• Anyone could drill a well, and overproduction plagued the early
industry.
• At times this overproduction meant that the crude oil was cheaper
than water.
• Rockefeller saw early on, that refining and transportation, as
opposed to production, were the keys to taking control of the
industry.
• And control the industry he did!
• In 1870 he established Standard Oil, which then controlled
10% of the refining capacity in the country.
• Transportation often encompassed 20% of the total
production cost and Rockefeller made under-the-table deals
with railroads to give him secret shipping rebates.
• This cheap transportation allowed Standard to undercut its
competitors and Rockefeller expanded aggressively, buying
out competitors left and right.
• Soon Standard built a network of "iron arteries" which
delivered oil across the Eastern U.S.
• This pipeline system relieved Standard's dependence upon the
railroads and reduced its transportation costs even more.
• By 1880 Standard controlled 90% of the country's refining capacity.
• Because of its massive size, it brought security and stability to the
oil business, guaranteeing continuous profits.
• With Standard Oil, John D. Rockefeller became the richest person in
the World
• Industrialization, was enabled by the widespread and intensive use of
fossil fuels.
• This development freed human society from the limitations of natural
energy flows by unlocking the Earth's vast stores of coal, oil, and
natural gas.
• Tapping these ancient, concentrated deposits of solar energy
enormously multiplied the rate at which energy could be poured into
the human economy.
• The result was one of the most profound social transformations in
history.
• The new river of energy brought astonishing changes and did so with
unprecedented speed.
• In August 1859, the first oil well
was constructed in Titusville, PA.
• The visionaries who financed and
developed the primitive derrick
and drill believed that ‘‘rock oil”
would provide an excellent source
of energy for illuminating
buildings.
• For a few years, it did until in 1880
Thomas Edison discovered
electricity.
• Luckily for the oil industry, the development of
a four-stroke engine and adaptation of the
motor to power a buggy.
• Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the
inventor of the modern car.
• The seeds of an automotive industry had been
sown.
• From that point on, a need for storing petroleum products grew.
• The first service stations required minimal tank storage capacity.
• In fact, it was common for product to be stored within the dispenser
itself.
• As the need for hydrocarbons grew, the ability to store the product
safely became an important growth factor for the petroleum and
automotive industries.
Market Share—Consumption by Primary Fuel
from 1775 to 2011

45

40

35

30
Quadrillion Btu

Petroleum
25
Coal
20 Natural Gas

15 Hydroelectric Power
Nuclear Electric Power
10
Wood
5 Other Renewable Energy¹
0
1775 1805 U.S.1836
Primary Energy
1867 1895 Consumption
1926 1956Estimates
1987 by Source,
1775-2011
Uses of petroleum

68
Fundamentals of FPSO
Other Uses of Crude oil

69
Fundamentals of FPSO
Special Problems

• Worldwide oil sales dominated by U.S. dollars


When dollar falls, purchasing power of OPEC member states falls
After intro of euro, Iraq tried to only be paid in euros, but was
unable to sustain it
Special Problems

• Increasing concern about the environment


• Heavy decreases in future oil demands

• Too much oil


• Enough oil has been found to last about 33 years at current rate
• Non-OPEC oil-producing nations often increase production
when OPEC cuts it
Why is there oil in Texas?
During mid-Mesozoic times

72
Fundamentals of FPSO
OPEC oil supplies will soon peak
Special Problems
The rest of the world already has peaked
Industry Overview
 How long will it last?
 Using the data in tables 1.2 and 1.3 (estimated reserves: 1,460 billions
of barrels, world consumption: 92 millions per day), it looks like
planet Earth has have oil for about…
 15,870 days, i.e. about 40 years Assuming that consumption does not
increase... If consumption increases an average 5% a year, then we
have oil for about 20 years.

http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-
review-of-world-energy/review-by-energy-type/oil/oil-reserves.html

74
Fundamentals of FPSO
Production Thousand bbl/d Consumption Thousand bbl/d
Saudi Arabia 11,5462 United States 18,5552
United States 11,1243 China 10,2773
Russia 10,3974 Japan 4,7294
China 4,4165 India 3,6225
Top World Canada 3,8696 Russia 3,1956
Oil Iran 3,5387 Saudi Arabia 2,8617
Producers UAE 3,2138 Brazil 2,8078
& Iraq 2,9879 Germany 2,3889
Consumers
Mexico 2,93610 Canada 2,29110
2012
Kuwait 2,79711 Korea, South 2,26811
Brazil 2,65212 Mexico 2,19112
Nigeria 2,52413 France 1,73813
Venezuela 2,48914 Iran 1,70914
Norway 1,90215 UK 1,51915
Algeria 1,875 Italy 1,310
75
Fundamentals of FPSO
1. Venezuela* 297,735
World Oil reserves 2. Saudi Arabia 265,850
2012 EIA 3. Iran, I.R. 157,300
(in million barrels) 4. Iraq 140,300
5. Kuwait 101,500
Total world Proven 6. United Arab Emirates 97,800
reserves 7. Russia 80,000
1,460,624 MMbbls 8. Libya 48,472
9. Nigeria 37,139
10. Kazakhstan 30,000
11. China 25,584
12. Qatar 25,244
13. United States 23,267
14. Brazil 13,154
15. Algeria 12,200
16. Mexico 11,365
17. Angola 9,055
18. Ecuador 8,235
19. Azerbaijan 7,000
20. Sudan 6,70076
Fundamentals of FPSO
“R/P ratio”

DATA SOURCE: BP
Statistical Review of
World Energy 2011, a
most fascinating
Excel spreadsheet.
PHOTO Spindletop
Hill Gusher, 1901
In the R/P ratio, “R”
is reserves of
whatever it is you are
extracting, and “P” is
the production rate,
the rate at which you
are extracting and
using up your 77
reserves. Fundamentals of FPSO
Global Energy Demand Vs Production by Region

78
Fundamentals of FPSO
79
Fundamentals of FPSO
Volcanoes Put Out More CO2 Than Fossil Fuel Burning

Carbon (109 metric tons)


10

0
Volcanoes Fossil Fuel
80
Global Warming is Caused by Sunspots
0.8
D Mean Temperature (°C) 250
0.6
200
0.4

Sunspots
0.2 150

0.0 100
-0.2
50
-0.4
-0.6 0
1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Year
81
Global Warming is a Cyclical Phenomenon

Atmospheric Temperature

Concentration of CO2

8
Day One
83
Floating Production, Storage And Offloading (FPSO) Facilities

1.1 History of Floating Production Systems


1.2 Introduction to Field Layouts
1.3 What is an FPSO – Define Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel
1.4 The basic Physical Structure of an FPSO
1.5 Advantages, Disadvantages, Benefits and Value of FPSO
1.6 Types of Processing Unit
1.7 Major milestones affecting FPSO Use
1.8 Demand for FPSOs
1.9 Different types of FPSOs used today - Examples of FPSO records: largest,
smallest, longest, etc.

Fundamentals of FPSO
1.1 History of Floating Production Systems 84

• An FPSO is an offshore floating production, storage and offloading vessel


• It is one of a range of floating systems used by the offshore oil and gas industry today.
• Originally an FPSO was a converted oil tanker nowadays however it is a purposely built
vessel.
• It is often similar in appearance to a ship and carries all the necessary production and
processing facilities normally associated with a fixed oil and gas platform
• It includes accommodation aboard known as the "topside".

Fundamentals of FPSO
85

1977 First FPSO- Castellon Field Offshore Spain


• Mooring –SALM
• Water depth 117m
During 1990s
• Deeper waters
• Rougher seas
• Black oil reservoirs
• Early 21st Century
• Ultra deep waters
• Large numbers of risers
• Very high throughputs
• Storage – VLCC Class
• Newly built vessels
• Handle gas liquids
Fundamentals of FPSO
86

• At the present time, more than 9,000 offshore platforms are in service worldwide,
operating in water depths ranging from 10 ft to greater than 5,000 ft.
• Topside payloads range from 5 to 50,000 tons, producing oil, gas, or both.

Fundamentals of FPSO
87

• Alternative hydrocarbon production systems [OPL Subsea Production Wallchart,


Oilfield Publications Ltd.

Fundamentals of FPSO
Supporting Structures 88

• In 1859, Col. Edwin Drake drilled and completed the first known oil well near a small
town in Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
• This well, which was drilled with cable tools, started the modern petroleum industry.
• In 1897, near Summerland, California, U.S.A., H.L. Williams extended an offshore oil
field into the Santa Barbara Channel by drilling a submarine well from a pier.
• This first offshore well was drilled just 38 years after Col. Drake’s well.
• Five years later, more than 150 offshore wells were producing oil.
• Production from the California piers continues today.

Fundamentals of FPSO
89

• In the late 1920s, steel production piers, which extended 1/4 mile into the ocean at
Rincon and Elwood, California, were built, and new high-producing wells stimulated
exploration activity.
• In 1932, a small company called Indian Petroleum Corp. determined that there was a
likely prospect about 1/2 mile from shore.
• Instead of building a monumentally long pier, they decided to build a portion of a pier
with steel piles and cross-members.
• Adding a deck and barging in a derrick completed the installation.
• By September 1932, the 60 × 90-ft "steel island" was completed in 38 ft of water.
• This was the first open-seas offshore platform and supported a standard 122-ft steel
derrick and associated rotary drilling equipment.
• In January 1940, a Pacific storm destroyed the steel island.
• During the subsequent cleanup, divers were used for the first time to remove well
casing and set abandonment plugs.

Fundamentals of FPSO
90

• Meanwhile, the first offshore field was discovered in the Gulf of Mexico in 1938.
• A well was drilled to 9,000 ft off the coast of Texas in 1941.
• With the start of World War II, however, offshore activities came to a halt.
• Activity did not resume until 1945, when the state of Louisiana held its first offshore
lease sale.
• In 1947, the first platform "out of sight of the land" was built off the coast of Louisiana in
20 ft of water.

Fundamentals of FPSO
91

• Between 1947 to the mid-1990s, approximately 10,000 offshore platforms of different


types, configurations, and sizes were installed worldwide.
• In the post-World War II era, the growth of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico intensified.
• As platforms were placed in deeper water, their functional requirements and structural
configurations became more complex.
• For steel-jacket structures, the offshore engineering community delivered significant
technology advances to permit jacket structures to be deployed in ever-increasing water
depths and hostile environments.

Fundamentals of FPSO
92

Fundamentals of FPSO
93

• The majority of oil and gas production in European waters takes place from fixed
platforms that normally comprise of a steel structure (jacket) permanently anchored
(through a series of piles) to the seabed that supports an above sea level topside,
composed of different modules for accommodation, power generation, pumping and
initial product processing etc.

Fundamentals of FPSO
94

• As fabrication, transportation, and installation technology advanced, it became possible


to install single-piece structures in deep water.
• In the early 1990s, the Harmony and Heritage platforms were installed single-piece in
1,200 ft of water off the coast of California.
• However, the record for the largest single-piece jacket ever installed rests with the
Bullwinkle platform, installed in 1,350 ft of water in 1988.

Fundamentals of FPSO
95

• Fig. 14.4 shows the Bullwinkle platform in service in the Gulf of Mexico. The platform
deck gives little clue as to the size of the substructure below (see Fig. 14.5).

Fundamentals of FPSO
96

•It became clear in the 1980s that the water depth limit for fixed platforms, from a
functional and an economic perspective, was restricted to 1,500 ft.
•Exploration drilling was progressing in water depths beyond this limit, and
offshore engineers began developing platform designs that circumvented the
problems associated with fixed platforms beyond 1,500 ft.

Fundamentals of FPSO
97

• The Lena compliant guyed tower was developed and was installed in 1,000 ft of water
in the Gulf of Mexico in 1982.
• This tower was designed to be more flexible than fixed jacket structures and, therefore,
more "compliant" to the environment.
• The guys provided vertical and lateral stability for the structure.
• In 1998, the Baldpate and Petronius compliant towers were installed in 1,648 and 1,754
ft of water, respectively, in the Gulf of Mexico;
• Baldpate is illustrated below:

Fundamentals of FPSO
98

• The 1970s and 1980s, for discoveries remote from existing infrastructure, ship-shaped
floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs) provided a solution to
economic development as they offered oil-storage capability.
• In 1977, off the coast of Spain, oil was drawn from a subsea well in 370 ft of water into
a tanker moored to an oscillating mooring tower.
• Other similar developments followed (e.g., the Nilde field offshore Italy in 1982).
• Because of the motions of the FPSO vessel, the concept required that the wellheads be
located on the seabed, known as wet or subsea wellheads.

Fundamentals of FPSO
99

• A variant to this approach was the use of dry wellheads, located on a fixed steel
platform, in combination with an FPSO
• [e.g., Hondo offshore California in 1981 and the Tazerka offshore Tunisia in 1982
(see Fig. 14.7)].

Fig. 14.7—FPSO and jacket structure at the


Tazerka Field, Tunisia [Single Buoy Moorings
Inc. (SBM), Marly, Switzerland].

Fundamentals of FPSO
100

• The Tazerka FPSO, at 210,000 deadweight tons, was the largest FPSO deployed until
1985.
• Up to 1986, FPSOs were based on conversion of existing tankers.
• In 1986, Golar Nor demonstrated that a purpose-built FPSO, with oil, gas, and water
separation, was economically feasible for production in the harsh North Sea
environment.
• The development of FPSOs continued around the world, including offshore Australia
and in the South China Sea, using a range of mooring designs.
• In 1993, the Gryphon FPSO was the first to be placed permanently in the North Sea;
• by 1998, the number operating in the North Sea had increased to sixteen.

Fundamentals of FPSO
101

• An alternative concept in regions with an economically accessible infrastructure was the


semisubmersible floating production system (FPS).
• This system consists of a buoyant floating facility moored to the seabed. The system
offers reduced motions compared to an FPSO.
• In 1975, a production semi-submersible was used in the Argyll field in the North Sea in
254 ft of water.
• Two years later, the first production semisubmersible was placed offshore Brazil in the
Enchova field.
• From that time, the use of production semisubmersibles gained increasing popularity,
particularly offshore Brazil in water depths up to 6,000 ft.

Fundamentals of FPSO
102

• Fig. 14.8 shows a semi-FPS being transported to its final location in deep water
offshore Brazil.

• Fig. 14.9a shows the global fleet of an installed/sanctioned semisubmersible-based


FPS.

Fundamentals of FPSO
103

• In the Gulf of Mexico, the pioneering application of a semisubmersible was at a Green


Canyon field for extended well testing in 1,500 ft of water from 1988 to 1990.
• However, initial deepwater production from floating systems in the Gulf of Mexico was
dominated by an alternative concept known as the tension leg platform (TLP).
• A TLP is a vertically moored, buoyant structure anchored to the seabed with vertical
taut steel tendons.

Fundamentals of FPSO
104

• The system relies on the tension in the tendons for its stability. The advantage of the
TLP is reduced motion compared to FPSOs or conventional FPS facilities.
• The reduced motions permit the use of dry wellheads.
• As with an FPS, a TLP has no storage capacity and, therefore, requires a separate
storage tanker or a pipeline or shuttle tanker for export.
• Following large-scale TLP model testing offshore California in 1974 and 1975, the
concept was adopted for the first time in the Hutton field in the North Sea in 1984.

Fundamentals of FPSO
105

• Located in 500 ft of water, the


Hutton field could have been
developed using a conventional
steel-jacket structure, but the harsh
North Sea environment was judged
to provide the ideal test bed for the
TLP design prior to venturing into
deeper waters.
• Since 1989, a number of TLPs have
been installed in deep water in the
North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and
offshore Indonesia in water depths
ranging from 1,000 to almost 4,000
ft. Fig. 14.9b shows the global fleet
of installed/sanctioned TLP facilities.

Fundamentals of FPSO
106

• Other recent technology development efforts


have focused on a variant of the
semisubmersible FPS concept.
• This concept extends the draught of the hull
structure of a conventional FPS to reduce
motions.
• These systems also can be designed to be self-
installing.
• Engineering is under way for a production
semisubmersible for the development of the
Thunder Horse field in the Gulf of Mexico in
6,000 ft of water, with a topsides weight in
excess of 50,000 tons; see Fig. 14.10.

Fundamentals of FPSO
107

• In summary, the industry has achieved enormous success and shown admirable
innovation to meet the challenges of producing oil and gas in the hostile deepwater
environment.
• A variety of proven dry-tree and wet-tree solutions exists for water depths up to 6,000 ft;
see Fig. 14.11.

Fundamentals of FPSO
108

• Many other special, and often one-off, structures have


been installed offshore.
• The commercial fields in the arctic offshore continental
shelves of the U.S. and Canada have led to the
development of production facilities that are able to
resist ice loads.
• By 1968, 14 platforms were installed in the Cook Inlet
of Alaska.
• In the early 1990s, the Hibernia field, off the east coast
of Canada, was developed using a gravity-based
concrete substructure capable of resisting ice-driven
environmental forces.
• An alternative to this concept was adopted for the Terra
Nova field off Newfoundland.

Fundamentals of FPSO
109

• In the late 1960s, the development of the offshore


fields in the North Sea commenced, leading to a step
change with the advent of huge payload requirements
in a hostile environment that did not permit
intervention for de-manning in the event of a
predicted storm event.
• Although steel-jacket structures dominated the
development of North Sea fields, concrete gravity
structures competed, for the first time, with their steel
counterparts.
• In 1973, the first concrete structure was installed in
the North Sea in the Ekofisk field. [1] Twenty concrete
platforms later, in 1995, the Troll field was developed
using a concrete substructure sitting in 985 ft of
water, weighing 1 million tons. The Troll structure,
shown in Fig. 14.3, is being towed to site.
Fundamentals of FPSO
110

• While North Sea developments progressed rapidly from 1970 to 1990, exploration in
U.S. waters ventured into deep water in the Santa Barbara Channel and the Gulf of
Mexico.
• A number of water-depth records were set for steel-jacket structures.
• In 1976, the Hondo platform was installed as a two-piece jacket in 850 ft of water off the
coast of California.
• Two years later, the Cognac platform was installed in three pieces in 1,025 ft of water in
the Gulf of Mexico.

Fundamentals of FPSO
111

• The FPSO may also take the form of a semi-submersible structure


(a box type structure similar to a drilling rig),
• a spar structure (being a long, cylindrical structure positioned vertically above well
heads) or a jack-up production unit (again, similar to a drilling rig).
• An FPSO also has storage capacity within the hull for crude oil recovered from the
reservoir.
• The FPSO is usually moored permanently on location during production and is
connected to the wells on the seabed by flexible risers.
• The FPSO can be compared with a range of different offshore floating systems that, like
the FPSO, are not fixed permanently to the seabed but are designed to be moored on
location for a long period of time.

Fundamentals of FPSO
112

• Some of these floating systems include:


a) The floating storage and offloading system (FSO), which is a ship or barge-shaped floating
hull incorporating tanks for storage of produced oil, and a method of loading the oil into
offtake tankers.
These installations do not have any production or processing facilities.
b) The floating production system (FPS) which is a general term to describe any floating
facility designed to receive crude oil from producing wells and process it. It may not have
facilities for storage, in which case export would be by pipeline to shore or to a nearby
FSO.
c) The floating storage unit (FSU) which is a floating facility intended only for storage of oil.
• Export may be by pipeline to an onshore facility or by shuttle tankers.

Fundamentals of FPSO
1.2 Introduction to Field Layouts Drivers 113

for the use of an FPSO


The first tanker based FPSO was installed by Shell in its Castellon field offshore Spain in
1977.
There are currently approximately 70 FPSOs in operation worldwide, including seven in
Australia.

Fundamentals of FPSO
The growth of this industry is a result 114

of a number of factors, including:


 the FPSO is fast becoming a standard method for exploiting what might be otherwise
considered
small,
inaccessible
or subeconomic reserves
 incapable of supporting the construction and decommissioning costs of a fixed platform.
 Advances in FPSO and subsea production system technology;
 The FPSO's good safety performance record, economic viability and the decreased
development time and cost;
 Reduced up-front investment together with lower abandonment costs and higher
residual value;
 The ability to refurbish or upgrade the FPSO to tie-in additional fields or use in other
projects;
 and the mobility of the FPSO and relative ease of decommissioning,
Fundamentals of FPSO
Example of field layout 115

Fundamentals of FPSO
Trees and Flowlines to FPSO
Emerald Field Layout
117

Fundamentals of FPSO
118

• The FPSO is used to recover petroleum discovered and developed by a company


(or more commonly a joint venture) under an exploration permit and production
licence. The term "company" will be used in this here to describe the licence holder
and project developer and the term "contractor" will be used to describe the party
providing the FPSO and associated services.

Fundamentals of FPSO
Field Development Alternatives 119

Fundamentals of FPSO
120

Fundamentals of FPSO
Phases of a Field Development 122

• Onshore Site Selection


• Local authorities insisted on landing the gas in Norway to secure more economic
benefits from the gas
• Several potential locations onshore had to be evaluated to satisfy national and local
authorities

Fundamentals of FPSO