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An African-American boy Is In the newborn nursery with a bulge on his abdomen that was
identified Immediately after birth and Is most pronounced during crying. The patient was
born to an 18-year-old woman who did not receive prenatal care or take prenatal
vitamins. Vitals are normal. Examination shows a soft swelling at the umbilical region
that is 1 em in diameter and covered by skin. It is easily reducible through the umbilical
ring. Which of the following Is the most likely diagnosis and best course of action for this
patient?

0 A Gastroschisis, refer for surgical management


c B. Omphalocele, observe for spontaneous resolution
0 C. Omphalocele, refer for operative management
o D. Umbilical granuloma. apply silver nitrate
o E. Umbilical hernia, observe for spontaneous resolution
o F. Umbilical hernia, refer for operative management

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An African-American boy Is In the newborn nursery with a bulge on his abdomen that was
identified Immediately after birth and Is most pronounced during crying. The patient was
born to an 18-year-old woman who did not receive prenatal care or take prenatal
vitamins. Vitals are normal. Examination shows a soft swelling at the umbilical region
that is 1 em in diameter and covered by skin. It is easily reducible through the umbilical
ring. Which of the following Is the most likely diagnosis and best course of action for this
patient?

A Gastroschisis, refer for surgical management (1 %)


B. Omphalocele, observe for spontaneous resolution (3%)
C. Omphalocele, refer for operative management (4%]
D. Umbilical granuloma, apply silver nitrate (0%]
E. Umbilical hernia observe for spontaneous resolution (87%]
F. Umbilical hernia, refer for operative management (6%)
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Explanation : User ld

Pediatric abdominal wall defects

Diagnosis Clinical features

• Defect at linea alba covered by skin


Umbilical • Sometimes contains bowel
hernia
• Umbilical cord inserts at apex of defect

• Defect to the right of the cord insertion


not covered by membrane or skin
Gastroschisis • Contains bowel
• Umbilical cord inserts next to defect

• Midline. abdominal wall defect covered


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Explanation : User ld

Pediatric abdominal wan d efects

Diagnosis Clinical features

• Defect at linea alba covered by skin


Umbilical
• Sometimes contains bowel
hernia
• Umbttical cord inserts at apex or defect

• Defect to the right of the cord insertion


not covered by membrane or skin
Gastroschisis
• Contains bowel
• Umbilical cord inserts next to defect

• Midline abdominal wall defect covered


by peritoneum
Omphalocele
• Contains multiple abdominal organs
• Umbilical cord inserts at apex of defect

An umbilical hernia Is due to an Incomplete closure of the abdominal muscles around


the umbilical ring at birth. It Is most commonly associated with African-American race,
premature birth, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and
hypothyroidism. Physical examination shows a soft, non-tender bulge covered by skin
that protrudes during crying. coughing, or straining. The hernia may contain omentum or
portions of the small intestine. Most umbilical hernias are reduced easily through the
umbilical ring with very low risk of incarceration and strangulation.

Small umbilical hernias typically close spontaneously by concentric fibrosis and scar
tissue formation. Spontaneous closure is less likely with large {>1 .5 em diameter)
hernias or in patients with underlying medical problems. Surgery (Choice F) is
recommended around age 5 for persistent hernias, or sooner if it is bothersome or
causing complications.

(Choice A) Gastroschisis is characterized by protrusion of bright red intestines to the


right side of a normal umbilicus. There Is no membrane covering the intestines. It Is a
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• Umbilical cord inserts at apex of defect

An umbilical hernia is due to an incomplete closure of the abdominal muscles around


the umbilical ring at birth. It is most commonly associated with African-American race,
premature birth, Ehlers-Danios syndrome, B eckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. and
hypothyroidism. Physical examination shows a soft, non-tender bulge covered by skin
that protrudes during crying. coughing, or straining. The hernia may contain omentum or
portions of the small Intestine. Most umbilical hernias are reduced easily through the
umbilical ring with very low risk of incarceration and strangulation.

Small umbilical hernias typically close spontaneously by concentric fibrosis and scar
tissue formation. Spontaneous closure is less likely with large (>1 .5 em diameter)
hernias or in patients with underlying medical problems. Surgery (Choice F) is
recommended around age 5 for persistent hernias, or sooner if it is bothersome or
causing complications.

(Choice A) Gastroschisis is characterized by protrusion of bright red intestines to the


right side of a normal umbUicus. There is no membrane covering the intestines. It Is a
surgical emergency.

(ChOices B and C) An ornphalocele is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the


base of the umbilical cord. The omphalocele sac is covered with peritoneum without
overlying skin. Immediate surgical repair Is essential for survival.

(Choice D) An umbUical granuloma Is a common cause of an umbilical mass In a


newborn. It usually appears after the umbilical cord has separated and presents as a
soft, moist, pink, pedunculated, friable lesion. Silver nitrate is the treatment of choice.

Educational objective:
An umbilical hernia Is a common finding in African-American infants. Umbilical hernias
are generally reducible and close spontaneously before age 5. Surgery is not usually
required.

I References:
1. Low risk, but not no risk, of umbilical hernia compHcations requiring
acute surgery In childhood.
2. Profile of paediatric umbilical hernias managed at Federal Medical
Centre Umuahla.

Time Spent: 2 seconds Copyright © UWorld Last updated: [07/31 /2016) v

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umbilical herria I

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Med1 a Exhibit

Gastroschisis

Umbilical cord
to left of defect

Eviscerated bowel with


no covering membrane

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Omphalocele

umbilical cord
at apex

Covering
membrane

Sac containing
multiple organs

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