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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

WOMEN IN INDIA:

Indian women are considered as a source of power (shakti) since mythological times. The
Hindus worship goddesses as mothers. But in reality, women occupy a back seat to men. Moreover,
they are revered as mothers, sisters and other social bondages. Many poets have imagined woman’s
minds as ocean. The upper layers of their minds, like those of the ocean, have turbulent waves.
But depths are serene and meditative. Women’s minds are essentially steadfast and strong. The
truth is acknowledged by the Bhagvad Geeta wherein Lord Krishna describes his manifestation in
the feminine quality of Medha or higher intelligence.

In spite of these facts, in traditional Indian society women are accorded inferior status in family
hierarchy. The Indian society considered women as weaker sex. Such sociological and cultural
traditions and taboos have kept women dormant for quite a long time.

The Sati pratha [woman setting herself fire on the pyre of husband] almost disappeared, but
shameful incidents like female foeticide continue to take place in our so called developed society.
Women continue to face gender bias right from childhood. Incidences of malnutrition, school
dropout, early marriage, harassment for dowry etc, are significant examples. The male female ratio
in our country has also become a serious issue of concern these days.

The woman, whose status and role traditionally was well defined and almost fixed in the society,
is now experiencing far-reaching changes.

The woman in modern times is entering into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s
sphere of role-sets. They are activating participating in social, economic, and political activities.

The women of the present generation have generally received higher education than the women of
their preceding generation. There have been far reaching consequences in the economic status of
their families.

Women’s Role in Society: The modern women are inclined towards the social issues, and trying
hard to improve the social status of women at large.

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Increased awareness and education has inspired women to come out of the four walls of the home.
Many woman actively supported and participated in the nationalist movement and secured eminent
positions and offices in administration and public life in free India. Traditionally Indian women
exist because of the family and for the family.

Just like their man counterpart, women are also fond of attending social functions and value her
social life quite a lot. Previously, men-folk used to discourage women from leaving their
households for attending social functions. Now the spread of education, especially that of women,
and with that the changing social attitudes of educated women have changed the order.

The modern woman has started caring for her health, figure, cultural needs and interests, academic
pursuits, social intercourse, religious activities recreational needs, etc.

Woman as a wife: Woman as a wife enjoyed ideally a status almost equally to that of her husband
and performed both social as well as biological functions.

Even today, the Indian girls are still brought up on models portraying selflessness, self-denial, and
sacrifice.

The desire for mutual affection and love is beginning to appear in their conception of their
relationship with their husbands.

The husband-wife relationship has become more equalitarian in character and much more
companionable. More freedom of choice in marriage is thus an accompaniment to the change in
form of the family.

Women’s role in politics: Education of women has not only helped them to become aware of the
political problems, but they are gradually becoming active participants in the political life. Some
are enrolling themselves as members of political parties, attending party meetings, conventions,
and carrying out political programs. Some women are attaining influential political stature of their
own and have become instrumental in shaping the public opinion for the betterment of women’s
conditions in society.

Participation of Women in Socio-economic activities: The woman in modern times is entering


into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s sphere of role-sets. These are the
woman’s participation in economic, political, and social life.

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The modern woman keenly desires to enter into a work career because of the pressing economic
needs of the family. In middle class families, much emphasis is given to the maintenance of high
standard of living. To fulfill the economic needs of the family and to achieve higher standard of
living the woman participates in economic activities.

Marriage: Most women, even the educated, regard marriage as a matter of parental choice. Many
young girls of the middle and upper classes are educated with a view to marriage rather than to
careers. Again, many girls enter into careers apparently not because they want them, but because
there is nothing else to be done until their parents find them husbands.

Women equality is not universal: Women’s equality in terms of education, employment, and
power is still an individual rather than a universal achievement. The majority of our women are
still content to accept an inferior status. This is by and large due to the fact that, although legally
women have equal rights with men, there are not enough jobs for women and working women are
not adequately protected from exploitation.

Unaware of their legal status: Women are generally not aware of the provisions related to the
improvement of their own position. Even if they know about some of the provisions related to their
rights of succession, marriage, or family, they do not desire to invoke them. Traditional dominance
of the authority of the male parents, husband, and other elder members of the family often restricts
the enjoyment of their legal rights by the women. The materialization of these problems still
depends largely upon the attitudinal changes in society.

Rural women: Gandhiji’s vision that women must play an equal and important role in national
development. However, the movement for raising the socio-economic status of women had
involved generally the middle-class educated women in major urban centers while the great mass
of rural women are yet to enjoy the rights and privileges as enshrined in the Constitution.

Role of Women Welfare Organizations: Women organizations playing vital role in the
development women folk addressing the issues such as women rights, gender sensitization, women
empowerment through capacity building with knowledge support, economic activities -supporting
micro enterprises, women sexual abuse, women trafficking, Domestic violance etc. few of such
organizations are at national level, the important organizations are Young Women Christian
Association, All India Women’s Conference, National Council of Women, Inner Wheel (Women’s

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section of the Rotary International). Mahila Mandal, Mahila Samiti, Gramapanchayath
representatives federation,Vimochana etc.

NEED FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT:-

Even in this 21st century Gender inequality still exists.

There are so many women, who are silently baring the harassment of their life partners because of
the lack of education, lack of legal awareness and lack of empowerment.

When women are empowered, whole society benefits.

Educating women about health care promotes healthier families.

Even though a woman works 24/7 to raise her children and to maintain her family, she is not
getting recognition for the work.

“There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. It is
not possible for a bird to fly on one wing.”- Swami Vivekananda.

CHALLENGES:-

 Female Foeticide.
 Dowry.
 Restriction on widow remarriage.
 Gender Bias.
 Neglect during childhood.
 Childhood marriages.
 Gender specific specialization at work.
 Cultural definition of appropriate gender roles.
 Belief in the inherent superiority of males.
 Families are considered as a private sphere and stays under male control.
 Limited access to cash and credit.
 Limited employment opportunities.
 Limited access to education.
 Female infanticide.
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 Poverty affects women more than men.
 India’s maternal mortality is highest in South Asia.
 Domestic violence.
 Crimes against women.
 Honor killings – Family honor is associated with women in general, which is an extra burden
on women.
 Trafficking of women.
 Lack of awareness about government schemes.
 Still, status of women in India is inferior to status of men.

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS:-

 Article 14 – Equality before law – Provides equal legal protection for women.
 Article 15(3) – Special provisions for women.
 Article 16 – Equal opportunities for all citizens in public employment irrespective of caste,
sex, religion.
 Article 23 – Prohibits traffic in human beings & forced labour.
 Article 39 – The citizen, men & women equally have the right to an adequate means of
livelihood.
 Article 40 – 1/3 rd of seats in Panchayats shall be reserved for women.
 Article 42 – State shall make provisions for just and humane working conditions & maternity
relief.
 Article 44 – Uniform civil code for the citizens throughout the territory of India to safeguard
women from laws of religion.
 Article 51 A (e) – One of the duties of every citizen is to renounce practices derogatory to the
dignity of woman.

GOVERNMENT ACTS:-

 Section 14 of the Hindu Succession Act 1956 – Property of a female Hindu to be her absolute
property.
 Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act 2005 – Women get equal share in the ancestral property.

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 Dowry prohibition Act, 1961.
 Contract Labor Act, 1970 & Factories Act, 1948 – Women can’t be employed in the night
between 9pm to 6am. – Women cannot be required to work for more than 9hrs.
 Equal remuneration Act, 1976.
 The indecent representation of women (prohibition) Act, 1986.
 Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
 Protection of women from domestic violence Act, 2005.
 Maternity Benefits Act, 1961.
 Child marriage (prohibition) Act, 1929.
 Hindu marriage Act, 1955 – This act was passed to stop polygamy and bigamy.

GOVERNMENT SCHEMES AND PROGRAMS:-

 Beti Bachao Beti Bachao :- To eliminate female foeticide and to promote education for girl
children.
 STEP (Support to training cum Employment for women) – To increase the self-reliance and
autonomy of women by enhancing their productivity & enabling them to take up income
generation activity.
 SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) – For girl child education. It lead to increase in the Gender
Parity Index (GPI).
 The National literacy Mission or Saakshar Bharat – Literacy of women. Literacy is the
critical instrument of women’s empowerment.
 National Rural Health Mission – Educating women on health care. It has resulted in the
decline in fertility rates, Maternal mortality rates (MMR), Infant mortality rates (IMR).
 SHG (Self Help Groups) – For economic development in women by giving micro finances.
 GB (Gender budgeting) – Identifying the felt needs of women and re-prioritizing and
increasing expenditure to meet these needs.
 NMEW (National Mission for Empowerment of Women) – To ensure economic & social
empowerment of women.
 Swayamsidha scheme – To ensures total development of women.
 Swadhar scheme – Basic necessities to marginalized women & girls.
 Kishori Shakti Yojana – Empowerment of adolscent girls.

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 Mahila Samridhi Yojana – For women empowerment.
 Maternity Benefit Scheme – Payment of Rs.500/- to pregnant women for the first two births
only if the woman belongs to BPL (Below Poverty Line) category.
 Rastriya Mahila Kosh – To provide micro loans for women.
 Scheme for working women hostel – To promote availability of safe & conveniently located
accommodation fro working women.
 Development of women & children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)– Creation of groups of women
for income generating activities on self sustaining basis.
 SABLA – Empowerment of adolescent girls.

HOW CAN WE TAKE PART:-

 First of all, woman must have the will to be independent & to be the best of herself, then rest
of everything follows.
 Creating legal awareness among women about their rights.
 Educating women. Education makes them independent.
 Providing health facilities & economic security.
 Skill development programs.
 Forming groups. Unity gives strength to everyone.
 And many more little things which makes significant difference and leads to the great future.

BEST PRACTICES WORLDWIDE:-

 “The Women, Business and the Law, 2012” is a law in Switzerland, specifically targeting the
future prospects of women seeking jobs and promotions as entrepreneurs and business workers
impeding the economic involvement of their husbands.
 Canadian Women’s Foundation is an initiative taken by the citizens of Canada which involves
educating girls on the grounds of science and technology, critical thinking skills, leadership
tasks etc.
 Equality Pay Act – United Kingdom: is an act which focuses on trimming down the difference
between a man and a woman’s average pay earned annually. This ensures gender equality by
paying them as per the working hours.

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CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH DESIGN

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The research design refers to the overall strategy that the researcher’s choose to integrate the
different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring that the
customer will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the
collection, measurement, and analysis of data.

This study is on women empowerment through NGO’s intervention-ASEDA in Gowribidanur,


Bangalore.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The study of women empowerment through NGO’s intervention-ASEDA

Organisation director and project co-ordinator through light on the problems faced by the women
in rural and also in urban areas. This NGO has working for the empowerment of women and
helping the women to overcome from their problems, motivating them, providing knowledge
support to them how to resolve the different types of problems. Different strategies are using to
capacitate women, Opinion of the NGO is they are using new technology for creating awareness
about their work to reach more women and also for the fund raising.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

 To study the impact of socio-economic factors on women empowerment in society.


 To study about the problems faced by women and how women representatives motivate,
guide and support them to overcome from their problems.
 To study on the process of socio-economic development of women and women in local
self-governance.

Sample size of data collected: 61

Sampling technique: Simple Random sampling.

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SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION:

Here the data collection is divided into primary data and secondary data. Both the data collected
are used for the purpose of the study.

Primary data:

 Discussion with the NGO, the members of the organisation.


 Well-structured questionnaire.
 Focused group disscussion

Secondary data:

 Case studies
 Website of the hunger project.
 Organisation manual.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

 Women are portrayed as secondary characters as per the literary history is concerned. This
occurred even when women played three roles simultaneously - as a woman, wife and as a
writer or their career. It is frequently believed that man is omnipotent, whereas a woman is
simply offered a supporting as well balancing role in all spheres of society. The notion of
woman being is bequeathed to us from our age old ancestors. Even the great myths of
Indian literature portray woman that as pathetic creature.

 Beginning with our own Indian mythologies we have first in the list, Manu who in his
Manusmrithi speaks about women and the multiple roles that they have to play in society.
He projects them as slaves from the beginning till the end of their life. The two great epics
of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata give no scope for women. It pushed them into the
castle and depicted them as machines of reproduction. This trend continued in history and
still exists. The deep rooted patriarchal notions do not allow them to realise and express
their roles. She is unaware of her own capacities, and therefore unable to raise her voice
against her undeserving suffering. In the middle ages the conditions of women become

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worst than ever. Further the condition was worsened with the origin of superstitions which
restricted the movement of women. Women were tortured in the name of tradition and
religion. Condition of woman has been gradually changing in the present era.

 Bhagwat in 1998 reports that almost all major feminist writers irrespective of their ideological position,
within the feminist movement have devoted much space and time in exposing male bias in conventional
social theory. He found that women were mostly treated as sex object. It is argued that the values for women’s
freedom should be judged by women.

 Zaveri and Mehta in 2000 conducted a research on working women. They pointed out that traditionally the
status and the role of women in Indian family had been inferior to men. This was closely related to the urban
kinship and economic systems which assigned a subordinate and secondary role to women in the family.
They further reported that women typically handled the bulk of family responsibilities even when both
husband and wife had full time jobs.

 Chandra, S. while studying women and economic development in 2001, reported that growth rate of female
employment in urban areas was better than in rural areas, in 1971-81 and 1981-91. The female participation
rates had increased in almost all states except Himachal Pradesh and Kerala. Male participation rates were
four times greater than that of female participation rates not only at national level but also at sub national
level. This reflected the traditional pattern of labour division in the society, exhibiting sort of gender bias. At
regional level the proportion of total female workers had shown considerable improvement and the
involvement of women in various kinds of economic activity.

 Rao 2002 on the basis of a national sample survey showed that women shared only 14.1 % of total
employment. Only 5.6 % of them were employed in government jobs. In rural areas, 56 % of males and 33
% females were in labour force. 66% of females in rural sector were idle or unutilized. This was due to
existing social customs, putting men and women on different footings. It was also reported that women were
usually not able to take benefit of employment schemes, especially those of self employment because of huge
unemployment in male youth. They also pointed out that young unmarried girls were normally not allowed
to work independently.

 Ganeshan, S. while describing the status of women entrepreneurs in India in 2003 pointed out that a majority
(66.9%) of respondents started their business with an initial investment of below Rs. 25000. This
corresponded with the compulsions of women to go small with respect to business they started. The
respondents who had initial investment between Rs 25,001 and 50,000 were only 12.9%. 30.6% of the

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respondents solely depended on borrowed sources for investment. 46.% of them invested less then Rs 25,000
from their own sources. 68.6% invested only their funds for their enterprises. The first year turnover of 77.4%
was less than Rs 25,000. The entrepreneurs who claimed that their ventures were profitable in first year were
32.3%.

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CHAPTER 3
PROFILE OF THE NGO
ORGANISATION PROFILE

1 : Action for Social and Educational


Name of the Organisation
Development Association ( ASEDA)

2 : Shivanilaya, Fort, Gauribidanur.


Address
Chickballapura District, Karnataka. State.
Pin code : 561208.

3 Name and Designation of : B.R . Baalagangadhara, B.A.

The Contact Person Secretary

4 Legal Status : Reg.under KSCR Act 1960 Vide


No No. 124/87-88. Dated 10/2/1988

5 F.C.R.A : Reg.No F.C.R.A 1976 Act.

Vide Reg. No.94570072.

Dt. 23-11-1992.

6 I.T.Act 12 a(a) : Reg, under 12A(a) I.T.Act and 80G.

7 Location : a) Block : Gauribidanur.

b) District : Chickaballapura

c) State : Karnataka State.

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INTRODUCTION.

Action for Social and Educational Development Association (ASEDA) is a Voluntary Social
Service Organization established in the year 1988 by a committed, dedicated and like minded
friends, whose vision and ideology is same, Mr. B. R. Balagangadhara, the founder member of
Organization, as well as Secretary cum Treasure of the Association has got rich experience in
Rural Development better understanding of the Social Problems. At the initial stage ASEDA
intervened in 10 backward villages of Gauribidanur Taluk, and later on spread over its activities
in 20 villages of Gauribidanur Taluk, Chickaballapura District. The main goal of the Organization
is “Human and Natural Resource Management with people’s participation and integrated
development through Self- sustainability”.
The following are the main activities of the organization with focus on ultra poor, disadvantaged
and marginalized sections of the society, particularly women and child as a whole.

COMMUNITY ORGANISATION.

ASEDA believes in self-help Development system. Which means, that unless with involvement of
individuals of their own development, the development will not sustain. Based on this ASEDA
identified the real Target group / Beneficiaries through participatory methodology by involving
the villagers. The identified beneficiaries motivated and they have formed into groups called Self-
Help groups (SHG’s). Totally 22 Women’s SHG’s, 10 Farmers groups and 10 youth groups are
functioning. The organization identified committed youths and provided various training’s. These
trained youths are acting as Social animators and their prime responsibility like:

 Organization and conduct regularly weekly meetings of SHG’s.


 Assistant in Book keeping of SHG’s.
 Motivate the families on various development aspects.
 Build linkages with Government departments, Banks and other local institutions.
 Conduct literacy and numeracy classes for illiterate youths.
 Conduct campaign’s about environment and health.

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NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (NRM)

The main thrust of the Organization is Natural Resources Management. The selected area is a rain
fed area and 80% of populations depends on land based activities (LBA). The annual rainfall of
the area is around 600mm. The lands are undulated barren, rocky and there is heavy soil erosion.
The organization identified and successfully Implemented with people involvement through
participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and taken up NRM activities given at a glance.

1. MICRO WATERSHED PROGRAMME:


Micro watershed Development activities in 250 acres supported by NORAD, covering 68 farmers.
Under this program we have been constructed 1 check dam, 1 R.R.S., 62 Gully plugs (checks),
strengthening of bunds, sewing of gross seeds on Bunds and distribution of Manual and pesticides.
Nursery raising and afforestation 1,00,000 forestry spices at 750 farmers lands in to 10 villages
with support of NORAD, NEW DELH (1995-96).

Fig 3.1 Raivine Reclamation Structure ( RRS)

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2. DRY LAND DEVELOPMENT AND FARMING:

Fig 3.3 Strengthening of bunds


Fig 3.2 Sowing gross seeds on bunds

Fig 3.4 Boulder Checks Fig 3.5 Farm ponds

Dry land Development techniques by providing improved Hybrid resistant seeds, Bio fertilizers,
integrated pest management, soil and moisture conservation measures (construction of gully
checks, waters weirs, diversion channels, providing hi-yield variety seeds, bio-fertilizers to the
farmers, and plantation ageva and hipomea plants at the structures of gully checks/boulder checks
etc.) soil improvement with Silt application at 100 SC / ST families supported by CAPART, New
Delhi, in Venkatapura, D. Paalya Hobli, Gauribidanur Taluk (1997-1998) and now under progress
human Resource Development through Natural Resource Development, program at
Devareddihalli, sanctioned by capart R.C. Dharwad during the year 2005-06. Totally 102 acres
of Dry land program. Tank rehabilitation, desiltation etc.

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Fig 3.6 Distribution of Hi-Yield variety Seeds to the poor farmers at Devareddy halli through MLA

3. AFORESTATION PROGRAMME :

Fig 3.7 Fig 3.8

Improvement of vegetation with 1.25 lakhs forestry aforestation of private lands covering 125
acres on bunds, waste lands etc. Construction of 60 Gully checks to controlled run off water. This
programme supported NAEB, New Delhi (Ministry of Env .& Forests).

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4. ENVIRNOMENTAL ORIENTATION TO SCHOOL EDUCATION.

Fig 3.9 Fig 3.10

Environmental Orientation to school Education supported by Ministry of Human Resources


Development New Delhi, through CPREEC, Chennai in 125 schools, children’s and teachers, TCH
students and Women have been covered in Gauribidanur and Gudibande taluk, chikkaballapura
district and 60 schools in Madhugiri taluk, Tumkur District.

5. NATIONAL ENVIRNOMENTAL AWARENESS PROGRAMME :

Fig 3.11 Fig 3.12

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We have Organisaed and Successfully Implemented the Environmental Awareness campaigns
since 1994- 2009 continuously supported by Ministry of Environment and forests New Delhi,
through Karnataka Vijnana Parishath, Bangalorecovered nearly 135 villages in Gauribidanur taluk.

6. DRINKING WATER MANAGEMANT. 7. MINOR IRRIGATION TANK


REHABILITATION

Drinking Water Management activity carried out Idagur Minor Irrigation Tank damaged during
with Drinking water Awareness campaigns during Floods has been rehabilitated with bunds
1989-92 and Drinking Rural water Supply by stabilization sluice, waste weir etc.with support of
drilling Ten Bore wells at 10 villages, by the CAPART, New Delhi.
support of CAPART, New Delhi.

Fig 3.13 Fig 3.14

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7. SOCIAL HOUSING.

Fig 3.15

Under taken Constructing of 31 low Cost houses with 31st sanitary latrines in 20 villages. on Health
and personal hygiene, sanitation, Nutrition, immunization, school health etc. This covered 4.500
rural populations.

8. HEALTH EDUCATION & AWARENESS CUM HEALTH CHECKUP CAMPS.


Conducted Health Awareness camps for women and children in 20 villages on Health and personal
Hygiene, Sanitation, Nutrition, immunization, school health etc. which covered 4.500 rural
populations. Some of them are as follows:

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World Mental Health Day programme:

Fig 3.16

Under this programme, with the financial help from SEVA Society, Kolkotta, we have conducted
the “ World Mental Health Day ” in Gowribidanur.

Fig 3.17 Awareness camapaign of Naturopathy Fig 3.18 Dr. Savitha from Naturopathy Clinic,
With the financial support from NIN PUNE, we Jayanagar participated as a Resource Person.
have conducted the Awareness Campaign on
Naturopathy, at Sadara Vidyabhivrudhi Sangha,
Gowribidanur. In this program more than 60
women’s were participated.

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Fig 3.19 Observed the National Leprosy day co- Fg 3.20 Conducted the Free Blood Group Checkup
ordination with Department of Health: camp with Rotary Club International,
Gowribidanur:

Fig 3.21 Conducted Awareness campaign on Fig 3.22 Conducted Free Health checkup campaign
Medicinal plants(Ayurvedic medicines) for general public, especially for women.

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Conducted Dental Campaign Distribution of Vitamin A Capsules to the

Fig 3.23 Darinayakana palya Fig 3.24 school children

Conducted Health checkup complain for physically handicapped co-ordination with Women and Child
development

Fig 3.25 Fig 3.26

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Fig 3.27

SKILL (Development) TRAINING

Fig 3.28 Tailoring and Embriodery. Fig 3.29 training

In the year 1990-91, we have successfully implemented the tailoring and embroidery training for
a period of 6 months to the rural poor destitute 40 women Gauribidanur Taluk financial support
from CAPART, NEW DELHI.

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After the completion of the training the training the program, we have linked these beneficiary
with State bank of Mysore Idagur Branch for the financial assistance to purchase and provide
tailoring machines to the trainees and trained women’s were became self sufficient by starting
stitching cloths (dresses, blouses etc) in their own villages.

And in the year 1997-98 we also conducted same type of program in Darinayakana Paalya and
Naamgondlu, totally for 50 women’s for the training programmes the financial support has given
by the Ministry of youth and Sports affairs, New Delhi.

a) Radio and Television Repairs (Service) Training.


Under the program are gave conducted 6 months training in above said subject to the 25
youths, After the training they become self employed by starting servicing centers in
Chikkaballapura and Bangalore.

TRAINING PROGRAMMES:
ASEDA Experienced in organizing training for Animators, Volunteers SHG leaders, SHG
representatives and grama panchayathi elected Women members etc. The following are the
important Trainings Organized by the agency.

1. Social Animator’s Training Program.

Fig 3.30

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40 Social Animators trained on social Analysis, community Development
Government welfare schemes, Role and responsibility of Animators for a period
of 20 days.

2. Agriculture Training Program.:

Fig 3.31 With the collaboration


MYRADA 350 farmers have been
trained on Dry Land Agriculture,
Horticulture, Sericulture, Animal
husbandry, Aquaculture and
Government scheme in Agriculture
and Horticulture Department.

3. Empowerment of Women Workshop:


Fig 3.32 Capacity building training were
organized to SHG representative, sangha
Leaders. On various aspects like, Micro-Credit
Management, Book keeping, Conflict
Resolution networking, advocacy, lobbying,
human rights etc. 1300 women’s were trained
under this program. And about 2500 Elected
Women Representatives ( panchayathi
Members) were trained in ASEDA, Team

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Fig 3.33 With the support of THE HUNBER
PROJECT, New York, on various aspects like
panchayathi elected members and office
secretariats staff in 5 Districts Chikkaballapur,
Bangalore Rural, Tumkur, Koppal, Bellary
(totally 14 Taluks).

We are having a good rapport with all the Grama panchayathi members in all 6 Taluks of
Chikkaballapur District. Because we covered G.P. members under the above said program. And
also our Secretary –cum- Project co-ordinator, worked as a District Resource person in 4 Taluks
of Chikkaballapur district, to give inputs about the PRI system through Satellite program
sponsored by Abdul Nazeer Saab Social Institute of Rural Development, Mysore. And also we
having good rapport with Executive officers of the Taluk, Secretaries of the Grama Panchayath.

Our Project Co-ordinator Mrs. Sowbhagyamma, and Mrs. Tribhuvaneswari, program co-
ordinator both are having a wide experience as a Resource persons. Being both of them were
already worked in this respect, by giving training to ANGANWADI WORKERS, ANM’S and also
Gramapanchayath members (Especially different samithi members) in related Health, Sanitation
etc. through the ANSSIRD, MYSORE,

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4.Promotional Workshop for NGO’s Representatives:

Fig 3.34 This program was sponsored by


COUNCIL FOR ADVANCEMENT OF PEOPLE’S
ACTION IN RURAL TECHNOLOGY, Regional
Committee, DHARWAD. Under this program we
have been conducted the workshop in three
places covering 20 Districts, at Kolar, Gulbarga,
Koppal respectively. The main purpose of the
program is to inform the programmes, project
formulation, maintaining of books of accounts in
the NGO’s.

Hunger Mapping by the villagers about Basic infrastructure of the village

Cultural team :
The Organization developed cultural troop with providing trainings on mass Media’s like
street plays, developing songs, etc. These troop regularly mass awareness campaigns on need
based activities.

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Fig 3.35

And also conducted awareness campaign at grama panchaythi(G.P) level totally covered 20
G.P’s about Grama sabha, ward sabha, and Jamabandhi.:

Fig 3.36

Conducted awareness complain on “ROOF RAIN WATER HARVESTING” co-ordination with


Dheena Bandhu Organization, Bangalore.

31
Fig 3.37

Mr. Shiva Prasad, Paramedical worker addressing the target group on water borne diseases in
Drinking Water Awareness Campaign organized at Gotakanapura- 1989

32
33
CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Case Studies of the women empowerment:

Case Study of Ms. Lakshmidevamma

Fig 4.1 case study of Ms.Lakshmidevamma

Name : Lakshmidevamma

Address : W/o R.Narayana swamy

Gajaladinne

Dodda hasala Post.

Kolar Taluk and District

Mobile : 9341320676

Age : 50 years

Designation : Ward member

Elected : Unanimously

No. of Competitors : Nil

Reserved seat or General : yes belongs to B.C.M “B”

34
Education Qualification : S.S.L.C

Year of election : 2005

Caste : Kuruba

Children : 3 Girl children

First and second daughters were studied PUC and married

Third daughter is studying in PUC

Ms. Lakshmidevamma, aged about 50 years is working as a Anganawadi teacher since 15 years,
she was contested and elected as ward member of Dodda hasala Gramapanchayath in 1994-95 and
she was president for 3 years. Next tenure due to the reservation rotation system her ward was
reserved for some other caste hence she was unable to contest. But, in 2005 category again came
to her caste. People of her ward unanimously selected due to her works done during her tenure.

She was born in joint family, studied SSLC; she married Mr. R.Narayana swamy who is
businessman. She had 3 daughters, 2 were married and third daughter is studying PUC.

She was undergone WLW, Aagaz course and got the convocation in Delhi.

She actively participating in the entire programs organized by the organization.

She is active in Anganawadi federation also. She is a good knowledge in street theatre, she trained
EWRs in WLW on street theatre and played a drama in the program itself.

She is the only person in politics from her family. She is good motivator, one of the physically
disable person stopped his daughter to send school because both nobody has there to take lunch
for him his wife also going for labour. When this come to notice of Lakshmidevamma she went to
him and convinced that she will take consent from the teacher for 10 minutes in the lunch break
and girl will get the lunch to him after having her lunch in the school and admitted the girl child
to the school, like wise she is motivating the parents of school dropout children. Her vision is to
ensure education to all her community people hence she is motivating, convincing many parents
to admit/ continue their children for school.

35
CASE STUDY OF Ms.SUGUNA.

Fig 4.2 Case study of Ms Suguna

Name : Suguna

Address : W/o Devaraj

Urugili

Sugatur Post.

Kolar Taluk and District

Designation : President

Elected : Elected

No. of Competitors : One

Reserved seat or General : yes belongs to B.C.M “A”

Education Qualification : S.S.L.C

Year of election : 2005

Caste : Kuruba

Children : 3 Girl children

First Child studying in 2nd Standard and other two are too young

36
Ms.Suguna, 29 years old young and enthusiastic president of Urugili gramapanchayath, belongs
to Kuruba caste – B.C.M ‘A’. She contested in the Grama panchayath election by the support of
her to ward people and family member. Ms. Jayalakshmi who was contested opposite to her but
Suguna won in the election.

Her grand father was “Patel” (One of the member among 5 members in old panchayath system)

Ms. Suguna was born in poor family and married her relative Mr. Devaraj who is an auto driver.
She had 3 girl children namely Swathi (7yrs)- studying 2nd Standard, 2nd one is Mahalakhmi (5
yrs) and Srushti (1 ½ yrs). They own 2 acres of dry land and had one milch animal.

She attended Women leadership workshop, follow-up program and other meetings organized by
BWS regularly. Now, she is working as facilitator in BWS.

Ms. Jayalakshmi who was opponent in the election last her husband and she is vulnerable
condition. Suguna with out any animosity helped her to obtain her share of property, allotted one
house under ASHRAYA scheme and also gave financial support.

She was unanimously selected as president of Urugili Grama panchayath. When she went to attend
training in taluk panchayath, she came to know that there is an apparel training institute newly
established in front of the taluk panchayath to train the rural youth. Immediately she admitted 4
adolescent girls, later 4 girls and submitted 12 applications. There is a criteria for getting admission
that applicant should pass 8th standard. One of the girl who was not able to meet the criteria to get
admission as she was passed 7th, she motivated her and her family members and joined her to 8th
standard. She often visiting the school and monitoring the mid day meal school and Anganavadi
and attendance of teachers etc.

She is working transparently, recently she faced the problem that one of the contractors who is
constructing the panchayath building finished the foundation work and sent the bill for Rs.2 lakhs,
she refused to sign. Now it is in debate.

Her intention is to provide good education to her 3 girl child and have to work hard to for the
development her village.

She is having vision of getting SWACHA GRAMA award in her tenure.

37
Vijayalakshmi

Name : Ms. Vijayalakshmi

W/o : Balakrishna Reddy

Age : 53 Years

Education : S.S.L.C.

Village : Varadapura

GP : Magondi

Taluk : Bangarpet

District : Kolar

Socio-Economic Background

She was born in a family that was very well off. She had two children. Vijayalakshmi belongs to
upper caste vokkaliga community. She inhabited in Varadapura village of Kolar District. She is
awfully interested to cultivate vegetables in her own irrigation land. She herself took care of the
vegetable plants. Through this Vijayalakshmi is earning income.

After the marriage she entered politics by self motive and her husband also encouraged her to stand
for Panchayat elections. In 2005 she contests for the general seat and she got elected and become
a member of Magondi Panchayat in Karnataka state. As a member she has been actively
participating in the politics of village.

Immediately after the 2005election she underwent the woman leadership workshop. She
understood her role as a gram Panchayat member and also the importance of the grama sabha. She
started to work intimately with the community people.

38
Achievements

 Being a member of Panchayat Vijayalakshmi’s aim was to fight for women’s rights. She
fought effectively to get the justice for a girl who is trapped by the village boys to rape.
With the collaboration of the Self help and “Grameena Mahila Okkuta”( Women’s
federation) she had taken advocacy actions with the State Woman Commission and protest
against the Police who is refused to take the FIR from girls side, then through a struggle
she is able to register the case, but again they did not arrested the boy, she tried to highlight
the issue through the electronic media & at the end the girl got justice.
 She enforced herself effectively for the proper functioning of Panchayat. She applied for
RTI to collect the information regarding the government allocation to the Panchayat and
through this she could able to find out that there is corruption going on in her Panchayat
and she complained against the Secretary and with in a due time the secretary got
transferred and now the RTI case is in the commissioner’s court and the hearings are going
on.
 Vijayalakshmi ensure that the allocation of Ashraya Housing Scheme should reach the
houseless people and also for the vulnerable people in her village.
 She involved herself in Solid Waste Management Campaign through her Panchayat.
 She encouraged the community to have vermin-culture and vermin compost preparation.
 Actively functioning for the effective function of Grama Sabha.

Challenges

 To Cross the male domination in Panchayat


 Limitation of political experiences
 Holding of the self-confidence
 Breaking the power structure to challenge the men
 To challenge the policy makers

Future Plans/ Her Dream

39
1. To ensure that her service will reach the needy people in the community
2. To work effectively to ensure the rights of women and also take advocacy actions while
the rights of women are curbed.
3. To work for the effective functioning of the Grama Sabha.
4. Being a member of FEDEW Karnataka she wants to strengthen the federation in
grassroots, through the combined effort of all the FEDEW members.

Involvement with THP

Vijayalakshmi was attended various capacity building campaigns and she got self-confidence to
work successfully as a member of Grama Panchayat. She is identified herself as a political leader
and trying to serve the society. She got opportunity to attend learning tour to Sweden and
presentation chance of her achievement in Sweden municipality a memorable time in her life.

Data Collection:
The Data was collected and inserted in the excel document for the analysis and interpretation which has
collected randomly from the google form:

no of
Gender respondance percentage
Male 29 54.7169811
Female 24 45.2830189
Fig 4.3 Respondents Gender

40
GENDER
Male Female

35%

65%

Fig 4.4 percentage of the respondants age group.

Analysis:

The above table describes the respondants’ age group.

65% of the respondants are the women,

35% of the respondants are the men.

Inference:

By the above table and graph we come to know that women are the respondants for the survey.

2.

no of
Age respondance Percentage
16-20 16 26.2295082
21-25 37 60.6557377
26-30 5 8.19672131
31-35 2 3.27868852
36-
above 1 1.63934426
Fig 4.5 Respondents age

41
Age of Respondants
70

60
60.6557377
50

40

30

20 26.2295082

10
8.196721311 3.278688525 1.639344262
0
16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-above

Percentage

Fig 4.6 Graph of respondent’s age

Analysis:

26.22% of the respondants age is from 16-20 years,

60.65% of the respondants age is from 21-25 years,

8.19% of the respondants age is from 26-30 years,

3.27% of the respondants age is from 31-35 years,

1.63% of the respondants age is from 36 years and above.

Inference:

By the above table and graph we come to know that 61% of the respondants are from the age group of
21-25 years.

3.

Do you think backward class and


economically backward class women's
political participation is only for name No of
sake? respondants percentage
Yes 19 31.14754
No 19 31.14754
Maybe 23 37.70492
Fig 4.7 Respondents thinking about backward class and economically backward class women's political
participation is only for name sake

42
Women Political support

31%
38% yes
no
Maybe

31%

Fig 4.8 graph of Respondents thinking about backward class and economically backward class women's
political participation is only for name sake

Analysis:

31% of the respondents said they think that backward class and economically backward class women's
political participation is only for name sake

31% of the respondants said they do not think backward class and economically backward class
women's political participation is only for name sake

38% of the respondants said that maybe backward class and economically backward class women's
political participation is only for name sake

Inference:

By the above given graph and table we come to know that 31% of the respondants think backward class
and economically backward class women's political participation is only for name sake, and 31% of the
respondents do not think backward class and economically backward class women's political
participation is only for name sake, so both type of respondents are given equal votes for their question.

43
4.

Is any development in the society is


providing space and power to rural No of
women? respondants Percentage
Excellent 8 13.11475
Better 36 59.01639
no 16 26.22951
I think not all rural women are given
political support 1 1.639344
Fig 4.9 respondents reply on any development in the society is providing space and power to rural
women

Power for rural women


Percentage

70
60
59.01639344
50
40
30
20 26.2295082

10
13.1147541 1.639344262
0
8 36 16 1

Analysis:

13.11% of the respondents tell that any development in the society is providing space and power to
rural women.

59.01% of the respondents tell that any development in the society is providing space and power to
rural women.

26.22% of the respondents tell that any development in the society is providing space and power to
rural women.

1.63% of the respondents tell that any development in the society is providing space and power to rural
women.

Inference:

By the above given table and graph we come to know that 60% of the respondents tell that any
development in the society is providing space and power to rural women.

44
5.

No of
Women will take decision in your family? respondance Percentage
May Be 12 19.67213
Yes 8 13.11475
No 41 67.21311
Fig 4.10 respondents reply on decision made by women

WOMEN DECISION IN FAMILY


May Be Yes No

20%

13%

67%

Analysis:

67% of the respondents states that women in his/her family doesn’t make the decisions.

20% of the respondents states that women in his/her family make the decisions sometimes.

13% of the respondents states that women in his/her family makes the decisions.

Inference:

By the above given graph and table we come to know that in most the family, women is not giving
importance to make the decisions in his/her family.

6.

No of Percentag
Women are represented well in politics. Please give rating 5 to 1 respondance e
Best 4 6.557377
Better 11 18.03279
Good 29 47.54098
Satisfactory 12 19.67213
Poor 5 8.196721
Fig 4.11 respondents reply on women in politics

45
Women Representation in Politics
Percentage

47.54098361

18.03278689 19.67213115

6.557377049 8.196721311

Best Better Good Satisfactory Poor

Analysis:

6.55% of the respondents give the best rating for statement Women are represented well in politics.

18.03% of the respondents give the better rating for statement Women are represented well in politics.

47.54% of the respondents give the good rating for statement Women are represented well in politics.

19.67% of the respondents give the satisfactory rating for statement Women are represented well in
politics.

8.19% of the respondents give the poor rating for statement Women are represented well in politics.

Inference:

By the above given table and graph we come to know that 48% of the respondents given the good rating
for the statement called women are represented well in politics.

7.

No of
Women are an integral part of our countries economy. responded Percentage
Agree 17 27.86885
Disagree 10 16.39344
Neutral 11 18.03279
Strongly Agree 7 11.47541
Strongly Disagree 16 26.22951
Fig 4.12 Respondents reply on women integral part of countries economy

46
Women in Economy
30

25 27.86885246
26.2295082
20

15 18.03278689
16.39344262
10 11.47540984

0
Agree Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Percentage

Analysis:

27.86% of respondents agree that Women are an integral part of our countries economy.

16.39% of the respondents disagree that Women are an integral part of our countries economy.

18.03% of the respondents tell neutrally that Women are an integral part of our countries economy.

11.47% of the respondents strongly agree that Women are an integral part of our countries economy.

26.22% of the respondents strongly disagree that Women are an integral part of our countries economy.

Inference:

By the above given table and graph we come to know that 28% of the respondents agree that women
are an integral part of our countries economy. 27% of the respondents strongly disagree that Women
are an integral part of our countries economy.

8.

Women are discriminated and not


allowed for their representation in the No of
social, political, and economic fields. repondent Percentage
Agree 10 16.39344
Disagree 10 16.39344
Neutral 27 44.2623
Strongly Agree 8 13.11475
Strongly Disagree 6 9.836066
Fig 4.13 Respondents reply on Women are discriminated and not allowed for their representation in the
social, political, and economic fields

47
Women's representation in
Social,political,economic fields
Percentage

50

40 44.26229508

30

20

10 16.39344262 16.39344262
13.1147541
9.836065574
0
Agree Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Analysis:

The above table describes how many Women are discriminated and not allowed for their
representation in the social, political, and economic fields.

16% of the women agree that they are discriminated,

16% of the women disagree that they are discriminated,

44% of the women answer neutral that they are discriminated,

13% of the women strongly agree that they are discriminated,

9% of the women strongly disagree that they are discriminated,

Inference:

By this we can describe that 44% of the women answers neutral that they are discriminated and
not allowed for their representation in the social, political, and economic fields.

48
9.

No of
Women are an integral part of our countries economy respondent Percentage
Agree 17 27.86885
Disagree 10 16.39344
Neutral 11 18.03279
Strongly Agree 7 11.47541
Strongly Disagree 16 26.22951
Fig 4.14 respondents reply on Women are an integral part of our countries economy

Women's part in countries economy


30

25

20

15

10

0
Agree Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Percentage

Analysis:

The above table describes how many people think that Women is an integral part of our countries
economy

27% of the people agree that women are integral part of our countries economy
16% of the people disagree that women are integral part of our countries economy,
18% of the people answer neutral that women are integral part of our countries economy,

11% of the people strongly agree that women are integral part of our countries economy,

26% of the people strongly disagree that women are integral part of our countries economy,

Inference:

49
By this we can describe that 27% of the people agree that women are integral part of our countries
economy and 26% of the people strongly disagree that women are integral part of our countries
economy.

50
51
CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINDS AND CONCLUSION
FINDINGS:
1. Laksmidevamma be herself started night school and taught literacy to many. People will
recalling her service. Now her daughter is working as prerak in Saksharatha School.
2. Ms Suguna’s intention is to provide good education to her 3 girl child and have to work
hard to for the development her village.
3. Ms Vijaya Lakshmi’s Challenges were
 To Cross the male domination in Panchayat
 Limitation of political experiences
 Holding of the self-confidence
 Breaking the power structure to challenge the men
 To challenge the policy makers
4. By the data collected through the questionnaire, we come to know that
5. We come to know that 61% of the respondents are from the age group of 21-25 years.
6. We come to know that 31% of the respondents think backward class and economically backward
class women's political participation is only for name sake, and 31% of the respondents do not
think backward class and economically backward class women's political participation is only for
name sake, so both type of respondents are given equal votes for their question.
7. We come to know that 60% of the respondents tell that any development in the society is providing
space and power to rural women.
8. We come to know that in most the family, women is not giving importance to make the decisions
in his/her family.
9. We come to know that 48% of the respondents given the good rating for the statement called
women are represented well in politics.
10. We come to know that 28% of the respondents agree that women are an integral part of our
countries economy. 27% of the respondents strongly disagree that Women are an integral part of
our countries economy.
11. We can describe that 44% of the women answers neutral that they are discriminated and
not allowed for their representation in the social, political, and economic fields.

52
12. We can describe that 27% of the people agree that women are integral part of our countries
economy and 26% of the people strongly disagree that women are integral part of our countries
economy.

CONCLUSION:
From the reported project, we can conclude that ASEDA is doing the best work in the
surrounding of the districts chikkaballapura and gauribidanur. They continue their path of
success in helping the women to solve their problems on their own. They encourage people
to join to their organization volunteering.
The present research is an attempt to study the empowerment of rural women through
ASEDA. Several development programs have had their share in bringing about change and
development in the lives of poor women. The study looks at the empowerment levels of
women at four levels: the individual, the household, the self-help groups/enterprise and at
the community level. The study finds that this mechanism of credit coupled with the
mobilization and organization of women on the basis of strengthening and collective action
empowers women. It is this aspect of the study that brings about welcome changes in the
women’s lives has to be highlighted. Although there is a strong indication that access to
potent resource like credit will alter the economic opportunities available to poor women.
Institutions that target women need to understand the regional and local contact and adopt
their approach/ strategies accordingly. The study further finds that participation of women
is a main ingredient for the successful empowerment. The study accepts all the four levels
that greater participation of women in the project leads to greater levels of empowerment
at the individual, household, self-help group/enterprise and community level.
Mainstreaming an empowerment approach in micro-credit will inevitably involve a
significant change in attitude, change in work practices and challenging flexibility to
women’s needs and deciding the best ways of combining empowerment and sustainability
objectives can only be done by using participatory techniques on the basis of extensive
consultation with the women themselves. Research on women’s felt needs, strategies and
constraints and a process of negotiation between women and development agencies provide
an enabling environment for women to be participants in their own development processes.
There are numerous examples of women earning a substantial income out of the micro-

53
enterprises, women being, local leaders, women heading households and having a major
say in family matters. It is crucial that such projects should be part of an organizational
strength, reaching women to challenge gender inequality and economic injustice.

Bibliography:
Websites:
1.Indian population according to 2018:
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/india-population/

2. Role and status of women in India

https://www.importantindia.com/20816/women-in-india-role-and-status-of-women-in-india/

3. Women empowerment in India:

http://www.groupdiscussionideas.com/women-empowerment-in-india/

4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/5063/15/15_chapter%206.pdf

5. http://www.nias.res.in/publication/status-rural-women-karnataka

Journals:

1. Rethinking Women's Empowerment, by Elisabeth Porter which was Published online on18 Jul
2013.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15423166.2013.785657
2. Women's Empowerment: What Works? Written by Andrea Cornwall and first published on 28
March 2016
https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3210
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jid.3210
3. The Dynamics of Women’s Empowerment: A Critical Appraisal written by Subhash Sharma and
First Published August 31, 2017.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0049085717712822
4. Empowering Women, A Critique of the Blueprint for Self-help Groups in India written by Tanya
Jakimow, Patrick Kilby which was First Published on October 1, 2006.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/097152150601300303
5. RECENT TRENDS IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT : AN ANALYSIS written by D. Srinivasa, Prof. Y S
Siddegowda.
http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/83

54
APPENDICES
QUESTIONNAIRE

Name:

Gender:
 Female
 Male
 Prefer not to say
 Other…

Age:

1. Do you think backward class and economically backward class women’s political participation
is only for name sake?
 Yes
 No
 Maybe

2. Is any development in the society after providing space and power to rural women?
 Excellent
 Better
 No
 Other…

3. Women will take decision in your family?


 Yes
 No
 Maybe

4. Women are represented well in politics. Please give rating ( 5 best, 4 better, 3 good, 2
satisfactory, 1 poor)

5. Women are an integral part of our countries economy.


 Strongly disagree
 Agree

55
 Neutral
 Disagree
 Strongly agree

6. Women are discriminated and not allowed for their representation in the social, political, and
economic fields.
 Strongly agree
 Agree
 Neutral
 Disagree
 Strongly disagree

6. What do you think about women empowerment?

56
57
58
59
60
61
62
“A STUDY ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Through NGO’s
intervention-ASEDA”
Synopsis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Of
ACHARYA BANGALORE B SCHOOL

By
Ms. Shravya.N

Under the guidance of


Dr.K.R.Swaroop
Assistant Professor
Acharya Bangalore B School

2018

63
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

 To study the impact of socio-economic factors on women empowerment in society.


 To study about the problems faced by women and how women representatives motivate,
guide and support them to overcome from their problems.
 To study the process of socio-economic development of women and women in local self-
governance.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

Women are portrayed as secondary characters as per the literary history is concerned. This occurred even when women
played three roles simultaneously - as a woman, wife and as a writer or their career. It is frequently believed that man
is omnipotent, whereas a woman is simply offered a supporting as well balancing role in all spheres of society. The
notion of woman being is bequeathed to us from our age old ancestors. Even the great myths of Indian literature
portray woman that as pathetic creature.

Beginning with our own Indian mythologies we have first in the list, Manu who in his Manusmrithi speaks about
women and the multiple roles that they have to play in society. He projects them as slaves from the beginning till the
end of their life. The two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata give no scope for women. It pushed them
into the castle and depicted them as machines of reproduction. This trend continued in history and still exists. The
deep rooted patriarchal notions do not allow them to realise and express their roles. She is unaware of her own
capacities, and therefore unable to raise her voice against her undeserving suffering. In the middle ages the conditions
of women become worst than ever. Further the condition was worsened with the origin of superstitions which restricted
the movement of women. Women were tortured in the name of tradition and religion. Condition of woman has been
gradually changing in the present era.

Bhagwat in 1998 reports that almost all major feminist writers irrespective of their ideological position, within the
feminist movement have devoted much space and time in exposing male bias in conventional social theory. He found
that women were mostly treated as sex object. It is argued that the values for women’s freedom should be judged by
women.

Zaveri and Mehta in 2000 conducted a research on working women. They pointed out that traditionally the status
and the role of women in Indian family had been inferior to men. This was closely related to the urban kinship and

64
economic systems which assigned a subordinate and secondary role to women in the family. They further reported
that women typically handled the bulk of family responsibilities even when both husband and wife had full time jobs.

Chandra, S. while studying women and economic development in 2001, reported that growth rate of female
employment in urban areas was better than in rural areas, in 1971-81 and 1981-91. The female participation rates had
increased in almost all states except Himachal Pradesh and Kerala. Male participation rates were four times greater
than that of female participation rates not only at national level but also at sub national level. This reflected the
traditional pattern of labour division in the society, exhibiting sort of gender bias. At regional level the proportion of
total female workers had shown considerable improvement and the involvement of women in various kinds of
economic activity.

Rao 2002 on the basis of a national sample survey showed that women shared only 14.1 % of total employment. Only
5.6 % of them were employed in government jobs. In rural areas, 56 % of males and 33 % females were in labour
force. 66% of females in rural sector were idle or unutilized. This was due to existing social customs, putting men
and women on different footings. It was also reported that women were usually not able to take benefit of employment
schemes, especially those of self employment because of huge unemployment in male youth. They also pointed out
that young unmarried girls were normally not allowed to work independently.

Ganeshan, S. while describing the status of women entrepreneurs in India in 2003 pointed out that a majority (66.9%)
of respondents started their business with an initial investment of below Rs. 25000. This corresponded with the
compulsions of women to go small with respect to business they started. The respondents who had initial investment
between Rs 25,001 and 50,000 were only 12.9%. 30.6% of the respondents solely depended on borrowed sources for
investment. 46.% of them invested less then Rs 25,000 from their own sources. 68.6% invested only their funds for
their enterprises. The first year turnover of 77.4% was less than Rs 25,000. The entrepreneurs who claimed that their
ventures were profitable in first year were 32.3%.

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

• The main significance of this study is on empowerment of women in all the areas

65
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

This study is focused only on women and women’s status in various levels. Development of
women in various levels such as economic , politics , social , etc. as compared to men
counterparts.This present study is purely based on secondary data .It is an attempt towards
understanding the socio-economic condition of women.

DATA COLLECTION:

Data was collected through magazines and reports of the NGO (ACTION FOR SOCIAL AND
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (ASEDA) (questionnaires, research, files
and documents of organization, interview and observation).

Primary Sources

Primary sources of data collection or primary data are those data’s which are collected directly
from the respondents. They are collected for the first time from the sources concerned and are
popularly said as the first-hand data collection. They are collected directly from the sources
through questionnaires, and schedules or through personal interview. And these are the tools which
are used particularly in survey and descriptive type of research.

Questionnaires: The data collected through questionnaires becomes primary data, which is used
to test hypothesis. The structured questionnaire consisted of close-ended objective question.

Secondary sources:

The data which has been already collected and assembled by some organizations to meet their
needs.

The secondary data has been collected from different sources they are as follows,

 Annual reports
 Journals and files
 Magazines
 Internet

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PLAN OF ANALYSIS:

Collection of facts and figures which can be processed to information, a collection of variety of
information organized with a specific structure usually a data is stored.

Tools used for analysis

 Graphs
 Tables
 Diagrams
 Reports
By the NGO’s Data collection.

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