030
1
Vector Control of an Induction Motor Fed by a PWM Inverter with Output LC Filter
Janne Salomäki and Jorma Luomi
Abstract — This paper introduces a control method for an in duction motor that is supplied by a PWM voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A fullorder observer is used to estimate the system states, and no additional voltage or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Simulation and experimental results are presented confirming the functionality of the proposed control method.
Index Terms — Vector control, induction motor, LC filter, ob server.
I.
INTRODUCTION
T HE voltage generated by a PWM frequency converter con sists of sharpedged voltage pulses. Sudden alteration of
the voltage causes unwanted effects such as bearing currents and high voltage stresses in motor insulations. The oscillation
at the switching frequency causes additional losses and acous
tic noise. These phenomena can be eliminated by adding an LC filter to the output of the PWM inverter. In addition, the EMI shielding of the motor cable may be avoided if the output voltage of the inverter is nearly sinusoidal. The control of an induction motor becomes more difficult if an LC filter is used. Usually, a very simple scalar control method (voltsperhertz control) is chosen. Although better control performance is needed in many cases, only few publi cations deal with the vector control of an induction motor fed
via an LC filter. A deadbeat controller has been used to control the inductor current and the capacitor voltage [1], the high pass filtered stator voltage has been used to correct the voltage reference [2], and a multiloop feedback controller has been proposed [3]. In these methods, extra current or voltage meas urements are needed in addition to the phase current and dc voltage measurements usual in a frequency converter. A chal lenge for the motor drive control design is to keep the number
of measurements low in order to obtain cost savings and reli
ability improvements. In this paper, a method is presented for the vector control of
an induction motor fed by an inverter with an output LC filter.
A cascade control method is used to control the inverter cur
rent, the stator voltage, the stator current and the rotor speed. The system states are estimated by a fullorder observer.
The authors are with Helsinki University of Technology, Power Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN02015 HUT, Finland (email:
II.
THEORY
The principle of the control system is shown in Fig. 1. The
inverter output voltage
induction motor (IM) is fed by the filtered voltage
inverter current
are the only measured
quantities, whereas the stator voltage
motor are estimated by an observer (the estimated quantities being marked by ‘^’). The system is controlled by nested con trol loops in the rotor flux reference frame.
A. Filter and Motor Models
rotor, and the dc link voltage
A is filtered by an LC filter, and the
. The
of the
u
_{u}
s
i
A
, the electrical angular speed
u
dc
_{u}
s
ω
m
and current
i
s
of the
In a reference frame rotating at angular speed tions for the LC filter are
ω
s
, the equa
d
i
d
A
t
=
− j
ω
s
i
A
−
R
Lf
L
f
i
A
+
1 (
L
f
u
A
−
u
s
)
(1)
d
u
s
d
t
j
= − ω
s
u
s
+
1
C
f
(
i
A
−
i
s
)
(2)
where
the series resistance of
the inductor, and
The motor control is based on the inverseΓ model of the induction motor in the rotor flux reference frame. The stator
and rotor voltage equations in this reference frame are
L
f
is the inductance and
R
Lf
C
f is the capacitance of the filter.
janne.salomaki@hut.fi).
Fig. 1.
Principle of the control system.
030
2
Fig. 2. Complex signal flow diagram of the cascade control.
are the stator and rotor flux
are the stator and rotor
is the
electrical angular speed of the rotor. The stator and rotor flux
respectively, where ψ
s
and ψ
R
R
s
and
R
R
linkages, respectively,
resistances, respectively,
i
R
is the rotor current, and
ω
m
linkages are
ψ
= (L′
s s
+ L
M
(
ψ = L
R
M
)i
i
s
s
+ i
+ L
R
)
M
i
R (5)
(6)
respectively, where
is the magnetizing inductance. Based on (1)(6), the
statespace representation of the system can be written as shown in (7) and (8) at the bottom of this page. The state vec
tor is
, and the two time constants are
defined as
B. Cascade Control
Figure 2 illustrates the proposed cascade control of the sys tem in the rotor flux reference frame. In the LC filter control,
and
denotes the stator transient inductance
L′
s
i
L
M
x =
[
i
A
u
s
s
ψ
R
+ R
]
T
′
τ
σ
= L′
s
/(
R
s
R
)
and τ
r
= L
M
/ R
R
.
means of a PI controller, and the stator voltage
by a Ptype controller in the next control loop. In both control
loops, decoupling terms are used to compensate the crosscou plings caused by the rotating reference frame.
The motor control is based on vector control and forms two outermost loops of the cascade control. The stator current is
controlled by a PItype controller with crosscoupling compen sation, and the rotor speed is governed by a PIcontroller. In
addition, a PItype rotor flux controller is used.
C.
is governed
u
s
Observability
The observability of the system can be investigated using the observability matrix
M
o
= [C
CA
CA
2
CA
3
]
T
(9)
The system is observable if the rank of the observability matrix is equal to the number of states [4]. The observability was checked for various angular speeds of the rotor and the refer ence frame, indicating that the system is observable.
the innermost control loop governs the inverter current 
i 
A by 

⎡ 
R 
lf 
1 
⎤ 

⎢ 
− 
− 
j 
ω 
− 
0 
0 
⎥ 

⎢ ⎢ 
L 
f 1 
s 
− 
L f ω 
− 1 
0 
⎥ ⎥ ⎡ ⎢ 
1 L ⎤ ⎥ 

⎢ 
j s 
⎥ ⎢ 
f ⎥ 

x = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 
C f 0 0 
1 L 0 ′ s 
− 
τ 
1 ′ σ C f − j R 
ω s 
1 L ′ s 1 ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ τ r 
− j ω 
m ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 
⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ x + ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 
u 
A 
(7) 

⎢ ⎣ 
− τ r − 
j( 
ω s 
− 
ω m 
) ⎥ ⎦ 

R 
B 



A 

i 
A 
[ 
]x 
(8) 
= 1 0 0 0
C
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3
Imaginary Axis (p.u)
D. FullOrder Observer
The most essential part of the control is a fullorder ob
server, which is implemented in the estimated rotor flux refer
.
Fig. 3. Observer poles obtained by pole placement as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p.u. and slip frequency changes from –0.05 to 0.05 p.u.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.
Fig. 4. Observer poles obtained by constant gain as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p.u. and slip frequency changes from –0.05 to 0.05 p.u.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.
.
Thus the gain
verter current estimator, and it can be selected so that the esti mator is at least twice as fast as the controller of the inverter current. Figure 4 illustrates the observer poles as the speed and the slip of the motor are varied. All poles stay in the left half
where the last approximation holds if
k 1 is approximately the bandwidth of the in
k
1
>> R
plane, indicating that the observer is stable.
_{I}_{I}_{I}_{.} SIMULATION RESULTS
The behavior of the system was investigated by means of computer simulations with Matlab/Simulink software. The data of a 2.2kW fourpole induction motor (400 V, 50 Hz), given
in Table I, were used for the simulations. The sampling fre quency of 5 kHz was equal to the switching frequency. The LC
filter was designed to have a cutoff frequency of 566 Hz in or
der to meet a rule of thumb that the cutoff frequency should be about one decade below the switching frequency and one dec ade above the nominal fundamental frequency [7]. The funda mentalfrequency voltage drop in the filter inductance was chosen to be less than 5 % of the nominal voltage in the nomi
nal operating point [8]. The filter parameters are also given in
Table I. The bandwidths of the controllers were 500 Hz for the
ence frame, i.e., in a reference frame where The observer is defined as 
ˆ 

ψ 
R 
= 
x ˆ = Ax ˆ + Bu
A
+ K i
(
A
ˆ
− i
A
)
ˆ
ψ
R
+ j0
(10)
where estimated states are marked by the symbol ‘^’ and
K = [k
1
k
2
k
3
k
4
]
T is the observer gain vector.
The digital implementation of the fullorder observer based on the conventional forward Euler discretization causes insta bility at higher speeds. Other alternatives, such as the back ward Euler method or the bilinear transformation, hold the stability but are more complicated to implement. A simple
symmetric Euler method has been found to be an effective and reliable discretization method in electromechanical simulations [5] and fullorder flux observers [6]. The corresponding dis cretization of the fullorder observer (10) is given in the Ap pendix. The observer gain vector _{K} can be selected in many ways. The selection can be based on the pole placement method, or a simple constant gain can be used, as will be presented in the following. 1) Pole placement: The dynamics of the estimation error
~
x
=
x
−
xˆ
are given by
~
x
=
(
A
−
~
KC x
)
(11)
In the pole placement method, the poles of the estimation error dynamics are placed to desired locations. Because the system model is time variant, the pole place ment should be carried out at every calculation step. However, this would increase the computing time of the processor dra matically. A practical solution is to use gain scheduling: the observer gain vector is calculated in advance as a function of the angular speed of the rotor, and interpolation between tabulated values is used during the operation. The poles also
depend on the angular slip frequency
estimated rotor flux reference frame is used. If the gains ob
tained for noload operation are used, the slip frequency af
as the
ω
r
= ω − ω
s
m
fects only the imaginary parts of the observer poles, as illus trated in Fig. 3 for the example values used in the next sec
in the pole place
ment method does not cause stability problems. 2) Simple constant gain: The observer becomes relatively
T is se
_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{.} By assuming that the estimated inverter current does not interact with the estimated stator voltage, the transfer function from the inverter current to its estimate can be written as
simple when the realvalued gain
tions. Therefore, the assumption of
ω
r
= 0
K = [k
1
0
0
0]
ˆ
i
i A s
)
A
(
(
s
s
)
=
k
1
+
R
Lf
L
f
+
j
ω s
+
k
≈
1 s
k
+ k
1
,
(12)
1 inverter current, 250 Hz for the stator voltage, 150 Hz for the
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4
TABLE I _{P}_{A}_{R}_{A}_{M}_{E}_{T}_{E}_{R}_{S} OF THE MOTOR AND THE LC FILTER
Motor Parameters
Stator resistance
Rotor resistance
Stator transient inductance
Magnetizing inductance Total moment of inertia _{J}
L
R
s
R
R
L′
s
M
Rated speed
Rated current
Rated torque
n
N
I
N
T
N
LC Filter Parameters
Inductance
Capacitance
Series Resistance
L
f
C
f
R
Lf
3.67 Ω
1.65 Ω
0.0209 H
0.264 H
0.0155
1430 r/min
5.0
14.6 Nm
kgm
A
8.0
9.9 µ F
0.1 Ω
mH
2
stator current, 15 Hz for the rotor speed, and 3 Hz for the rotor flux. The poles of the observer were set to (–7.1 _{±} 11.8) p.u., _{−}_{2}_{.}_{7} p.u. and –0.02 p.u., the base value of the angular fre quency being _{2}_{π} _{⋅} _{5}_{0} _{r}_{a}_{d}_{/}_{s} . The reference value of the inverter
was used in the observer and control instead of
voltage
u
A ref
,
u A
.
Figure 5 shows an example of simulated sequences, con sisting of accelerations, nominal load torque steps at various speeds, and a deceleration ramp to standstill. The results show that the operation of the system is successful. The rotor speed is in accordance with its reference, and the torque behaves as expected. The rotor flux linkage is reduced by 15 % at the highest speed because of field weakening. The voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig. 6. The stator voltage and current are nearly sinusoidal.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The experimental setup is illustrated in Fig. 7. The 2.2kW fourpole induction motor was fed by a frequency converter controlled by a dSPACE DS1103 PPC/DSP board. The pa rameters of the experimental setup correspond to those given in Table I. Three 3.3µ F filter capacitors were used in delta connection, giving the perphase capacitance value of 9.9 µ F. The measured rotor speed was used as a feedback signal for the control. The shaft torque was measured using a HBM T10F torque flange for monitoring purposes. A permanent magnet servo motor was used to provide load torque. Figure 8 presents experimental results corresponding to the simulations shown in Fig. 5. Constant motor parameters were used in the observer and control. The measured performance corresponds to the simulation results rather well. The total moment of inertia of the setup was 2.2 times the inertia of the induction motor, which explains a large part of the difference between the measured shaft torque and the electromagnetic torque reference during the accelerations. However, the elec tromagnetic torque reference is far too high in noload opera tion at the highest speed, at which the main flux saturation has decreased because of the field weakening. Therefore, the measured saturation characteristic of the magnetizing induc tance was added to the observer and control. The correspond
Time (s)
dSPACE
Fig. 7. Experimental setup. Control of induction motor (IM) is investigated, and permanent magnet (PM) servo motor is used as loading machine. Meas ured shaft torque is used only for monitoring.
ing experimental results are shown in Fig. 9, and the measured voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig. 10. The results are in good agreement with the simulation re sults when the main flux saturation is taken into account.
030
t (s)
Fig. 8. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and constant motor parameters are used in observer and control. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). The second subplot shows the measured shaft torque (solid) and the electromagnetic torque reference (dashed). The third subplot shows the rotor flux reference (solid) and the estimated rotor flux (dashed).
t (s)
Fig. 9. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and main flux saturation is taken into account. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig. 8.
Experiments were also carried out using an observer with a
constant gain
taken into account in the observer and control. The results are
shown in Fig. 11. The performance is nearly equal to that of the more complicated observer.
1 . The main flux saturation was
k
1
=
2
π ⋅
1000 s ^{−}
V.
CONCLUSIONS
When the inverter output voltage is filtered by an LCfilter, the vector control of an induction motor can be based on nested control loops. The system states can be estimated by a fullorder observer, requiring only the measurements of in verter current, dc voltage, and rotor speed. Simulation and
Time (s)
Fig. 10. Experimental result showing voltage and current waveforms as the rotation speed is 25 Hz and the load torque is 14.6 Nm. The first subplot shows the inverter output voltage (phasetophase) and the stator voltage (phasetophase). The second subplot shows the inverter current and the stator current.
t (s)
Fig. 11. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as the observer gain is constant. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig. 8.
experimental results show that the proposed control method operates correctly. The observer gain can be selected by means of pole placement, or a constant gain can be used.
REFERENCES
[1] 
M. Kojima, K. Hirabayashi, Y. Kawabata, E.C. Ejiogu, and T. 
[2] 
Kawabata, “Novel vector control system using deadbeat controlled PWM inverter with output LC filter,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE/IAS Annu. Meeting, vol. 3, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2002, pp. 21022109. A. Nabae, H. Nakano, and Y. Okamura, “A novel control strategy of the 
[3] 
inverter with sinusoidal voltage and current outputs,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’94, vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, June 1994, pp. 154159. R. Seliga and W. Koczara, “Multiloop feedback control strategy in sine 
[4] 
wave voltage inverter for an adjustable speed cage induction motor drive system”, in Proc. EPE 2001, Graz, Austria, Aug. 2001, CDROM. G.F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, and A. EmamiNaeini, Feedback Control of 
[5] 
Dynamic Systems, 4 ^{t}^{h} ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002. J. Niiranen, “Fast and accurate symmetric Euler algorithm for electro mechanical simulations,” in Proc. Electrimacs’99, Lisboa, Portugal, Sept. 1999, pp. 7178. 
030
6
[6] 
M. Hinkkanen and J. Luomi, “Parameter sensitivity of fullorder flux TA2/4.3. 
[7] 
observers for induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat. vol. 39, July/Aug. 2003, pp. 11271135 J. Steinke, C. Stulz, and P. Pohjalainen, “Use of a LC filter to achieve a 
motor friendly performance of the PWM voltage source inverter,” in Proc. IEEE IEMDC’97, Milwaukee, WI, May 1997, pp. TA2/4.1 

[8] 
C. Xiyou, Y. Bin, and G. Yu, “The engineering design and the optimiza tion of inverter output RLC filter in AC motor drive system,” in Proc. IEEE IECON'02, vol. 1, Sevilla, Spain, Nov. 2002, pp. 175180. 
APPENDIX DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION
The fullorder observer (10) is discretized using the sym metric Euler method [5]. In contrast to the forward Euler
method, the new state values are used when available. The discretized observer is given below in (13), where the sample
time is denoted by
T
s
.
ˆ i 
( 
+ 1) 
= 
ˆ i 
( ) 
+ 
T ⎡ ⎢ − 
R Lf 
ˆ i 
( ) 
+ 
ˆ 
( ˆ n ) i 
) 
− 1 
ˆ 
( ) 
+ 
1 
( ) + k 
~ i 
( 
) 
− k 
~ i ( 
) ⎤ ⎥ 

ˆ i 
Ad ( 
n + 
1) = ˆ i 
Ad ( n ) + T s ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − R 
L Lf f ˆ i 
Ad ( n ) − 
ˆ ω s ( ˆ n ) i 
Aq ( ( n + 
1) L − f 
1 u 
sd ˆ n ( 
) 
L + f 1 
u 
Ad n ( ) + 1 d k 
Ad ~ i 
n ( ) + 1 q k 
Aq ~ i 
n ( ⎥ ⎦ ) 
⎤ ⎥ 

Aq 
n 
ˆ 
( 
Aq + n 1) = ˆ 
s 
⎢ ⎣ ( 
) 
L + f T 
⎡ ⎢ 
Aq 1 n ˆ i 
ω s ( 
+ 1) Ad + 
ˆ n ( n ) u ˆ L ( f ) u − sq 1 n 
ˆ i 
L ( f ) 
u + Aq k n ~ i ( 1 ) 
q Ad − k 
n ~ i 
( 1 
d ) 
Aq ⎤ ⎥ 
n 
⎥ ⎦ 

u ˆ sd ( n + 1) = u ˆ 
sd ( 
n ) 
T s ⎡ ⎢ 
⎢ ⎣ 
C 1 
f ˆ i 
Ad ( 
n + 
1) − ˆ 
ω s ( n ) u ˆ sq ( 
n + 1) C − f 1 
sd ˆ i n ( 
) 
+ 2 k d Ad ~ i n ( 
) + 2 q k 
Aq ~ i n ( 
⎥ ⎦ ) ⎤ ⎥ 

ˆ i 
( u sq + 1) n = ˆ i 
( 
u ) sq + 
n T + ⎡ 1 s ⎢ ⎣ ˆ 
C f ( Aq + 1) 
n − 
ˆ ω ( 
s ) + sd ˆ ω ( n ˆ n ) i 
( ) C f + 
sq 1 
n ˆ 
( 2 q ) + Ad k n ~ i 
( 2 d ) − 
Aq k 
n ~ i ⎥ ⎦ ( ) ⎤ 

ˆ i 
sd ( 
n + 1) = 
ˆ i 
sd ( ) n + T 
s ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ 1 
L ′ s ˆ 
u sd ( 
n + 1) 
− 
1 1 i sd τ σ ˆ i ( n ) − ˆ 
( s ˆ n ) i sq ( 
n + 1) − 
L ′ s τ ω m r ( 
ψ n ) 
R n 3 d ˆ k ( ) + 
Ad ~ i n ( ) 
3 + q k 
Aq ~ i n ( ⎥ ⎦ 
) ⎤ 

sq 
n 
sq 
n s 
⎢ ⎣ 
L ′ s 
u 
sq 
n 
′ τ σ ⎡ 
sq ˆ n ω s 
sd 1 
n 
L ′ s ~ 
ψ n R ~ 3 
q 
Ad ⎤ n 
3 
d Aq 
n 
⎥ ⎦ 

ˆ 
( 
n 
+ 1) 
= 
ˆ 
( 
n 
) + T 
⎢ R 
i ( n + 
1) 
− 
ˆ 
( n ) + 
k i 
( n ) − k i 
( 
n 
) 
⎥ 

ψ 
R 
ψ R 
s 
⎣ 
R 
sd 
τ r ψ R 
4 d Ad 
4 q Aq 
⎦ 

ˆ 
~ 
~ 

ˆ ω s 
( n + 
1) 
= 
i sq 
( n 
+ 
1) R R 
+ 
k 4 
q 
i Ad ( 
n ) + k 4 d i 
Aq ( n ) 
+ ω m ( n ) 

ˆ
ψ
R
(
n +
1)
(13a)
(13b)
(13c)
(13d)
(13e)
(13f)
(13g)
(13h)
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