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030

1

Vector Control of an Induction Motor Fed by a PWM Inverter with Output LC Filter

Janne Salomäki and Jorma Luomi

Abstract — This paper introduces a control method for an in- duction motor that is supplied by a PWM voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A full-order observer is used to estimate the system states, and no additional voltage or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Simulation and experimental results are presented confirming the functionality of the proposed control method.

Index Terms — Vector control, induction motor, LC filter, ob- server.

I.

INTRODUCTION

T HE voltage generated by a PWM frequency converter con- sists of sharp-edged voltage pulses. Sudden alteration of

the voltage causes unwanted effects such as bearing currents and high voltage stresses in motor insulations. The oscillation

at the switching frequency causes additional losses and acous-

tic noise. These phenomena can be eliminated by adding an LC filter to the output of the PWM inverter. In addition, the EMI shielding of the motor cable may be avoided if the output voltage of the inverter is nearly sinusoidal. The control of an induction motor becomes more difficult if an LC filter is used. Usually, a very simple scalar control method (volts-per-hertz control) is chosen. Although better control performance is needed in many cases, only few publi- cations deal with the vector control of an induction motor fed

via an LC filter. A deadbeat controller has been used to control the inductor current and the capacitor voltage [1], the high- pass filtered stator voltage has been used to correct the voltage reference [2], and a multi-loop feedback controller has been proposed [3]. In these methods, extra current or voltage meas- urements are needed in addition to the phase current and dc voltage measurements usual in a frequency converter. A chal- lenge for the motor drive control design is to keep the number

of measurements low in order to obtain cost savings and reli-

ability improvements. In this paper, a method is presented for the vector control of

an induction motor fed by an inverter with an output LC filter.

A cascade control method is used to control the inverter cur-

rent, the stator voltage, the stator current and the rotor speed. The system states are estimated by a full-order observer.

The authors are with Helsinki University of Technology, Power Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland (e-mail:

II.

THEORY

The principle of the control system is shown in Fig. 1. The

inverter output voltage

induction motor (IM) is fed by the filtered voltage

inverter current

are the only measured

quantities, whereas the stator voltage

motor are estimated by an observer (the estimated quantities being marked by ‘^’). The system is controlled by nested con- trol loops in the rotor flux reference frame.

A. Filter and Motor Models

rotor, and the dc link voltage

A is filtered by an LC filter, and the

. The

of the

u

u

s

i

A

, the electrical angular speed

u

dc

u

s

ω

m

and current

i

s

of the

In a reference frame rotating at angular speed tions for the LC filter are

ω

s

, the equa-

d

i

d

A

t

=

j

ω

s

i

A

R

Lf

L

f

i

A

+

1 (

L

f

u

A

u

s

)

(1)

d

u

s

d

t

j

= − ω

s

u

s

+

1

C

f

(

i

A

i

s

)

(2)

where

the series resistance of

the inductor, and

The motor control is based on the inverse-Γ model of the induction motor in the rotor flux reference frame. The stator

and rotor voltage equations in this reference frame are

L

f

is the inductance and

R

Lf

C

f is the capacitance of the filter.

d ψ = R i + s + j ω ψ (3) u s s
d ψ
=
R i
+
s + j
ω ψ
(3)
u s
s
s
s
d t
s
d
ψ
R
0 =
R
i
+
+
j(
ω
ω
)
ψ
R
R
s
m
d
t
(4)
R
L
u
f
i
s
dc
IM
ω
m
i A C
u
f
s
u
A,ref
Observer
uˆ i
ˆ
s
s
+
+
+
PI
P
+ PI
PI
ω
i
u
i
m,ref
A ref
,
s ref
,
s ref
,

030

2

ψˆ ˆ i uˆ R s s ψ i R,ref + i sd ref ,
ψˆ
ˆ
i
R
s
s
ψ
i
R,ref
+ i
sd ref
,
A ref
,
u
+ u
+
+
s , ref
+
A,ref
+ +
+ +
ω
m,ref
+
+
+
+
i
sq ref
,
jL′
jC
f jL
s
f
ω
ˆ
m i
ωˆ
i
s
s
s
A
Motor Control
LC Filter Control

Fig. 2. Complex signal flow diagram of the cascade control.

are the stator and rotor flux

are the stator and rotor

is the

electrical angular speed of the rotor. The stator and rotor flux

respectively, where ψ

s

and ψ

R

R

s

and

R

R

linkages, respectively,

resistances, respectively,

i

R

is the rotor current, and

ω

m

linkages are

ψ

= (L

s s

+ L

M

(

ψ = L

R

M

)i

i

s

s

+ i

+ L

R

)

M

i

R (5)

(6)

respectively, where

is the magnetizing inductance. Based on (1)-(6), the

state-space representation of the system can be written as shown in (7) and (8) at the bottom of this page. The state vec-

tor is

, and the two time constants are

defined as

B. Cascade Control

Figure 2 illustrates the proposed cascade control of the sys- tem in the rotor flux reference frame. In the LC filter control,

and

denotes the stator transient inductance

L

s

i

L

M

x =

[

i

A

u

s

s

ψ

R

+ R

]

T

τ

σ

= L

s

/(

R

s

R

)

and τ

r

= L

M

/ R

R

.

means of a PI controller, and the stator voltage

by a P-type controller in the next control loop. In both control

loops, decoupling terms are used to compensate the cross-cou- plings caused by the rotating reference frame.

The motor control is based on vector control and forms two outermost loops of the cascade control. The stator current is

controlled by a PI-type controller with cross-coupling compen- sation, and the rotor speed is governed by a PI-controller. In

addition, a PI-type rotor flux controller is used.

C.

is governed

u

s

Observability

The observability of the system can be investigated using the observability matrix

M

o

= [C

CA

CA

2

CA

3

]

T

(9)

The system is observable if the rank of the observability matrix is equal to the number of states [4]. The observability was checked for various angular speeds of the rotor and the refer- ence frame, indicating that the system is observable.

the innermost control loop governs the inverter current

i

A

by

 

R

lf

 

1

   

j

ω

0

0

L

f

1

s

L

f

ω

 

1

 

0

1

L

 

j

s

 

f

x =

C

f

0

0

 

1

L

0

s

 

τ

1

σ

C

f

j

R

ω

s

1

L

s

1

1

τ

r

j

ω

m

x +

0

0

⎣ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎦

u

A

(7)

 

τ

r

j(

ω

s

ω

m

)

 
     

R

B

 
 

 
 

A

 

i

A

[

]x

(8)

= 1 0 0 0

C

030

3

Imaginary Axis (p.u)

D. Full-Order Observer

The most essential part of the control is a full-order ob-

server, which is implemented in the estimated rotor flux refer-

.

15 0.2 10 0.1 5 0 0 −5 −0.1 −10 −15 −0.2 −15 −10 −5
15
0.2
10
0.1
5
0
0
−5
−0.1
−10
−15
−0.2
−15 −10 −5
0
5
10
15
−0.2
−0.1
0
0.1
0.2
Real Axis (p.u)
Real Axis (p.u)
(a)
(b)
Imaginary Axis (p.u)

Fig. 3. Observer poles obtained by pole placement as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p.u. and slip frequency changes from –0.05 to 0.05 p.u.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.

15 0.2 10 0.1 5 0 0 −5 −0.1 −10 −15 −0.2 −15 −10 −5
15
0.2
10
0.1
5
0
0
−5
−0.1
−10
−15
−0.2
−15 −10 −5
0
5
10
15
−0.2
−0.1
0
0.1
0.2
Real Axis (p.u)
Real Axis (p.u)
(a)
(b)
Imaginary Axis (p.u)
Imaginary Axis (p.u)

Fig. 4. Observer poles obtained by constant gain as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p.u. and slip frequency changes from –0.05 to 0.05 p.u.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.

.

Thus the gain

verter current estimator, and it can be selected so that the esti- mator is at least twice as fast as the controller of the inverter current. Figure 4 illustrates the observer poles as the speed and the slip of the motor are varied. All poles stay in the left half-

where the last approximation holds if

k 1 is approximately the bandwidth of the in-

k

1

>> R

L + jω Lf f s
L
+ jω
Lf
f
s

plane, indicating that the observer is stable.

III. SIMULATION RESULTS

The behavior of the system was investigated by means of computer simulations with Matlab/Simulink software. The data of a 2.2-kW four-pole induction motor (400 V, 50 Hz), given

in Table I, were used for the simulations. The sampling fre- quency of 5 kHz was equal to the switching frequency. The LC

filter was designed to have a cutoff frequency of 566 Hz in or-

der to meet a rule of thumb that the cutoff frequency should be about one decade below the switching frequency and one dec- ade above the nominal fundamental frequency [7]. The funda- mental-frequency voltage drop in the filter inductance was chosen to be less than 5 % of the nominal voltage in the nomi-

nal operating point [8]. The filter parameters are also given in

Table I. The bandwidths of the controllers were 500 Hz for the

ence frame, i.e., in a reference frame where The observer is defined as

ˆ

ψ

R

=

x ˆ = Ax ˆ + Bu

A

+ K i

(

A

ˆ

i

A

)

ˆ

ψ

R

+ j0

(10)

where estimated states are marked by the symbol ‘^’ and

K = [k

1

k

2

k

3

k

4

]

T is the observer gain vector.

The digital implementation of the full-order observer based on the conventional forward Euler discretization causes insta- bility at higher speeds. Other alternatives, such as the back- ward Euler method or the bilinear transformation, hold the stability but are more complicated to implement. A simple

symmetric Euler method has been found to be an effective and reliable discretization method in electromechanical simulations [5] and full-order flux observers [6]. The corresponding dis- cretization of the full-order observer (10) is given in the Ap- pendix. The observer gain vector K can be selected in many ways. The selection can be based on the pole placement method, or a simple constant gain can be used, as will be presented in the following. 1) Pole placement: The dynamics of the estimation error

~

x

=

x

xˆ

are given by

~

x

=

(

A

~

KC x

)

(11)

In the pole placement method, the poles of the estimation error dynamics are placed to desired locations. Because the system model is time variant, the pole place- ment should be carried out at every calculation step. However, this would increase the computing time of the processor dra- matically. A practical solution is to use gain scheduling: the observer gain vector is calculated in advance as a function of the angular speed of the rotor, and interpolation between tabulated values is used during the operation. The poles also

depend on the angular slip frequency

estimated rotor flux reference frame is used. If the gains ob-

tained for no-load operation are used, the slip frequency af-

as the

ω

r

= ω ω

s

m

fects only the imaginary parts of the observer poles, as illus- trated in Fig. 3 for the example values used in the next sec-

in the pole place-

ment method does not cause stability problems. 2) Simple constant gain: The observer becomes relatively

T is se-

lected. By assuming that the estimated inverter current does not interact with the estimated stator voltage, the transfer function from the inverter current to its estimate can be written as

simple when the real-valued gain

tions. Therefore, the assumption of

ω

r

= 0

K = [k

1

0

0

0]

ˆ

i

i A s

)

A

(

(

s

s

)

=

k

1

+

R

Lf

0 K = [ k 1 0 0 0] ˆ i i A s ) A

L

f

+

j

ω s

+

k

1 s

k

+ k

1

,

(12)

1 inverter current, 250 Hz for the stator voltage, 150 Hz for the

030

4

TABLE I PARAMETERS OF THE MOTOR AND THE LC FILTER

Motor Parameters

Stator resistance

Rotor resistance

Stator transient inductance

Magnetizing inductance Total moment of inertia J

L

R

s

R

R

L

s

M

Rated speed

Rated current

Rated torque

n

N

I

N

T

N

LC Filter Parameters

Inductance

Capacitance

Series Resistance

L

f

C

f

R

Lf

3.67

1.65

0.0209 H

0.264 H

0.0155

1430 r/min

5.0

14.6 Nm

kgm

A

8.0

9.9 µ F

0.1

mH

2

stator current, 15 Hz for the rotor speed, and 3 Hz for the rotor flux. The poles of the observer were set to (–7.1 ± 11.8) p.u., 2.7 p.u. and –0.02 p.u., the base value of the angular fre- quency being 2π 50 rad/s . The reference value of the inverter

was used in the observer and control instead of

voltage

u

A ref

,

u A

.

Figure 5 shows an example of simulated sequences, con- sisting of accelerations, nominal load torque steps at various speeds, and a deceleration ramp to standstill. The results show that the operation of the system is successful. The rotor speed is in accordance with its reference, and the torque behaves as expected. The rotor flux linkage is reduced by 15 % at the highest speed because of field weakening. The voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig. 6. The stator voltage and current are nearly sinusoidal.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The experimental setup is illustrated in Fig. 7. The 2.2-kW four-pole induction motor was fed by a frequency converter controlled by a dSPACE DS1103 PPC/DSP board. The pa- rameters of the experimental setup correspond to those given in Table I. Three 3.3-µ F filter capacitors were used in delta connection, giving the per-phase capacitance value of 9.9 µ F. The measured rotor speed was used as a feedback signal for the control. The shaft torque was measured using a HBM T10F torque flange for monitoring purposes. A permanent magnet servo motor was used to provide load torque. Figure 8 presents experimental results corresponding to the simulations shown in Fig. 5. Constant motor parameters were used in the observer and control. The measured performance corresponds to the simulation results rather well. The total moment of inertia of the setup was 2.2 times the inertia of the induction motor, which explains a large part of the difference between the measured shaft torque and the electromagnetic torque reference during the accelerations. However, the elec- tromagnetic torque reference is far too high in no-load opera- tion at the highest speed, at which the main flux saturation has decreased because of the field weakening. Therefore, the measured saturation characteristic of the magnetizing induc- tance was added to the observer and control. The correspond-

1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 1 0 0 2 4
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
1
0.5
0
ψ R (p.u.)
T/T N
ω m (p.u.)
0 2 4 6 8 10 t (s) Fig. 5. Simulation results showing a sequence
0 2
4
6
8
10
t (s)
Fig. 5. Simulation results showing a sequence with speed and load changes.
The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). The
second subplot shows the electromagnetic torque (solid) and its reference
(dashed) normalized by the rated torque
T
. The third subplot shows the
N
rotor flux linkage (solid) and its estimate (dashed).
500
0
-500
4.6
4.61
4.62
4.63
4.64
4.65
4.66
4.67
4.68
10
5
0
-5
-10
4.6 4.61
4.62
4.63
4.64
4.65
4.66
4.67
4.68
Current (A)
Voltage (V)

Time (s)

Fig. 6. Voltage and current waveforms from the simulation shown in Fig. 5. The first
Fig. 6. Voltage and current waveforms from the simulation shown in Fig. 5.
The first subplot shows the inverter output voltage (phase-to-phase) and the
stator voltage (phase-to-phase). The second subplot shows the inverter current
and the stator current.
Freq.
PM
Freq.
LC filter
IM
converter
servo
converter
Speed
Torque

dSPACE

Fig. 7. Experimental setup. Control of induction motor (IM) is investigated, and permanent magnet (PM) servo motor is used as loading machine. Meas- ured shaft torque is used only for monitoring.

ing experimental results are shown in Fig. 9, and the measured voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig. 10. The results are in good agreement with the simulation re- sults when the main flux saturation is taken into account.

030

1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 1 0 0 2 4
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
1
0.5
0
0 2
4
6
8
10
ψ R (p.u.)
T/T N
ω m (p.u.)

t (s)

Fig. 8. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and constant motor parameters are used in observer and control. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). The second subplot shows the measured shaft torque (solid) and the electromagnetic torque reference (dashed). The third subplot shows the rotor flux reference (solid) and the estimated rotor flux (dashed).

1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 1 0 0 2 4
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
1
0.5
0
0 2
4
6
8
10
ψ R (p.u.)
T/T N
ω m (p.u.)

t (s)

Fig. 9. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and main flux saturation is taken into account. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig. 8.

Experiments were also carried out using an observer with a

constant gain

taken into account in the observer and control. The results are

shown in Fig. 11. The performance is nearly equal to that of the more complicated observer.

1 . The main flux saturation was

k

1

=

2

π

1000 s

V.

CONCLUSIONS

When the inverter output voltage is filtered by an LC-filter, the vector control of an induction motor can be based on nested control loops. The system states can be estimated by a full-order observer, requiring only the measurements of in- verter current, dc voltage, and rotor speed. Simulation and

5 500 0 -500 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 10 5
5
500
0
-500
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
10
5
0
-5
-10
0 0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
Current (A)
Voltage (V)

Time (s)

Fig. 10. Experimental result showing voltage and current waveforms as the rotation speed is 25 Hz and the load torque is 14.6 Nm. The first subplot shows the inverter output voltage (phase-to-phase) and the stator voltage (phase-to-phase). The second subplot shows the inverter current and the stator current.

1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 1 0 0 2 4
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
1
0.5
0
0 2
4
6
8
10
ψ R (p.u.)
T/T N
ω m (p.u.)

t (s)

Fig. 11. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as the observer gain is constant. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig. 8.

experimental results show that the proposed control method operates correctly. The observer gain can be selected by means of pole placement, or a constant gain can be used.

REFERENCES

[1]

M. Kojima, K. Hirabayashi, Y. Kawabata, E.C. Ejiogu, and T.

[2]

Kawabata, “Novel vector control system using deadbeat controlled PWM inverter with output LC filter,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE/IAS Annu. Meeting, vol. 3, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2002, pp. 2102-2109. A. Nabae, H. Nakano, and Y. Okamura, “A novel control strategy of the

[3]

inverter with sinusoidal voltage and current outputs,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’94, vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, June 1994, pp. 154-159. R. Seliga and W. Koczara, “Multiloop feedback control strategy in sine-

[4]

wave voltage inverter for an adjustable speed cage induction motor drive system”, in Proc. EPE 2001, Graz, Austria, Aug. 2001, CD-ROM. G.F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, and A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of

[5]

Dynamic Systems, 4 th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002. J. Niiranen, “Fast and accurate symmetric Euler algorithm for electro- mechanical simulations,” in Proc. Electrimacs’99, Lisboa, Portugal, Sept. 1999, pp. 71-78.

030

6

[6]

M. Hinkkanen and J. Luomi, “Parameter sensitivity of full-order flux

TA2/4.3.

[7]

observers for induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat. vol. 39, July/Aug. 2003, pp. 1127-1135 J. Steinke, C. Stulz, and P. Pohjalainen, “Use of a LC filter to achieve a

motor friendly performance of the PWM voltage source inverter,” in Proc. IEEE IEMDC’97, Milwaukee, WI, May 1997, pp. TA2/4.1-

[8]

C. Xiyou, Y. Bin, and G. Yu, “The engineering design and the optimiza- tion of inverter output RLC filter in AC motor drive system,” in Proc. IEEE IECON'02, vol. 1, Sevilla, Spain, Nov. 2002, pp. 175-180.

APPENDIX DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION

The full-order observer (10) is discretized using the sym- metric Euler method [5]. In contrast to the forward Euler

method, the new state values are used when available. The discretized observer is given below in (13), where the sample

time is denoted by

T

s

.

 

ˆ

i

(

+

1)

=

ˆ

i

(

)

+

 

T

R

Lf

 

ˆ

i

(

)

+

ˆ

(

ˆ

n ) i

)

1

ˆ

(

)

+

1

(

)

+

k

~

i

(

)

k

~

i

(

)

 

ˆ

i

Ad

(

n

+

1)

=

ˆ

i

Ad

(

n

)

+

T

s

R

L

Lf

f

ˆ

i

 

Ad

(

n

)

ˆ

ω

s

(

ˆ

n ) i

Aq

(

(

n

+

1)

L

f

1

u

sd

ˆ

n

(

)

L

+

f

1

u

Ad

n

(

)

+

1

d

k

Ad

~

i

n

(

)

+

1

q

k

 

Aq

~

i

n

(

)

Aq

n

ˆ

(

Aq

+

n

1)

=

ˆ

s

(

)

L

+

f

T

Aq

1

n

ˆ

i

ω

s

(

+

1)

Ad

+

ˆ

n

(

n ) u ˆ

L

(

f

)

u

sq

1

n

ˆ

i

L

(

f

)

u

+

Aq

k

n

~

i

(

1

)

q

Ad

k

n

~

i

(

1

d

)

Aq

n

 

u

ˆ

sd

(

n

+

1)

=

u

ˆ

sd

(

n

)

T

s

C

1

f

ˆ

i

Ad

(

n

+

1)

ˆ

ω

s

(

n ) u ˆ

sq

(

n

+

1)

C

f

1

sd

ˆ

i

n

(

)

+

2

k

d

Ad

~

i

n

(

)

+

2

q

k

Aq

~

i

n

(

)

 

ˆ

i

(

u

sq

+

1)

n

=

ˆ

i

(

u

)

sq

+

n

T

+

1

s

ˆ

C

f

(

Aq

+

1)

n

ˆ

ω

(

s

) +

sd

ˆ

ω

(

n

ˆ

n ) i

(

)

C

f

+

sq

1

n

ˆ

(

2

q

) +

Ad

k

n

~

i

(

2

d

)

Aq

k

n

~

i

(

)

 

ˆ

i

sd

(

n

+

1)

=

ˆ

i

sd

(

)

n

+

T

s

1

L

s

ˆ

u

sd

(

n

+

1)

1

1 i

sd

τ σ

ˆ

i

(

n

)

ˆ

(

s

ˆ

n ) i

sq

(

n

+

1)

L

s

τ

ω

m

r

(

ψ

n

)

R

n

3

d

ˆ k

(

) +

Ad

~

i

n

(

)

3

+

q

k

Aq

~

i

n

(

)

sq

n

 

sq

n

s

L

s

u

sq

n

 

τ σ

 

sq

ˆ

n

ω

s

 

sd

1

n

L

s

~

ψ n

R

~

3

q

Ad

n

 

3

d

Aq

n

 

ˆ

(

n

+

1)

=

ˆ

(

n

)

+

T

R

 

i

(

n

+

1)

ˆ

(

n

)

+

k

i

(

n

)

k

i

(

n

)

ψ

R

ψ

R

 

s

R

sd

 

τ

r

ψ

R

4

d

Ad

4

q

Aq

 

ˆ

~

~

 

ˆ

ω

s

(

n +

1)

=

i

sq

(

n

+

1)

R

R

+

k

4

q

i

Ad

(

n

)

+

k

4

d

i

Aq

(

n

)

+ ω

m

(

n

)

 
 

ˆ

ψ

R

(

n +

1)

(13a)

(13b)

(13c)

(13d)

(13e)

(13f)

(13g)

(13h)