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Drive Test Introduction

Prepared by
Mohamed Samy Sr.RNO Engineer
Mob: 01220770244
E-mail: Mhm_Smy@yahoo.com
Drive Test Introduction

Course Agenda
1. Sites types.

2. Antenna Tilt & Azimuth.

3. Drive Test Tools

4. TEMS Windows
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Palm Tree Site Green Field Site


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The different types of sites

Cow Site Monopole Site


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Micro Indoor site Micro outdoor Site


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Antenna Tilting
Antenna Tilting: Direction of the antenna vertical beam.

Types of tilting:

- No Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed towards the horizon.
- Down Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed lower the horizon.
- Up Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed above the horizon.

Types of Tilting:
1) Mechanical Tilting 2)Electrical Tilting:
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What is the better, Mechanical tilting or Electrical tilting …????

1) Mechanical tilting :

-With mechanical down tilting, the main beam will be down tilted but the back lobe will be
up tilted that make interference. - With mechanical tilting you can’t change the tilt of one
band alone.

2) Electrical tilting :

- With electrical down tilting, the main beam will be down tilted but the back lobe will not
be up tilted so back lobe interference decreased. - With electrical tilting you can change the
tilt of any band alone. So Electrical Tilting is better than Mechanical Tilting
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Drive test tools


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What we need to make Drive Test


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Drive Test Software


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2G ( TEMS Windows )
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GSM Current channel

Time: Computer system time Cell Name: Serving cell name


CGI: Cell global identity Cell GPRS support: Yes or No
[MCC MNC , LAC , CI ]
- MCC: Mobile Country Code Band: 900 / 900E / 1800
- MNC: Mobile network Code
- LAC: Location Area code BCCH ARFCN: BCCH frequency
- CI: Cell Identity
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TCH ARFCN: The Frequency that carry Traffic only.
BSIC: Base Station Identity Code
Channel Type: BCCH or TCH
Mode: idle / dedicated
Time Slot: Current time slot
Channel Codec: FR: Full rate HR: Half rate AMR: adaptive multi rate
Ciphering Algorithm: A5/1 for example.
Sub Channel Number: SDCCH is divided into 8 sub channels
Hopping Channel: Yes / No on the cell level.
Hopping Frequencies: Frequencies allocated in the hopping group.
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Number): On which frequencies call will start.
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GSM Serving + Neighbors

Cell Name: Name of the serving cell and neighbor cells


BSIC: Base Station Identity Code BSIC
ARFCN: Absolute Radio Frequency Number >> BCCH Carrier of the cell
Rx lev: Received signal strength - signal strength measured by the MS (dbm).
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GSM Radio Parameters

Rx lev: Measured signal strength


Rx Qual: Voice quality (0 > 7) depend on BER (bit error rate)
FER (Frame Erasure Rate): Percentage of frames being dropped
BER actual: (Number of bit errors / Number of bit transmitted)
SQI: Speech Quality Index
MS Power control level: Power control,depend on network design.
DTX: Discontinuous Transmission.
TA: Timing advance (0 > 63)
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GSM Hopping Channel & GPS

ARFCN: Traffic carriers. Latitude & Longitude  coordinates


Rx Lev: measured signal strength of each Satellites  No. of served Satellites
carrier. Speed  The velocity of the car
C/I: Carrier to Interference ration
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How to open the 2G useful windows
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Map Window

This window let you see the real sites and your current position and you can add other
map layers to give you more accurate view.
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How to open Map window and GPS window
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Events

It includes events such as: Call attempt, call established, call end, handover, dropped
call, and blocked call.
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Cell File
What is the cell file and how to load it on the TEMS
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Cell file loading on TEMS
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Cell file with Google earth form
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DT tools connection
1) At first you should define the mobile to computer as a hardware
2) Then you will see the mobile on TEMS with this shape in the Equipment configuration window

3) After that press the green box to connect all the tools

4) After that you will hear (Mobile Connected & Mobile connected & GPS Connected), you will find that the
Equipment configuration window converted to this window
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Mobile properties

We can make RAT control to mobile to force it on any selected band (UMTS, GSM)
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Mobile properties

Also we can force the mobile from this window to lock on GSM 900 or GSM 1800 (DCS)
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Types of Drive Test


Single Site Verification test.

Cluster Test.

Main Road Test.

Benchmarking Tset

SWAP test.
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Types of Drive Test


 Single Site Verification Test.
• There are two kinds of single site verification tests:

2G verification.
- Checking the handover between the sectors of the site.
- Checking the handover (in & out) with the neighbors of the site.
- Checking the coverage of each sector.
- Checking cross feeder.
-Checking the capability to access on the internet
-Checking the capability to download files to view the GPRS rate. (Optional)
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Types of Drive Test
Example on Single Site Verification Test
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Types of Drive Test


 Cluster Test.

• This test is mainly achieved using two mobiles for 2G&3G.


• For checking retain ability the command sequence is adjusted as follow:
- infinity number of minutes.
-call wait 10 to 15 sec.

• For checking accessibility the command sequence is adjusted as follow:


- 2 minutes per call.
- call wait 10 to 15 sec.
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Types of Drive Test
Example on cluster Drive Test (Aswan City)
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Types of Drive Test


 Benchmarking Test.

• This test is mainly used to compare between the quality of service of each
operator.
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Types of Drive Test


Example on Benchmarking Drive Test (Aswan international road)
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Types of Drive Test


 Main Roads Drive Test.

• This test is mainly used to Avoid VIP complains and enhance the service in the
important areas.
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Types of Drive Test


Example on Main Roads Drive Test (26th July Bridge)
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Types of Drive Test


 SWAP Test.

• This test is mainly used in case of SWAP from vendor to vendor for one
operator.
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Types of Drive Test


Example on SWAP Test
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2G Field Problems
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2G Field Problems
1. Cross sector
2. Cross feeder
3. HO Failures.
4. Missing Neighbors.
5. Dropped calls.
6. Blocked calls.
7. Overshooting
8. Hardware problem
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Cross sector
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There are 3 types of Cross sector


1- GSM cross sector
2- DCS cross sector
3- Total cross sector (GSM & DCS) cross sector
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1-Cross sector

This is the normal connection


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GSM & DCS cross sector

GSM & DCS cross (Total cross)


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GSM & DCS cross sector

DCS cross
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GSM & DCS cross sector

GSM cross
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EX: GSM cross sector

Sector 3 serve beside sec 1 and vice versa  Cross sector between sec 1 & sec 3 GSM
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After solving the cross sector

Sector 3 serve beside sec 1 and vice versa  Cross sector between sec 1 & sec 3 GSM
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Cross feeder
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2-Cross feeder

GSM cross feeder


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2-Cross feeder

DCS cross feeder


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EX: GSM cross feeder

Sector 2 & sector 3 appeared with equal levels beside sector 2  cross feeder
between sector 2 & sector 3
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After solving the cross feeder

Sector 2 & sector 3 appeared with equal levels beside sector 2  cross feeder
between sector 2 & sector 3
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Missing Neighbors
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HO failure
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2G Field Problems
1. HO Failure reasons.
 Interference on Target Cell.

 Interference on Serving Cell.

 Bad Rxlev on Target Cell.

 Bad Rxlev on Serving Cell.


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HO failure due to Bad quality on the target cell (Co-channel interference)
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HO failure due to Bad quality on the target cell (Adjacent-channel interference)
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HO failure due to Bad quality on the serving cell
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HO failure due to Bad Rxlev on the serving cell
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Dropped call
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3. Dropped call reasons.
 Delayed HO  Congestion or wrong HO parameter definition.

 HO Failure.

 Bad Quality.

 Missing neighbor (Bad Rx level).

 Transmission problem (Not RF problem)


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Dropped call due to delayed HO
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Dropped call due HO failure & Bad quality
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Dropped call due to Missing neighbor (Bad Rx level).
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Dropped call due to Missing neighbor (Bad Rx level).
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Dropped call due to Transmission problem (Not RF problem)
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Blocked call
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4. Blocked call reasons.
 No available TCH

 No available SDCCH

 Bad Rxlev.

 Bad Quality
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Blocked call due to No traffic channel Assignment (No TCH)
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Blocked call due to No Immediate Assignment (No SDCCH)
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Blocked call due to Bad Rxlev & Bad Qual
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Overshooting
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Overshooting cell
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Hardware problem
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Hardware problem
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Thank you

Best Regards,
Mohamed Samy