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SERV1837-01

June 2008

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

C4.2/C6.4 AND C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™


ENGINES
WITH COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM
MACHINE APPLICATIONS

Service Training Meeting Guide


(STMG)
C4.2/C6.4 AND C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™
ENGINES
WITH COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM
MACHINE APPLICATIONS

AUDIENCE

Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of machine system operation,
diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT

This presentation provides an introduction and describes the components, systems operation,
maintenance, and testing and adjusting procedures for the C4.2/C6.4 and the C4.4/C6.6
ACERT™ engines used in Caterpillar machines. This presentation may also be used for
self-paced and for self-directed learning.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the technician will be able to:
1. identify the safety and contamination control requirements of the C4.2/C6.4 and the
C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines! and
2. identify the common components and explain the operation of the common rail fuel
system in the C4.2/C6.4 and the C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines! and
3. troubleshoot problems in the C4.2/C6.4 and the C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines.

REFERENCES

"C4.4/C6.6 Awareness and Service Self Study Course" SERV7037

PREREQUISITES

"Fundamentals of Electrical Systems Self Study Course" TEMV3004


"Fundamentals of Engines Self Study Course" TEMV3001

Estimated Time:
Illustrations: 67 4 Hours
Handouts: 22
Form: SERV1837-01
Date: 6/08

© 2008 Cat erpillar Inc.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................5
C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ Engines.................................................................................................9
C4.2/C6.4 ACERT™ Engines...............................................................................................13

MAINTENANCE .......................................................................................................................17
Contamination Control..........................................................................................................17
Safety ....................................................................................................................................18
General Service Procedures ..................................................................................................20
Maintenance Intervals...........................................................................................................22

COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM ............................................................................................23


Low Pressure Fuel Circuit ....................................................................................................23
High Pressure Fuel Circuit....................................................................................................25

C4.4/C6.6 ENGINE COMPONENTS AND OPERATION .......................................................32


Fuelsystem .................................................................................................................... .......32
Air inlet system.....................................................................................................................42
Electricalsystem .............................................................................................................. .....46
DemandFan ..................................................................................................................... .....55
ReversingFan .................................................................................................................. .....57

C4.2/C6.4 ENGINE COMPONENTS AND OPERATION .......................................................58


Fuelsystem .................................................................................................................... .......58
Air inlet system.....................................................................................................................65
Electricalsystem .............................................................................................................. .....68

ENGINE DIAGNOSTICS..........................................................................................................75
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET) ..........................................................................75
Monitoring Systems..............................................................................................................83

CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................................85

VISUAL LIST.............................................................................................................................86

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE ..........................................................................87

HANDOUTS...............................................................................................................................88
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NOTES
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C4.2/C6.4 AND C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ ENGINES


WITH COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM
MACHINE APPLICATIONS

© 2008 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION

This presentation covers the components, systems operation, and testing and adjusting
procedures for the C4.2/C6.4 and the C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines.

The C4.2 and C6.4 ACERT™ engines are the same design and the C4.4 and C6.6 ACERT™
engines are the same design. All the engines use a common rail fuel system.

The C4.2 and the C.4.4 ACERT™ engines are inline four cylinder engines with 4.2 and 4.4 liter
displacements. The C6.4 and the C.6.6 ACERT™ engines are inline six cylinder engines with
6.4 and 6.6 liter displacements.

The common rail fuel system includes an electronically controlled high pressure fuel injection
pump, a fuel manifold, and electronically controlled injectors.

The A4-E2 Engine ECM controls the pump solenoid, which controls the injection pump fuel
flow through the high pressure pipes to the injectors. The Engine ECM also controls the
ON/OFF fuel injector solenoids.

NOTE: This presentation can be used to supplement machine training and covers the
common engine components on the C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines. This
presentation may not cover all engine components that may be installed on specific
machine applications.
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NOTE: Additional C4.4/C6.6 engine training including disassembly, testing, adjusting,


and diagnostics is available by attending the "3000 Series C6.6/C4.4 Engine with
ACERT™ Technology" currently offered in Peoria, IL and Malaga, Spain.
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Some of the C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 ACERT engine features are:

- The high pressure fuel pump is controlled by the Engine ECM and provides high pressure
fuel to the injectors.

- The electronically controlled injectors are controlled by the ECM to inject high pressure
fuel into the combustion chamber.

- The cylinder head includes 4 valves per cylinder.

- The engine block includes a scalloped crank case with extra ribbing, which provides a
more ridged structure with a lower noise attenuation (sound absorption).

- The aluminum pistons have improve d oil control.

- The A4-E2 Engine ECM controls fuel pressure, speed governing, air/fuel ratio, engine
start/stop strategy, and provides diagnostics.

- A smart wastegate controls boost pressure throughout the operating range of the engine
(C4.4/C6.6 only).
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- The common rail fuel system allows tight control of injection events and optimizes engine
performance across all load and speed ranges. The common rail system reduces
combustion noise, and NOx and PM emissions.
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C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ Engines

The C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines meet U.S . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier III
Emissions Regulations for the North America market and Stage IIIa European Emissions
Regulations.

These ACERT engines are being targeted for machine applications where new or upgraded
models will meet the latest emissions regulations. These include small and medium:

- Track-type tractors

- Wheel loaders

- Track loaders

- Underground loaders

- Wheeled excavators

- Paving products

- Motor graders

- Backhoe loaders

Many of these machines will be common to the rental market.


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- Configuration: Four cylinders inline, 16-valve crossflow cylinder head

- Fuel System: Direct injection, common rail

- Aspiration: Turbocharged/Turbo-ATAAC

- ECM: A4E2

- Gross power: 62 - 106 bkW (83 - 142 bhp) @ 2200 rpm

- Displacement: 4.4 liter (269 in 3)

- Bore: 105 mm (4.13 in.)

- Stroke: 127 mm (5 in.)

- Compression ratio: 16.2:1

Basic machine specifications for the C6.6 engine are:

- Configuration: Six cylinders inline, 24-valve crossflow cylinder head

- Fuel System: Direct injection, common rail

- Aspiration: Turbo-ATAAC

- ECM: A4E2

- Gross power: 89 - 205 bkW (119 - 275 bhp) @ 1800 - 2500 rpm

- Displacement: 6.6 liter (402.8 in 3)

- Bore: 105 mm (4.13 in.)

- Stroke: 127 mm (5 in.)

- Compression ratio: 16.2:1


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2
6
5

3
7 1

This illustration shows an overhead view of the C6.6 engine cylinder head with the rocker cover
removed.

The C4.4 and C6.6 are four valve per cylinder engines with the valves arranged in an
intake-exhaust manner from the front of the cylinder head to the rear. Intake valves are actuated
by the long rocker arm (1) which presses down the intake valve bridge (2) and unseats the intake
valve pair. Short exhaust rocker arms (3) are used to depress the exhaust valve bridge (4) and
open the exhaust valves.

The electronic fuel injector (5) is centrally located between the intake and exhaust valve pairs
for each cylinder. The Engine ECM will control the duration and timing of the fuel injector in
relation to sensor inputs to achieve maximum fuel efficiency emissions compliance.

A large rubber boot (6) seals the opening in the valve cover base where the high pressure fuel
injector supply line passes through the base and connects to the fuel injector.

The cylinder head features a "crossflow" design where the intake air enters the left side of the
cylinder head and the exhaust gasses exit the right side through the exhaust manifold (7).
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The C4.4 and C6.6 engines are designed with most major service points located on the left side
of the engine. This illustration of a C6.6 engine in a D6N Track-type Tractor shows the
locations of key engine components:

- Fuel injection pump (1)


- Secondary fuel filter (2)
- Primary fuel filter (3)
- Safeguard (tertiary or third) fuel filter (4)
- Oil filter (5)
- Oil fill cap (6)
- Oil dipstick (7)
- Fuel manifold (8)
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C4.2/C6.4 ACERT™ Engines

The C4.2/C6.4 ACERT™ engines meet U.S . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier III
Emissions Regulations for the North America market and Stage IIIa European Emissions
Regulations.

These ACERT engines are being targeted for machine applications where new or upgraded
models will meet the latest emissions regulations. These include small and medium excavators.

Basic machine specifications for the C4.2 engine are:

- Configuration: Four cylinders inline, 16-valve crossflow cylinder head

- Fuel System: Direct injection, common rail

- Aspiration: Turbo-ATAAC

- ECM: A4E2

- Rated power: 91 - 98 kW (122 - 131 hp) @ 1700 - 2200 rpm

- Displacement: 4.2 liter (256 in3)

- Bore: 102 mm (4.02 in.)

- Stroke: 130 mm (5.12 in.)

- Compression ratio: 16.5:1


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- Configuration: Six cylinders inline, 24-valve crossflow cylinder head

- Fuel System: Direct injection, common rail

- Aspiration: Turbo-ATAAC

- ECM: A4E2

- Rated power: 110 - 117 kW (148 - 157 hp) @ 1800 rpm


- Displacement: 6.4 liter (389 in 3)

- Bore: 102 mm (4.02 in.)

- Stroke: 130 mm (5.12 in.)

- Compression ratio: 17.7:1

NOTE: The C4.2 and C6.4 engines use a 24 Volt system.


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3 1

5 2
6

This illustration shows an overhead view of the C6.4 engine cylinder head with the rocker cover
removed.

The C4.2 and C6.4 are four valve per cylinder engines with the valves arranged in an
exhaust-intake manner from the front of the cylinder head to the rear. Exhaust valves are
actuated by the short rocker arm (1) which presses down the exhaust valve bridge (2) and
unseats the exhaust valve pair. Long intake rocker arms (3) are used to depress the intake valve
bridge (4) and open the intake valves.

The electronic fuel injector (5) is centrally located between the intake and exhaust valve pairs
for each cylinder. The Engine ECM will control the duration and timing of the fuel injector in
relation to sensor inputs to achieve maximum fuel efficiency emissions compliance.

A large rubber boot (6) seals the opening in the valve cover base where the high pressure fuel
injector supply line passes through the base and connects to the fuel injector.

The cylinder head features a "crossflow" design where the intake air enters the right side of the
cylinder head and the exhaust gasses exit the left side through the exhaust manifold (7).
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6
4

5
3

7 2

The C4.2 and C6.4 engines are designed with most major service points located on the right side
of the engine. This illustration of a C6.4 engine shows the locations of key engine components:

- fuel injection pump (1)


- secondary fuel filter (2)
- fuel priming pump (3)
- oil fill cap (4)
- oil dipstick (5)
- engine breather (6)
- Engine ECM (7): The Engine ECM is not mounted on the C4.2 engine, but is remotely
located.

NOTE: The tertiary (third) filter (not shown) is located to rear of the oil dipstick. The
oil filter is located remotely from the engine.
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MAINTENANCE

Contamination Control

Contamination control is critical with the common rail fuel system. Very high pressures require
close tolerances in the fuel injection pump and injectors. It is important that technicians pay
close attention to cleanliness and contamination control during even the most routine
maintenance.

Contamination can cause injector failure, high leakoff rates, and pump failure. Keep
workbenches uncluttered and free of debris. Sweep the floors daily and clean up spills
immediately. Avoid performing engine maintenance outdoors, especially in windy or dusty
conditions.

Keep components in their srcinal packaging until ready to install and inspect packaging to
ensure components are still sealed and free of dirt or damage. During routine filter changes,
have the replacement filters ready to install to minimize exposure to contaminants. Do not
pre-fill fuel filters. If fuel filters are pre-filled fuel system failure will occur.

High pressure fuel lines are single use items and must be replaced after unseating any bolt. The

unseating.rail
common Do fittings/ports
not remove and the injector
the caps from newfittings/ports
components must bejust
until capped immediately
before the fittingsafter
are
tightened.

Fuel purity is critical to engine performance and fuel system integrity. Only use fuel that has
been properly stored or transported in clean containers. Only use good quality fuel that is clean
and free of water.
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10

Safety

Fuel pressures between the injection pump and fuel injectors can reach 160 Mpa (23,200 psi), so
specific safety procedures must be carefully followed.

In spite of the high pressure, once the engine has been shut down, fuel rail pressure is reduced to
zero within 60 seconds. If a fuel leak is suspected, do not check the fittings or fuel pipes unless
the engine is OFF and the pressure has had time to neutralize.

The common rail fuel system is a self-bleeding fuel system that doesn’t require air to be purged
from the system. Fuel pipes should be left untouched and fittings should remain torqued at the
specified settings. Once a fitting has been loosened, the entire fuel pipe must be replaced with a
new part to ensure proper seating and safe, leak-free performance.
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WARNING

Never loosen or open a high pressure fuel line while cranking or running a Common Rail
fuel system engine. Common Rail fuel systems operate at extremelyhigh pressures often
in excess of 160 MPa (23,200 PSI). Extreme care should also betaken before disassembly
of any high pressure fuel system components after an engine shutdown. Refer to the
appropriate service information before performing any service on the high pressure fuel

system components.
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11

General Service Procedures

When working on the common rail system, all high pressure pipes are single use. Once pipes
are removed, they cannot be reused. New pipes must be handled carefully and not bent in any
way. If a sealing cap is not on each end of the pipe when a new pipe is removed from the
packaging, it must not be used.

Do not use compressed air or solvent to clean any fuel system components. Do not remove
components from the packaging until ready to install.

All fittings must be torqued to the correct specification. If a leak occurs, replace the pipe with
new pipe. When installing a new pipe, be sure to leave the caps in place on both ends until the
fittings are ready to be tightened.

The rubber boots that seal the valve cover opening are also single use parts.

Any retaining clips that are removed should be replaced with new clips to ensure they fasten
properly. During reassembly, be sure the clips are placed in the proper locations to prevent
vibration and potential leaks from occurring.
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1

4
3

12

The C4.4/C6.6 engines use a new "quick-connect" type of fuel fitting (1) on the low pressure
side of the system. These fittings can be removed and installed without using any special tools.

To remove the fuel line connector, depress the lock release tab (2) on the fuel line fitting. The
release tab is the narrow tab near the open end of the fitting. Light finger pressure is normally
all that is required to depress the tab.

With the tab fully depressed, gently push the fitting away from the mating nipple (3). It may be
necessary to slightly rotate the fitting while pushing it straight off the nipple to break the seal in
the fitting. If the fitting will not slip off the nipple, make sure that the lock tab is fully
depressed.

With the fitting removed, the quick connect nipple is now visible in the lower right photo. Also
visible in this photo is the o-ring type seal (4) used in the fuel line fitting.

To reinstall the fitting, simply push the fitting straight on to the nipple until an audible "click" is
heard. Gently pull on the fitting after reinstalling to make sure that the lock tab is engaged on
the nipple.

NOTE: The new "quick connect" fittings are serviced as a fuel line assembly only. If the
fitting or the fuel line become damaged or they start to leak, a new fuel line assembly
must be installed.
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13

Maintenance Intervals

For S•O•S fluid sampling, engine oil analysis should be taken every 250 service hours.
Conventional heavy duty coolant/antifreeze that meets Cat EC-1 specs should have Level 1
samples every 250 hours. For extended life coolant (ELC), Level 1 analysis is optional. Level 2
analysis should be performed yearly for all coolant types.

Every 500 hours, the oil and oil filter should be changed. Air filter service differs by air cleaner
design. On a dual element air cleaner, the primary element can be cleaned up to six times, but
should be replaced at least once a year. Secondary air elements cannot be cleaned and should be
replaced after every three cleanings of the primary element. The crankcase breather, along with
the primary and secondary fuel filters, should also be replaced every 500 service hours.

The tertiary (third) fuel filter should be replaced every 2000 service hours.

Engine valve lash should be checked and adjusted after the initial 500 hours, but thereafter every
1000 hours.

Engine load factor, sulfur levels in the fuel, oil quality, and altitude may negatively affect the
extended oil change intervals.

NOTE: The maintenance intervals listed are typical maintenance intervals. Refer to the
specific machine operation and maintenance manual when performing maintenance on
the C4.4, C6.6, C4.2, or C6.4 engine.
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14

COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM

Low Pressure Fuel Circuit

The common rail fuel system includes a low pressure fuel circuit and a high pressure fuel circuit.
This schematic shows the fuel flow through the low pressure fuel circuit.

The low pressure fuel circuit supplies filtered fuel to the fuel injection pump at a constant rate.
The low pressure fuel circuit is also utilized to cool the Engine ECM. The low pressure fuel
circuit consists of the following major components that are used to deliver low pressure fuel at
approximately 296 - 400 kPa (43 - 58 psi) to the fuel injection pump:

- Primary fuel filter (10 or 20 Micron)

- Secondary fuel filter (hig h efficiency)


- Tertiary (third) fuel filter (high efficiency) (installed on most applications)

- Fuel tank

- Supply lines and return lines deliver the fuel to the different components.
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- Fuel transfer pump pulls fuel from the tank and supplies the fuel to the fuel injection
pump. The transfer pump includes two orifices that control the pressure in the low
pressure fuel circuit.

- Fuel priming pump (electric or manual) is used to evacuate the air from the fuel system.
As the air is removed the system fills with fuel.

In the C4.4/C6.6 engines, the fuel transfer pump pulls fuel from the tank through the priming
pump and primary fuel filter and sends the fuel through the Engine ECM, the secondary and

tertiary (third) filter to the high pressure fuel injection pump.


In the C4.2/C6.4 engines, the fuel transfer pump pulls fuel from the tank through the primary
fuel filter and the Engine ECM and sends the fuel to the priming pump. From the priming pump
fuel flows through the secondary and tertiary (third) filter to the high pressure fuel injection
pump.

NOTE: The Engine ECM in the C4.2 engine is not cooled by the fuel. In some
applications for the C6.6, C4.4, and the C6.4 the Engine ECM may not be cooled by fuel.
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15

High Pressure Fuel Circuit

The high pressure fuel circuit supplies high pressure fuel from the fuel injection pump through
the fuel manifold to the fuel injectors. The fuel injection pump supplies fuel at a pressure up to
160 MPa (23,200 psi) to the fuel injectors on the C4.4/C6.6 engines and up to
130 MPa (18,855 psi) to the fuel injectors on the C4.2/C6.4 engines. A solenoid mounted on the
high pressure fuel injection pump controls the pump output pressure by allowing some of the
high pressure fuel to return to the tank. A small amount of fuel is allowed to flow from each fuel
injector back to the fuel transfer pump to help cool the fuel injectors.

NOTE: Normal fuel rail pressure for the C4.2/C6.4 engine is approximately
75-110 MPa (10,900-16,000 psi).

High pressure fuel from the high pressure pump enters the common rail manifold at the inlet
fitting. The common rail manifold distributes the high pressure fuel evenly to the four or six
"internally hardened" steel fuel injector supply pipes. The steel fuel pipes pass through the valve
cover base and connect to individual fuel injectors.
SERV1837-01 26- - TeR
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The injectors inject the fuel into the combustion chamber based on an ON/OFF signal from the
Engine ECM.

Due to the unique "internally hardened" manufacturing process of the fuel injector supply pipes,
the fuel pipes must be replaced whenever they have been "cracked" or disconnected.

NOTE: Cracking or removing the fuel pipes can disturb the internal hardening of the
high pressure fuel pipes and the pipe seal performance, which can cause the pipes to fail.
Failure of a high pressure fuel pipe can result in a machine fire, personal injury or

death. Order
supply or highnew genuine
pressure Caterpillar
pump replacement
output fuel fuel pipes whenever a fuel injector
pipe is removed.

A fuel rail pressure sensor is used to monitor the pressure of the common rail high pressure fuel
system. The Engine ECM will monitor the signal from the fuel rail pressure sensor and
maintain optimum fuel system pressure for any given load or temperature condition.

If the fuel rail pressure sensor detects a rail pressure above 160 MPa (23,200 psi) a diagnostic
code will be set and the Engine ECM will default to "Limp Home Mode." "Limp Home Mode"
limits the engine to a maximum of 1300 rpm and will also limit turbocharger boost pressure and
injector timing. The high fuel pressure diagnostic code must be cleared using Cat ET before the
Engine ECM will return the engine to normal power. Stopping and restarting the engine by
cycling the key start switch will not reset a "Limp Home" condition. The status of the fuel rail
pressure sensor may be monitored using Cat ET.

NOTE: On the C4.2 and C6.4 engines if the rail pressure is 6000 kPa (870 psi) different
from the target pressure, a 100% derate will occur. There is no "Limp Home Mode" on
the C4.2 and C6.4 engines.

A fuel pressure relief valve is used to protect the high pressure fuel system from fuel pressure
spikes. The fuel pressure relief valve open at a constant pressure of 160 MPa (23,200 psi) and
withstand a pressure spike of up to 190 Mpa (27,560 psi). Fuel that passes the fuel pressure
relief valve is returned to the fuel tank. If the fuel pressure relief valve has opened, the engine
will derate and a diagnostic code will result. The cause of the high pressure must be corrected.
Cat ET and a factory password must be used to clear the diagnostic code and restore the engine
to normal power levels.

A fuel line is connected from the fuel transfer pump to the rear of the cylinder head to keep a
constant pressure between the fuel transfer pump and the injectors. Only injector leak off
pressure higher than that generated by the transfer pump will return to the tank.
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The fuel injection pump combines the transfer pump (1) and high pressure fuel injection
pump (2) in one unit.

The injection pump includes two pump plungers (3) and two cam journals (4). On the four
cylinder engines injection pump each cam journal includes two cam lobes, which causes each
pump plunger to stroke two times for each revolution of the pump. On the six cylinder engines
injection pump (shown in this illustration) each cam journal includes three cam lobes, which
causes each pump plunger to stroke three times for each revolution of the pump.

The injection pump and pump solenoid (5) are not serviceable. The transfer pump and the
secondary speed/timing sensor (not shown) are the only serviceable components on the pump.

The high pressure fuel injection pump is capable of developing pressures up to 160 MPa
(23,200 psi). The high pressure pump is lubricated by engine oil supplied by a pressure line
from the left side engine oil galley.
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06/08

The injection pump solenoid controls the injection pump output pressure to the common rail
manifold. The Engine ECM sends a signal to the pressure control which will spill or "bleed off"
excess pressure from the head of the high pressure pump. Excess fuel pressure not needed for
injection is returned to the fuel tank.

Engine speed and engine position are determined by the secondary speed/timing sensor (not
shown and located on the injection pump). The Engine ECM monitors the secondary
speed/timing sensor and the primary speed/timing sensor (located at the rear of the engine) to
determine crankshaft position and engine rpm.

If the Engine ECM does not receive a signal from the secondary speed/timing sensor due to a
sensor or wiring fault, the engine will not start. However, if the secondary sensor or wiring fail
while the engine is running, the Engine ECM will not shut down the engine. The Engine ECM
but will continue to fire the fuel injectors based on the primary speed/timing position sensor
signal the Engine ECM detected at last engine startup. The status of the engine speed sensors
can be monitored using Cat ET.
SERV1837-01 29- - TeR
xteference
06/08

17

The left illustration shows the high pressure fuel injector. When replacing an injector, the
following parts must also be replaced:

- injector pipe

- o-ring (1)

- copper injector washer. The copper washer is installed at the top of the injector tip (2).

- injector hold down bolt

- injector pipe

- rubber boot that seals the valve cover opening

- valve cover gasket

- valve cover bolt gasket (C4.2/C6.4 engines)


SERV1837-01 30- - TeR
xteference
06/08

When removing a pipe and reusing an injector, always cap the injector immediately until ready
to install a new pipe. Then, finger tighten all pipes and clamps first, and torque properly.

Do not over tighten the solenoid connections on top of the injector. Use the proper torque
specification in the service information.

NOTE: When removing an injector on the C4.4/C6.6 engine, move the intake rocker
arms to gain access to the injector hold down bolt. It is not necessary to remove the
complete rocker arm shaft.

The injector serial number (3) and confirmation code (4) are used for trimming the injector. The
bar code (5) is used during injector production. Document the injector serial number and
confirmation code before installing a new injector.

Cat ET is used to flash the ECM with the proper injector trim file. The injector trim file can be
found on the CD that comes with the replacement injector or on the Service Information System
(SIS) Web.

The C4.4/C6.6 engines have an "Adaptive Trim" (self-calibration) process that occurs
approximately every 125 hours. The Adaptive Trim process ensures injection efficiency and
trims each injector accordingly. A slight audible change may be noticed, but the trim process
has no effect on engine performance.

If any of the injectors are out of tolerance, a diagnostic code will be set. The Fuel System
Verification Test in Cat ET can be used to manually perform the Adaptive Trim process if
necessary.
SERV1837-01 31- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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18

This illustration shows the internal components and fuel flow in the common rail fuel injector.

When the Engine ECM energizes the solenoid (start of injection), the valve stem raises. The
valve stem directs fuel from the fuel rail manifold to the injector nozzle.

When the solenoid is de-energized by the Engine ECM, the valve closes and blocks fuel flow
from the manifold.

With the nozzle closed, any excess fuel is sent to the upper face of the valve and directed into
the leak off passage in the injector body.

The leak off fuel then passes through the gallery in the head to the return to the fuel tank.
SERV1837-01 32- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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19

C4.4/C6.6 ENGINE COMPONENTS AND OPERATION

Fuel System

This illustration shows the components and the fuel flow through the C6.6 fuel system. The
C4.4 fuel system is similar, but includes four injectors.

As previously described, the low pressure fuel circuit supplies filtered fuel to the fuel injection
pump at a constant rate of 296-400 kPa (43-58 psi) and the high pressure fuel circuit supplies
high pressure fuel from the fuel injection pump through the fuel manifold to the fuel injectors.

The fuel transfer pump pulls fuel from the tank through the priming pump and primary fuel filter
and sends the fuel through the Engine ECM, then through the secondary and tertiary (third)
filter, to the high pressure fuel injection pump. The check valve allows excess fuel to return to
the tank but will not allow fuel from the tank into the low pressure fuel circuit.
SERV1837-01 33- - TeR
xteference
06/08

1
3

2
6

20

The fuel injection pump is gear driven and mounts to the back of the front timing cover on the
left side of the engine. The transfer pump (1) is mounted on the rear of the injection pump.

The injection pump (2) and pump solenoid (3) are not serviceable. The injection pump is
serviceable as a unit. The transfer pump and the secondary speed/timing sensor (4) are the only
components serviced separately on the pump.

The fuel injection pump must be timed to the engine and the pump must be removed to be timed.
The fuel pump must also be locked before removal. To lock the pump, loosen the locking
pin (5) and slide the washer (6) so that the shoulder of the locking pin fits through the larger hole
in the washer. Tighten the locking pin to the proper torque to lock the pump.

Fuel injection pump timing is necessary for two reasons:

- The pump stroke must be in phase with the fuel injection

- The speed/timing sensor must be timed with the engine

NOTE: When the pump is removed, a special tool is required to ensure the fuel pump
shaft is in the correct position (timed to the engine).
SERV1837-01 34- - TeR
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06/08

6
3

21

This illustration shows the left side of the C6.6 engine in the D6N Track-type Tractor.

The primary fuel filter assembly consists of the fuel filter base (1), the primary fuel filter
element (2), and the fuel/water separator (3). Water in a high pressure fuel system can cause
premature failure of the fuel injectors due to corrosion and lack of lubrication. Water should be
drained from the water separator daily using the drain valve (4) at the bottom of the filter.

A fuel supply shutoff valve (5) may be installed in the primary filter supply line. This valve will
shut off the fuel supply from the fuel tank.

Some C4.4 and C6.6 engines may be equipped with a water in fuel sensor (6) that signals the
Engine ECM when there is water present in the separator bowl. The Engine ECM monitors the
number 1 output circuit of the sensor. When this circuit is open the ECM will illuminate the
action lamp and display an event message on the monitoring system display.

The fuel return to tank check valve (7) can be seen between the fuel supply shutoff valve and the
primary fuel filter.
SERV1837-01 35- - TeR
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06/08

3
2 4

22

This illustration shows the left side of the C6.6 engine in the D6N Track-type Tractor.

The secondary fuel filter (1) is a high efficiency filter located next to the primary filter (2). Fuel
flows from the transfer pump through the Engine ECM and then to the inlet of the secondary
filter.

The Safeguard fuel filter (3) is the tertiary (third) fuel filter in the C4.4/C6.6 fuel system.
Similar to the secondary fuel filter, the Safeguard filter is a high efficiency filter. All fuel
entering the high pressure section of the injection pump must pass through the secondary and
Safeguard filters.

Also shown in this illustration is the engine oil filter (4).

NOTE: The maintenance schedule for the Safeguard filter is different than the
maintenance schedule for the primary and secondary fuel filters. Refer to the
appropriate operation and maintenance manual for the recommended service interval for
all fuel system filters.
SERV1837-01 36- - TeR
xteference
06/08

2
3
1

23

Some C4.4 and C6.6 engines may be equipped with a fuel temperature sensor (1) and/or a
secondary fuel pressure switch (2) as shown in this illustration of the C6.6 engine in the D6N
Track-type Tractor.

The fuel temperature sensor mounts to the primary filter base assembly (3). The fuel
temperature sensor is part of the fuel filter monitoring system. By monitoring the temperature of
the fuel entering the fuel filtration system, the fuel temperature sensor helps to prevent false fuel
filter restriction events in either the primary or secondary filters due to cold, high viscosity fuel.

The secondary fuel pressure switch monitors the secondary fuel filter (4) for filter restriction. If
the secondary fuel filter becomes clogged, the secondary fuel pressure switch will open and the
Engine ECM will activate the action lamp in the cab and log a secondary fuel filter restriction
event.
SERV1837-01 37- - TeR
xteference
06/08

24

25
4

When replacing a fuel filter on the C4.4 or C6.6 engine, the fuel system must be primed prior to
starting or cranking the engine. Do not prefill new fuel filters prior to installation on the engine.
Prefilling the filters can introduce contaminants into the fuel system and cause damage.

Depending on how the engine is equipped, priming is accomplished using either an electric
priming pump (1) or a hand priming pump (2). The top illustration shows an electric priming
pump on a C6.6 engine in the D6N Track-type Tractor. The bottom illustration shows a hand
priming pump on a C6.6 engine in the R1300G II Underground Loader.

If equipped with an electric priming pump, fuel filter priming is activated using the toggle
switch (3). With the battery disconnect switch ON and the machine start switch OFF, hold the
toggle switch open for approximately 90 seconds to sufficiently prime the filters.
SERV1837-01 38- - TeR
xteference
06/08

If equipped with a manual priming pump, pump the plunger (4) 100 times to prime the system.

After priming the fuel system using the electric or the manual pump, there should be sufficient
fuel in the filters to allow the engine to start and run. Do not open any fuel lines during the
priming procedure.

NOTE: All C4.4 engines are equipped with an electric priming pump. Some C6.6
engines may not be equipped with a priming pump.
SERV1837-01 39- - TeR
xteference
06/08

3
3

1
4
6
2
5

26

The common rail fuel manifold (1) is mounted to the rear of the inlet air manifold on the left
side of the engine. High pressure fuel from the fuel injection pump enters the common rail
manifold at the inlet fitting (2). The common rail manifold distributes the high pressure fuel
evenly to the four or six fuel injector supply pipes (3). The steel fuel pipes pass through the
valve cover base and connect to individual fuel injectors.

A fuel rail pressure sensor (4) is used to monitor the pressure of the common rail high pressure
fuel system. The Engine ECM will monitor the signal from the fuel rail pressure sensor and
maintain optimum fuel system pressure for any given load or temperature condition. The fuel
rail pressure sensor is serviceable separately from the fuel manifold.

A fuel pressure relief valve (5) is used to protect the high pressure fuel system from fuel pressure
spikes. The fuel pressure relief valve will start to open at 160 MPa (23,200 psi) and withstand a
pressure spike of up to 190 Mpa (27,560 psi). The fuel pressure relief valve is not serviceable
separately from the fuel manifold. If the fuel pressure relief valve fails, the fuel manifold and
associated parts must also be replaced.
SERV1837-01 40- - TeR
xteference
06/08

The glow plug buss bar (6) is visible at the left rear of the cylinder head. Some C4.4 and C6.6
engines do not require glow ignition and therefore no electrical connection is made at the buss
bar stud.

NOTE: An ether injection starting system is available as an attachment on some


machine applications for cold climate machine operation.
SERV1837-01 41- - TeR
xteference
06/08

27

The C6.6 engine in the R1300G II Underground Loader is equipped with a magnetic screen
(arrow) located in-line between the tank and primary fuel filter to pick up small magnetic
particles before entering the fuel system.

Some C4.4 and C6.6 engines are equipped with a fuel cooler (not shown), which is located
between the fuel transfer pump and the Engine ECM.
SERV1837-01 42- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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28

Air Inlet System

Intake air is drawn into the engine air precleaner by the vacuum created by the compressor
wheel in the turbocharger. The precleaner removes any large particles from the intake air and
ejects them through the exhaust stack. The intake air is then drawn through the air cleaner
elements in the air cleaner housing where any fine contaminants are removed by the filter
elements. Cleaned intake air is then drawn into the compressor side of the turbocharger.

The turbocharger compresses the intake air and forces it out of the compressor outlet. The
heated and compressed intake air next flows to the inlet of the ATAAC core. As the intake air
passes through the ATAAC core, the air is cooled by the flow of air from the engine fan and
becomes more dense.

Compressed, cooled intake air is next directed to the inlet air manifold, through the inlet air tube,
and into the cylinder head. During the intake stroke, air is forced into the cylinders around the
intake valves in the cylinder head.
SERV1837-01 43- - TeR
xteference
06/08

The exhaust manifold directs exhaust gasses to the turbine side of the turbocharger. Hot, high
pressure exhaust gasses contact the blades of the turbine wheel inside the turbine housing
causing the turbine shaft to spin. The turbine shaft is mechanically connected to the compressor
wheel on the inlet side of the turbocharger.

The hot exhaust gas stream gives up most of its energy to the exhaust turbine wheel. This low
energy exhaust stream exits the turbine housing through the turbine nozzle, flows through the
exhaust pipe and into the muffler, and finally exits at the exhaust stack.

The turbocharger
wastegate acts as aonbypass
the C4.4 andfor
valve C6.6 engines
exhaust use to
gasses a solenoid controlled
the turbine wastegate. boost
wheel. Maximum The
pressure developed in the compressor section of the turbocharger can be controlled by using the
wastegate to divert some of the exhaust gas stream past the turbine housing.

Wastegate control is accomplished with an electrical solenoid that is controlled by the Engine
ECM. Based on inputs from the speed timing sensor, the coolant temperature sensor, and the
inlet air pressure sensor, the Engine ECM will optimize turbocharger boost pressure to suit
engine load and speed conditions. This technology is referred to as a "Smart Wastegate."

An ATAAC core is mounted to the right of the radiator for cooling of the compressed inlet air.
SERV1837-01 44- - TeR
xteference
06/08

2 5

29

The Engine ECM will optimize turbocharger (1) boost pressure by varying the position of the
wastegate solenoid (2) using a Pulse Width Modulated signal. This position variation controls
pressure needed to accurately operate the wastegate by the actuator diaphragm (3) and the
connecting rod (4). Excess pressure is bled off by a vent valve (5).
SERV1837-01 45- - TeR
xteference
06/08

30

The valve lash adjustment sequence on the C4.4/C6.6 engines is different from the conventional
valve lash procedure on typical engines. It is important to follow the procedure in the service
information when adjusting the valve lash on the C4.4/C6.6 engines.

Shown in this illustration, is an angled feeler gauge that is used to complete the valve
adjustment.

The valve lash setting is the same for intake and exhaust valves.
SERV1837-01 46- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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31

Electrical System

This diagram shows the common components of the C4.4/C6.6 engine electronic control system.
The sensors shown on the right provide the Engine ECM with input that controls the fuel
injectors, turbo wastegate, and fuel pump. The Engine ECM has two 64-pin sockets connecting
to the engine harness and machine harness.

The engine electronic control system primarily performs the engine fuel control function. A
solenoid on each injector receives an ON/OFF signal from the Engine ECM that triggers the
timing and amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber. The engine electronic control
system also monitors other functions that are critical for engine performance, such as
lubrication, combustion air, and cooling.

NOTE: This illustration shows the common input and output components on the
C4.4/C6.6 engines. Other input and output components are installed on specific machine
applications.
SERV1837-01 47- - TeR
xteference
06/08

!"#$% &'(')&*(* ,-.$-/ ,&0 1-234 &5625-/-4 72/%$8$%"4$5-#9

- Primary Engine Speed/Timing Sensor- active sensor, 2-wire Hall effect


- Secondary Engine Speed/Timing Sensor- active sensor, 2-wire Hall effect
- Engine Oil Pressure Sensor- active 5 V supply ! 3-wire! rated to 882 kPa ABSOLUTE
(kPaA) (128 psi)
- Intake Manifold Air (Boost) Pressure Sensor - active 5 V supply ! 3-wire! rated to 339
kPa ABSOLUTE (kPaA) (49.2 psi)
- Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor- active 5V supply! 3-wire! rated to 270 MPa (31,908 psi)
- Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor - passive! 2-wire! minimum temperature
-40° C (-40° F), maximum temperature 150° C (302° F)
- Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - passive! 2-wire! minimum temperature
-40° C (-40° F), maximum temperature 150° C (302° F)

Basic C4.4/C6.6 Engine ECM Output Compo nent Specifications:

- Fuel Injectors - 70 V supply


- Smart Wastegate Solenoid- PWM solenoid
- Fuel Pump Pressure Control Solenoid- 70 V supply
SERV1837-01 48- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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32

This diagram shows some of the typical input and output components of the C4.4/C6.6 engine
electronic control system in addition to the common components shown in the previous
illustration.

Many machine applications include an additional ECM to control some of the machine systems
and a monitoring system to monitor the engine and machine systems. The input and output
components shown in red are also installed on many machine applications.

In some machine applications the throttle input from the operator is an input to the Machine
ECM. The Machine ECM then sends a signal to the Engine ECM over the CAT or CAN Data
Link.

The throttle position sensor is typically powered by an 8 volt supply from the ECM.

NOTE: To determine the engine electronic control system components on a specific


machine, refer the the appropriate machine specific service information.
SERV1837-01 49- - TeR
xteference
06/08

3
1

2 6
4

33

C4.4/C6.6 uses an A4-E2 Engine ECM. The ECM controls:


- Fuel pressure
- Speed governing

- Air/fuel ratio
- Start/stop sequence
- Engine protection devices/diagnostics

The ECM features two 64-pin sockets for the machine harness connector (1) and the engine
harness connector (2). A new pin removal tool is available.

The ECM case is completely sealed against dirt and moisture. The sealed case is cooled with
fuel from the primary fuel filter to help dissipate heat from the electronics inside. Fuel enters at
the top (3) and exits at the bottom (4).

When reinstalling the ECM, make sure the grounding strap (5) is secured to a clean connection
and the fasteners are properly torqued. Anti-vibration mounts fit into the holes at each
corner (6).
SERV1837-01 50- - TeR
xteference
06/08

34

Primary engine speed data is provided by the primary engine speed/timing sensor (1), or crank
speed/timing sensor. The primary engine speed/timing sensor is located at the left rear of the
engine block. Failure of the primary engine speed sensor while the engine is running will cause
the Engine ECM to look at the secondary speed/timing sensor for engine speed information.
The engine will continue to run using only the secondary speed/timing sensor signal for engine
rpm, but will derate to 1200 rpm.

The engine oil pressure sensor (2) is also located on the left side of the cylinder block. The
sensor is installed in the left engine oil galley below and forward of the Engine ECM. Low
engine oil pressure, sensor failure, or wiring failure will not result in an engine derate or
shutdown but will cause a fault to be logged in the Engine ECM.

The status of the primary engine speed sensor and the engine oil pressure sensor can be viewed
with Cat ET.
SERV1837-01 51- - TeR
xteference
06/08

2
1

35

The inlet air temperature sensor (1) and the inlet air pressure (boost) sensor (2) are installed in
the air inlet manifold on the left front of the engine.

The inlet air temperature sensor is a passive 2 wire sensor and is an input to the Engine ECM.
The signals from the inlet air temperature sensor and the coolant temperature sensor are used to
determine engine starting aid requirements and to trim (adjust) injector pulse width as engine
operating temperatures change.

The air inlet pressure sensor is an active 3 wire sensor. The Engine ECM will use the signal
from this sensor to determine boost pressures supplied by the turbocharger. The air inlet
pressure sensor is used with the Engine ECM to control the air/fuel ratio electronically. This
feature allows very precise smoke control, which was not possible with mechanically governed
engines.

NOTE: The air inlet pressure sensor also acts as an atmospheric pressure sensor by
taking a snap shot of atmospheric pressure when the key start switch is first turned to the
ON position. The other engine sensors are also calibrated to the boost sensor
atmospheric pressure reading.

The status of the inlet air temperature sensor and the inlet air pressure sensor can be viewed with
Cat ET.
SERV1837-01 52- - TeR
xteference
06/08

36

The coolant temperature sensor (1) is installed in the front left corner of the cylinder head (2).
The coolant temperature sensor is a "passive" two wire thermistor type sensor that sends a signal
to the Engine ECM indicating coolant temperature.

When the value of either the coolant temperature sensor or the intake manifold temperature
sensor (whichever is lowest) indicates an engine temperature of 4° C (40° F) the Engine ECM
will activate the cold starting aid (if equipped).
SERV1837-01 53- - TeR
xteference
06/08

37

An improved glow plug design is being used that reaches peak temperature faster than the
previous plug. The new glow plugs (1) heat to 850° C (1560° F) in four seconds, providing
more immediate cold starting performance.

The glow plugs are installed on the intake side of the head. There is one glow plug per cylinder.
Each glow plug is connected to a common buss bar (2) that supplies electric current from the
key start switch via the glow plug relay. The Engine ECM controls the glow plug relay by
providing the ground contact.
SERV1837-01 54- - TeR
xteference
06/08

38

The wiring harness and its connectors are serviceable. All harness connectors can be replaced
separately except the pump solenoid connector. The pump solenoid connector is serviced as a
"pigtail" connector. The injector harnesses (not shown) below the valve cover are serviced
separately.

When working on the harness, always secure the harness in the srcinal position with the correct
clips and away from pinch points, heat, and sharp edges.

The connectors are keyed to fit in only one direction, which ensures proper pin to socket
alignment. Never force connectors, as they should fit together with minimal effort.

Connectors are designed to seal out dirt and moisture without the use of electrical grease. When
servicing the harness, inspect the condition of the seals on the connectors. When pins are
unused, be sure to use blanking plugs to protect the connector against dirt and moisture.

Two general purpose connector kits are available for servicing DT and AMPSeal connectors.

The ECM connector 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) pins are available as service parts. The pins are
replaced using a Deutsch service tool.
SERV1837-01 55- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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39

Demand Fan

This illustration shows the hydraulic demand fan system in the D6K Track-type Tractor. The
hydraulic demand fan system is installed on some machine applications with the C4.4 or C6.6
engines.

In machine applications equipped with the hydraulic demand fan system, the Machine ECM and
Engine ECM work together via the Cat Data Link to determine the appropriate fan speed for
proper system cooling. The Engine ECM monitors coolant temperature and air inlet temperature
while the Machine ECM monitors hydraulic oil temperature.

Based on system monitoring input, the Machine ECM sends the appropriate signal to the fan
solenoid valve in the demand fan control manifold. The demand fan solenoid valve provides the
proper fan speed for the cooling system. The solenoid valve decreases fan speed using the flow
control valve by rerouting some of the supply oil to the oil cooler instead of the fan. Maximum
fan speed occurs when the fan solenoid valve is de-energized and all of the pump flow is
directed through the fan motor for increased cooling.

The return oil from the fan motor is directed through the oil cooler and filter to the tank. Both
the cooler and the filter are equipped with bypass valves.
SERV1837-01 56- - TeR
xteference
06/08

The makeup valve prevents cavitation in the fan motor. During a quick deceleration, the flow of
oil to the fan motor can stop. The makeup valve will open to allow oil to flow from the outlet
side of the fan motor to the inlet side of the fan motor.
SERV1837-01 57- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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40

Reversing Fan

This illustration shows the reversing demand fan system in the D6K Track-type Tractor.

The optional reversing hydraulic fan system has a reversing solenoid controlled by the Engine
ECM. When the top of the reversing fan switch is depressed, the Engine ECM closes the
reversing fan relay to energize the solenoid.

The reversing fan solenoid directs supply oil to the fan direction valve and moves the direction
valve up to reverse pump flow to the fan motor. Supply oil from the pump is directed to the
other side of the fan motor, while the other side of the fan motor is open to the cooler circuit.

The fan reverses for 10 seconds. When the bottom of the reversing fan switch is depressed, the
fan reversing solenoid is energized to reverse the fan for 10 seconds. This will repeat every 30
minutes until the reversing fan switch is returned to the center position.

The crossover relief valve prevents cavitation in the fan motor. During a quick deceleration, the
flow of oil to the fan motor can stop. The crossover relief valve will open to allow oil to flow
from the outlet side of the fan motor to the inlet side of the fan motor.
SERV1837-01 58- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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41

C4.2/C6.4 ENGINE COMPONENTS AND OPERATION

Fuel System

This illustration shows the components and the fuel flow through the C6.4 fuel system. The
C4.2 fuel system is similar, but includes four injectors.

As previously described, the low pressure fuel circuit supplies filtered fuel to the fuel injection
pump at a constant rate and the high pressure fuel circuit supplies high pressure fuel from the
fuel injection pump through the fuel manifold to the fuel injectors.

The fuel transfer pump pulls fuel from the tank through the primary fuel filter and the Engine
ECM and sends the fuel to the priming pump. From the priming pump fuel flows through the
secondary and tertiary (third) filter to the high pressure fuel injection pump.

NOTE: The Engine ECM in the C4.2 engine is not cooled by the fuel.
SERV1837-01 59- - TeR
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42

The fuel injection pump is gear driven and mounts to the back of the front timing cover on the
right side of the engine. The transfer pump (1) is mounted on the rear of the injection pump.
The transfer pump includes a weep hole on the bottom of the pump to allow a fuel path if fuel
seeps from the pump. To remove the fuel transfer pump, special tool 239-6824 is required.

The injection pump (2) and pump solenoid (3) are not serviceable. The injection pump is
serviceable as a unit. The transfer pump and the secondary speed/timing sensor (4) are the only
components serviced separately on the pump. The primary and secondary speed/timing sensor
are the same part number.

NOTE: The pump must be removed from the engine to remove the secondary
speed/timing sensor

The fuel injection pump must be timed to the engine and the pump must be removed to be timed.
The injection pump gear is keyed to the pump shaft. To time the injection pump to the engine,
the pump gear must be aligned to the engine gears by aligning the timing marks on each gear.
Note the injections pump's srcinal position by observing the paint marks on the front gear train
before removing the pump.

The engine will start and run and will not derate if the pump timing is incorrect up to 8°, but a
diagnostic code will be set. If the pump timing is off more than 8° the engine will not start and a
diagnostic code will be set.

NOTE: The flywheel, if removed, must be aligned upon installation. To align the
flywheel use a guide bolt to align the flywheel to the crankshaft until the flywheel bolts
are installed. Then remove the guide bolt.
SERV1837-01 60- - TeR
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43
2

44

These illustrations show the primary fuel filter in the left rear compartment of a 320D Hydraulic
Excavator. The primary fuel filter is installed remotely on the C4.2 and C6.4 engines.

The primary fuel filter assembly consists of the fuel filter base (1), the primary fuel filter
element (2), and the fuel/water separator (3). Water in a high pressure fuel system can cause
premature failure of the fuel injectors due to corrosion and lack of lubrication. Water should be
drained from the water separator daily using the drain valve (4) at the bottom of the filter.
SERV1837-01 61- - TeR
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7
2 6

45

6
46

The secondary fuel filter (1) is a high efficiency filter located on the right side of the engine.
Fuel flows from the transfer pump through the priming pump (2) and then to the inlet of the
secondary filter.

The Safeguard fuel filter (3) is the tertiary (third) fuel filter in the C4.2/C6.4 fuel system.
Similar to the secondary fuel filter, the Safeguard filter is a high efficiency filter. All fuel
entering the high pressure section of the injection pump must pass through the secondary fuel
filter and the Safeguard filters.
SERV1837-01 62- - TeR
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06/08

NOTE: The maintenance schedule for the Safeguard filter is different than the
maintenance schedule for the primary and secondary fuel filters. Refer to the
appropriate operation and maintenance manual for the recommended service interval
for all fuel system filters.

The fuel temperature sensor (4) and the fuel pressure sensor (5) are installed in the secondary
filter base assembly. The fuel temperature sensor is part of the fuel filter monitoring system. By
monitoring the temperature of the fuel entering the fuel filtration system, the fuel temperature
sensor helps to prevent false fuel filter restriction events in either the primary or secondary

filters due to cold,


low pressure high viscosity fuel. The fuel pressure sensor monitors the fuel pressure in the
fuel circuit.

The fuel differential pressure sensor (6) monitors the secondary fuel filter for filter restriction.
If the secondary fuel filter becomes clogged, the secondary fuel pressure switch will open and
the Engine ECM will activate the action lamp in the cab and log a secondary fuel filter
restriction event. The engine will also derate 20% if the secondary fuel filter is 80% restricted.

When replacing a fuel filter on the C4.2 or C6.4 engine, the fuel system must be primed prior to
starting or cranking the engine. Do not pre-fill new fuel filters prior to installation on the
engine. Pre-filling the filters can introduce contaminants into the fuel system and cause damage.

Priming is accomplished using the hand priming pump. Open the air bleed plug. Pump the
plunger (7) more than 100 times to prime the system.

After priming the fuel system there should be sufficient fuel in the fuel filters to allow the
engine to start and run. Do not open any fuel lines during the priming procedure.
SERV1837-01 63- - TeR
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47

4
4

48

6
3 5

The common rail fuel manifold (1) is mounted to the right side of the inlet air manifold on the
right side of the engine. To access the manifold a cover (2) must be removed.

High pressure fuel from the fuel injection pump enters the common rail manifold at the inlet
fitting (3). The common rail manifold distributes the high pressure fuel evenly to the four or six
fuel injector supply pipes (4). The steel fuel pipes pass through the valve cover base and
connect to individual fuel injectors.

A fuel rail pressure sensor (5) is used to monitor the pressure of the common rail high pressure
fuel system. The Engine ECM will monitor the signal from the fuel rail pressure sensor and
maintain optimum fuel system pressure for any given load or temperature condition.
SERV1837-01 64- - TeR
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06/08

A fuel pressure relief valve (6) is used to protect the high pressure fuel system from fuel
pressure spikes. The fuel pressure relief valve will open at a constant pressure of
130 MPa (18,855 psi) and withstand a pressure spike of up to 190 Mpa (27,560 psi).
SERV1837-01 65- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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49

Air Inlet System

Intake air is drawn into the engine air precleaner by the vacuum created by the compressor
wheel in the turbocharger. The precleaner removes any large particles from the intake air and
ejects them through the exhaust stack. The intake air is then drawn through the air cleaner
elements in the air cleaner housing where any fine contaminants are removed by the filter
elements. Cleaned intake air is then drawn into the compressor side of the turbocharger.

The turbocharger compresses the intake air and forces it out of the compressor outlet. The
heated and compressed intake air next flows to the inlet of the ATAAC core. As the intake air
passes through the ATAAC core, the air is cooled by the flow of air from the engine fan and
becomes more dense.

Compressed, cooled intake air is next directed to the inlet air manifold, through the inlet air tube,
and into the cylinder head. During the intake stroke, air is forced into the cylinders around the
intake valves in the cylinder head.
SERV1837-01 66- - TeR
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06/08

The exhaust manifold directs exhaust gasses to the turbine side of the turbocharger. Hot, high
pressure exhaust gasses contact the blades of the turbine wheel inside the turbine housing
causing the turbine shaft to spin. The turbine shaft is mechanically connected to the compressor
wheel on the inlet side of the turbocharger.

The hot exhaust gas stream gives up most of its energy to the exhaust turbine wheel. This low
energy exhaust stream exits the turbine housing through the turbine nozzle, flows through the
exhaust pipe and into the muffler, and finally exits at the exhaust stack.
SERV1837-01 67- - TeR
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50

For cold weather starting, the C4.2 and C6.4 engines use an inlet air heater (1). The inlet air
heater heats the incoming air to aid in engine starting during cold weather.

The air inlet heater relay (2) is controlled by the Engine ECM. Based on the engine air and
engine coolant temperature, the ECM will energize the air inlet relay, which provides power to
the inlet heating element.

The top right illustration shows the inlet air heater and relay on the C6.4 engine. The bottom
illustrations show the inlet air heater and relay on the C4.2 engine.
SERV1837-01 68- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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51

Electrical System

This diagram shows the common components of the C4.2/C6.4 engine electronic control system.
The sensors shown on the right provide the Engine ECM with input that controls the fuel
injectors, air inlet relay, and fuel pump. The Engine ECM has two 64-pin sockets connecting to
the engine harness and machine harness.

The engine electronic control system primarily performs the engine fuel control function. A
solenoid on each injector receives an ON/OFF signal from the Engine ECM that triggers the
timing and amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber. The engine electronic control
system also monitors other functions that are critical for engine performance, such as
lubrication, combustion air, and cooling.

NOTE: This illustration shows the common input and output components on the
C4.2/C6.4 engines. Other input and output components are installed on specific machine
applications.
SERV1837-01 69- - TeR
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06/08

!"#$% &'(:)&*(' ,-.$-/ ,&0 1-234 &5625-/-4 72/%$8$%"4$5-#9

- Primary Engine Speed/Timing Sensor- active sensor, 2-wire Hall effect

- Secondary Engine Speed/Timing Sensor- active sensor, 2-wire Hall effect

- Engine Oil Pressure Sensor- active 5 V supply ! 3-wire! rated to 882 kPa ABSOLUTE
(kPaA) (128 psi)

- Intake Manifold Air (Boost) Pressure Sensor - active 5 V supply ! 3-wire! rated to 339
kPa ABSOLUTE (kPaA) (49.2 psi)

- Fuel Pressure Sensor - on/off 5 V supply, 3-wire

- Fuel Differential Pressure Sensor- active 5 V supply ! 3-wire

- Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor- active 5 V supply ! 3-wire! rated to 270 MPa (31,908 psi)

- Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor - passive! 2-wire! minimum temperature


-40° C (-40° F), maximum temperature 150° C (302° F)

- Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - passive! 2-wire! minimum temperature


-40° C (-40° F), maximum temperature 150° C (302° F)

- Fuel Temperature Sensor- passive! 2-wire

Basic C4.2/C6.4 Engine ECM Output Compo nent Specifications:

- Fuel Injectors - 70 V supply

- Fuel Pump Pressure Control Solenoid- 70 V supply


SERV1837-01 70- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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52

This diagram shows some of the typical input and output components of the C4.2/C6.4 engine
electronic control system in addition to the common components shown in the previous
illustration.

Many machine applications include an additional ECM to control some of the machine systems
and a monitoring system to monitor the engine and machine systems. The input and output
components shown in red are also installed on some machine applications.

In some machine applications the throttle input from the operator is an input to the Machine
ECM. The Machine ECM then sends a signal to the Engine ECM over the CAT or CAN Data
Link.

NOTE: To determine the engine electronic control system components on a specific


machine, refer to the appropriate machine specific service information.
SERV1837-01 71- - TeR
xteference
06/08

2 1

3 4

53

C4.2/C6.4 uses an A4-E2 Engine ECM. The ECM controls:


- Fuel pressure
- Speed governing

- Air/fuel ratio
- Start/stop sequence
- Engine protection devices/diagnostics

The ECM features two 64-pin sockets for the machine harness connector (1) and the engine
harness connector (2). A new pin removal tool is available.

The ECM case is completely sealed against dirt and moisture. The sealed case is cooled with
fuel from the primary fuel filter to help dissipate heat from the electronics inside. Fuel enters at
the left (3) and exits at the right (4).

NOTE: This illustration shows the Engine ECM on a C6.4 engine. The Engine ECM is
not mounted on the C4.2 engine, but is remotely located.

When reinstalling the ECM, make sure the grounding strap is secured to a clean connection and
the fasteners are properly torqued. Anti-vibration mounts fit into the holes at each corner.
SERV1837-01 72- - TeR
xteference
06/08

Primary engine speed data is provided by the primary engine speed/timing sensor (5), or crank
speed/timing sensor. The primary engine speed/timing sensor is located on the flywheel housing
at the right rear of the engine block. Failure of the primary speed/timing sensor while the engine
is running will cause the Engine ECM to look at the secondary speed/timing sensor for engine
speed information. The engine will continue to run using only the secondary speed sensor
signal for engine rpm.

The engine oil pressure sensor (6) is also located on the right side of the engine block. The
sensor is installed in the right engine oil galley forward of the Engine ECM. Low engine oil

pressure, sensor
cause a fault failure,
to be loggedorinwiring failureECM.
the Engine will not result in an engine derate or shutdown but will

The status of the primary engine speed sensor and the engine oil pressure sensor can be viewed
with Cat ET.
SERV1837-01 73- - TeR
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54

The inlet air temperature sensor (1) and the inlet air pressure (boost) sensor (2) are installed in
the air inlet manifold on the right side of the engine.

The inlet air temperature sensor is a passive 2 wire sensor and is an input to the Engine ECM.
The signals from the inlet air temperature sensor and the coolant temperature sensor are used to
determine engine starting aid requirements and to trim (adjust) injector pulse width as engine
operating temperatures change.

The air inlet pressure sensor is an active 3 wire sensor. The Engine ECM will use the signal
from this sensor to determine boost pressures supplied by the turbocharger. The air inlet
pressure sensor is used with the Engine ECM to control the air/fuel ratio electronically. This
feature allows very precise smoke control, which was not possible with mechanically governed
engines.

NOTE: The air inlet pressure sensor also acts as an atmospheric pressure sensor by
taking a snap shot of atmospheric pressure when the key start switch is first turned to the
ON position.

The status of the inlet air temperature sensor and the inlet air pressure sensor can be viewed with
Cat ET.
SERV1837-01 74- - TeR
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06/08

55

The coolant temperature sensor (1) is installed in the front left corner of the cylinder head (2).
The coolant temp sensor is a "passive" two wire variable resistor type sensor that sends a signal
to the Engine ECM indicating coolant temperature.
SERV1837-01 75- - TeR
xteference
06/08

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56

ENGINE DIAGNOSTICS

Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET)

Cat ET can be used to diagnose problems with the C4.2/C4.4 and C4.4/C6.6 engines. The
following tasks can be performed with Cat ET to aid in engine diagnosis:
- View engine derates
- View component status
- Configure engine parameters
- View diagnostic codes and even ts
- Flash ECM
- Perform diagnostic tests

Before performing the above tasks ensure the engine cranking speed is greater than 150 rpm and
the fuel rail pressure (while cranking engine) is greater than 17235 kPa (2500 psi).
SERV1837-01 76- - TeR
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57

This screen displays all the warning, derate, and shutdown levels that are currently set within the
ECM.

The derates cannot be changed but the derate information can be useful for diagnosing engine
faults.

A warning represents a serious problem with engine operation, but a warning condition does not
require a derate or a shutdown.

When an engine derate parameter is reached, the Engine ECM decreases the engine’s power to
help prevent possible engine damage.

When an engine shutdown parameter is reached, the Engine ECM shuts down the engine to help
prevent possible engine damage.

When the Engine is derated by the Engine ECM, the ECM will decrease engine power by
reducing fuel and limiting engine speed. The engine is derated according to the derate map in
the specific machine application.

NOTE: The engine derate information as shown in this illustration is not always
available and is dependent on the particular flash file.
SERV1837-01 77- - TeR
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06/08

58

This illustration shows an engine coolant warning and derate condition on the Cat ET status
screen.
SERV1837-01 78- - TeR
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59

This illustration shows a Cat ET status screen on the C6.4 engine in a 320D Hydraulic
Excavator. The status screens can be used to view the component parameters to help detect
engine problems.
SERV1837-01 79- - TeR
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06/08

60

Cat ET configuration screens are used to configure engine parameters. This configuration
screen shows the installation status of the air inlet heater on the C6.4 engine in the 320D
Hydraulic Excavator.
SERV1837-01 80- - TeR
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61

Diagnostic codes and events can be viewed and cleared with Cat ET. This illustration shows no
active diagnostic codes on the C6.4 engine.
SERV1837-01 81- - TeR
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62

This illustration shows the diagnostic tests (arrow) that can be performed with Cat ET. The
diagnostic tests are:

- Injector Solenoid Test - The Injector Solenoid Test verifies that the circuits from the
ECM to the injector are functioning properly. The ECM injector power supply, the wiring
harnesses, and the injector solenoids are tested.

- Override Parameters - The Override Parameters function enables circuits such as the
check engine lamp to be turned on or off for troubleshooting purposes.

- Cylinder Cutout Test - The Cylinder Cutout Test allows selected cylinders to be disabled
("cutout") to help determine if a cylinder is misfiring.

- Wiggle Test- The Wiggle Test function allows the user to determine if there is an
intermittent wiring problem by indicating which parameter on the screen has moved
beyond a predetermined range while "wiggling" the wiring harness, sensors, connector,
etc.
SERV1837-01 82- - TeR
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06/08

- Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Test (C4.4/C6.6 only)- The Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Test
verifies that the circuits from the ECM to the pump solenoid are functioning properly.
The ECM pump solenoid power supply, the wiring harnesses, and the pump solenoid are
tested.

- Fuel System Verification Test - The Fuel System Verification Test performs corrections if
needed to the current "start of injection time." The verification test ensures all injectors
are trimmed correctly, running efficiently, and maintaining emissions output from the
engine.
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63

43! !PV+ P!! 0!1


_' `T5a TR
_' T'a5R Q
_' T'a5T Q 64

P]

Monitoring Systems

Most machine applications are equipped with a monitoring system that can also be used to
diagnose the engine.

The top illustration shows the Messenger display module in the D6K Track-type Tractor. The
bottom illustration shows the diagnostics option that displays a diagnostic code. Each line on
the list will show the following information:
- SRC (Source ID)
- CODE
- OCC (Number of occurrences of the event or code)
- ACT (if the code is active or inactive)
SERV1837-01 84- - TeR
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65

66

These illustrations show the monitoring system display in the 320D Hydraulic Excavator. The
top illustration shows a coolant temperature derate. The bottom illustration shows three logged
error codes.
SERV1837-01 85- - TeR
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67

CONCLUSION

This concludes the presentation on the C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 ACERT™ engines. When used
in conjunction with the service manual, the information in this package should permit the
technician to analyze in-chassis engine problems on these engines.
SERV1837-01 86- - TeR
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06/08

VISUAL LIST
1. Top of C6.6 engine 36. C4.4/C6.6 Coolant temperature sensor
2. Engine features 37. Glow plugs
3. Top of C6.6 engine 38. Wiring harness
4. Top of C6.6 engine with rocker cover 39. Hydraulic demand fan system
removed 40. Reversing demand fan system
5. Left side of C6.6 engine 41. C4.2/C6.4 low pressure fuel system
6. Top of C6.4 engine 42. C4.2/C6.4 fuel injection pump
7. Top of C6.4 engine with rocker cover 43. C4.2/C6.4 primary fuel filter location

8. removed
Right side of C6.4 engine 44. C4.2/C6.4 primary fuel filter close up
45. Right side of C6.4 engine
9. High pressure machine washing 46. Top of secondary fuel filter
10. High pressure fuel system 47. C4.2/C6.4 Fuel manifold cover
11. Parts in protective covering 48. C4.2/C6.4 Fuel manifold
12. Quick connect fuel fittings 49. C4.2/C6.4 air inlet and exhaust system
13. Engine maintenance intervals 50. Air inlet heater
14. Low pressure fuel system 51. C4.2/C6.4 electronic control system -
15. High pressure fuel system common components
16. Fuel injection pump cutaway 52. C4.2/C6.4 electronic control system -
17. Fuel injector typical components
18. Common rail fuel injector 53. Engine ECM
19. C4.4/C6.6 low pressure fuel system 54. C4.2/C6.4 Air intake and air pressure
20. C4.4/C6.6 fuel injection pump sensors
21. C4.4/C6.6 primary fuel filter 55. C4.2/C6.4 coolant temperature sensor
22. Left side of C6.6 engine 56. Cat ET diagnostics
23. C4.4/C6.6 primary fuel filter 57. Engine derates - Cat ET
24. C4.4/C6.6 Electric fuel priming pump 58. Coolant temperature derate - Cat ET
25. C4.4/C6.6 Manual fuel priming pump 59. Cat ET status screen
26. C4.4/C6.6 Fuel manifold 60. Cat ET configuration screen
27. C4.4/C6.6 Magnetic screen 61. Cat ET diagnostic code screen
28. C4.4/C6.6 air intake and exhaust system 61. Cat ET diagnostic tests
29. C4.4/C6.6 Turbocharger and wastegate 63. Messenger monitoring system panel
30. Valve lash adjustment 64. Messenger monitoring system -
31. C4.4/C6.6 electronic control system - diagnostic code screen
common components 65. 320D Hydraulic Excavator monitoring
32. C4.4/C6.6 electronic control system - system panel - coolant temperature derate
typical components 66. 320D Hydraulic Excavator monitoring
33. Engine ECM system panel - diagnostic code screen
34. C4.4/C6.6Primary speed sensor and oil 67. Top of C6.4 engine
pressure sensor
35. C4.4/C6.6 Air intake and air pressure
sensors
SERV1837-01 87- - TeR
xteference
06/08

6ZV302O.! 4!6+J01.! !POP3 !PV+

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HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

This illustration identifies the meanings of the colors used in the hydraulic schematics and
cross-sectional views shown throughout this presentation.
SERV1837-01 88- - HandoN
u1to.
06/08

;< ;
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= @7 b
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SERV1837-01 89- - HandoNu
2ot .
06/08

C4.4/C6.6 Engine Component Identification

_____ Fuel injectors

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel injection pump

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel manifold

Function:

Location:

_____ Coolant temperature sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Inlet manifold temperature sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Inlet manifold (boost) pressure sensor

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 90- - HandoNu
3ot .
06/08

&'(')&*(* ,-.$-/ &5625-/-4 1;/-4$8$%"4$5- <%5-4$-3/;=

_____ Oil pressure sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel rail pressure sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Primary (crank) speed/timing sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Secondary (cam) speed/timing sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Wastegate solenoid valve

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel pump solenoid valve

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 91- - HandoNu
4ot .
06/08

&'(')&*(* ,-.$-/ &5625-/-4 1;/-4$8$%"4$5- <%5-4$-3/;=

_____ Engine ECM

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel pressure relief valve

Function:

Location:

_____ Primary fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Secondary fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Tertiary (third) fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel return check valve

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 92- - HandoNu
5ot .
06/08

C4.2/C6.4 Engine Component Identification

_____ Fuel injectors

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel injection pump

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel manifold

Function:

Location:

_____ Coolant temperature sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Inlet manifold temperature sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Inlet manifold (boost) pressure sensor

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 93- - HandoNu
6ot .
06/08

&'(:)&*(' ,-.$-/ &5625-/-4 1;/-4$8$%"4$5- <%5-4$-3/;=

_____ Oil pressure sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel rail pressure sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Primary (crank) speed/timing sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Secondary (cam) speed/timing sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel temperature sensor

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel pump solenoid valve

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 94- - HandoNu
7ot .
06/08

&'(:)&*(' ,-.$-/ &5625-/-4 1;/-4$8$%"4$5- <%5-4$-3/;=

_____ Engine ECM

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel pressure relief valve

Function:

Location:

_____ Primary fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Secondary fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Tertiary (third) fuel filter

Function:

Location:

_____ Fuel pressure switch

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 95- - HandoNu
8ot .
06/08

&'(:)&*(' ,-.$-/ &5625-/-4 1;/-4$8$%"4$5- <%5-4$-3/;=

_____ Air inlet heater

Function:

Location:

_____ Air inlet heater relay

Function:

Location:
SERV1837-01 96- - HandoN
u9to.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 97- - HandoN
u1to0.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 98- - HandoN
u1to1.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 99- - HandoN
u1to2.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 0 - Ha n d o N
ut1o3.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 1 - Ha n d o N
ut1o4.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 2 - Ha n d o N
ut1o5.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 3 - Ha n d o N
ut1o6.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 4 - Ha n d o N
ut1o7.
06/08

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SERV1837-01 10- 5 - Ha n d o N
ut1o8.
06/08
SERV1837-01 10- 6 - Ha n d o N
ut1o9.
06/08
SERV1837-01 10-7 - HandoN
u2to0.
06/08

Posttest

1. The C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 engines meet:


A. Tier 1 requirements
B. Tier 2 requirements
C. Tier 3 requirements
D. Tier 4 requirements

2. How many valves do the C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 engines have per cylinder?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

3. After the high pressure fuel lines are removed from the engine they must be:
A. Thoroughly cleaned with solvent and compressed air before reinstalling on the engine
B. Capped with plastic caps and placed in an air tight bag
C. Checked for deformities
D. Thrown away and never reused

4. The C4.2 or C4.4 high pressure fuel pump has a camshaft with ______ cam lobes per pumping
plunger.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

5. If the crankshaft speed timing sensor malfunctions:


A. The engine will still start and run
B. The engine will still run but not restart
C. The engine will not start and will not run
D. The engine will default to "limp home mode"

6. Which of the following components are installed on the fuel manifold?


A. Fuel pressure sensor
B. Fuel differential pressure switch
C. Fuel temperature sensor

D. All of the above


SERV1837-01 10-8 - HandoN
u2to1.
06/08

Posttest (continued)

7. Which of the following components controls pump output pressure?


A. Fuel pressure relief valve
B. Fuel manifold
C. Pump solenoid
D. None of the above

8. Which of the following components on the injection pump are serviceable?


A. Pump solenoid
B. Transfer pump
C. Secondary speed/timing sensor
D. B and C

9. If the fuel pressure relief valve has opened, which of the following must be done?
A. Clear the diagnostic code
B. Replace the relief valve
C. Replace the fuel rail manifold
D. All of the above

10. Which of the following sensors is common to all C4.2/C6.4 and C4.4/C6.6 engines?
A. Air inlet temperature sensor
B. Fuel pressure sensor
C. Atmospheric pressure sensor
D. Oil level sensor
SERV1837-01 10-9 - HandoN
u2to2.
06/08

Posttest Answer Key


1. C
2. C
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. A