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Article in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement · July 2004
DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2004.827313 · Source: IEEE Xplore
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P. Petrovic, Member, IEEE
Abstract—An approach to the design of a digital multimeter based on the use of dual-slope ADC is described in this paper. Based on this approach, a new technique for algorithm de- sign is developed. The main advantage of this approach is the determination of all electric values in electric utilities by the same algorithm. The algorithm has high accuracy and a regular structure. Measurements of voltage and current are made in successive periods by a stroboscopic technique (synchronous undersampling). The assumed stationarity of the electric utilities is validated by measurements with an experimental setup, con- sisting of a fast high-precision sigma-delta ADC. The necessary synchronization is reached by software measurements of the frequency of the measured signal. Assuming stationarity of the observed system (electric utilities) in the stated 1-s interval, it is proved that precise digital processing can be achieved without using a sample-and-hold circuit. The suggested measuring system was simulated, realized in a practical setup, and tested. The obtained results completely confirmed the starting postulates. A processing precision of 0.01% was achieved.
Index Terms—Adaptable algorithm, digital multimeter, dual- slope ADC, high accuracy, synchronous undersampling.
I. INTRODUCTION
T HE CONVENTIONAL algorithms for the measurement of active power and effective values of voltage and current
employ integration or summation over an abruptly limited time interval. Consequently, they operate correctly at a periodic input signal only. The voltage and current waveforms of the power network, however, are not strictly periodic, due to their nonhar- monic components and stochastic variation. The outputs of both the conventional and new algorithms do not represent the input’s instantaneous value, but the input observed over a certain period of time. The measurement method described in this paper can be applied for the accurate determination of periodic signals. The method relies on adaptation of the measurement time to the pe- riod of the measurement signal. The synchronous method is based on dual-slope integration performed according to the synchronization signal (input signal). The first phase of integration is fully synchronized with the input signal. The time of the first phase is also mea- sured. The output voltage of the integrator depends directly on the input signal and the time of the first integration phase. Measurement values are the results of arithmetic operations
Manuscript received March 19, 2003; revised January 12, 2004. The author is with the Cacak College of Engineering, University of Kragu- jevac, 32000 Cacak, Yugoslavia. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIM.2004.827313
between the time of the second phase of integration and the measuring time (first phase). The measurement method proposed in this paper is based on selecting samples (the original assumption) of the input variable in a large number of periods in which the system (in this case, the electric utility) is considered to be stationary. The stationary condition can be proved by values obtained from measurements of rms values of system voltage [1]. From that finding, the math- ematical presentation was concluded, i.e., confirmation that the bandwidth of that system is very limited. That fact enabled ap- plication of the Nyquist criterion. By stationarity of the system, we understand that slowly changing quantities, like current and voltage and their harmonic content, are constant within the measuring interval. In this case, undersampling contrary to the Nyquist criteria is possible. The measuring time is about 1 s. The algorithm is of an adaptable type and depends on the harmonic content of the input signal and network frequency (50 or 60 Hz) [1]. The current makes this system nonlinear due to the fact that one cannot predict in advance the type of load which will be used and when it will be connected to the investigated system. However, after a certain number of periods, the current can be considered a slowly changing variable during processing. This is why very slow, low-cost, but very accurate ADCs [3], such as a dual-slope type, were used in the proposed measuring system. Integrating ADCs work best in high-accuracy, fine resolution systems because they remove any power-line frequency noise from the input signal. Voltage and current from real electric utilities were used as input variables. The sampling procedure is initiated arbitrarily (Fig. 1). The distance between two consecutive samples is given by
(1)
where is the number of periods between sampling, is the period of the input voltage, and is the delay determined
by the delay of elements in the processing circuit.
on the harmonic content of the input signal, ,
, where harmonic of the voltage,
is the number of the highest
is the number of the highest har-
monic of the current signal, and is the period of the input
signal. All conditions, which have to satisfy both and to get an accurate result of measuring, can be derived [1]. For that reason, they cannot be arbitrary.
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Fig. 1.
Proposed method of sampling.
Calculation by the proposed method is carried out on the basis of the following:
(2)
where is the number of samples needed for accurate pro- cessing of observed values (in our case , ,
s),
and
current and voltage, respectively, and is the active power. The reason for taking samples is that, even the most com- plex harmonic content processed by the proposed method de- mands more than voltage and current samples [1]. Index provides the jump from period to period of the mea- sured voltage and current and delay for samples at the next processing. According to the suggested measurement method, it is as- sumed that, during the measuring interval, the harmonics con- tent of the measured signal does not change very much. The algorithm deals with arbitrary harmonics content. In the case of a current with high harmonic content, as in a system sup- plying phase-switched loads (such as thyristor controlled), the accuracy of the method is preserved, provided the system is sta- tionary within the measuring interval. The possible nonlinear distortions in transition processes do not last very long. Thus, they can be avoided when the functioning of this multimeter de- signed for measuring periodic variables is considered. The obtained conditions for the value of delay ( in [1]) are completely equal to the Nyquist condition. In other words, as it was described in the introduction [1], we are not able to carry out real spectral reconstruction of the processed signal by the proposed method of measurement because of the extremely low speed of sampling. It is only possible to carry out “virtual” (delay in time) spectral reconstruction. Since the delay is responsible for the movement forward of the mo- ment of sampling from period to period (or more periods de- pending on the parameter value), the delay must satisfy the Nyquist criterion. In other words, it must be in accordance with a basic postulate of synchronous sampling, where the proposed measurement method conditionally belongs. If the current and
voltage signals have different harmonic content, the conditions
for delay
would determine a signal with “richer” harmonic
content (which is usually the current signal because of its greater
harmonic. It is necessary to take the samples equidistantly on
the interval of one period. In that way, on the basis of established
limits in processing [1], it is possible to calculate accurately the
observed electrical values in electric utilities. One of the basic principles or postulates in the processing of
the continuous signals (analog signal, which is continual per am-
plitude and time) by the dual-slope ADC is that at its input there
has to be a sample-and-hold circuit, which is a possible source of systematic errors. In [5], we show that use of this circuit is not necessary.
II. SIMULATION OF THE SUGGESTED MEASURING METHOD
Additional testing of the suggested digital measuring system was carried out by simulation in the program package Matlab (version 5.1), module Simulink. In Fig. 2, a block diagram of the suggested digital measuring system is shown. The construction is made of ready-made Simulink models. The special advantage of such a program environment or surrounding is that we are able to give an
arbitrary input signal, which is further processed. In the sense
of its harmonic content, white noise and different irregularities may occur and simulate jump functions, with changeable phase position between processed voltage and current signals. Thus, both voltage and current signals are introduced into the simulation, while a completely arbitrary phase relation and amplitude value are given to them. In addition, an absolutely arbitrary noise power is superimposed on them.
After forming a complex harmonic input signal, the signal was taken into the circuit for the sample-and-hold (unit delay),
which is located in front of the real ADC [2]. The signal was taken from the output sample-and-hold circuit into the D flip-flop as a delay element. It is clocked from the special signal generator (rectangular series of impulses) for which the
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arbitrary duty ratio can be given. In this way, the continual signal was measured, and that sample was held constant up to the moment of the next measurement or sampling, which was given on the basis of the previously proposed form. The next sample was taken from one of the next periods of the input signal, which can be adjusted by the choice of parameters of the simulation model. Voltage and current signals were multiplied and then integrated in time, thus obtaining the data of active power. All model parameters are adjusted to the real dual-slope ADC and its speed and conversion precision. Because of this, we can claim that this kind of simulation completely presents the real conditions of actual use. The only difference is that by simula- tion, the work is tested in more extreme conditions that the ones which may be expected in practice. The obtained results fully confirmed all the suppositions and conclusions that were made before. In the simulation model designed in this way, ideal synchro- nization in processing with the frequency of the processed signal was achieved. This is very difficult in practice, but together with planned hardware resources (precise comparator and micropro- cessor), we will be able to determine accurately the frequency of the processed signals. Since it has such an input block, Simulink gives the possibility for introducing a sinus signal whose fre- quency varies completely arbitrarily. Thus, this block was also used during the simulation, but the results were still beyond our expectations (to the third decimal). In order to estimate by simulation the power of digital pro- cessing without using the circuit for sample-and-hold, a model
in Simulink has been constructed which corresponds to the pro- posed measurement method. In the model (Fig. 3), special selectors of analog signals (Switch 1 and 2), passing through complex periodic signals of current and voltage in the intervals, correspond to the work speed of the dual-slope ADC. The pulse generator is used, and its duty-ratio and period can be given. The selector passes through the signal, from the first input, during the time when the signal, from the second input, is bigger than the given threshold. Otherwise, it would pass through or let out a signal from the third input. This is the reason why we use the constant block, with the value 0. We use the constant on the final multiplier (Figs. 2 and 3) only as scaling factor, to produce the active power of processing signals. From the Figs. 2 and 3, it can be noticed that voltage/current signals with three harmonics (besides the basic one, the third, and the fifth, either even or odd) were used because they are the most dominant harmonics in practice. However, it is not a limitation factor in such a simulation. In other words, we are able to introduce higher harmonics, and the conclusions are still valid. All of this was worked out in detail in paper [1] when arbitrary harmonic content was accepted. After mathematical analyses for that case, certain conclusions were made about the necessary number of samples and delay time during processing [1], in order to get absolutely accurate, theoretical results of measurement. Since it has such an input block, Simulink gives the possibility for introducing a sinus signal whose frequency varies completely arbitrarily. Thus, this block was also used during the simulation.
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Fig. 3.
Circuit model, which carries out the processing of active power without using the sample-and-hold circuit.
Fig. 4. Voltage signal to which an extremely powerful noise signal is superpenetrated (with power of 0.004) which is used for testing the processing concept with and without the sample-and-hold circuit.
In the above-described processing, signals of small amplitude were used because such amplitudes can be expected on the plate after scaling and introduction of signals into the ADC and be- cause of clearance. The results obtained when calculating active power followed, when the product of the two compound period- ical signals polluted by very strong noise is processed. This is most critical from the digital processing point of view. Fig. 4 is an illustration of the signal obtained in this way. In Table I, the results of processing over three models of dig- ital processing are given. In the real environment, such a strong noise will rarely be encountered. Because of that, this model with a circuit for sampling should be accepted as very accu- rate. The model without the sample-and-hold circuit gives much better results at great distortion because processing also includes those distortions, which the sample-and-hold circuit does not
TABLE
I
VALUES OF ACTIVE POWER WHEN PROCESSING SIGNALS WITH THE BASIC HARMONIC WITH AMPLITUDE OF _{1} _{V}_{,} _{T}_{H}_{I}_{R}_{D} _{H}_{A}_{R}_{M}_{O}_{N}_{I}_{C} _{W}_{I}_{T}_{H} AMPLITUDE OF 0.3 V, AND FIFTH HARMONIC WITH AMPLITUDE OF 0.1 V, FOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF _{P}_{O}_{W}_{E}_{R} _{P}_{R}_{O}_{C}_{E}_{S}_{S}_{I}_{N}_{G}
have to catch. In practical realizations, this circuit introduces a significant error when processing very dynamic signals. In the real system, it will be rare to encounter such a strong noise, which can be prevented by additional filtering, as already ex- plained in paper [1]. Based on the suggested concept of processing, the complete realization of the dual-slope ADC can be achieved through the resources of the microprocessor itself, as well as through its counting resources. Only the most modern type of processor is satisfactory here, however, with a considerably high perfor- mance. All these elements will lead to reduced cost of the sug- gested solution, without any changes to the basic conclusion [1], dealing with the adaptability and the necessary number of recorded measures. It is assumed that, during these observa- tions, the system such as an electric utility remains stationary, and that the harmonious content is preserved, within the time
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Fig. 5.
Block scheme of the realized digital multimeter.
interval necessary to conduct the measurement according to the suggested method. In the same way, we can process other slowly changing values such as pressure, temperature, and so on. The suggested method gives very accurate results when mea- suring time-average power, regardless of the harmonic content of the input signal. After detection of the signal harmonic con- tent, the necessary number of samples can be specified in the form of an adaptive algorithm [1]. The suggested method of pro- cessing ac values in electric utilities theoretically gives an abso- lutely accurate result of measurement, if the observed system can be considered stationary during a sufficiently long period of time [1]. The proposed approach is suitable for real-time pro- cessing and is characterized by a low computational burden in comparison to the described algorithms in [3], [4]. This gives an opportunity for developing a measurement system with very simple and inexpensive hardware, in contrast to the highly so- phisticated and expensive hardware described in [4], [6]. Another important advantage of this method (integrating ADC) is that the input signal becomes averaged as it drives
the integrator during the fixed-time portion of the cycle. Any changes in the analog signal during that period of time have a cumulative effect on the digital output at the end of that cycle. Other ADC strategies merely “capture” the analog signal level at a single point in time every cycle. If the analog signal is “noisy” (contains significant levels of spurious voltage spikes/dips), one of the other ADC converter technologies may occasionally convert a spike or dip because it captures the signal repeatedly at a signal point time. A dual-slope ADC, on the other hand, averages together all the spikes and dips within the integration period, thus providing an output with greater noise immunity. Delta-sigma (or more accurately, sigma-delta) ADCs are the newest architecture and are used in systems demanding high-resolution data acquisition; but when they are used in instrumentation, their filter delays prevent multiplexing and loop stability. Otherwise, they have poor step response contrary to dual-slope ADCs. The realized algorithm is com- parable in accuracy with [6]–[8], but yet it has a considerably modest structure.
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III. PRACTICAL REALIZATION OF THE _{P}_{R}_{O}_{P}_{O}_{S}_{E}_{D} _{M}_{U}_{L}_{T}_{I}_{M}_{E}_{T}_{E}_{R}
The block diagram of the proposed multimeter is shown in the Fig. 5. After being adjusted to the measuring range of a converter, both voltage and current signals are brought into the acquisi- tion board. The voltage signal has been adopted from a precise resistance network (in the range 0–400 V). The transducer con- sists of a resistive voltage divider buffered with a low-distortion, low-noise, and wideband operation amplifier. Precision resis- tors (tolerance: 0.01%, nominal power: 0.6 W, and tempera- ture coefficient: ppm C) have been used for the voltage divider. When 230 V are applied to the transducer, the power consumption of each resistor is lower than 10% of the nominal power. We have analyzed some error sources and their effects, which might be commonly encountered in using the series-re- sistor-type voltage dividers. For calibration of the voltage trans- ducers we have used the procedure described in [13]. The current signal from an accurate current transformer has been taken for the input of the dual-slope ADC (Linear Tech- nology ADC TC530) (in the range 0–10 A). In this case, cur- rent transducers consist of the traditional current transformers (CT) with a magnetic core. Under sinusoidal conditions the ac- curacy of the passive components can be very high, provided that the load applied to their output is close to the nominal burden. When distorted waveforms are dealt with (typically be- cause of the presence of power electronic components), these devices can be inadequate, owing to their nonlinear behavior caused by the saturation and hysteresis phenomena. In any case, in order to comply with safety requirements, current transducers must guarantee galvanic separation between the power system and the measurement system. In this case, the overall behavior of the current-to-voltage transducer can be examined, offering high accuracy specifications (0.01% at 20 C) and residual in- ductance so low as to be negligible in all performed tests. It is interesting to observe that the phase difference, unlike that which happens for the active devices, decreases for in- creasing frequency. This is due in practice to the magnetizing current, the main factor responsible for inaccuracies of CTs at low frequencies. The magnetizing current decreases as the frequency increases. On the other hand, traditional current transformers are intrin- sically unsuitable when currents with a dc component have to be measured. In addition, the presence of dc components, su- perimposed on alternating components, can make it impossible to use the transformer correctly, owing to the polarization of its magnetic core. As for the problems concerning the nonlinearity, in traditional current transformers, the effects of saturation and hysteresis, more or less evident but always present in the mag- netic core, cause distortion in the secondary waveform. Thus, they limit the above-observed advantages on phase shifts. Suitable compensation methods [10], [11] could reduce this problem. A digital technique improved the accuracy of instru- ment current transformers. A simple scalar model for CTs mag- netic core, taking into account saturation as well as hysteresis and eddy current phenomena, has been implemented in a soft- ware compensation routine. This allows us to improve the ac- curacy in the reproduction of the primary current, in the case
Fig. 6.
Circuit for detecting the frequency of the measured signal ( ,
pF,
, and
,
).
of both sinusoidal and distorted current waveforms (provided the dc components are not present). The uncertainties due to the exciting current, which is the main source of errors in instru- ment current transformers, can be strongly reduced, provided that an accurate preliminary identification of the transformer has been performed. On this basis, a compensation technique for CT has been set up that allows obtaining, simply by mea- suring the secondary current, a much more accurate estimate of the primary quantity than that usually achievable using the CTs nominal ratio. The proposed procedure needs at least one pe- riod of the signal to be acquired to perform the compensation. The proposed technique [10], [11] reduces the so-called com- posed error (for 1%), which includes amplitude errors, time shift between primary and secondary current, and harmonic content. The current transformer has a secondary circuit operation ampli- fier, which provides practically zero resistance and, thus, much
better linearity of the transfer function of all transformers. To minimize common-mode errors, the voltage developed across is isolated and converted to a ground-referenced signal using a unity-gain differential amplifier. Feedback amplifiers have been employed to increase, in effect, the permeability of transformer cores. Such techniques have been quite successful in reducing low-frequency errors [12], [15]. Hall-effect probes may represent the right solution in many cases, since they can measure dc components and their band- width extends up to hundreds of kilohertz. Moreover, they are practical to use. On the other hand, the two main drawbacks of these transducers are the fact that measurement results depend on the position of the primary wire with respect to the core axis and the Hall sensor, and that results are influenced by magnetic fields generated by nearby power wires. This is the reason why we did not use this type of current transducer. The TC530 consists of a dual-slope integrating ADC, nega- tive power supply generator and three-wire serial interface port. The key ADC operating parameters (auto zero and integration time) are programmable, allowing the user to trade off conver- sion time for resolution. Integration time must be chosen as a multiple of the period of the line frequency. The ADC conver- sion time must be less than the distance between two consecu- tive samples (1). Data conversion is initiated when the RESET input is brought low. After conversion, data is loaded into the
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Fig. 7.
Flow chart of the program running on the microcontroller.
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output shift register, and EOC is asserted, indicating new data is available. The converted data (plus over-range and polarity bits) are held in the output shift register until read by the processor, or until the next conversion is completed, allowing the user to access data at any time. The TC530 requires a single 5-V power supply and features a 5-V, 10-mA output, which can be used to supply negative bias to other components in the system. We use two ADCs, one for the voltage and one for the current signal. The voltage and current signals must be adapted to the range of
2 V to activate the maximum linearity of the ADC used, and over the special resistant circuit specify the reference signal on 1.025 V. As sample-and-hold circuit, we use the Analog Devices circuit AD684. The AD684 is ideal for high-performance, multichannel data acquisition systems. Independent inputs, outputs, and sample-and-hold controls allow user flexibility in the system architecture. Each SHA channel can acquire a signal in less than 1 ms and retain the held value with a droop rate of less than 0.01 mV/ms. The AD684 has a self-correcting architecture that minimizes hold-mode errors and insures accuracy over temperature, with a fast acquisition time (1 s) and low aperture jitter (75 ps). Each channel of the AD684 is capable of sourcing 5 mA and incorporates output short-circuit protection. Low droop (0.01 mV/ms) and internally compen- sated hold-mode error result in superior system accuracy. A special circuit detects the passing of the signal through zero with a comparator (Fig. 6), in this way achieving synchroniza- tion of the measuring cycle with the electric utility frequency. In order to avoid multiple false detections of zero crossing, caused by noise, the comparator is replaced by Schmitt-triggers. The microcontroller generates sampling intervals and is able to per- form the necessary calculations, based on sampling values of the measured signals. The analyses of operation of the zero crossing detector proved that satisfactory accuracy could be achieved. The number of zero crossings of the signal is evaluated by a test on the sign of consecutive samples. The program corrects for multiple transitions due to noise and checks that the distance between zero crossings is approximately compatible with the frequency expected by the program. An odd integer number of valid zero crossings are taken, and the frequency of the signal is calculated from the period of time between the first and the last zero crossing, divided by the number of periods. For better accuracy, the values of the samples around these two zero cross- ings are interpolated by means of a least squares procedure. In this way, we eliminate possible errors if the input periodic signal has more than two zero crossings per period. In real electric util- ities, the possible dc component is never higher than its ampli- tude, and this is the reason why we did not consider this special problem. In the case of such high dc components, we must trans- late the input voltage signal or adapt the level of comparison. The usage of PLL multiplier circuits offers much better syn- chronization with the input signal frequency, avoiding errors caused by frequency measurements. The majority of all PLL design problems can be approached using the Laplace Trans- form technique, and relatively complex mathematical tools for their realization. One project demand was simplicity in realiza- tion and usage of very simple microprocessors such as Motorola 68HC11. The existing PLL circuit needs a very sophisticated
Fig. 8.
Photo of the realized digital multimeter.
DSP for control, and consequently the price of the final instru- ments will be higher. In the existing electric utilities, the system frequency swings in the range of 49.06–50.02 Hz (allowed by existing regula- tions). This can certainly influence the accuracy of the proposed measuring concept, due to the error made when determining the sampling period by zero crossing detection. The error can be as high as 2%. When the period is read using an internal counter in the microprocessor, a zero crossing is required. The least expen- sive comparators have a slew-rate of 50 s. As the system voltage is scaled to about 2 V on the board (ratio of 1:150), this comparator triggers at about 2.5 mV, so the error is about 20 ns. This error can be ignored, since there is no accumulation. The accuracy of period reading then depends only on the pro- cessing power of the microprocessor. The processing demands described above can be satisfied using a wide range of low-cost microprocessors. The microprocessors are also capable of car- rying out the DFT to detect the harmonic content of an input signal, automatically adjusting the algorithm to the real condi- tions in electric utilities (special subroutine in Fig. 7). The following constraints must hold to attain the lowest un- certainties. 1) must hold at all times for a mul- tiple of two. This is the condition for synchronous sampling of a signal with frequency generated from a common clock-reference. 2) The number of sampled periods must be an integer multiple of power-line cycles in order to reduce power line interferences. Conditions 1) and 2) prevent artificial spectral components (leakage) from appearing when doing a DFT on the sampled data. The realized instrument was checked in the fre- quency range from 45–65 Hz. The methods for estimating the frequency of a signal under noisy conditions [9] are also consid- ered. The proposed algorithm [9] is suitable for real-time appli- cations, especially when the frequency changes are abrupt and the signal is corrupted with noise and other disturbances due
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TABLE
II
RESULTS OF MEASURING IN THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR _{M}_{E}_{A}_{S}_{U}_{R}_{E}_{M}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{S} IN BELGRADE WITH THE PROPOSED DIGITAL MULTIMETER; IN THE _{F}_{I}_{R}_{S}_{T} CASE, WE USE 40 SAMPLES TO CALCULATE THE _{O}_{B}_{S}_{E}_{R}_{V}_{E}_{D} VALUES, AND IN THE _{S}_{E}_{C}_{O}_{N}_{D} _{C}_{A}_{S}_{E}_{,} _{W}_{E} _{U}_{S}_{E} _{8}_{0} _{S}_{A}_{M}_{P}_{L}_{E}_{S}
TABLE
III
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF MEASURING IN THE REAL ENVIRONMENT WITH THE PROPOSED DIGITAL MULTIMETER WITHOUT USING A SAMPLE-AND-HOLD CIRCUIT
to harmonics. It is highly iterative and, therefore, needs a fast processor.
Complete control of the measuring process and all necessary calculations are performed by the microcontroller (Motorola 68HC11) (a flow chart in Fig. 7). The microcontroller works by a program, which is stored in EEPROM, and complete calcula- tions were realized using (1) and (2), with the specified ,
, s. Thus, the obtained results are sent to a display so that the process of measuring can be followed vi- sually, too. An interface circuit (RS-232) is designed to enable a connection between the meter and PC with the possibility to choose the number of samples needed to calculate observed ac values. Over the installed display, we can visually follow the re- sults of calculation (rms values of voltage, current, active power, and frequency of the basic harmonics of voltage).
The installed keyboard, which is used to set up the measuring range and the start of measurement, is not presented in the Fig. 5. We can also choose the type of measurement. For example, this multimeter can be used for measuring the rms values of voltage and current, as well as average and reactive power.
The realized multimeter (Fig. 8) was checked in the National Institute for Measurements in Belgrade as the official laboratory for this purpose. The obtained results completely proved our as- sumptions [1] (Table II). The instruments for calibration in the Institute during the measurement with the proposed multimeter show that rms values of voltage, current and active power are:
, and
. These parallel measurements showed the same re- sults up to the third decimal. This provides verification for using the suggested measuring concept in extremely precise reference and laboratory measurements. As can be seen from Table II, if we use more samples, then the results of calculation will be better.
The multimeter can be used as a watt-hour meter in real elec- tric utilities, where there is the essential monitoring of basic ac values (voltage, current, and frequency). For this reason, we can use ADCs with low resolution (up to 12 bits) for realization. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is ac- ceptable under all conditions. It is independent of the harmonic content of the voltage and current signals and has good accuracy even if the frequency deviates from the nominal value.
In order to test the accuracy of the proposed method of mea- surement without the sample-and-hold circuit, after adopting the proposed algorithm for this purpose [5], parallel measurements of rms voltage with an extremely precise multimeter, Hewlett Packard HP 3475 A were carried out. These parallel measure- ments (Table III) provide verification of the suggested mea-
suring concept, and give more accurate measurement results. In
the future, it is necessary to check this “new” instrument in one of the authorized laboratories in the country.
IV. CONCLUSION
The main advantage of the digital multimeter described in this paper is that the measurements are performed exactly according to the determination of power and true rms voltage. The multi- meter works with an algorithm that is suitable for on-line mea- surements, without the high computational burden as in [3], [4], [6]. The algorithm is of an adaptable type and depends on the harmonic content of the input signal and network frequency (50 or 60 Hz) [1]. The dual-slope ADC converter with very simple and inexpensive hardware, in contrast to the highly sophisti- cated and expensive hardware described in [4], [6], [7], meets all price and accuracy requirements for the design of the measure- ment system. This reduces the price of the entire device, while the high level of accuracy in processing ac values is preserved, better than in some other solutions [7], [14], with excellent noise
rejection.
The necessary synchronization is achieved by software measurements of the frequency of the measured signal. The prototype of a digital multimeter is being tested in the National Institute for Measurement in Belgrade. The precision limit of the instrument was investigated theoretically, experimentally and by simulation. The real limit of precision was found experimentally, and it was 0.01%. The most accurate watt-hour meters used in the Yugoslav electric power net are three-phase induction watt-hour meters of class 0.2%. Field experiments gave excellent confirmation of the good application properties of this instrument. By eliminating the sample-and-hold circuit from the final design of the measuring system, a possible source of systematic errors is eliminated and hardware requirements are significantly simplified.
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PETROVIC: NEW DIGITAL MULTIMETER FOR ACCURATE MEASUREMENT
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REFERENCES
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P. Petrovic was born in Cacak, Yugoslavia, on Jan- uary 26, 1967. He received the B.S.E.E. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1991 and 1994, respectively. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. de- gree in the field of digital signal processing at the University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. Since 1991, he has been a Teaching and Research Assistant, Cacak College of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Cacak, Yugoslavia, where his main in- terests are digital signal processing, microcontroller programming, AD conversion, mathematics, and cryptology.
Authorized licensed use limited to: Predrag B Petrovic. Downloaded on September 3, 2009 at 12:20 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
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