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Module 9

Ceramics:
Structure, Properties, Proce
ssing and Application
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bambang Suharno

1. What’s Ceramics?
2. Ceramics structures
3. Type of Ceramics and Application
4. Ceramics Processing
Chapter 12-
Apa Itu Keramik?
Definisi
Secara umum, keramik adalah benda-benda yang
terbuat dari bahan-bahan anorganik yang tidak
mengandung logam, yang dibentuk kemudian dibakar
hingga mendapatkan kekuatan yang diinginkan.

Bahan Dasar Keramik


Bahan keramik adalah bahan dasar penyusun kerak
bumi, misalnya
SiO2, Al2O3, FeO,Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, dan Na2O.
Chapter 12-
CERAMICS APPLICATION
• Ceramics:
--Traditional Ceramics (Art) :Pottery, porcelain, etc
-- Engineering Ceramics/ Advanced Ceramics
.

• Ceramics can be used in many technological industries


Aerospace
Biomedical
Electronics
Optical
Automotive

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramic_engineering#Applications

Chapter 12- 4
CONTOH KERAMIK

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
Sifat-Sifat Umum Keramik

1. Keras
Tingkat kekerasan s/d 9.5 Mohs (intan:10 Mohs)
sehingga dapat memotong baja. Ideal untuk
komponen anti gesekan pada alat-alat industri.
2. Memiliki bentuk yang stabil
Dapat dibentuk hingga pecahan kecil berukuran
1 mikron. Penting dalam aplikasi struktur di
mana keakuratan sangat diperhatikan. ceratip cutting tool

3. Tahan Panas
Keramik masih berfungsi efektif pada suhu di
atas 1100 OC (Baja 540 OC). Potensial untuk
mesin-mesin otomotif yang beroperasi pada
temperatur tinggi. Diperkirakan mesin-mesin
otomotif di masa yang akan datang 50%nya
terbuat dari bahan keramik
ceramic automotive
engine component
4. Inert
Keramik tidak bereaksi dengan hampir semua bahan
kimia, sehingga terhindar dari korosi serta aman dari perubahan
suhu yang drastis.
5. Superior electrical properties
 Umumnya merupakan isolator yang
sempurna, walaupun V2O3 dan TiO
dapat menghantar listrik seperti logam.
 memiliki “property of capasitance”
yang memungkinkan keramik dapat
menyimpan muatan listrik seperti
baterai.
 “Piezoelectric
phenomenon”, menyebabkan keramik
dapat menghasilkan sinyal listrik kecil
ketika berhubungan dengan ceramic electrical component
gelombang suara atau getaran
mekanik.
Ketiga hal ini membuat keramik memiliki peran penting dalam
“miniatur” produk elektronik seperti pager, ponsel dan laptop.
TAXONOMY OF CERAMICS

• Properties:
--Tmelt for glass is moderate, but large for other ceramics.
--Small toughness, ductility; large moduli & creep resist.
• Applications:
--High T, wear resistant, novel uses from charge neutrality.
• Fabrication
--some glasses can be easily formed
--other ceramics can not be formed or cast.
Adapted from Fig. 13.1 and discussion
in Section 13.2-6, Callister 6e. Chapter 12- 2
Ceramics Keramik
• distinctive by ionic or • dapat dibedakan
covalent bonding karena memiliki ikatan
ion dan kovalen
• high strength and • Berkekuatan dan
hardness kekerasan tinggi
• excellent temperature • Memiliki kestabilan
stability terhadap temperature
• thermal and electrical • Isolator panas dan
insulator listrik
• brittle • rapuh

Chapter 12-
sangat rapuh

Chapter 12-
kekuatan tinggi
ringan

high strength
light weight

Chapter 12-
temperature resistance

tahan
temperature

Chapter 12-
electrical insulator
isolator listrik

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
wear resistance
tahan aus

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
TOUGHNESS
• Energy to break a unit volume of material
• Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Engineering smaller toughness (ceramics)
tensile larger toughness
stress,  (metals, PMCs)

smaller toughness-
unreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain, 

Chapter 12- 21
Chapter 12-
TAXONOMY OF CERAMICS

• Properties:
--Tmelt for glass is moderate, but large for other ceramics.
--Small toughness, ductility; large moduli & creep resist.
• Applications:
--High T, wear resistant, novel uses from charge neutrality.
• Fabrication
--some glasses can be easily formed
--other ceramics can not be formed or cast.
Adapted from Fig. 13.1 and discussion
in Section 13.2-6, Callister 6e. Chapter 12- 2
Gelas
 Gelas adalah zat padat amorf yang terbentuk sewaktu
transformasi dari cair menjadi kristal.
 Sifatnya jernih namun getas (mudah patah) pada suhu kamar.
Jika dipanaskan, viskositasnya turun perlahan hingga akhirnya
mencair.
 Dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan komposisi kimianya menjadi:
1. Gelas rata
Komponen utamanya SiO2, Na2O dan CaO dengan bahan
tambahan MgO dan SO3. Digunakan sebagai kaca jendela
dan cermin.
2. Gelas Wadah
Mempunyai jenis yang beragam dan komposisi kimianya
berbeda-beda tetap dengan SiO2 sebagai komponen utama.

Chapter 12-
3. Gelas optik
Memperhatikan sisi optis seperti dispersi cahaya dan indeks bias.
Digunakan untuk dan alat-alat optik misalnya lensa.
4. Gelas fisiokimia dan kedokteran
Untuk bidang ini, gelas harus memiliki ketahanan kimia yang tinggi,
tahan panas dan tahan kejut termal. Bahan yang sesuai adalah
kuarsa, silikat tinggi, borosilikat, dan aluminosilikat.
5. Gelas listrik
Penggunaan utamanya untuk penerangan, misalnya bohlam dan
lampu fluoresen. Yang dipakai adalah gelas kapur soda dan gelas
timbal dengan kadar PbO 20-30%.

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
Clay Products (Tanah Lempung)

What is clay?
We can say :
1. Clay is the basic the basic ingredient used by
potter (bakar tembukar) when they creates
your work of art
2. Clay is the stuff that sticks to the boots of
construction (cement) workers when they
excavate the foundations of new building
3. Clay is one of the most widely used ceramics
raw material.
Chapter 12-
Type of Clay Product :

1. Structural of clay Product


2. White wares (Keramik Putih)

Chapter 12-
The Charateristic Of Clay

1. Clay are alominosilicates , being composed of


alumina(Al2O3) and silica(SiO2),that
containchemically bound water.
2. Crystal structures for the clay are relative
complicated.
3. The most common clay minerals that are of interest
have what is called the kaolinite structure
[Al2(SiO5)(OH)4].

Chapter 12-
Composition of Clay Product (Porcelain)
1. Clay
2. Quartz : the quartz is used primarily as a filter
material, being inexpensive, relatively
hard, and chemically unreactive.
3. Fluxs : a flux forms a glass that has a
relatively low melting point, the feldspar are
some of the more common fluxing agents.
ex: a typical porcelain might contain
approximately ;
50% clay (Al2O3, SiO2)
25% quartz(SiO2)
25% feldspar (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) Chapter 12-
Keramik Putih
 Keramik tertua dalam peradaban manusia.
Terdiri dari 3 komponen utama: lempung-
feldspar-flint
 Berdasarkan keadaan pembakarannya, dapat
dikelompokkan menjadi:
1. Keramik Tanah :Benda bakar putih, tidak
bersifat seperti kaca, mempunyai daya
serap air 3% atau lebih.
2. Keramik Batu:Benda bakar yang rapat,
kedap udara, tidak tembus cahaya.
3. Porselen :Rapat, kedap udara, jernih
karena adanya fasa gelas dalam
jumlah besar, mempunyai temperatur
pembakaran tertinggi.
 Contoh produk: mangkuk, vas bunga, alat-
alat saniter, tegel, pipa. Chapter 12-
 Contoh produk: mangkuk, vas bunga, alat-alat saniter,
tegel, pipa.

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
REFRACTORY ( BATU TAHAN API )

• Material inorganik natural maupun sintesis, tahan terhadap


temperatur > 15000 Ctanpa perubahan bentuk atau melebur

Syarat :
Pada Temp. tinggi dan berbagai kondisi:
• Mampu mempertahankan bentuk
• Mampu mempertahankan kekuatan

Tujuan :
• Menahan laju perpindahan panas didalam dapur
( furnace ) ke luar

Chapter 12-
REFRACTORY ( BATU TAHAN API )

Chapter 12-
SIFAT – SIFAT REFRAKTORI

Summary
Sifat-sifat yang diperlukan :
• High refractoriness
• Resistance to chemical reaction with any subtance in contact
during their service
• Ability to stand the load of the material under heat treatment in
the furnace at the operating condition
• Resistance to abrasion due the flow of chage , flame, flue dust ,
flue gases etc. The action of gases , such SO2, CO, Cl2, CH4,H2O,
and volatile oxides and salt of metals . All are capable of
penetrating and reacting with brick
• Resistance to thermal shock caused by alterate heating and
cooling
• Porosity ( its volume , size )
• Low volume change at the service temperature ( both permanent
or reversible)
Chapter 12-
Refraktori

Tantangan dan peluang


• mengenali refraktori dan teknologi pembuatanya
• Bahan galian industri: dolomit , kaolin , bauksit
alumina, silika banyak terdapat di Indonesia

Pembagian refraktori
Menurut ketahanannya terhadap temperatur
• Refraktori biasa ( 1580 - 1770 C)
• Refraktori tinggi ( 1780 – 2000 C)
• Refraktori Super ( diatas 2000 C)

Chapter 12-
JENIS REFRAKTORI

• Jenis Refraktori
Acid Basic Neutral Special
-Fire brick - Magnesite - Chromite - Pure
-Semi silika - Dolomite - Carbon alumina
-silika -Chrome- - Grafit - Zirconthoria
magnesite - Silicon - Spinel
-- Magnesite- carbide - Boran
chome nitride
- Forsterite

Chapter 12-
APPLICATION: REFRACTORIES
• Need a material to use in high temperature furnaces.
• Consider Silica (SiO2) - Alumina (Al2O3) system.
• Phase diagram shows:
mullite, alumina, and crystobalite (made up of SiO2)
tetrahedra as candidate refractories.
2200 3Al2O3-2SiO2
T(°C)
mullite
2000 Liquid
(L) alumina + L
Adapted from Fig.
12.27, Callister 6e.
1800 (Fig. 12.27 is adapted
mullite alumina
crystobalite from F.J. Klug and R.H.
+L + Doremus, "Alumina
+L Silica Phase Diagram in
1600 mullite the Mullite Region", J.
mullite American Ceramic
+ crystobalite Society 70(10), p. 758,
1400 1987.)
0 20 40 60 80 100
Composition (wt% alumina)
Chapter 12- 3
Chapter 12-
Semen
 Semen adalah bahan anorganik yang mengeras pada percampuran
dengan air atau larutan garam.
 Sifat : memiliki kekuatan tekan tinggi tetapi kekuatan tarik
rendah. Hal ini dapat diperbaiki dengan menambahkan
serat.
 Contoh : semen portland
 Proses : bahan berkapur dan lempung dibakar sampai meleleh
sebagian untuk membentuk klinker yang kemudian
dihancurkan, digerus dan ditambah gips dalam jumlah
yang sesuai.
 Macam-macam semen portland:
1. Semen penggunaan umum
Merupakan bahan paling populer dalam bidang konstruksi.
2. Semen pengeras pada panas sedang
Mempunyai kalor hidrasi rendah, umumnya digunakan untuk
beton masif yang besar. Contoh: untuk
bendungan, jembatan, dan bangunan-bangunan besar.
Chapter 12-
3. Semen berkekuatan tinggi awal
Berkadar Ca3SiO5 tinggi, mempunyai waktu set yang pendek. Baik
digunakan untuk pekerjaan yang memerlukan pengesetan cepat atau
pekerjaan di daerah dingin.
4. Semen panas rendah
Memberikan kalor hidrasi minimum. Penggunaannya sama dengan
semen pengeras panas panas sedang.
5. Semen tahan sulfat
Dipakai untuk pekerjaan beton dalam tanah yang mengandung
banyak sulfat dan berhubungan dangan air tanah

Chapter 12-
Beton
 Bahan dasar beton:
1. Semen
2. Agregat
Agregat yaitu bahan campuran pembuatan beton yang meliputi
pasir sungai dan kerikil. Menempati 65-80% volum total beton.
Agregat yang baik adalah yang bersih, keras dan kuat, tahan
lama, masa jenis tinggi serta butirannya bulat.
3. Air
Beton menjadi keras karena reaksi air dengan semen. Makin
kecil perbandingan air-semen, makin tinggi kekuatan beton.
 Sifat-sifat beton
Beton erat kaitannya dengan kekuatan tekanan, kekuatan lentur, dan
kekuatan tarik. Beton yang memiliki kekuatan tekan tinggi
menunjukkan kekuatan lainnya yang juga tinggi. Jika diukur pada
temperatur rendah, kekuatannya rendah pada awalnya. Tetapi setelah
waktu yang yang lama akan cenderung menjadi lebih tinggi.
Chapter 12-
 Contoh: Beton otoklaf ringan
Karakteristiknya ringan, mengandung banyak busa, baik meredam
suara, dan tahan api. Biasanya digunakan untuk bangunan rendah
dan setengah tinggi.
 Proses:
Bubur dengan zat pembusa dituangkan ke dalam batang baja
tahan karat yang dipasang terlebih dahulu, dipotong setelah
beberapa jam, kemudian diproses dalam otoklaf.

Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
APPLICATION: DIE BLANKS

• Die blanks: die Ad


--Need wear resistant properties! Ao tensile
force
die Adapted from
Fig. 11.7,
Courtesy Martin Deakins, GE Callister 6e.
Superabrasives,
Worthington, OH. Used with
permission.

• Die surface:
--4 mm polycrystalline diamond
particles that are sintered on to a
cemented tungsten carbide Courtesy Martin Deakins, GE
substrate. Superabrasives,
Worthington, OH. Used with
--polycrystalline diamond helps control permission.
fracture and gives uniform hardness
in all directions.
Chapter 12- 4
APPLICATION: CUTTING TOOLS

• Tools:
--for grinding glass, tungsten,
carbide, ceramics
--for cutting Si wafers
--for oil drilling

• Solutions: oil drill bits blades


--manufactured single crystal
or polycrystalline diamonds coated single
crystal diamonds
in a metal or resin matrix.
--optional coatings (e.g., Ti to help
diamonds bond to a Co matrix polycrystalline
diamonds in a resin
via alloying)
matrix.
--polycrystalline diamonds Photos courtesy Martin Deakins,
resharpen by microfracturing GE Superabrasives, Worthington,
OH. Used with permission.
along crystalline planes.
Chapter 12- 5
Chapter 12-
Chapter 12-
Aplikasi UntukMembrane

Chapter 12-
Piezo-Ceramics Sensor

Chapter 12-
APPLICATION: SENSORS
• Ex: Oxygen sensor: ZrO2
• Principle: Make diffusion of ions
fast for rapid response.
• Approach:
Add Ca impurity to:
--increase O2- vacancies
--increase O2- diffusion
• Operation: sensor
--voltage difference gas with an reference
produced when unknown, higher gas at fixed
O2-
O2- ions diffuse oxygen content
diffus
oxygen content
between external ion
and references
gases. + -
voltage difference produced!

Chapter 12- 6
Mechanical Properties of Advanced
Ceramics

Chapter 12-
CERAMIC BONDING
• Bonding:
--Mostly ionic, some covalent.
--% ionic character increases with difference in
electronegativity.
• Large vs small ionic bond character:

Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the
Chemical Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by
Cornell University. Chapter 12- 2
STRUKTUR KRISTAL KERAMIK

Chapter 12-
MEASURING ELEVATED T RESPONSE
• Elevated Temperature Tensile Test (T > 0.4 Tmelt).

• Generally,
. ceramics . metals . polymers
ss  ss  ss

Chapter 12- 11
SUMMARY
• Ceramic materials have mostly covalent & some
ionic bonding.
• Room T mechanical response is elastic, but fracture
brittle, with negligible ductility.
• Elevated T creep properties are generally superior to
those of metals (and polymers).

Chapter 12- 12
CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-I

GLASS
FORMING
• Pressing: • Fiber drawing:
Pressing
Gob
operation

Parison
mold

• Blowing: wind up

Adapted from Fig. 13.7, Callister, 6e. (Fig. 13.7 is adapted from C.J. Phillips,
Glass: The Miracle Maker, Pittman Publishing Ltd., London.) Chapter 12- 7
CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS

Chapter 12-
Glass Blowing
 Some glass blowing is
done by hand.
 The process is completely
automated for the
production of glass jars,
bottles and light bulbs.
 From a raw gob of glass,
a parison (temporary
shape) is formed by
mechanical pressing in a
mold.
 This piece is inserted into
a finishing or blow mold
and forced to conform to
the mold contours by the
pressure created from a
blast of air.
 Drawing is used to form
long glass parts (sheets,
rods, tubing and fibers)
that have a constant
cross section.
Chapter 12-
Sheet Glass Forming

• Sheet forming – continuous casting


– sheets are formed by floating the molten glass on a pool of
molten tin

Adapted from Fig. 13.9,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
57
Chapter 12-
GLASS STRUCTURE
• Basic Unit: • Glass is amorphous
4- • Amorphous structure
Si04 tetrahedron occurs by adding impurities
Si4+ (Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+, Al3+)
O2-
• Impurities:
interfere with formation of
crystalline structure.

• Quartz is crystalline
SiO2:

(soda glass)
Adapted from Fig. 12.11,
Callister, 6e.

Chapter 12- 8
HEAT TREATING GLASS
• Annealing:
--removes internal stress caused by uneven cooling.
• Tempering:
--puts surface of glass part into compression
--suppresses growth of cracks from surface scratches.
--sequence:
before cooling surface cooling further cooled
cooler compression
hot hot tension
cooler compression

--Result: surface crack growth is suppressed.

Chapter 12- 11
CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-IIA

PARTICULATE
FORMING
• Milling and screening: desired particle size
• Mixing particles & water: produces a "slip"
• Form a "green" component
--Hydroplastic forming: Adapted from
Fig. 11.7,
extrude the slip (e.g., into a pipe) Callister 6e.

--Slip casting:
Adapted from Fig.
13.10, Callister 6e.
(Fig. 13.10 is from
W.D. Kingery,
Introduction to
Ceramics, John
Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1960.)
solid component hollow component

• Dry and Fire the component


Chapter 12- 12
CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-IIB

PARTICULATE
FORMING
• Sintering: useful for both clay and non-clay compositions.
• Procedure:
--grind to produce ceramic and/or glass particles
--inject into mold
--press at elevated T to reduce pore size.
• Aluminum oxide powder:
--sintered at 1700C
for 6 minutes.
Adapted from Fig. 13.15, Callister 6e.
(Fig. 13.15 is from W.D. Kingery, H.K.
Bowen, and D.R. Uhlmann,
Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed.,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1976, p.
483.)

Chapter 12- 15
CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-III

CEMENTATION

• Produced in extremely large quantities.


• Portland cement:
--mix clay and lime bearing materials
--calcinate (heat to 1400C)
--primary constituents:
tri-calcium silicate
di-calcium silicate
• Adding water
--produces a paste which hardens
--hardening occurs due to hydration (chemical reactions
with the water).
• Forming: done usually minutes after hydration begins.
Chapter 12- 16
SUMMARY
• Basic categories of ceramics:
--glasses
--clay products
--refractories
--cements
--advanced ceramics
• Fabrication Techniques:
--glass forming (impurities affect forming temp).
--particulate forming (needed if ductility is limited)
--cementation (large volume, room T process)
• Heat treating: Used to
--alleviate residual stress from cooling,
--produce fracture resistant components by putting
surface into compression.

Chapter 12- 17